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Andorra

General
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This small country is situated between France and Spain. Because of its elevation and proximity to the Pyrenees the climate is generally pleasant throughout the year.
Climate
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During the summer months the temperatures can rise to 30c but there is usually a cooling breeze. Lightening storms can occur during the summer months associated with torrential rain.
Sun Exposure and Dehydration
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Those from Northern Europe can develop significant sun exposure and so remember to use a wide brimmed hat when necessary. The altitude can also lead to significant tiredness and dehydration so take sufficient initial rest and drink plenty of fluids.
Safety & Security
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The level of crime throughout the country directed at tourists is very low. Nevertheless take care of your personal belongings at all times and use hotel safety boxes where possible.
Local Customs
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There are strict laws regarding the use of illegal drugs. Make sure you have sufficient supplies of any medication you required for your trip and that it is clearly marked. The European E111 form is not accepted in Andorra and so it is essential that you have sufficient travel insurance for your trip.
Winter Sports
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Andorra is one of the regions where many travel to partake of their winter sport facilities. Generally this is well controlled and one of the safer regions. Nevertheless, make certain your travel insurance is adequate for the activities you are planning to undertake.
Vaccination
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The only standard vaccine to consider for Andorra would be tetanus in line with many other developed countries of the world.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu, 12 Jul 2018 15:24:06 +0200

Andorra la Vella, Andorra, July 12, 2018 (AFP) - The tax haven of Andorra has long been a favourite destination for smokers looking to stock up on cheap cigarettes, but the enclave said Thursday that it would soon stop advertising the fact.   The government said it had signed up to the World Health Organization's (WHO) anti-tobacco convention, which aims to encourage people to quit smoking and combat contraband sales.   "The goal is to contribute to public health and pursue the fight against trafficking," government spokesman Jordi Cinca said at a press conference.

The tiny principality of Andorra, perched in the Pyrenees on the border between France and Spain, attracts millions of shoppers each year to duty-free stores, where prices of alcohol, cigarettes, electronics and clothes can be up to 20 percent cheaper than elsewhere in the EU.   High taxes on tobacco imposed by many countries to help people kick smoking make Andorra's cigarettes a particularly good deal.   The average pack costs just three euros ($3.50) compared with eight euros in France, which has said it will gradually raise the price to 10 euros a pack by November 2020.

Tobacco sales bring in some 110 million euros a year for Andorra, whose economy is otherwise based almost entirely on tourism.   It is also an enticing destination for smugglers, with French and Spanish border agents regularly seizing cartons from people trying to sneak them out, either by car or by hiking down the mountain trails which criss-cross the Pyrenees.   No date has been set for the advertising ban, which will come into effect three months after the ratification of the WHO accord is voted by parliament.
Date: Fri, 16 Mar 2018 02:41:51 +0100

Andorra la Vella, Andorra, March 16, 2018 (AFP) - The tiny principality of Andorra is witnessing a once in a generation phenomenon -- a widespread strike.   Around a third of civil servants across the mountainous micro-state have walked out to protest proposed reforms to their sector in what has been described as Andorra's first large-scale strike since 1933.

With no negotiation breakthrough in sight, picket lines are expected to be manned again on Friday with customs officers, police, teachers and prison staff among those taking part.   The first major strike in 85 years was sparked by plans from the government of Antoni Marti to reform civil servant contracts.   He has assured officials "will not do an hour more" work under the reforms and that 49 million euros would be allocated for the next 25 years to supplement civil servant salaries.   But government workers are unconvinced with unions warning the reforms could risk their 35 hour working week and pay.

Customs officers involved in the strike interrupted traffic on the Andorran-Spanish border this week, according to unions, while some 80 percent of teachers have walked out of classes.   Strikers have occupied the government's main administrative building and held noisy protests outside parliament calling for Marti's resignation.    "We have started collecting signatures to demand the resignation of the head of government and now nobody will stop us," Gabriel Ubach, spokesman for the public service union, told reporters.
Date: Mon 27 Sep 2017
Source: Contagion Live [edited]

A recent Dispatch article published in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Emerging Infectious Diseases journal, offers insight into a large norovirus outbreak that sprung up in Spain in 2016 that had been linked with bottled spring water. The Public Health Agency of Catalonia (ASPCAT) reported a staggering 4136 cases of gastroenteritis from 11-25 Apr 2016. Of the 4136 cases, 6 individuals required hospitalization. The CDC defines a "case-patient" as an "exposed person who had vomiting or diarrhoea (3 or more loose stools within 24 hours)," as well as 2 or more of the following symptoms: nausea, stomach pain, or fever.

ASPCAT investigators traced back the outbreak to contaminated bottled spring water in office water coolers. The water came from a source in Andorra, a small independent principality located between Spain and France. Norovirus is a "very contagious virus," according to the CDC, and it is common for individuals to become infected by eating contaminated food. Although it is possible to be infected by consuming contaminated drinking water, this mode of transmission is "rare in developed countries," according to the article.

The investigators collected water samples from a total of 4 19-L water coolers in 2 different offices located in Barcelona, "from which affected persons had drunk; samples 1 and 2 came from 2 water coolers in one office, while samples 3 and 4 came from 2 water coolers in another office. Using "positively charged glass wool and polyethylene glycol precipitation for virus concentration," the investigators tested the samples.

"We detected high RNA levels for norovirus genotype I and II, around 103 and 104 genome copies/L, in 2 of the 4 water cooler samples concentrated by glass wool filtration and polyethylene glycol precipitation," according to the article. The investigators noted that a drawback of using molecular methods is that they are not able to differentiate between particles that are infectious and those that are not. Therefore, they "predicted the infectivity of norovirus in the concentrated samples by treating the samples with the nucleic acid intercalating dye PMA propidium monoazide and Triton X surfactant before RT-qPCR," which allowed them to "distinguish between virions with intact and altered capsids."

In those 2 water samples, they found high genome copy values -- 49 and 327 genome copies/L for norovirus genotype I and 33 and 660 genomes copies/L for norovirus genotype II. This was not an unexpected finding, due to the large number of infected individuals associated with the outbreak. Through "PMA/Triton treatment before RT-qPCR assays," the investigators found that the proportion of infected virions accounted for 0.3% to 5.6% of the total number of physical particles in the water samples, "which was enough to cause gastrointestinal illness."

The investigators also analyzed faecal samples collected from infected individuals who worked at the office in which the 1st 2 water samples were collected. They detected the following genotypes in those faecal samples: GI.2 and GII.17. In the faecal samples collected from the other office, they isolated the following genotypes: GII.4/Sydney/2012, GI.2, GII.17, and GII.2.

"We hypothesize that the spring water was contaminated by all 4 strains (GI.2, GII.2, GII.4, and GII.17) but levels of viral contamination for each genotype were not homogeneous in all bottled coolers," the investigators wrote. "We may have detected only the GII.4 genotype in water samples 1 and 2 because of a higher concentration of this specific genotype or because of bias caused by the sampling, concentration, and molecular detection procedures."

The investigators admit one limitation to their study: the small number of water samples collected and analyzed. They attribute this to the fact that on 15 Apr 2016, 4 days after the onset of the outbreak, the company that produced the drinking water recalled over 6150 containers of water "of suspected quality" as a precautionary measure. The recall prevented the investigators from collecting more samples to assess, according to the article.

Although the exact cause of the contamination has not yet been identified, the investigators posit that "the high number of affected persons from 381 offices that received water coolers, and the many different genotypes found in some patients' faecal specimens" suggest that the spring aquifer had been contaminated by "sewage pollution," and the Andorra Ministry of Health and Welfare banned further use of the spring.

The investigators suggest that assessing commercially-produced mineral waters for different harmful pathogens, such as norovirus would be beneficial. They note, however, that creating, enhancing, and managing such "virus surveillance systems" would be costly. Thus, the investigators suggest taking a "balanced approach to keep both the cost and the time required for the analyses within feasibility limits."  [Byline: Kristi Rosa]
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[The interesting article published in the September 2017 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases is:
Blanco A, Guix S, Fuster N, et al: Norovirus in bottled water associated with gastroenteritis outbreak, Spain, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017; 23(9): 1531-34; https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/23/9/16-1489_article. - ProMED Mod.LL]

[Catalonia and Andorra can be located on the HealthMap/ProMED-mail map at http://healthmap.org/promed/p/1341. - ProMED Sr.Tech.Ed.MJ]
Date: Thu, 26 Dec 2013 22:25:05 +0100 (MET)

ANDORRA LA VELLA, Andorra, Dec 26, 2013 (AFP) - A Spanish skier and a French snowboarder have died in avalanches in different mountain ranges in Europe, officials said Thursday.

The 27-year-old skier, a woman from Barcelona, died Wednesday while going off-piste alone in the Soldeu resort in Andorra, in the Pyrenees mountains between France and Spain, a resort manager told AFP.   Although she was rescued within 10 minutes, after her glove was spotted on the surface, she was unable to be revived despite a helicopter dash to hospital.

In the Italian Alps, close to the border with France, a 24-year-old Frenchman who was snowboarding with three friends on a closed run died Thursday when an avalanche swept over him in the resort town of Les Arnauds.   Local officials said he succumbed to multiple injuries, asphyxia and hypothermia.

Avalanches are common in Europe's ski resorts at this time of year, when early snows are heavy with moisture, and several deaths occur each winter.   Last Sunday, a 35-year-old Frenchman died in an avalanche in the Alps near the Italian border while on a three-day trek with a friend.
Date: Fri 7 Feb 2003 From: Jaime R. Torres Source: EFE Salud, Thu 6 Feb 2003 (translated by Maria Jacobs) [edited] -------------------------------------------------- Close to 300 students in one school and 173 tourists staying in 7 hotels in the Principality of Andorra have been affected by outbreaks of gastroenteritis that, according to local authorities, are not related to each other. Monica Codina, Minister of Health, stated that the outbreak that has affected almost 300 children and 8 adults in the San Ermengol school was detected last Monday [3 Feb 2003] but that it may have started Wednesday or Thursday of the previous week. The epidemiological surveys of a group of pre-school and grammar school students that may also be affected have not been performed yet. Also pending are the results of the microbiological tests of the food and water served in the school dining room, but the minister has indicated that the probable cause of the outbreak is the fact that water pitchers were filled with hoses directly from the faucet. The Minister stated that this outbreak of gastroenteritis is not related to the one that affected 173 tourists, most of them young people on holiday, who where staying in 7 hotels of the Principality. The government is also investigating the cause of this outbreak and has indicated that an anomaly in the system that supplies water to the hotels was detected, requiring a process of chlorination, which has not been carried out due to the heavy snowfall of the past few days. * * * * * * * * * * [The suspicion that defective water supplies may be responsible for all of these independent outbreaks suggests that the etiologic agent may be an enterovirus, hepatitis A virus, or non-viral, rather than one of the noroviruses associated with sudden-onset viral gastroenteritis. Information on the outcome of diagnostic tests in progress would be welcomed. - ProMed Mod.CP]
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Puerto Rico

No Profile is available at present

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Tue, 24 Sep 2019 07:27:34 +0200 (METDST)

Miami, Sept 24, 2019 (AFP) - A strong 6.0 magnitude struck off the northwest coast of Puerto Rico late Monday, the United States Geological Survey said, although no casualties or damage were reported.   The quake struck 62km northwest of San Antonio at 11:23 pm local time (03:20 GMT) at a depth of 10km, the agency said.  San Antonio is home to Rafael Hernandez Airport, a key air link to the mainland US.    In 2010 nearby Haiti was struck by a devastating 7.0 magnitude earthquake that killed more than 250,000 people and crippled the nation's infrastructure.
Date: Mon, 12 Feb 2018 05:54:19 +0100

San Juan, Feb 12, 2018 (AFP) - Most of San Juan and a strip of northern Puerto Rico municipalities were plunged into darkness Sunday night after an explosion at a power station, five months after two hurricanes destroyed the island's electricity network.

The state electric power authority (AEE) said the blast was caused by a broken-down switch in Rio Piedras, resulting in a blackout in central San Juan and Palo Seco in the north.   "We have personnel working to restore the system as soon as possible," the AEE said.   San Juan's mayor, Carmen Yulin Cruz, said on Twitter that emergency services and local officials attended the scene in the neighbourhood of Monacillos, but no injuries were reported.

Meanwhile, the Puerto Rican capital's airport said it was maintaining its schedule using emergency generators.   The blackout comes as nearly 500,000 of AEE's 1.6 million customers remain without power since Hurricanes Irma and Maria struck the US territory in September 2017.   AEE engineer Jorge Bracero warned on Twitter that the outage was "serious," and advised those affected that power would not be restored until Monday.
Date: Wed, 13 Dec 2017 03:08:12 +0100
By Leila MACOR

Fajardo, Puerto Rico, Dec 13, 2017 (AFP) - Until Hurricane Maria hit Puerto Rico, Jose Figueroa did brisk business renting kayaks to tourists itching to see a lagoon that lights up by night thanks to millions of microorganisms.   Today, things are so dire he's considering selling water to motorists stopped at red lights.   "Now we are trying to survive," the 46-year-old tour guide said.

It used to be that visitors had to reserve a month in advance to get one of his kayaks and paddle around in the dark on the enchanting, bioluminescent body of water called Laguna Grande.   But tourists are scarce these days as the Caribbean island tries to recover from the ravages of the storm back in September.   "We do not know if we will have any work tonight," Figueroa said. "Last week, we worked only one day."    He and another employee of a company called Glass Bottom PR are cleaning kayaks on the seaside promenade of Fajardo, a tourist town in eastern Puerto Rico whose main attraction is the so-called Bio Bay.

The year started off well for Puerto Rico, with the global success of the song "Despacito" by local musicians Luis Fonsi and Daddy Yankee.   The catchy tune helped promote the US commonwealth island of 3.4 million people, which is saddled with huge debts and declared bankruptcy in May.    But the hurricane turned what should be an island bustling with tourists into one with deserted beaches, shuttered restaurants and hotels full of mainland US officials working on the rebuilding of the island.   "What few tourists we have are the federal officials themselves," said Figueroa.

- Locals only -
The grim outlook spreads up and down the seaside promenade of Fajardo, where many restaurants are closed because there is no electricity.   On this particular day around noon, the only restaurant open is one called Racar Seafood. It has its own emergency generator.   "We get by on local tourists," said its 61-year-old owner, Justino Cruz.   "Our clients are local -- those who have no electricity, no generator, cold food or no food."

Puerto Rico's once-devastated power grid is now back up to 70 percent capacity, but this is mainly concentrated in the capital San Juan.   So while inland towns that depend on tourism are struggling mightily, things are getting better in San Juan as cruise ships are once again docking.   On November 30, the first cruise ship since the storm arrived with thousands of vacationers on board. They were received with great fanfare -- quite literally, with trumpet blaring and cymbals crashing.

- Pitching in to help -
The World Travel & Tourism Council, based in London, says tourism accounted for about eight percent of Puerto Rico's GDP in 2016, or $8.1 billion.   Hurricane Maria's damage has been uneven. Although some tour guides now have no work and many eateries are shut down, hotels that have their own generators are doing just fine.   Thanks to the thousands of US government officials and reconstruction crew members that came in after the storm, the hotels that are open -- about 80 percent of the total -- are pretty much full.

These people are starting to leave the island this month but hotels may receive tourists around Christmas, at least in San Juan, where power has for the most part been restored.   The hurricane "undoubtedly cost billions in lost revenue," said Jose Izquierdo, executive director of the Puerto Rico Tourism Company.    But Izquierdo nevertheless says he is "optimistic" and suggests an alternative: put tourists to work as volunteers in the gargantuan reconstruction effort that the island needs.   "We want to look for travellers who want to travel with a purpose, who might have the commitment to help rebuild," said Izquierdo.

The program, called "Meaningful Travel" and launched in mid-November, organizes trips on which residents, Puerto Ricans living abroad and tourists are invited to help the island get back on its feet.   "The plan aims to create empathy with this tourist destination," said Izquierdo.    "We want to be like New Orleans after Katrina, where 10 years after the hurricane, tourism is the driving force of its economy. We want to build that narrative of recovery," he added.   "There are different ways in which the world wants to help Puerto Rico. The best way is to visit us."
Date: Thu, 9 Nov 2017 12:39:04 +0100
By Marcos PÉREZ RAMÍREZ

San Juan, Nov 9, 2017 (AFP) - Andrea Olivero, 11, consults her classmate Ada about an exercise during their daily English class at San Juan's Sotero Figueroa Elementary School. The task: list the positive and negative aspects of Hurricane Maria's passing almost two months ago.

The girls only have to look around. There is no electricity and they "roast" in the heat, Andrea says. At the back of the room, computers and televisions collect dust.   "We would like to move past the topic of the hurricane a bit. It is already getting repetitive," Andrea told AFP.   She is one of more than 300,000 pupils in the public education system, although only half of schools are functioning. Barely 42 per cent of Puerto Ricans have electricity seven weeks after Maria struck, killing at least 51 in the American territory.

The lack of power has prompted disorienting timetable changes on the tropical island, to avoid both the hottest hours of the day and the use of dining facilities.   "The children are very anxious. We manage to make progress in lessons and they change the hours again. Everything is messed up and we fall behind," English teacher Joan Rodriguez explained.   "We can't use the computers to illustrate classes," she said. "They are reading the novel "Charlotte's Web," and we wanted to do exercises comparing it to the film version. But we cannot use the television.

- Suspicions -
From October 23, some directors reopened their schools in the western region of Mayaguez and San Juan.   But last Thursday, the Department of Education ordered their closure, insisting they must be evaluated by engineering and architectural firms, then certified by the US Army Corps of Engineers.   One of those schools was Vila Mayo, also in San Juan. The community presumed it would open, as it had been used as a shelter, its electrical infrastructure had been inspected and it had not suffered structural damage.

But Luis Orengo, the education department's director in San Juan, told protesters outside the school it was closed as inspectors' findings had not reached the central government.   "This is unacceptable! The school is ready to give classes but they don't want to open it. Our children cannot lose a year," fumed Enid Guzman, who protested with her 11-year-old son, Reanny De la Cruz.   There are suspicions the stalled reopening of schools is, in part, related to the prior closure of 240 schools over the past year during Puerto Rico's long-running financial crisis.   The fiscal difficulties have seen the island's population drop over the past decade by 14 percent, leading in turn to a fall in school enrolment.

Before the storms, 300 schools were at risk of closure -- and for the president of Puerto Rico's federation of teachers, Mercedes Martinez, the government's aim is clear.   "Secretary (Julia) Keleher seems to have an orchestrated plan to close schools," she said, referring to the education secretary. "Why do you have to wait 30 days to get a certification so a school can open?"   Keleher has announced she expects most schools to be open by the middle of November.
Date: Tue 24 Oct 2017
Source: KFOR Oklahoma News4 [edited]

Puerto Rico has reported at least 76 cases of suspected and confirmed leptospirosis, including a handful of deaths, in the month after Hurricane Maria, said Dr. Carmen Deseda, the state epidemiologist for Puerto Rico.

Two deaths involved leptospirosis confirmed through laboratory testing, and "several other" deaths are pending test results, Deseda said. The 76 cases, up from 74 last week, also include one patient with confirmed leptospirosis who is currently hospitalized.

The island typically sees between 63 and 95 cases per year, she said. Health officials had expected that there would be a jump after the hurricane. "It's neither an epidemic nor a confirmed outbreak," Public Affairs Secretary Ramon Rosario Cortes said at a news conference Sunday [22 Oct 2017]. "But obviously, we are making all the announcements as though it were a health emergency."

Leptospirosis may be treated with antibiotics, but many people recover on their own. "The majority of leptospirosis cases is a mild, subclinical disease with no complications," Deseda said. "But one out of 10 people who have leptospirosis develop severe illness." In the 1st stage of leptospirosis, symptoms vary widely from fever and headache to red eyes and rashes. Some people may have no symptoms at all. But a small number will develop dire complications: meningitis, kidney and liver damage, bleeding in the lungs and even death.

Doctors are required to report any potential leptospirosis cases to health authorities, Deseda said. Those cases must then be tested to confirm the bacteria, since the symptoms can be difficult to tell apart from other illnesses. After that, health officials may look for patterns or clusters and determine whether there is an outbreak.

The lab tests on the suspected cases have been sent to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Deseda said. The turnaround time is about 5-6 days.

Doctors on the island have expressed concerns about burgeoning health crises amid hospitals that are overwhelmed, undersupplied and sometimes burning hot. Influenza is another concern on the horizon, Deseda said. Drinking water is also hard to come by on many parts of the island.

Dr. Raul Hernandez, an internist in San Juan, told CNN that people were drinking water from whatever sources they could find, such as rivers and creeks. If that water contains urine from a [leptospirosis-infected rat], those people will be at risk, he said.

Deseda said people should be discouraged from walking barefoot, drinking or swimming in potentially leptospirosis-contaminated waters.

"These diseases are everywhere, and there's a way to prevent them," she said.
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[Leptospirosis is a zoonotic, spirochetal infection that occurs worldwide and is transmitted to humans by exposure to soil or fresh water contaminated with the urine of wild and domestic animals (including dogs, cattle, swine, and especially rodents) that are chronically infected with pathogenic _Leptospira_. _Leptospira_ may survive in contaminated fresh water or moist soil for weeks to months. Outbreaks of leptospirosis frequently follow heavy rainfall, flooding with fresh water, and increasing rodent numbers.

Parts of Puerto Rico saw more than 30 inches of rain and consequent flooding with recent Hurricane Maria. A map showing the estimated rainfall across Puerto Rico with this hurricane is available at <https://twitter.com/NWSSanJuan/status/910983698597777409/photo/1?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw&ref_url>.

With continued absence of potable water, inadequate sanitation, and flooding in the streets for a large proportion of the population in Puerto Rico, food- and water-borne diseases, like leptospirosis, will be a major problem. - ProMED Mod.ML]

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
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Gibraltar

United Kingdom and Gibraltar (England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland) US Consular Information Sheet
June 03, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a highly developed constitutional monarc
y comprised of Great Britain (England, Scotland and Wales) and Northern Ireland.
Read the Department of State Background Notes on the United Kingdom for additional information.
Gibraltar is a United Kingdom Overseas Territory bordering Spain and located at the southernmost tip of Europe at the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea.
It is one of thirteen former British colonies that have elected to continue their political links with London.
Tourist facilities are widely available.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A visa is not required for tourist or business visits to the UK of less than six months in duration.
Visitors wishing to remain longer than one month in Gibraltar should regularize their stay with Gibraltar immigration authorities.
Those planning to visit the UK for any purpose other than tourism or business, or who intend to stay longer than six months, should consult the website of the British Embassy in the United States at http://britainusa.com for information about current visa requirements.
Those who are required to obtain a visa and fail to do so may be denied entry and returned to their port of origin.
The British government is currently considering reducing the visa-free period from six months to 90 days.
Travelers should be alert to any changes in legislation.
The U.S. Embassy cannot intervene in UK visa matters.
In addition to the British Embassy web site at http://britainusa.com, those seeking current UK visa information may also contact UK consular offices via their premium rate telephone service at 1-900-656-5000 (cost $3/minute) or 1-212-796-5773 ($12 flat fee).
Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.
SAFETY AND SECURITY:
The United Kingdom is politically stable, with a modern infrastructure, but shares with the rest of the world an increased threat of terrorist incidents of international origin, as well as the potential, though significantly diminished in recent years, for isolated violence related to the political situation in Northern Ireland (a part of the United Kingdom).
On July 7, 2005, a major terrorist attack occurred in London, as Islamic extremists detonated explosives on three underground trains and a bus in Central London, resulting in over 50 deaths and hundreds of injuries.
Following the attacks, the public transportation system was temporarily disrupted, but quickly returned to normal.
A similar but unsuccessful attack against London’s public transport system took place on July 21, 2005.
UK authorities have identified and arrested people involved in these attacks.
Similarly, those involved in terrorist incidents in London and Glasgow during the summer of 2007 were identified and arrested.
Like the US, the UK shares its national threat levels with the general public to keep everyone informed and explain the context for the various increased security measures that may be encountered. UK threat levels are determined by the UK Home Office and are posted on its web site at http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/security/current-threat-level/.
Information from the UK Security Service, commonly known as MI5, about the reasons for the increased threat level and actions the public can take is available on the MI5 web site at http://www.mi5.gov.uk/.
On August 10, 2006, the Government of the United Kingdom heightened security at all UK airports following a major counterterrorism operation in which individuals were arrested for plotting attacks against US-bound airlines.
As a result of this, increased restrictions concerning carry-on luggage were put in place and are strictly enforced.
American citizens are advised to check with the UK Department for Transport at http://www.dft.gov.uk/transportforyou/airtravel/airportsecurity/ regarding the latest security updates and carry-on luggage restrictions.
The British Home Secretary has urged UK citizens to be alert and vigilant by, for example, keeping an eye out for suspect packages or people acting suspiciously at subway (called the “Tube” or Underground) and train stations and airports and reporting anything suspicious to the appropriate authorities.
Americans are reminded to remain vigilant with regard to their personal security and to exercise caution.
For more information about UK public safety initiatives, consult the UK Civil Contingencies Secretariat web site at http://www.ukresilience.gov.uk.
The political situation in Northern Ireland has dramatically improved since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the announcement by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) on July 28, 2005, that it would end its armed campaign, and the agreement to set up a power-sharing government on May 8, 2007.
The potential remains, however, for sporadic incidents of street violence and/or sectarian confrontation. American citizens traveling to Northern Ireland should therefore remain alert to their surroundings and should be aware that if they choose to visit potential flashpoints or attend parades sporadic violence remains a possibility. Tensions may be heightened during the summer marching season (April to August), particularly during the month of July around the July 12th public holiday.

The phone number for police/fire/ambulance emergency services - the equivalent of "911" in the U.S. - is “999” in the United Kingdom and “112” in Gibraltar.
This number should also be used for warnings about possible bombs or other immediate threats.
The UK Anti-Terrorist Hotline, at 0800 789 321, is for tip-offs and confidential information about possible terrorist activity.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings, Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution can be found.
Recent communications from U.S. Embassy London to the local American citizen community, called Warden Messages, can be found on the U.S. Embassy's American Citizens' Services web site at http://london.usembassy.gov/cons_new/acs/index.html.
Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).
The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet, A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME:
The United Kingdom and Gibraltar benefit from generally low crime rates and rates decreased slightly in 2007 in significant categories, including violent crime.
The crime situation in the UK is similar to the United States, with typical incidents including pick-pocketing; mugging; “snatch and grab” thefts of mobile phones, watches and jewelry; and theft of unattended bags, especially at airports and from cars parked at restaurants, hotels and resorts.
Pickpockets target tourists, especially at historic sites, restaurants, on buses, trains and the London Underground (the “Tube,” or subway).
Thieves often target unattended cars parked at tourist sites and roadside restaurants, looking for laptop computers and hand-held electronic equipment, especially global positioning satellite equipment.
Walking in isolated areas, including public parks, especially after dark, should also be avoided, as these provide advantageous venues for muggers and thieves.
At night or when there is little foot traffic, travelers should be especially careful using the underground pedestrian tunnels.
As a general rule, either walk the extra distance to use a surface crossing or wait until there are other adult pedestrians entering the tunnel.

In London, travelers should use only licensed “black taxi cabs,” or car services recommended by their hotel or tour operator.
Unlicensed taxis or private cars posing as taxis may offer low fares, but are often uninsured and may have unlicensed drivers.
In some instances, travelers have been robbed and raped while using these cars.
You can access 7,000 licensed “Black Cabs” using just one telephone number – 0871 871 8710. This taxi booking service combines all six of London’s radio taxi circuits, allowing you to telephone 24 hours a day if you need to “hail a cab.” Alternatively, to find a licensed minicab, text “HOME” to 60835 on your mobile phone to get the telephone number to two licensed minicab companies in the area. If you know in advance what time you will be leaving for home, you can pre-book your return journey.
The “Safe Travel at Night” partnership among the Metropolitan Police, Transport for London, and the Mayor of London maintains a website with additional information at http://www.cabwise.com/.
Travelers should not leave drinks unattended in bars and nightclubs.
There have been some instances of drinks being spiked with illegal substances, leading to incidents of robbery and rape.
Due to the circumstances described above, visitors should take steps to ensure the safety of their U.S. passports.
Visitors in England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, and Gibraltar are not expected to produce identity documents for police authorities and thus may secure their passports in hotel safes or residences.
Abundant ATMs that link to U.S. banking networks offer an optimal rate of exchange and they preclude the need to carry a passport to cash travelers’ checks.
Travelers should be aware that U.S. banks might charge a higher processing fee for withdrawals made overseas.
Common sense personal security measures utilized in the U.S. when using ATMs should also be followed in the UK.
ATM fraud in the UK is becoming more sophisticated, incorporating technologies to surreptitiously record customer ATM card and PIN information.
Travelers should avoid using ATMs that look in any way “temporary” in structure or location, or that are located in isolated areas.
Travelers should be aware that in busy public areas, thieves use distraction techniques, such as waiting until the PIN number has been entered and then pointing to money on the ground, or attempting to hand out a free newspaper.
When the ATM user is distracted, a colleague will quickly withdraw cash and leave.
If distracted in any way, travelers should press the cancel transaction button immediately and collect their card before speaking to the person who has distracted them.
If the person’s motives appear suspicious, travelers should not challenge them but remember the details and report the matter to Police as soon as possible.
In addition, travelers should not use the ATM if there is anything stuck to the machine or if it looks unusual in any way.
If the machine does not return the card, report the incident to the issuing bank immediately.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate at the opening of the next business day.
The U.S. Embassy or Consulate only issues replacement passports during regular business hours.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, report it to local police.
The nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate will also be able to assist by helping you to find appropriate medical care, contacting family members or friends, and explaining how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

Visit the “Victim Support” web site, maintained by an independent UK charity to helps people cope with the effects of crime: http://www.victimsupport.org.uk/
See our information for Victims of Crime.
MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
While medical services are widely available, free care under the National Health System is allowed only to UK residents and certain EU nationals.
Tourists and short-term visitors will be charged for medical treatment in the UK.
Charges may be significantly higher than those assessed in the United States.
Hiking in higher elevations can be treacherous.
Several people die each year while hiking, particularly in Scotland, often due to sudden changes in weather.
Visitors, including experienced hikers, are encouraged to discuss intended routes with local residents familiar with the area, and to adhere closely to recommendations.
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
If your medical insurance policy does not provide overseas coverage, you may want to purchase a short-term policy for your trip.
The Department of State provides a list of travel insurance companies that can provide the additional insurance needed for the duration of one’s trip abroad in its online at medical insurance overseas.
Remember also that most medical care facilities and medical care providers in the UK do not accept insurance subscription as a primary source of payment.
Rather, the beneficiary is expected to pay for the service and then seek reimbursement from the insurance company.
This may require an upfront payment in the $10,000 to $20,000 range

Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning the United Kingdom is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

UK penalties for driving under the influence of even minimal amounts of alcohol or drugs are stiff and often result in prison sentences.
In contrast to the United States and continental Europe, where traffic drives on the right side of the road, in the UK, it moves on the left.
The maximum speed limit on highways/motorways in the UK is 70MPH.
Motorways generally have a hard shoulder (breakdown lane) on the far left, defined by a solid white line.
It is illegal to stop or park on a hard shoulder unless it is an emergency.
In such cases, you should activate your hazard lights, get out of your vehicle and go onto an embankment for safety.
Emergency call boxes (orange telephone booths with “SOS” printed on them) may be found at half-mile intervals along the motorway.
White and blue poles placed every 100 yards along the motorway point in the direction of the nearest call box.
Emergency call boxes dial directly to a motorway center.
It is best to use these phones rather than a personal cell phone, because motorway center personnel will immediately know the location of a call received from an emergency call box.
Roadside towing services may cost approximately £125.
However, membership fees of automotive associations such as the RAC or AA (Automobile Association) often include free roadside towing service.
Visitors uncomfortable with, or intimidated by, the prospect of driving on the left-hand side of the road may wish to avail themselves of extensive bus, rail and air transport networks that are comparatively inexpensive.
Roads in the UK are generally excellent, but are narrow and often congested in urban areas.
If you plan to drive while in the UK, you may wish to obtain a copy of the Highway Code, available at http://www.highwaycode.gov.uk.
Travelers intending to rent cars in the UK should make sure that they are adequately insured.
U.S. auto insurance is not always valid outside the U.S., and travelers may wish to purchase supplemental insurance, which is generally available from most major rental agents.
The city of London imposes a congestion charge of £8 (eight pounds sterling, or approximately U.S. $16.00) on all cars entering much of central London Monday through Friday from 7:00 a.m. to 6:30 p.m.
Information on the congestion charge can be found at http://www.cclondon.com.
Public transport in the United Kingdom is excellent and extensive.
However, poor track conditions may have contributed to train derailments resulting in some fatalities.
Repairs are underway and the overall safety record is excellent.
Information on disruptions to London transportation services can be found at http://www.tfl.gov.uk and information about the status of National Rail Services can be found at http://www.nationalrail.co.uk.
Many U.S. pedestrians are injured, some fatally, every year in the United Kingdom, because they forget that oncoming traffic approaches from the opposite direction than in the United States.
Extra care and alertness should be taken when crossing streets; remember to look both ways before stepping into the street.
Driving in Gibraltar is on the right-hand side of the road, as in the U.S. and Continental Europe.
Persons traveling overland between Gibraltar and Spain may experience long delays in clearing Spanish border controls.
Please refer to our Road Safety Overseas page for more information.
For specific information concerning United Kingdom driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, refer to the United Kingdom’s Department of Environment and Transport web site at http://www.dft.gov.uk, the Driving Standards Agency web site at http://www.dsa.gov.uk or consult the U.S. Embassy in London’s web site at http://london.usembassy.gov/.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of the United Kingdom’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of the UK’s air carrier operations.
For further information, travelers may visit the FAA's web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
The legal drinking age in the UK is generally lower than in the U.S. and social drinking in pubs is often seen as a routine aspect of life in Britain. Parents, organizers of school trips, and young travelers should be aware of the impact that this environment may have when combined with the sense of adventure that comes with being abroad.
Please see our Students Abroad web site as well Studying Abroad to help students plan a safe and enjoyable adventure.
The UK has strict gun-control laws, and importing firearms is extremely complicated. Travelers should consider leaving all firearms in the United States.
Restrictions exist on the type and number of weapons that may be possessed by an individual.
All handguns, i.e. pistols and revolvers, are prohibited with very few exceptions.
Licensing of firearms in the UK is controlled by the Police.
Applicants for a license must be prepared to show 'good reason' why they require each weapon.
Applicants must also provide a copy of their U.S. gun license, a letter of good conduct from their local U.S. police station and a letter detailing any previous training, hunting or shooting experience. Background checks will also be carried out.
Additional information on applying for a firearm certificate and/or shotgun certificate can be found on the Metropolitan Police Firearms Enquiry Teams web site at http://www.met.police.uk/firearms-enquiries/index.htm.
A number of Americans are lured to the UK each year in the belief that they have won a lottery or have inherited from the estate from a long-lost relative.
Americans may also be contacted by persons they have “met” over the Internet who now need funds urgently to pay for hospital treatment, hotel bills, taxes or airline security fees.
Invariably, the person contacted is the victim of fraud.
Any unsolicited invitations to travel to the UK to collect winnings or an inheritance should be viewed with skepticism.
Also, there are no licenses or fees required when transiting a UK airport, nor is emergency medical treatment withheld pending payment of fees.
Please see our information on International Financial Scams. Please read our Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating British law, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in the UK are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.
Many pocketknives and other blades, and mace or pepper spray canisters, although legal in the U.S., are illegal in the UK and will result in arrest and confiscation if detected.
A UK Metropolitan Police guide to items that are prohibited as offensive weapons is available at http://www.met.police.uk/youngpeople/guns.htm.
A UK Customs Guide, detailing what items visitors are prohibited from bringing into the UK, is available at http://customs.hmrc.gov.uk/channelsPortalWebApp/downloadFile?contentID=HMCE_CL_001734.
Air travelers to and from the United Kingdom should be aware that penalties against alcohol-related and other in-flight crimes (“air rage”) are stiff and are being enforced with prison sentences.
Please also see our information on customs regulations that pertain when returning to the US.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children’s Issues.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in the United Kingdom are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within the United Kingdom.
By registering, Americans make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency, and to relay updated information on travel and security within the United Kingdom.
The Embassy and Consulates regularly send security and other information via email to Americans who have registered.
As noted above, recent communications from U.S. Embassy London to the local American citizen community, called Warden Messages, can be found on the embassy’s web site.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
The Consular Section also disseminates a newsletter every month.
Those wishing to subscribe to the monthly consular newsletter in London should send a request by email to SCSLondon@state.gov.
The U.S. Embassy is located at 24 Grosvenor Square, London W1A 1AE; telephone: in country 020-7499-9000; from the U.S. 011-44-20-7499-9000 (24 hours); Consular Section fax: in country 020-7495-5012; from the U.S. 011-44-20-7495-5012, and on the Internet at http://london.usembassy.gov.
The U.S. Consulate General in Edinburgh, Scotland, is located at 3 Regent Terrace, Edinburgh EH7 5BW; Telephone: in country 0131-556-8315, from the U.S. 011-44-131-556-8315.
After hours: in country 01224-857097, from the U.S. 011-44-1224-857097.
Fax: in country 0131-557-6023; from the U.S. 011-44-131-557-6023.
Information on the Consulate General is included on the Embassy’s web site at http://london.usembassy.gov/scotland.
The U.S. Consulate General in Belfast, Northern Ireland, is located at Danesfort House, 228 Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5GR; Telephone: in country 028-9038-6100; from the U.S. 011-44-28-9038-6100.
Fax:
in country 028-9068-1301; from the U.S. 011-44-28-9068-1301.
Information on the Consulate General is included on the Embassy’s web site at: http://london.usembassy.gov/nireland.
There is no U.S. consular representation in Gibraltar.
Passport questions should be directed to the U.S. Embassy in Madrid, located at Serrano 75, Madrid, Spain, tel (34)(91) 587-2200, and fax (34)(91) 587-2303.
The web site is http://madrid.usembassy.gov.
All other inquiries should be directed to the U.S. Embassy in London.
* * *
This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated December 12, 2007, to update the sections on Entry Requirements, Safety and Security, Crime, Victims of Crime, Medical Facilities, Medical Insurance, Traffic Safety and Road Conditions, and Special Circumstances.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu 24 Aug 2017
Source: Gibraltar Chronicle [edited]
<http://chronicle.gi/2017/08/tiger-mosquito-found-in-gibraltar-but-no-cause-for-concern-officials-say/>

An aggressive species of mosquito known to transmit viral diseases has been detected in Gibraltar, but public health officials insist there is no cause for alarm. Public Health Gibraltar and the Environmental Agency confirmed that the mosquito of the species _Aedes albopictus_, also known as the tiger mosquito, has been found in Gibraltar.

Last June [2017] after 9 months of intensive surveillance, officials said no tiger mosquito had been found in Gibraltar. But this has now changed after the 1st tiger mosquito was found in the urban dome   stic environment within Gibraltar. "This finding alone does not however materially alter any health risks in Gibraltar and there is no immediate cause for public concern," the government said in a statement. Public Health Gibraltar was first alerted in January 2016 to the discovery of the mosquito in Malaga and Algeciras [in Andalusia, Spain]. Since then, together with the Environmental Agency, it began working with international experts to mount surveillance in Gibraltar.

World Health Organization experts visited Gibraltar and gave advice on setting traps and monitoring locations, but no tiger mosquito had been detected until now. The tiger mosquito is not native to Gibraltar and has not been previously found here. It is common in other countries where it transmits viral diseases like Zika, dengue, and chikungunya. It is a domestic species, breeds in water in urban areas -- water butts, blocked drains, rainwater gullies -- and is able to reach high abundance around residential areas.

It is also a day-time mosquito, that aggressively bites humans. "Health risks to the public only arise if the virus causing these diseases is also present, which is not the case in Gibraltar," the government said.  "The virus can, however, be imported by travellers returning from an overseas country and if this happens, there is a risk of spread, but only if the mosquito bites within a small window period of about a week after the fever starts."

Public Health Gibraltar has been raising awareness of travel risk amongst travellers through its publication A Factsheet for Travellers and recommends the following precautions:
- before travelling to affected areas, consult your doctor or seek advice from a travel clinic, especially if you have an immune disorder or severe chronic illness;
- if you are pregnant or are considering pregnancy, consider postponing non-essential travel;
- when staying in a mosquito-prone area, wear mosquito repellents and take mosquito bite prevention measures;
- if you have symptoms within 3 weeks of return from an affected country, contact your doctor;
- if you have been diagnosed with any of the diseases Zika, dengue, or chikungunya, take strict mosquito bite prevention measures for 10 days after the fever starts.
========================== 
[The appearance of _Aedes albopictus_ in Gibraltar is not surprising. A map of the distribution of this species as of April this year (2017) shows it present around the Mediterranean Basin and up to Gibraltar on the west (<https://ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/aedes-albopictus-current-known-distribution-europe-april-2017>).

Now it has been found in Gibraltar. The concerns are real about transmission of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses should populations of _Ae. albopictus_ become established. In 2015 there were a few locally acquired cases of dengue in the south of France. This also happened on a larger scale in Emilia Romagna, Italy, when a viraemic man introduced chikungunya virus into Italy and sparked an outbreak.

One hopes that mosquito surveillance will continue in Gibraltar, perhaps be intensified, and help guide vector control efforts. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/517>.]
Date: Wed, 1 Jun 2011 01:46:48 +0200 (METDST)

GIBRALTAR, June 1, 2011 (AFP) - A fuel tank exploded and caught fire near a cruise ship in the British territory of Gibraltar Tuesday, injuring at least 15 people, most of them on the vessel, local officials and the ship's owners said. The blast was probably caused by a spark from welding operations, Chief Minister Peter Caruana told Radio Gibraltar. But police were not ruling out any possibility including that of an attack, he added. Flames several metres high could be seen coming out of the tank with dense black smoke billowing across the port as firefighters directed jets of water at the blaze from tugboats. The fire continued late into the night, with Radio Gibraltar reporting more explosions were heard. The tank was close to the giant cruise ship, Independence of the Seas, which had arrived in Gibraltar Tuesday morning. The ship made an emergency departure immediately after the blast Tuesday afternoon.

The Gibraltar government and the ship's owners, Royal Caribbean International, both said 12 people on the ship had been hurt. Gibraltar officials said one of the passengers had suffered a fractured arm. Two Spanish welders working on the tank were injured, including one who was in critical condition in a burns unit at a hospital in the southern Spanish city of Seville, Radio Gibraltar said. A police officer was also slightly injured in the rescue attempt, police said. "The lid of the tank was blown off by the blast," a police spokesman said. The statement from Royal Caribbean International said: "Immediately after the explosion, the ship retracted the gangway and moved a safe distance from the dock. "Twelve guests sustained minor injuries and have received medical treatment onboard." The boat was on a two-week cruise, having left the southern English port of Southampton on Saturday, the company added.

Air services to Gibraltar were suspended and offices in the port area evacuated. The police spokesman said the possibility of adjacent tanks overheating and exploding could not be ruled out. Caruana described it as a serious incident but said there was "no cause for concern". "Once it was established that there were welding operations going on, on top of the very tank at the time it exploded, (that) makes that a frontrunner for a likely explanation, but all possibilities are being kept open," he told Radio Gibraltar. "The police are obviously keeping their minds open to the possibility of maybe a security incident. It's looking unlikely but all possibilities are being looked into if only to be excluded."

"The plan is to allow it to carry on burning itself off," he said later Tuesday, but warned that the wind was due to change during the night, which could bring the smoke over land. Spanish tugs from a private company were helping the local fire services, he added. One witness said he was in his office nearby when he heard three loud explosions. "We started running out and saw one of the main tanks set alight. My concern was the poor people who were working there," he told Radio Gibraltar. The public was being advised to keep away from the area and keep windows closed due to the smoke. Gibraltar is a 6.5-square-kilometre (2.6-square-mile) British territory of around 30,000 people off the tip of southern Spain. Madrid ceded it to London in 1713 under the Treaty of Utrecht, but it has long fuelled tensions between the two countries.
Date: Tue, 10 Aug 2010 20:08:15 +0200 (METDST)

GIBRALTAR, Aug 10, 2010 (AFP) - Gibraltar on Tuesday condemned as "illegal" a proposal by the neighbouring Spanish town of La Linea to impose a tax on cars entering or leaving the tiny British territory by road.   The decision comes amid thorny relations between Madrid and London over the disputed British possession off the tip of southern Spain.

La Linea mayor Alejandro Sanchez on Monday announced the "congestion charge" of no more than five euros (6.5 dollars) on cars crossing into and out of Gibraltar, saying the measure will be imposed in October once it is passed by the town council.   He said lorries carrying debris and other materials used in Gibraltar to reclaim land from the sea will pay more, but the exact amount has not yet been determined.   Sanchez, a member of Spain's conservative opposition Popular Party, said the tax is needed partly to compensate the municipality for austerity measures imposed by the socialist government in Madrid.   La Linea residents would be exempt, but it was not clear if Gibraltarians would also have to pay.

The Gibraltar government reacted angrily and said it has contacted the Spanish authorities over the decision.   "The confused statements by the mayor of La Linea in respect of the proposed toll describe a litany of illegalities under EU Law and probably also under Spanish law," it said in a statement.   "The mayor of La Linea is clearly engaged in a political manoeuvre with his central government, which is unlikely to allow the proposal.

"The mayor's proposals are wholly unacceptable both legally and politically and in the unlikely event that these measures should be introduced, the (Gibraltar) government will take appropriate steps."   Spain ceded Gibraltar to Britain in 1713 under the Treaty of Utrecht but has retained first claim on the tiny peninsula should Britain renounce sovereignty.

"The Rock" has long fuelled tensions between Spain and Britain, with Madrid arguing the 6.5-square-kilometre (2.6-square-mile) territory that is home to roughly 30,000 people should be returned to Spanish sovereignty.   But its people overwhelmingly rejected an Anglo-Spanish proposal for co-sovereignty in a referendum in 2002.   In recent months British and Spanish naval and police boats have engaged in a series of cat and mouse games in the waters off Gibraltar, which lies at the strategic western entrance to the Mediterranean.
Date: Thu 23 Oct 2008
Source: Panorama.gi [edited]
---------------------------------
During the last 10 weeks, Gibraltar has experienced an outbreak of measles. "We have so far been notified of over 250 cases and notifications are still coming in at around 4-6 cases per day," said the Gibraltar Health Authority [GHA], who believe that the actual numbers are greater as many people with mild attacks have chosen not to report them. While the majority of infections in the outbreak have been mild, some have been severe and a few patients including babies have needed intensive care.  Measles is an unpleasant disease with fever, sore throat, streaming eyes, diarrhoea, and rash. Most people recover within a week or so, but complications like fits, bacterial infection, or pneumonia can develop. Long-term complications can also arise in very young children.

Says the GHA: It is important that all persons with symptoms suggestive of measles should report the illness to their doctor to enable complications to be detected at an early stage. In addition to medical advice, persons with the illness should follow general hygiene practices such as limiting contact with other people, carefully discarding soiled tissues, and washing their hands. Anyone who has had measles infection is immune for life and cannot get measles again. There is no basis for the rumour that some people have had measles twice. It is possible that infection with rubella (German measles, a different disease) may have caused the confusion. Vaccination with the MMR [measles, mumps, and rubella] vaccine is the only way to prevent measles infection.

[So far], the 250 cases have been in persons who are unvaccinated or partly vaccinated (one dose only). Not a single case has occurred in a person who has had a full course of MMR vaccine. MMR vaccine has been available free to children [from] Gibraltar's health service since 1989, although the boosters were only introduced in 2002. It is also a very safe and effective vaccine, with an impressive track record," they say. Gibraltar Health Authority adds that it is continuing to advise all parents of children who have not had the MMR vaccine to immunise their children. There had been some difficulties in obtaining vaccine recently due to an international shortage, but fresh supplies have now been received. The course consists of 2 injections, approximately 3 months apart. Please note that BOTH the doses are needed for adequate immunity. They add: If your child has received only one dose, either now or in the past, he or she could still be at risk. Arrangements have been made to offer additional  vaccination to all unimmunised children as follows: During October and November [2008], the Child Welfare Clinics (primary care centre) will be open on Mondays (2:00 pm to 4:00 pm), Wednesdays (9:00 am to 11:00 am) and Fridays (9:00 am to 11:00 am) for immunisations. Appointments are not necessary.
-------------------------------
[The Rock of Gibraltar is located at the entrance of the Mediterranean. Gibraltar is connected to Spain by a sandy isthmus, by a ferry to Morocco, and by flights to London. By virtue of its geographical position and political status Gibraltar is vulnerable to introduction of infectious disease from diverse sources. No information has been provided regarding the source of the measles virus responsible for this outbreak. In this respect it will be relevant to determine the genotype of the measles virus involved (see comment in ProMED-mail "Measles - Gibraltar 20080814.2529"). The outbreak has escalated from the 17 cases reported on 14 Aug 2008 to the current 250 cases. Despite the availability of free MMR vaccination it is clear that there is an appreciable number of unimmunised individuals in the community who remain susceptible to measles virus infection. It is encouraging that efforts are underway to expand vaccine coverage.


and the HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map at <http://healthmap.org/promed?g=2411586&amp;v=36.133,-5.35,7>. - ProMed Mod.CP]
Date: Wed, 16 Apr 2008 14:56:40 +0200 (METDST) GIBRALTAR, April 16, 2008 (AFP) - Animal rights groups have expressed outrage over a plan by Gibraltar's government to cull its famous Barbary Apes, which are posing a hazard as they roam the town in search of food. The government of the tiny British territory off Spain's southern coast plans to cull 25 of the simians, whose population has exploded to around 200. The mischievous primates climb over cars and pull out antennas, open rubbish bags and rifle through handbags left unattended in the popular tourist destination. Officially, the management of the apes is the responsibility of the Gibraltar Ornithological and Natural History Society (GONHS), on contract from the government. But the society said it has not approved the cull. "Our policy is that culling can be a population management solution but only in extreme cases when there is no other more suitable option," GONHS general secretary Dr. John Cortes said on Tuesday. "We would only ever recommend a cull after very careful assessment of the situation from a veterinary and a genetic point of view." However, Environment Minister Ernest Britto said a licence has been issued for the cull and two of the apes have already been given lethal injections. Helen Thirlway, the head of Britain's International Primate Protection League, said the government was failing to manage the apes "in a responsible manner." "There have been many advances and pilot studies in recent years on different methods of controlling free-roaming monkeys," she was quoted as saying in the local media Wednesday. "We are more than happy to work with the government of Gibraltar and with GONHS to help them develop more efficient, alternative solutions, but this needless slaughter has to stop." According to legend, if the apes disappear, Britain will lose control of Gibraltar. When wartime British prime minister Winston Churchill heard their population was low, British consuls in North Africa -- from where the apes originally came -- were tasked with sending new young simians to the Rock. At one time, the apes were looked after by the British army stationed in Gibraltar, which selected a place up the Rock where they were fed daily to keep them from loitering downtown. Spain ceded Gibraltar to Britain in 1713, but has retained a constitutional claim should Britain renounce sovereignty. The vast majority of the 30,000 people want to retain their links with Britain.
More ...

New Zealand

New Zealand US Consular Information Sheet
September 22, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
New Zealand is a highly developed, stable parliamentary democracy, which recognizes the British monarch as sovereign. It has a modern economy, and tourist fa
ilities are widely available. The New Zealand Tourist Board, which has a wide range of information of interest to travelers, can be contacted via the internet at http://www.newzealand.com/USA/.
Read the Department of State Background Note on New Zealand for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
U.S. citizens eligible for a visa waiver do not need a visa for tourist stays of three months or less. For more information about visa waivers and entry requirements, contact the Embassy of New Zealand: 37 Observatory Circle NW, Washington, DC 20008, telephone (202) 328-4800; or the Consulate General of New Zealand in Los Angeles: 2425 Olympic Blvd Suite 600E, Santa Monica, CA 90404, telephone (310) 566-6555.
Visit the Consulate of New Zealand web site at http://www.nzcgla.com for the most current visa information.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
U.S. citizens in New Zealand should review their personal security practices, be alert to any unusual activity around their homes or businesses, and report any significant incidents to local police.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll-free in the U.S. and Canada, or for other callers, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves overseas, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
Crime rates in New Zealand are low but have increased in recent years. The most prevalent crime is theft or attempted theft from cars, camper vans and hostels. To help protect against theft, do not leave passports, or other valuable items in unattended vehicles. Violent crime against tourists is unusual; however, visitors who are traveling alone should be especially vigilant, and avoid isolated areas that are not frequented by the public.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate for assistance.
The embassy/consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.
In New Zealand, a private organization called Victim Support works both independently and with the NZ Police to assist victims of crime. Victim Support is available 24 hours per day on 0800-842-846, 0800-Victim, by email at victim@xtra.co.nz.

The local equivalent to the “911” emergency line in New Zealand is 111.
See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Quality medical care is widely available, but waiting lists exist for certain types of treatment.
High-quality medication (both over-the-counter and prescription) is widely available at local pharmacies, though the products’ names may differ from the American versions.
Serious medical problems requiring hospitalization and/or medical evacuation to the United States can cost thousands of dollars. Doctors and hospitals often expect immediate cash payment for health services.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747); fax 1-888-CDC-FAXX (1-888-232-3299), or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/.

The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of New Zealand.
MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning New Zealand is provided for general reference only.

All traffic travels on the left in New Zealand, and drivers should exercise extra caution if accustomed to driving on the right. Driving on the wrong side of the road is a leading cause of serious injury and death for American tourists.
Cars turning left must yield to oncoming cars that are turning right.
Proceed carefully through intersections.
Red means “stop”—do not turn at a red light.

New Zealand has only 100 miles of multilane divided motorways. Most intercity travel is accomplished on two lane roads.
While these are in good condition, New Zealand's rugged terrain means motorists often encounter sharper curves and steeper grades than those found in the U.S. interstate highway system. Renting a car or camper is a popular way to enjoy New Zealand's natural beauty, but visitors unfamiliar with local conditions should drive particularly conservatively.
Posted speed limit signs should be observed. Drivers should use caution to avoid animals when driving in rural areas.

Pedestrians are advised to look carefully in all directions before crossing a street or roadway, and to use crosswalks.
Pedestrians do not have the right of way except in crosswalks.
New Zealand law requires that cars yield to pedestrians in a crosswalk, and that cars stop at least two meters (approximately 6 feet) from a crosswalk that is in use.

Traffic circles are common throughout New Zealand.
When approaching a traffic circle, always yield to traffic coming from the right –noting that traffic already in the circle has the right-of-way-- and merge to the left into the circle.

Public transportation, including buses, trains and taxis, is for the most part reliable and safe.
In case of emergency, phone the local police at 111.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
For specific information concerning the operation and rental of motor vehicles, contact the New Zealand Tourist Board via the Internet at http://www.newzealand.com/USA/ or the Land Transport Safety Authority at http://www.ltsa.govt.nz.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of New Zealand’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of New Zealand’s air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Some heavily populated parts of New Zealand are in areas of very high seismic activity. General information regarding disaster preparedness is available from the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) at http://www.fema.gov.

Many tourists come to New Zealand to participate in extreme adventure sports, such as bungee jumping, sky diving, hiking, rappelling, climbing, motorcycling, and kayaking.
All too often, injuries and even death result from participation in such activities.
Travelers are advised to employ caution and common sense when engaging in adventure sports.
Never participate in such sports alone, always carry identification, and let someone else know where you are at all times.
Before kayaking, check the river conditions and wear a life jacket.
When hiking, rappelling, or climbing, carry a first aid kit, know the location of the nearest rescue center, and bring a friend along.

New Zealand is an island nation, and the government is serious about preserving its delicate ecosystem.
The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) imposes strict regulations regarding what can be imported into New Zealand.
People failing to declare goods that could be quarantined can be fined up to $100,000 NZ and/or face up to five years in prison. People failing to declare risk goods such as fresh fruit, seeds, and plants can receive an instant fine of $200 NZ.
When importing a pet, thorough veterinary documentation and a quarantine period are required.
Unfinished wood products, used hiking shoes and gardening tools, fresh food items, and items such as used pet carriers may be seized and destroyed by MAF.
More information can be found at http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/personal-travel-belongings-and-mail/arriving-by-air/what-you-cannot-bring
CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than those in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating New Zealand laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession of, use of, or trafficking in illegal drugs in New Zealand are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in New Zealand are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within New Zealand.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the embassy or consulate to contact them in case of emergency.

The U.S. Embassy in Wellington is located at 29 Fitzherbert Terrace, Thorndon, Wellington.
The telephone number is (64) (4) 462-6000.
The fax number is (64) (4) 471-2380.
The Embassy’s web site is http://wellington.usembassy.gov.
The U.S. Embassy in Wellington does not have a consular section and thus cannot provide consular services to American citizens.
All consular services for American citizens are provided by the Consulate General in Auckland.
The U.S. Consulate General in Auckland is located on the third floor of the Citigroup Centre, 23 Customs Street East, between Commerce and Queen Streets. The telephone number is (64) (9) 303-2724. The fax number is (64) (9) 366-0870.
See information on services to Americans at http://wellington.usembassy.gov/service.html.
The Consulate General in Auckland handles all consular matters in New Zealand.

For after-hours emergencies anywhere in New Zealand, a duty officer can be contacted by telephone. Persons seeking after-hours assistance may call (64) (4) 462-6000; after listening to a brief recording, the caller may leave a message on the voice mail system, describing the nature of the emergency and giving a point of contact. The phone system will automatically call the duty officer in Wellington or in Auckland, who will listen to the message and take the appropriate action .
*

*

*
This replaces the Country Specific Information dated January 31, 2008, to update the Information for Victims of Crime, Medical Facilities and Health Information sections.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Tue, 22 Oct 2019 05:13:16 +0200 (METDST)

Wellington, Oct 22, 2019 (AFP) - A huge fire at a construction site sent clouds of acrid black smoke billowing over Auckland on Tuesday, forcing large parts of the downtown area to be cordoned off as firefighters battled the blaze.   The fire broke out on the roof of the SkyCity convention centre site shortly after 1:10pm (0010 GMT) and quickly spread, Fire and Emergency NZ said.   Office workers were warned to stay inside and turn off air conditioning as a thick pall of smoke engulfed the centre of New Zealand's largest city, but there were no reports on injuries.   Unconfirmed reports said the fire was started by a construction worker using a blowtorch on the building, which is one of the venues for the 2021 APEC summit being held in Auckland.
Date: Wed 11 Sep 2019
Source: Stuff [edited]

People who attended a football tournament in Hamilton and some businesses are being warned they could have been exposed to measles. On [Wed 11 Sep 2019] the Waikato District Health Board confirmed there are 13 measles cases in the Waikato including Hamilton, Paeroa and Morrinsville.

The District Health Board is urging people who attended the New Zealand Secondary School Girls Football tournament in Hamilton to be aware they may have been exposed to measles.

The tournament ran from [3 Sep 2019] and organisers have been asked to alert all participating teams.   [Byline: Libby Wilson]
Date: Thu 5 Sep 2019
Source: BBC News [abridged, edited]

New Zealand's ongoing measles outbreak has hit the milestone of more than 1000 confirmed cases. A total of 1051 people were affected between [1 Jan and 5 Sep 2019], the ministry of health said.

Measles is a highly contagious and potentially fatal illness that causes coughing, rashes and fever. Although effective and safe vaccination is available, some developed countries have seen a measles resurgence in past years.
Worldwide, the number of cases has quadrupled in the first 3 months of 2019 compared with the same time last year [2018], according to the World Health Organization (WHO).

The New Zealand outbreak is largely concentrated around the country's biggest city Auckland, with 877 of the confirmed cases seen there. The Health Ministry has issued a statement calling for everyone aged 12 months to 50 years old to get vaccinated if they have not been already.

Immunisation Advisory Centre director Dr. Nikki Turner told New Zealand's Newshub it is a "very sad" milestone to reach. The ministry has also put out a travel advice to get vaccinated at least 2 weeks before visiting Auckland.

The US Center[s] for Disease Control and Prevention has issued advice to get measles vaccination before visiting New Zealand.
Date: Wed, 4 Sep 2019 08:23:46 +0200 (METDST)

Wellington, Sept 4, 2019 (AFP) - Five Chinese nationals were killed and another six injured when a tourist bus veered off a highway and flipped during bad weather in New Zealand's North Island, police said.   Police said 27 people were in the vehicle when it crashed about 20 kilometres (12 miles) outside Rotorua -- a popular tourist town in the Bay of Plenty area known for its hot springs.    "Unfortunately police believe that five of those 27 onboard have lost their lives as a result of the crash," inspector Brent Crowe told reporters.

Crowe said two of the survivors were seriously injured and four were moderately hurt.   "This is an absolute tragedy for Bay of Plenty roads, even more so because of the fact we have Chinese nationals, visitors to our country, who have been impacted."   Crowe declined to give details of the deceased, saying authorities were still working to identify them and contact their families in China.   He said the driver was not seriously injured and an investigation into the cause of the crash was under way.   He said the accident occurred as the bus approached a bend on a winding, hilly stretch of road.   "At the time, the weather was very unfavourable, there was high winds, fog and a lot of rain. The road surface was clearly wet and therefore slippery," he said.

The Chinese embassy in Wellington told TVNZ that ambassador Wu Xi was on her way to the crash site to help those involved in the crash.   "The embassy attaches great importance to the tragic incident," it said. "Our deep condolences with those who died and injured."
Date: Sat 31 Aug 2019
Source: Stuff [abridged, edited]

Measles cases have been confirmed in more than 50 schools in the Auckland region since the beginning of this year's [2019's] outbreak. There have been 778 cases confirmed in the region as of Saturday [31 Aug 2019], with 19 new diagnoses since Friday [30 Aug 2019], the Auckland Regional Public Health Service said.

Medical officer of health Dr William Rainger said it was seeing 18-20 new cases per day, which had been constant for the last week. The majority of the cases were in south Auckland and in children under age 5 and young people between 15 and 29.

"Some of these people have been very, very unwell, however there have been no deaths as of yet," Dr Rainger said.

The ministry modified its standard MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccination catch-up advice this week. Under its new recommendations, babies as young as 6 months may now be vaccinated for measles at their doctor's discretion if parents have concerns about their potential exposure.  [Byline: Caroline Williams and Laine Moger]
==========================
[Also see the following 2 articles:
 
The worst-affected region in Auckland was the Counties Manukau DHB area, with more than 400 confirmed cases. It is the worst outbreak in 20 years.

Demographics also played a part. "We have a lot of pacific families, and it's a relatively young population as well, both of which we are seeing increasing numbers compared to the total number of cases," Dr Maria Poynter from the Auckland Regional Public Health service said.  <https://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=12262226>. - ProMED Mod.LK]
More ...

Tanzania

General
Nowadays there are few areas of our planet where you can really experience the timeless wonder and separation from the hum drum we face in our daily lives. Visiting Africa is fascinating and provides a new perspective on another life, another
world. The vast, untamed and primitive landscape provides a perfect glimpse into a life which many miss as they go about their daily chores. A trip which includes the majestic splendour of Africa’s tallest peak, Mt Kilimanjaro, rates high on the list of the unofficial wonders of the world and one not to be missed if the opportunity arises.
Mt Kilimanjaro
This is the highest peak in all of Africa stretching 5895m above sea level. Actually a few years ago the height of the summit was reassessed and then dropped by approximately 10m with more accurate recording by global positioning satellite. However, this minimal change will not be noticed by most travellers! There are a number of routes up to the summit and obviously which route is taken will make a significant difference to both the difficulty of the trek and any potential medical difficulties. Travelling with sufficient and well experienced guides and porters, and being part of a well organised group, are probably the most important factors in protecting your health.
Travelling to Tanzania
Mt Kilimanjaro is situated just across the border from Kenya in the northern part of Tanzania. You can approach the region by a number of different routes including buses from Nairobi, travelling from Dar es Salaam or flights straight into Moshi. How you travel for your climb of Kilimanjaro makes quite a significant difference to some of the health issues which you may face along the way.
General Health Issues
Before you leave for your trip make sure you are in good enough general health. If you can’t even run up a flight of stairs without collapsing then a trip up Kilimanjaro might not be the best choice! If you are unsure then see your doctor and ask for his or her advice at an early stage - before you commit yourself to the trip.
Long-Haul Flights
Flying to either Nairobi or Dar es Salaam takes between 9 to 10 hours from most Western European centres. This is regarded as a ‘long-haul flight’ so make sure you realise the risks associated with blood clotting in the legs and drink plenty of still fluids (water is the best), walk around the plane and use compression stockings if you are at any particular risk. (DVT in travel - TMB)
Food & Water
In Africa, as in many other areas of the world, what you eat and what you drink are essential for your well being. Being part of a large group has its advantages but you also need to stick with food and water that suits you personally. Don’t take extra risks with what you eat or drink just because others seem to be okay. Have your own sensible rules and remember to care for your stomach! Dehydration is common while climbing in a hot climate just make sure the water you drink is pure. You will also lose salt through perspiration and this will need to be replaced by increasing the amount of salt you put on your food at meal times.
What shoes to wear
Remember this is a walking holiday so prepare well in advance. Obviously increase your walking at home before you leave but remember to also include some significant hill walks to test your shoes. Blisters and corns are regularly associated with poorly fitted and substandard boots so spend that extra to get a pair that suits you and supports both the arch of your foot and also your ankles. A slightly larger pair is essential to lessen the pressure on your feet. Good thick socks will help to absorb perspiration and cushion your feet against friction.
Clothes to bring
This is one of the most difficult areas to sort out. The weather and climate along your climb will vary from a beautiful Irish-like summer day, to a roasting hot, dehydrating scorcher to a chilly or freezing night when the sun retires after about 6 pm. You must pack light cotton clothing but warm enough for the chill of the evenings at altitude. A wide brimmed hat (and sun lotion) is essential to protect against sun burn.
Problems at Altitude
High altitude is defined as over approx 3500m and as you know Kilimanjaro is a whole lot higher. The affects of altitude can hit anybody but most commonly it is the fit younger traveller who experiences the most serious consequences and even death. The doctor who discusses your vaccines and malaria prophylaxis will talk through the issues relating to Altitude sickness and may prescribe a medication to lessen the risks in certain circumstances. But remember, this disease can kill so if you develop any possible symptoms (lightheadedness, headaches, altered gait etc) please report it to your guide immediately. (Altitude sickness - TMB)

Being part of a group
The main advantage of being part of a group is that each member can help look-out for others during the trip. Never get separated from your main party and always report it if you feel one of your group is not quite right medically. This may be the first signs of altitude sickness and you could quite literally save a life by your intervention.
Mosquitoes and Malaria
Mosquitoes do not tend to live above 2000m and so the risk of malaria while climbing Kilimanjaro does not occur. However, you have to get to that altitude first and so protection against mosquito bites and malaria prophylaxis will be essential for this trip. (Malaria protection - TMB)
Rabies Risks in Tanzania
Any warm blooded animal can transmit rabies and so it is extremely important that you avoid any contact with dogs, cats, monkeys, and other animals on the slopes of Mt Kilimanjaro such as hyrats and other beaver like creatures. Report any contact immediately to your group leader.
Vaccinations for visiting Tanzania
As you travel to Tanzania from Western Europe we normally recommend that you have a number of vaccinations to cover against a range of diseases. In certain patients it may also be worth considering further vaccination cover against conditions like Rabies and Hepatitis B. These should be talked through in detail with your vaccinating doctor.
After your visit
When you return home you must remember that certain diseases can present days, weeks or even months afterwards. If you develop any peculiar symptoms (fever, headache, diarrhoea, skin rash etc) please make contact so this can be urgently assessed.
In the vast majority of cases the traveller climbing Kilimanjaro will stay perfectly healthy and well providing they follow the main common sense rules. Have a great safe trip and enjoy some of the splendours that Africa has to provide.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Sat, 28 Sep 2019 20:04:29 +0200 (METDST)

Nairobi, Sept 28, 2019 (AFP) - A Canadian tourist died Saturday while parachuting from the top of Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest peak and Tanzania's top tourist attraction.   Justin Kyllo, 51, was killed after his parachute failed to open, Tanzanian National Parks spokesman Pascal Shelutete said.   Kyllo had arrived in the country on September 20, he said.   Around 50,000 people climb the nearly 6,000-metre mountain, located near the northeastern frontier with Kenya, every year.
Date: Fri 20 Sep 2019
From: Daniel R. Lucey MD, MPH [edited]

ProMED-mail reports since 14 Sep [2019] of a Tanzanian woman who died in Dar es Salaam on 8 Sep [2019] and was declared negative for Ebola by Tanzanian officials raises the question of what did cause her death. Given her travel to Uganda in August [2019], perhaps bat-associated Sosuga virus could be tested for if stored specimens exist. Similar to this young woman from Tanzania, the initial patient from the USA working in Uganda in 2012 in whom Sosuga virus was discovered had [experienced] fever, headache, rash, and diarrhoea (EID 2014; 20: 211-216). This virus was found from fruit bats in Uganda in 3 locations approximately 130 km [about 81 mi] apart (J Wildl Dis 2015; 51:774-779). An IgM and IgG test was developed at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and antiviral compounds active against this virus were reported in 2018.

Daniel R. Lucey MD, MPH
Consultant, ProMED
=======================
[The fatal case of a young Tanzanian woman studying in Uganda who died after travelling back to Tanzania for her field studies, as reported in ProMED-mail post http://promedmail.org/post/20190914.6674377, continues to elude an aetiological diagnosis. The initial concern for Ebola infection has since effectively been ruled out (see http://promedmail.org/post/20190914.6674377), but outside observers have called for greater transparency and information sharing given widespread rumours surrounding this case and its potential public health implications for neighbouring countries as well as Tanzania itself (see http://promedmail.org/post/20190918.6680252).

As discussed by ProMED Mod.LK, the Ebola-like symptoms manifested in this case can be caused by other viral haemorrhagic fevers and a variety of other pathogens (see http://promedmail.org/post/20190914.6674377). ProMED thanks Dr. Lucey for raising the intriguing possibility of Sosuga virus in his letter. We continue to seek any additional information about this case, as well as alternative etiologic diagnoses and how they could be tested for.

Citations and URLs for the articles referenced by Dr. Lucey are as follows:

Albarino CG et al.: Novel Paramyxovirus Associated with Severe Acute Febrile Disease, South Sudan and Uganda, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014; 20(2): 211-216. <https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2002.131620>.

Amman BR et al.: A Recently Discovered Pathogenic Paramyxovirus, Sosuga Virus, is Present in _Rousettus aegyptiacus_ Fruit Bats at Multiple Locations in Uganda. J Wild Dis. 2015; 51(3): 774-779. <https://www.jwildlifedis.org/doi/10.7589/2015-02-044>. - ProMED Mod.LXL]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
28 Jul 2019

As many as 13 have died while 6677 have been infected across Tanzania. In Dar es Salaam region alone, 6631 cases and 11 deaths have occurred.

HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Tanzania:
Date: 20 Aug 2019
Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]

A suspected aflatoxicosis outbreak is being reported in Tanzania. The World Health Organization (WHO) was informed of the situation by the Ministry of Health in late June 2019. Since 1 Jun 2019, sporadic cases presented with symptoms and signs of abdominal distention, jaundice, vomiting, swelling of lower limbs, with a few cases of fever and headache, from Dodoma and Manyara Regions in Tanzania. As of 11 Aug 2019, a total of 53 cases and 8 deaths have been reported from Chemba, Kondoa and Kiteto Districts. The situation is under investigation.

Aflatoxin is a potent toxin and a very serious health issue in many parts of the developing world. Major outbreaks have been seen in Africa, India, Malaysia and Taiwan over the years. This mycotoxin is a natural toxin produced as a secondary metabolite to certain strains of the fungus _Aspergillus_ spp, in particular _Aspergillus flavus_ and _Aspergillus parasiticus_.

Aflatoxins are contaminants of foods intended for people or animals as a result of fungal contamination. The commonest foods implicated are cereals like corn, wheat and rice, oilseeds like peanuts and sunflower, and spices. However, the toxin can affect a very wide range of food stuffs (see below).

Different factors contribute to aflatoxin contamination. In semi-arid climates, the effect of drought can increase the amount of _Aspergillus_ spp in the air causing pre-harvest contamination of certain crops. Crops grown and stored in more tropical environments where the temperature and humidity are high usually have a higher risk of both pre and post-harvest contamination. Of course, much of the problem lies with homegrown crops not harvested or stored properly.

Aflatoxin poisoning can be divided into acute and chronic disease depending on the amount of toxin ingested. When people (or animals) ingest aflatoxin contaminated foods, the liver is the main target for disease. There is a direct link between aflatoxin poisoning and liver cancer. Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma is an important public health concern in many parts of the world due to aflatoxin. According to the CDC, acute aflatoxin poisoning results in liver failure and death in up to 40 per cent of cases in some regions.

Besides the obvious health risks, there is the massive economic loss occurring in parts of the world that can't afford it. Prevention and control of aflatoxin in developing countries is mainly focused on good agricultural practices. Because it is impossible to completely eliminate this danger, in the United States feeds and grains are laboratory tested for levels of aflatoxins, and food with unacceptable levels are removed from the market.

Foods most commonly affected by aflatoxins (from the USDA's Food Safety Research Information Office): [linked from:

- cereals (maize, corn, sorghum, pearl millet, rice, wheat)
- oilseeds (peanut, soybean, sunflower, cotton)
- spices (chilies, black pepper, coriander, turmeric, ginger)
- tree nuts (almonds, pistachio, walnuts, coconut)
- dried fruits (sultanas, figs)
- cocoa beans
- milk, eggs, and meat products*

* Milk, eggs, and meat products are occasionally contaminated due to the consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated feed by animals.
====================
["Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites produced by certain fungi in/on foods and feeds. They are probably the best known and most intensively researched mycotoxins in the world. Aflatoxins have been associated with various diseases, such as aflatoxicosis, in livestock, domestic animals and humans throughout the world. The occurrence of aflatoxins is influenced by certain environmental factors; hence the extent of contamination will vary with geographic location, agricultural and agronomic practices, and the susceptibility of commodities to fungal invasion during preharvest, storage, and/or processing periods. Aflatoxins have received greater attention than any other mycotoxins because of their demonstrated potent carcinogenic effect in susceptible laboratory animals and their acute toxicological effects in humans. As it is realized that absolute safety is never achieved, many countries have attempted to limit exposure to aflatoxins by imposing regulatory limits on commodities intended for use as food and feed.

"Fungal growth and aflatoxin contamination are the consequence of interactions among the fungus, the host and the environment. The appropriate combination of these factors determines the infestation and colonization of the substrate, and the type and amount of aflatoxin produced. However, a suitable substrate is required for fungal growth and subsequent toxin production, although the precise factor(s) that initiates toxin formation is not well understood. Water stress, high-temperature stress, and insect damage of the host plant are major determining factors in mold infestation and toxin production. Similarly, specific crop growth stages, poor fertility, high crop densities, and weed competition have been associated with increased mold growth and toxin production. Aflatoxin formation is also affected by associated growth of other molds or microbes. For example, preharvest aflatoxin contamination of peanuts and corn is favored by high temperatures, prolonged drought conditions, and high insect activity; while postharvest production of aflatoxins on corn and peanuts is favored by warm temperatures and high humidity.

"Humans are exposed to aflatoxins by consuming foods contaminated with products of fungal growth. Such exposure is difficult to avoid because fungal growth in foods is not easy to prevent. Even though heavily contaminated food supplies are not permitted in the marketplace in developed countries, concern still remains for the possible adverse effects resulting from long-term exposure to low levels of aflatoxins in the food supply.

"Evidence of acute aflatoxicosis in humans has been reported from many parts of the world, namely the 3rd World Countries, like Taiwan, Uganda, India, and many others. The syndrome is characterized by vomiting, abdominal pain, pulmonary edema, convulsions, coma, and death with cerebral edema and fatty involvement of the liver, kidneys, and heart.

"Conditions increasing the likelihood of acute aflatoxicosis in humans include limited availability of food, environmental conditions that favor fungal development in crops and commodities, and lack of regulatory systems for aflatoxin monitoring and control.

"Because aflatoxins, especially aflatoxin B1, are potent carcinogens in some animals, there is interest in the effects of long-term exposure to low levels of these important mycotoxins on humans. In 1988, the IARC placed aflatoxin B1 on the list of human carcinogens. This is supported by a number of epidemiological studies done in Asia and Africa that have demonstrated a positive association between dietary aflatoxins and Liver Cell Cancer (LCC). Additionally, the expression of aflatoxin-related diseases in humans may be influenced by factors such as age, sex, nutritional status, and/or concurrent exposure to other causative agents such as viral hepatitis (HBV) or parasite infestation.

"The economic impact of aflatoxins derives directly from crop and livestock losses as well as indirectly from the cost of regulatory programs designed to reduce risks to animal and human health. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that 25% of the world's food crops are affected by mycotoxins, of which the most notorious are aflatoxins. Aflatoxin losses to livestock and poultry producers from aflatoxin-contaminated feeds include death and the more subtle effects of immune system suppression, reduced growth rates, and losses in feed efficiency. Other adverse economic effects of aflatoxins include lower yields for food and fiber crops.

"In addition, the ability of aflatoxins to cause cancer and related diseases in humans given their seemingly unavoidable occurrence in foods and feeds make the prevention and detoxification of these mycotoxins one of the most challenging toxicology issues of present time."  <http://poisonousplants.ansci.cornell.edu/toxicagents/aflatoxin/aflatoxin.html>.

Aflatoxins are a huge challenge in developing countries as they affect crops, animals and people and people and animals consuming the crops or drinking milk from affected animals. It should be noted that this is not the 1st time Tanzania has experienced this situation from aflatoxin. We hope the authorities are able to track down and remove the contaminated product and render appropriate medical care for the affected individuals. - ProMED Mod.TG]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Date: Thu 29 May 2019 Source: XinHuaNet [edited] <http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2019-05/30/c_138100702.htm>
Cholera has killed one and left 32 others hospitalized in Tanzania's commercial capital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzanian health minister Ummy Mwalimu said on Wed 28 May 2019. "The outbreak of the disease has been caused by failure to abide by hygienic regulations," the minister said.
She directed all municipal councils in the commercial capital to enact by-laws that impose stern punishment to people who empty cesspool tanks in the open when it rains. Instructions have been given to municipal council authorities to mete out stern punishment to anybody disposing sewage in their compounds, Mwalimu said.
Dar es Salaam chief medical officer Yudas Ndungile said most cholera patients came from Mchikichini, in Kariakoo, and places hardly reached by sewage vehicles, and that efforts should be put in place to reach those areas. ========================
[With the start of the rainy season in this area of East Africa, the number of cases of cholera will rise. The mortality from cholera and most diarrheal illnesses is related to non-replacement of fluid and electrolytes from the diarrheal illness.
As stated by Lutwick and colleagues (Lutwick LI, Preis J, Choi P. Cholera. In: Chronic illness and disability: the pediatric gastrointestinal tract. Greydanus DE, Atay O, Merrick J, editors. New York: Nova Bioscience; 2018:113-127), oral rehydration therapy can be life-saving in outbreaks of cholera and other forms of diarrhea:
"As reviewed by Richard Guerrant et al. (1), it was in 1831 that cholera treatment could be accomplished by intravenous replacement, and, although this therapy could produce dramatic improvements, not until 1960 was it 1st recognized that there was no true destruction of the intestinal mucosa, and gastrointestinal rehydration therapy could be effective, and the therapy could dramatically reduce the intravenous needs for rehydration. Indeed, that this rehydration could be just as effective given orally as through an orogastric tube (for example, refs 2 and 3) made it possible for oral rehydration therapy (ORT) to be used in rural remote areas and truly impact the morbidity and mortality of cholera. Indeed, Guerrant et al. (1) highlight the use of oral glucose-salt packets in war-torn Bangladeshi refugees, which reduced the mortality rate from 30% to 3.6% (4) and quotes sources referring to ORT as "potentially the most important medical advance" of the 20th century. A variety of formulations of ORT exist, generally glucose or rice powder-based, which contain a variety of micronutrients, especially zinc (5).
"The assessment of the degree of volume loss in those with diarrhoea to approximate volume and fluid losses can be found in ref 6 below. Those with severe hypovolemia should be initially rehydrated intravenously with a fluid bolus of normal saline or Ringer's lactate solution of 20-30 mL/kg followed by 100 mL/kg in the 1st 4 hours and 100 mL/kg over the next 18 hours with regular reassessment. Those with lesser degrees of hypovolemia can be rehydrated orally with a glucose or rice-derived formula with up to 4 L [4.2 qt] in the 1st 4 hours, and those with no hypovolemia can be given ORT after each liquid stool with frequent re-evaluation."
More ...

French Polynesia

French Polynesia US Consular Information Sheet
August 13, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: French Polynesia is a French overseas territory located in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.
It is made up of several groups of islands, the largest and mos
populated of which is Tahiti.
Tourist facilities are well developed and are available on the major islands.
For more information visit Tahiti’s web site at http://www.go-to-tahiti.com/.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport valid for six months beyond duration of stay is required.
Visas are not required for stays of up to one month.
Extensions for up to three months may be granted locally by applying to the border police at the airport or to the Haut Commissionaire (The French High Commissioner).
The application for an extension must be presented with a fiscal stamp, which can be purchased in a post office.
For further information about entry requirements, travelers, particularly those planning to enter by sea, may contact the French Embassy at 4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007, telephone 202-944-6200, fax 202-944-6212, or visit the Embassy of France's web site at http://www.info-france-usa.org/.
Additional information is available at GIE Tourisme, Fare Manihini, Boulevard Pomare, B. P. 65, Papeete, French Polynesia, Telephone: (689) 50-57-00, Fax: (689) 43-66-19.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web
site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information.
SAFETY AND SECURITY:
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ Internet site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, including the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll- free in the U.S. and Canada, or for overseas callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll -line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME:
Although French Polynesia has one of the lowest crime rates within France and its territories, petty crime, such as pick-pocketing and purse snatching, is occurring more frequently.
Visitors should secure valuables at all times.
Common sense precautions should be taken, especially at night, to avoid becoming a target of opportunity.
INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the U.S. Consular Agent in French Polynesia at (689) 42- 65-35.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the U.S. Consular Agent in French Polynesia for assistance.
The U.S. Consular Agent can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, the Consular Agent can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney, if needed.
The local equivalent to the “911” emergency line in French Polynesia is 15 for ambulance and medical emergencies, 18 for fire, and 17 for police.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Medical treatment is generally good on the major islands, but is limited in more remote or less populated areas.
Patients with emergencies or serious illnesses are often referred to facilities on Tahiti for treatment.
In Papeete, the capital of Tahiti, two major hospitals and several private clinics provide 24 hour medical service.
Serious medical problems requiring hospitalization and/or medical evacuation to the United States can cost thousands of dollars.
Although some doctors and hospitals are beginning to accept credit card and U.S. insurance payments, others still expect immediate cash payment for health services.
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.
The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restirictions for visitors to or foreign residents of French Polynesia.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.
TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning French Polynesia is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
While most major roads are paved, many secondary roads are not.
In urban areas, traffic is brisk and all types of vehicles and pedestrians jockey for space on narrow streets.
Crosswalks are marked, and the law requires that motor vehicles stop for pedestrians; however, this is not always done.
Tourists should exercise caution when driving, particularly at night.
While extensive sections of the road circumnavigating Tahiti have streetlights, many streets do not.
Pedestrians walk along the sides of darkened roadways and sometimes cross in unmarked areas.
Bicycles and mopeds are frequently driven without headlights and taillights.
Tourists who rent bicycles or mopeds should be particularly attentive to their driving and the driving of others and not underestimate the danger, even on roads with little traffic.
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
Civil aviation operations in French Polynesia fall under the jurisdiction of French authorities.
The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of France’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight forofof France’s air carrier operations.
For further information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa/.
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
French customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from French Polynesia of some items. It is advisable to contact the Embassy of France in Washington, D.C. or one of the French consulates in the United States for specific information regarding customs requirements.
The web site for French customs is http://www.finances.gouv.fr/.
Goods arriving on pleasure yachts must be declared at the first point of arrival in French Polynesia.
Arms, animals, alcohol, cigarettes, cameras, etc., must be included in this declaration.
Please see our Customs Information
U.S. citizens are encouraged to carry a copy of their U.S. passports with them at all times, so that if questioned by local officials, proof of identity and U.S. citizenship are readily available.
If detained, U.S. citizens are encouraged to request that the U.S. Consular Agent in French Polynesia be notified.
The cyclone season is November through April.
French Polynesia is located in an area of high seismic activity.
Although the probability of a major earthquake occurring during an individual trip is remote, earthquakes do occur.
General information regarding disaster preparedness is available via the Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site, and from the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) home page at http://www.fema.gov/.
Some visitors to French Polynesia have reported problems using ATMs with certain kinds of credit and debit cards at ATM machines.
Visitors should verify that their cards can be used in French Polynesia.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than those in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating French Polynesia’s laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession of, use of, or trafficking in illegal drugs in French Polynesia are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children’s Issues web pages.
REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
There is no U.S. eEmbassy or cConsulate in French Polynesia.
However, there is a U.S. Consular Agent in French Polynesia who can provide assistance.
Americans living or traveling to French Polynesia are encouraged to register with the local U.S. Consular Agent or the U.S. Embassy in Suva, Fiji, or through the State Department’s travel registration web site and to obtain up-to-date information on travel and security within French Polynesia.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest eEmbassy or cConsulate.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the eEmbassy or cConsulate to contact them in case of emergency.
To contact the U.S. Consular Agent, call (689) 42 65 35 or fax (689) 50 80 96 or e-mail usconsul@mail.pf.
The U.S. Consular Agency is located at Centre Tamanu Iti, 1er etage, Punaauia, B.P. 10765, 98711 Paea, Polynesie Francaise.
The U.S. Embassy in Suva, Fiji, which oversees the U.S.Consular Agent in French Polynesia, can also provide assistance for U.S. citizens.
It is located in the capital city of Suva at 31 Loftus Street, P.O. Box 218, telephone 679-331-4-466, fax 679-3302-267.
Information may also be obtained by visiting the Embassy’s home page at http://fiji.usembassy.gov/.
*

*

*
This replaces the Country Specific Information for French Polynesia dated February 219, 20087, to update sections on Entry/Exit Requirement, Safety and SecurityInformation for Victims of Crime and , Medical Facilities and Health Information, and Traffic Safety and Road Conditions.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Tue, 22 Oct 2019 06:44:29 +0200 (METDST)

Papeete, Oct 22, 2019 (AFP) - A French tourist has been seriously injured in a rare shark attack in the palm-fringed Pacific islands of Polynesia, emergency services said Tuesday.   The 35-year-old woman was swimming during a whale-watching trip on Monday in the French overseas territory when the oceanic whitetip shark tore into her chest and arms.   "Luckily for her, there were two nurses on the scene who could deliver first aid," firefighter Jean-Jacques Riveta told AFP.   The woman lost both hands and a lot of blood in the attack and was airlifted to hospital, he said.
19 Aug 2019

358 indigenous cases and 2 imported cases of dengue 2 have been confirmed since the beginning of 2019, according to the latest Health Watch bulletin. Tahiti is still in an epidemic phase: all communes are affected except Mahaena, Pueu, and Teahupoo. In the islands, Bora-Bora is in epidemic phase (at least 3 cases without epidemiological link): Vaitape and Faanui are affected. Moorea is in an epidemic phase: The communes of Afareaitu, Haapiti, and Paopao are affected. Six islands are in the alert phase: Nuku-Hiva (Taiohae), Fakarava, Raiatea, Rangiroa, Huahine, and Hiva Oa (Atuona). Since dengue type 2 has not circulated in the country since the year 2000, the population is poorly immunized, and the epidemic may be large. People under 20 or arriving in French Polynesia after 2000 are most at risk of becoming infected.

HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of French Polynesia:
- Taihiti (French Polynesia). 13 Apr 2019

DEN-2 confirmation of several autochthonous cases
Date: Mon 12 Feb 2018
Source: MVariety [edited]

The Department of Health Services is informing the public that its syndromic surveillance system shows that Yap has exceeded the threshold for diarrhoea cases. Diarrhoea can be caused by parasites such as amoeba or giardia, bacteria in food poisoning or contamination of water by viruses spread through unsanitary conditions.

Frequent and proper hand-washing is the best way to reduce the chance of spreading infections. Most of these infections are transmitted primarily through the fecal-oral route, either by consumption of faeces-contaminated food or water, or by direct person-to-person spread.
==================
[The aetiology of the gastroenteritis cases here is not stated.  Yap traditionally refers to an island located in the Caroline Islands of the western Pacific Ocean, a part of the Federated States of Micronesia. The name "Yap" in recent years has come to also refer to the state within the Federated States of Micronesia, inclusive of the Yap Main Islands and its various outer islands. The area can be found on a map at <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yap>. - ProMED Mod.LL]

[The mortality from cholera and most diarrhoeal illnesses is related to non-replacement of fluid and electrolytes from the diarrheal illness.

As stated in Lutwick LI, Preis J, Choi P: Cholera. In: Chronic illness and disability: the pediatric gastrointestinal tract. Greydanus DE, Atay O, Merrick J (eds). NY: Nova Bioscience, 2017 (in press), oral rehydration therapy can be life-saving in outbreaks of cholera and other forms of diarrhea:

"As reviewed by Richard Guerrant et al (1), it was in 1831 that cholera treatment could be accomplished by intravenous replacement, and, although this therapy could produce dramatic improvements, not until 1960 was it 1st recognized that there was no true destruction of the intestinal mucosa, and gastrointestinal rehydration therapy could be effective, and the therapy could dramatically reduce the intravenous needs for rehydration. Indeed, that this rehydration could be just as effective given orally as through an orogastric tube (for example, refs 2 and 3) made it possible for oral rehydration therapy (ORT) to be used in rural remote areas and truly impact on the morbidity and mortality of cholera. Indeed, Guerrant et al (1) highlights the use of oral glucose-salt packets in war-torn Bangladeshi refugees, which reduced the mortality rate from 30 percent to 3.6 percent (4) and quotes sources referring to ORT as "potentially the most important medical advance" of the 20th century. A variety of formulations of ORT exist, generally glucose or rice powder-based, which contain a variety of micronutrients, especially zinc (5).

"The assessment of the degree of volume loss in those with diarrhea to approximate volume and fluid losses can be found in ref 6 below. Those with severe hypovolaemia should be initially rehydrated intravenously with a fluid bolus of normal saline or Ringer's lactate solution of 20-30 ml/kg followed by 100 ml/kg in the 1st 4 hours and 100 ml/kg over the next 18 hours with regular reassessment. Those with lesser degrees of hypovolaemia can be rehydrated orally with a glucose or rice-derived formula with up to 4 liters in the 1st 4 hours, and those with no hypovolemia can be given ORT after each liquid stool with frequent reevaluation."

References
----------
1. Guerrant RL, Carneiro-Filho BA and Dillingham RA. Cholera, diarrhea, and oral rehydration therapy: triumph and indictment. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37(3):398-405; available at
2. Gregorio GV, Gonzales ML, Dans LF and Martinez EG. Polymer-based oral rehydration solution for treating acute watery diarrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(2):CD006519. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006519.pub2; available at
3. Gore SM, Fontaine O and Pierce NF. Impact of rice based oral rehydration solution on stool output and duration of diarrhea: meta-analysis of 13 clinical trials. BMJ 1992; 304(6822): 287-91; available at
4. Mahalanabis D, Choudhuri AB, Bagchi NG, et al. Oral fluid therapy of cholera among Bangladesh refugees. Johns Hopkins Med 1973; 132(4): 197-205; available at
5. Atia AN and Buchman AL. Oral rehydration solutions in non-cholera diarrhea: a review. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009; 104(10): 2596-604, doi: 10.1038/ajg.2009.329; abstract available at
6. WHO. The treatment of diarrhea, a manual for physicians and other senior health workers. 4th ed. 2005; available at
Date: Thu 30 Nov 2017
Source: Tahiti Infos [in French, trans. ProMED Corr.SB, edited]

Three cases of salmonellosis have been officially confirmed in Taravao in addition to the suspected case of a 4th person who died after having shown the symptoms of salmonella infection.

In a statement, released Thursday morning, 30 Nov 2017, the Ministry of Health said: "3 cases of salmonellosis confirmed and a suspected case, occurred in Taravao." These infections were reported to the Bureau de Veille Sanitaire between 20 and 28 Nov 2017. Above all, "one person has died," says this information, while indicating that "the main cause of death remains uncertain."

This person died in the night of 18 to 19 Nov 2017, a few hours after eating an egg dish (Kai Fan). His wife suffered a salmonella infection following this meal. One of 2 other confirmed cases of salmonellosis also consumed a Kai Fan. These takeaway meals were all purchased in the same Taravao business.

"We were not able to take samples from the deceased person," says Dr. Marine Giard. "It is thought that this person also had salmonellosis, but the doctor who observed the death did not remember that the person's episode of gastroenteritis was the direct cause of death. [He] died at home and did not call a doctor during the episode of illness. (...) He had the same symptoms as his wife, who was confirmed with salmonellosis," said the head of the Bureau de Veille Sanitaire, noting that "it is unusual for a healthy person, as it seemed to be his case, to die of salmonellosis, which is why this case is still very surprising. There was no autopsy."

The statement released on Thu 30 Nov 2017 said that an "inspection was conducted in this store by the Center for Hygiene and Public Health." Two types of analyses are in progress, the Ministry of Health said, stating that they are interested in the "remains of the food consumed" and "water withdrawals made due to recent rainy episodes." The sanitary survey is currently underway: "We will try to explore all leads; the dishes sold in this shop are being analyzed, water samples were taken; we are going back to the egg production chain and examining people who were preparing the dishes," says Dr. Giard.

Regarding the salmonellosis found in Taravao: "More than 10 days later, we have had no new cases declared; we have good reasons to assume that the infectious source has dried up," the Bureau de Veille Sanitaire stated.
=====================
[Certainly, undercooked eggs are a well-recognized vehicle for the transmission of salmonellosis. It is unclear whether salmonellosis was the proximate cause of death in the man mentioned, as most fatalities in salmonellosis are in the very young and very older and those with underlying diseases. It is not clear whether the decedent had any substantial risk factors for more severe disease.

Salmonellosis is often thought to be associated with cracked eggs or eggs dirty with faecal matter, a problem controlled by cleaning procedures implemented in the egg industry. It is clearly the case, however, that most of the salmonellosis outbreaks linked to eggs were associated with uncracked, disinfected grade A eggs, or foods containing such eggs. The undamaged eggs become contaminated during ovulation, especially with _S._ Enteritidis_, and thus were contaminated with the bacteria before the egg shell was formed. To avoid this, uncooked eggs should only be used as an ingredient if pasteurized. - ProMED Mod.LL]

[Tahiti, with a population of 183 645 residents in 2012, is the most populous island of French Polynesia, accounting for 68.5 percent of its total population; the small town of Taravao is situated on a short isthmus that connects the larger northwestern portion of Tahiti, where Papeete, the capital of French Polynesia is located, with the much smaller southeastern portion (<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tahiti>). - ProMED Mod.ML]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Tahiti, French Polynesia: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/22997>]
More ...

World Travel News Headlines

Date: Mon, 18 Nov 2019 08:37:15 +0100 (MET)

Jakarta, Nov 18, 2019 (AFP) - An endangered Sumatran Tiger has mauled to death an Indonesian farmer and seriously injured a domestic tourist, a conservation official said Monday.   The fatal attack happened Sunday at the farmer's coffee plantation on Sumatra island where the 57-year-old wrestled with the big cat before it killed him, according to Genman Hasibuan, head of the South Sumatra conservation agency.   "The farmer was attacked while he was cutting a tree at his plantation," he told AFP on Monday.   The mauling came a day after the same tiger attacked a group of Indonesian tourists who were camping at a local tea plantation in South Sumatra's Mount Dempo region.

One of the tourists was rushed to hospital for wounds to his back after the cat stormed into his tent, Hasibuan said.   The animal, which remains loose in the protected-forest area, is believed to be one of just 15 critically endangered tigers in South Sumatra, which has seen five tiger attacks this year, including two fatal incidents, Hasibuan said.

Human-animal conflicts are common in the vast Southeast Asian archipelago, especially in areas where the clearing of rainforest to make way for palm oil plantations is destroying animals' habitats and bringing them into closer contact with people.   In March last year, a man was killed by a tiger in Sumatra's Riau province while several months earlier a tiger also killed a plantation worker in the area.   Sumatran tigers are considered critically endangered by protection group the International Union for Conservation of Nature, with 400 to 500 remaining in the wild.
Date: Fri, 15 Nov 2019 17:12:24 +0100 (MET)

Karachi, Nov 15, 2019 (AFP) - Pakistan has become the first country in the world to introduce a new typhoid vaccine, officials said Friday, as the country grapples with an ongoing outbreak of a drug-resistant strain of the potentially fatal disease.   The vaccine, approved by the World Health Organization (WHO), will be used during a two-week immunisation campaign in southern Sindh province.

Sindh is where most of Pakistan's 10,000 cases of typhoid have been documented since 2017.    "The two-week campaign beginning from today would target over 10 million children of nine months to 15 years of age," Azra Pechuho, the health minister in Sindh province, said in Karachi on Friday.   The new vaccines have been provided by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, to the Pakistani government free of cost.

After the two-week campaign, it will be introduced into routine immunisations in Sindh, and in other areas of Pakistan in the coming years.   Pakistan spends a meagre amount of its national resources on public health and a majority of its population remains vulnerable to contagious diseases such as typhoid.   In 2017, 63 percent of the typhoid cases documented and 70 percent of the fatalities were children, according to a joint press release from the Pakistani government, WHO and Gavi.
Date: Sat, 16 Nov 2019 05:50:25 +0100 (MET)
By Abhaya SRIVASTAVA

New Delhi, Nov 16, 2019 (AFP) - A thick grey smog choked New Delhi for the fifth day Saturday, adding to a mounting pollution health crisis, but retired naval commander Anil Charan is one of the vast majority of the city's 20 million inhabitants who do not wear a mask.   Indian media is packed with warnings about the risk of premature death, lung cancer and particular danger to children from PM2.5 -- tiny particles that get into the bloodstream and vital organs -- carried in the smog.   But the smartly-dressed Charan was among shoppers in Delhi's upmarket Khan Market district browsing the luxury clothes and jewellery stores without a mask, seemingly oblivious to the risk.   Many are too poor to afford protection but others simply do not like the way a pollution mask looks.

Charan, wearing aviator sunglasses, said it did not fit his "rough and tough" image.   "I have been brought up in this kind of atmosphere, the smog and all, so I am kind of used to it. And being a naval officer I think if I wear a mask I will think I am a sissy," he said.   Doctors say face masks must be worn and air purifiers used at home and in offices.   There are a variety of masks to choose from. A basic cloth version can cost as little as 50 rupees (70 US cents) but the protection they offer is debatable.    More reputable types start from 2,500 rupees ($34) while some Khan Market stores charge more than 5,500 rupees ($75) for top of the range imported models.

- Bare-faced bravado -
The mask-look worried a lot of the Khan Market shoppers and diners however. Some said the danger had been overblown.   "I know I am risking my health but I am not very comfortable wearing them (masks)," said Ritancia Cardoz, who works for a private company.   "I don't find it appealing," she told AFP.   Lopa Diwan, on a visit to the capital from the provinces, said the Delhi air was "not as bad as it is being made out to be."   "So many people advised me not to go to Delhi because of the pollution but I don't think it's that bad. I don't see people dying," she said.

Pollution -- blamed on industrial and car emissions mixed with stubble fires on thousands of farms surrounding the city -- has been building up each winter for the past decade. The past five years have been particularly bad.   The toxic air cuts short the lives of one million people in India every year, according to government research published earlier this year.    Concentrations of the most harmful airborne pollutants in Delhi are regularly about 20 times the World Health Organisation safe limit. That rams home the city's reputation as the world's most polluted capital.   Some foreign companies and embassies now do not let families move to Delhi, or at least give strong warnings about the pollution.

The Delhi government has given out hundreds of thousands of masks to children and closed schools for four of the past five days. Construction is banned and cars can only go on the roads on alternate days.   But still only a tiny number of inhabitants follow medical advice when outside. Rickshaw drivers who earn about $7 a day on an average say they cannot afford masks.   Chand Babu, a car park attendant at Khan Market, said he could buy one of the cheaper masks but it was too much of a hassle to wear.   "I have to blow the whistle all the time so it's inconvenient."   Babu does worry, however, about his three children who also do not have masks. "They go outside to play. The problem is real, but what do we do, tell me?"
Date: Sun, 17 Nov 2019 14:28:44 +0100 (MET)
By Filippo MONTEFORTE with Charles ONIANS in Rome

Venice, Nov 17, 2019 (AFP) - Venice's St Mark's Square was closed on Sunday as the historic city suffered its  third major flooding in less than a week, while rain lashing the rest of Italy prompted warnings in Florence and Pisa.   Venice's latest "acqua alta", or high water, hit 150 centimetres (just under five feet) on Sunday, lower than Tuesday's 187 centimetres -- the highest level in half a century -- but still dangerous.   "The water has stopped rising," tweeted mayor Luigi Brugnaro, who has estimated damage so far from the invading salt water at over one billion euros (dollars).   "High of 150 centimetres... Venice is working to restart," Brugnaro said after the sea water swamped the already devastated city where authorities have declared a state of emergency.   To the south, Tuscany president Enrico Rossi tweeted a warning of a "flood wave" on the Arno and said boards were being installed on the swollen river's banks in Pisa "as a precautionary measure".

The Italian army tweeted photos of paratroopers helping to bolster river defences in Pisa, with authorities monitoring the same river in Florence after heavy rain made it rise dramatically overnight.   Arno flooding devastated Renaissance jewel Florence in 1966, killing around 100 people and destroying thousands of priceless works of art. Civil protection units in Florence advised citizens "not to stand near the Arno's riverbanks".   Firefighters tweeted footage of a hovercraft being deployed to rescue stranded citizens in southern Tuscany's Grossetano province.

- Brief respite -
The renewed threat from exceptionally high tides in Venice came after a brief respite on Saturday.   Emergency workers removed temporary walkways from St Mark's Square as the water started to rise on Sunday, with only police and soldiers visible at around midday.   The top tourist site had already been shut for several hours on Friday as strong storms and winds battered the region, leaving it submerged by sea surges.

Churches, shops and homes have also been inundated in the Renaissance city, a UNESCO World Heritage site.   A massive infrastructure project called MOSE has been under way since 2003 to protect the city, but the multi-billion euro project has been plagued by cost overruns, corruption scandals and delays.   "We weren't expecting the high waters to be so exceptionally high," said Guido Fulgenzi, who had planned to open his cafe on St Mark's square this week.   "We're paying the price" for the MOSE project not being completed, he said, sloshing around in his flooded kitchen and pointing to Tuesday's high water mark on the wall.   The crisis has prompted the government to release 20 million euros ($22 million) in funds to tackle the devastation.   Culture Minister Dario Franceschini has warned that the task of repairing the city, where more than 50 churches have suffered damage, will be huge.

- Hotel reservations cancelled -
Residents whose houses have been hit are eligible for up to 5,000 euros in immediate government aid, while restaurant and shop owners can receive up to 20,000 euros and apply for more later.   Most of the city's cash machines were no longer working, making life even more difficult for tourists and Venetians.   "We didn't expect there to be so much water, now we're soaked," said French tourist Magali Mariolou, visiting Venice for her wedding anniversary.   "We'll come back another year when it's a bit drier. The boots are heavy, they're full of water!"

Older residents who remember the infamous "acqua alta" of 1966, when the water rose to 1.94 metres, say they have not seen such frequent flooding before.   Hotels reported cancelled reservations, some as far ahead as December, following the widespread diffusion of images of Venice underwater.   Tuesday's high waters submerged around 80 percent of the city, officials said.   Many, including Venice's mayor, have blamed the disaster on global warming and warned that the country prone to natural disasters must wake up to the risks posed by ever more volatile seasons.   The Serenissima, as the floating city is called, is home to 50,000 residents but receives 36 million visitors each year.
Date: Mon, 18 Nov 2019 06:41:11 +0100 (MET)

Wellington, Nov 18, 2019 (AFP) - Samoa finalised plans for a compulsory measles vaccination programme Monday, after declaring a state of emergency as a deadly epidemic sweeps the Pacific nation.   At least six fatalities, including five children, have been linked to the outbreak of the virus, which has also hit other island states such as Tonga and Fiji.   Samoa is the worst affected with more than 700 cases reported from across all areas of the country, prompting the government on Friday to invoke emergency powers.

Declaring a state of emergency, the government said plans for compulsory measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) immunisations would be published on Monday.   "MMR vaccinations for members of the public who have not yet received a vaccination injection is now a mandatory legal requirement for all of Samoa," it said.   A national emergency operations centre to coordinate the measles response in the nation of 200,000 people was opened on Monday, with children aged six months to 19 years and non-pregnant females aged 20-35 given priority.

However, no information was immediately available on how the vaccinations would be administered or whether those who were not immunised would face sanctions.   Children are the most vulnerable to measles, which typically causes a rash and fever but can also lead to brain damage and death.   Samoa has closed all schools, kindergartens and the country's only university in a bid to halt the spread of the virus.   New Zealand, which is experiencing its own measles outbreak in the Auckland region, will this week send 30 nurses, 10 doctors and 3,000 MMR doses to Samoa.

University of Auckland immunologist Helen Petousis-Harris said even though measles was already widespread, the mass rollout of vaccinations could help limit the number of cases and reduce the death count.   She said it was also important to boost Samoa's low levels of immunisation and help prevent future outbreaks.   "In Samoa, the proportion of people who are immune to measles is very, very low, one of the lowest in the world," she told AFP.   "So if they aren't able to improve that, this is going to happen again."   The country's vaccination programme was briefly suspended last year when two babies died shortly after being given the MMR vaccine.   Subsequent investigations found the problem was not the widely used vaccine but the fact that nurses had prepared it incorrectly.

Neighbouring Tonga last week announced government primary schools and kindergartens would be closed until later this month as the number of measles cases in the kingdom approaches 200.   Fiji has reported four cases but says they are contained to a township west of the capital Suva.
Date: Sun, 17 Nov 2019 18:10:23 +0100 (MET)

Johannesburg, Nov 17, 2019 (AFP) - South African unions on Sunday called on all aviation workers to join striking South African Airways (SAA) staff after the cash-strapped airline failed to meet their demands.   The country's embattled flag carrier has been losing 52 million rand ($3.5 million) per day since more than 3,000 workers started an open-ended strike on Friday -- forcing the airline to cancel hundreds of flights.   Talks with the two unions representing the striking workers ended without resolution on Saturday, prompting threats of further action.   "In response to this deliberate provocation by the SAA board and its executive management, (the) NUMSA (metalworkers' union) is in the process of consulting workers for a secondary strike in aviation," NUMSA spokeswoman Phakamile Hlubi-Majola told reporters outside the SAA headquarters in Johannesburg.

NUMSA and the South African Cabin Crew Association (SACCA) first threatened to strike after SAA announced this week that almost 1,000 employees could lose their jobs as part of a restructuring process.   Initial talks with management deadlocked after they failed to agree on wage hikes, prompting the unions to press on with their threats.   SAA is offering a 5.9 percent pay rise, while unions are demanding an eight percent across-the-board hike and a three-year guaranteeof job security.   They are also asking the airline to in-source more jobs.    "We are fighting against retrenchment, corruption and privatisation," Hlubi-Majola told journalists.   She said discussions with SAA subsidiaries, South Africa's airport management company and airline service providers were under way.   Two transport unions have also been called on to join the action.   "This secondary strike will have the impact of shutting down the entire aviation sector," NUMSA and SACCA said in a joint statement.   SAA CEO Zuks Ramasia voiced "concern" about the unions' intentions and urged them to "reconsider".   "The intent of a secondary strike is to cause disruption, bring all airport operations to a halt and create huge damage to the South African economy," Ramasia said in a statement on Sunday.

- Embattled airline -
The CEO added that SAA could not "afford to pay any salary increases" and reiterated the 5.9 percent rise offer.   "The company has repeatedly communicated the precarious financial position of the company," Ramasia said.      More than 300 SAA flights have been grounded as a result of the open-ended strike.   International flights started slowly resuming on Sunday, while regional and domestic flights remain grounded.   "We hope all our customers understand that the cancellations have been beyond our control," Ramasia said.   South Africa is struggling to get its state-owned companies back on track after nine years of corruption and mismanagement under former president Jacob Zuma.   SAA -- one of Africa's biggest airlines -- is deep in debt and has not posted a profit since 2011, despite several government bailouts.   Finance Minister Tito boweni announced in February that the government would reimburse the company's 9.2 billion rand ($620 million) debt over the next three years.   Ramasia said discussions with unions would resume once the airline had considered "options on the way forward".
Date: Tue, 12 Nov 2019 13:10:01 +0100 (MET)
By Holly ROBERTSON, Andrew BEATTY, with Daniel De Cartert in Hillville

Sydney, Nov 12, 2019 (AFP) - Bushfires raging across eastern Australia singed Sydney's suburbs on Tuesday, with firefighters scrambling planes and helicopters to douse a built-up neighbourhood with water and red retardant.   Experts have described the conditions as the worst on record, as spring temperatures climbed toward 40 degrees Celsius (104 Fahrenheit) and winds topped 80 kilometres (50 miles) per hour across a zone which has been plagued by persistent drought.   Although the bushfire season is in its infancy, scientists predict it to be one of Australia's toughest ever, with climate change and unfavourable weather cycles helping created a tinderbox of strong winds, low humidity and high temperatures.

Twin blazes in the north shore suburb of Turramurra -- around 15 kilometres (nine miles) from the centre of Australia's largest city -- tore through a eucalypt forest park and sparked spot fires in homes, before eventually being brought under control.   As night fell, authorities said they were bringing another "clearly suspicious" blaze in a national park in the city's southern suburbs under control.    Throughout the day, more than 300 bushfires burned up and down Australia's east coast, fanned by gale-force winds, scorching temperatures and tinder-dry bushland that has brought some of the most dangerous conditions the country has seen.

In Turramurra, gardens smouldered, thick smoke hung heavy in the air and cars, houses and roads were caked in raspberry-red retardant as if hit by a giant paintball.   "It was the embers that floated up that actually went across and set off spot fires in the front yards" resident Nigel Lush told AFP, adding that one roof had been set alight.   Another resident, Julia Gretton-Roberts, said the blaze spread shockingly quickly.   "Next thing I know the fire was opposite our house and it was massive and the police came and grabbed our kids and took them away," she said.   "My daughter is pretty freaked out."   Firefighter Andrew Connon told AFP "a number of homes were threatened but it was contained by the aerial bombing".

- 'Catastrophic conditions' -
From early morning thousands of firefighters spread out across New South Wales in anticipation of what they called "off the scale" fire risk and "catastrophic" conditions.   They were unable to prevent several bushfires from breaching containment lines and trapping residents who had not already evacuated.   New South Wales Rural Fire Service Commissioner Shane Fitzsimmons said so far only a dozen buildings had been damaged Tuesday and a handful non-life-threatening injuries were reported, but the crisis was far from over.

Firefighters will be "working on these fires for days and weeks given the enormity of the firegrounds," he said.    Even before unfavourable weather hit, days of fires had killed three people and destroyed at least 150 homes.   "The conditions are expected to get worse," Fitzsimmons said, warning residents in adjacent areas to stay alert.   "Complacency kills," he added.   Up to 600 schools were closed, as well as many national parks, a total fire ban was introduced for the affected area and Rally Australia -- due to be held in Coffs Harbour at the weekend -- was cancelled.   The military pitched in, helping firefighters with logistics and water-dropping sorties using more than 100 aircraft.

- 'We'll fight it first' -
In the town of Hillville a fire that has ripped through an area the size of 25,000 soccer fields approached the home of Daniel Stevens.   Like many, his family -- including his mother nursing a broken leg -- have packed their bags, but have resisted leaving their house and everything they own.    "We'll fight it first," he told AFP, "but if it jumps the fence line into the paddock, we'll go."

In the nearby town of Taree, dozens of people have already moved to a showground that has become a makeshift evacuation centre.   Fifty-nine-year-old Caroline Watson arrived last night with her husband and their dog.    "The fires are just rife. They are absolutely everywhere" she told AFP. "They didn't ask us to get out, but we figured it was coming."

Further south in the Blue Mountains on the outskirts of Sydney, veteran Winmalee firefighter Alan Gardiner said locals were "terrified and on edge".    The town still bears the scars of a 2013 blaze that destroyed 200 homes, and residents are acutely aware that with few roads in and out of the mountains, a decision to leave late can be fatal.   Efforts to burn fuel in a controlled way have been limited by months of drought-like conditions that made it too dangerous.
Date: Tue, 12 Nov 2019 10:03:07 +0100 (MET)

Denpasar, Indonesia, Nov 12, 2019 (AFP) - An Australian tourist who fly-kicked a motorcyclist and assaulted a man in his own home during a drunken rampage was jailed for four months on Tuesday.   The ruling comes after Nicholas Carr's antics were caught in a viral video that saw him carry out a campaign of destruction in Seminyak, a popular tourist area on the Indonesian holiday island.   "The defendant Nicholas Carr is found guilty and is sentenced to four months" in jail, presiding judge Soebandi, who goes by one name, told the Denpasar District Court.    A lawyer for Carr, charged with assault and property damage, said the 26-year-old would not appeal the ruling.    He is expected to be released next month because of time already served.   In August, Carr ran barefoot on to a street and shouted expletives before the apprentice builder slammed into the bonnet of a moving car and then fly-kicked an unsuspecting motorcycle rider.

The biker, who was thrown from the moving scooter, sustained minor injuries -- later the pair embraced during a court hearing as Carr apologised to the victim.   Carr also shattered a convenience store's glass door before stealing a motorcycle.   Later, he broke into a house where he assaulted the sleeping homeowner, leaving him with injuries, police said earlier.    He was eventually caught by locals and police and taken to hospital.    Pictures that circulated on social media showed at the time showed Carr bloodied and bruised, and trussed with hosepipe and rope.   Shortly after his arrest, Carr apologised and admitted drinking more than 10 small bottles of vodka as well as other alcohol.

After a string of embarrassing incidents by tourists, Bali officials recently warned that boorish visitors may be kicked off the island, which attracts millions annually to its palm-fringed beaches, colourful nightlife and ancient temples.   Australian professional rugby league player David Fifita returned home this week after he was briefly arrested in Bali for assaulting a nightclub security guard.   Several days after Carr's arrest, a Czech couple who were slammed for disrespecting a Balinese temple took part in a ritual purification ceremony.
Date: Mon, 11 Nov 2019 16:19:54 +0100 (MET)

Lyon, Nov 11, 2019 (AFP) - An unusually strong earthquake hit south-eastern France on Monday, injuring four people, one of them seriously, authorities said.   A physicist at a geophysics institute the IPGP said that quakes of this strength are rare in that region, but warned of possible aftershocks and said people should leave fragile buildings.   The quake, with a magnitude of 5.4, was felt in a vast area between the cities of Lyon and Montelimar which are about 150 kilometres (93 miles) apart, the national seismological office said.   "I was leaning against the oven in my mother's bakery when I felt the tremor," said Victoria Brielle, a resident in Privas, some 25 kilometres from the quake's epicentre.   "A customer said her sideboard had moved and all her crockery was broken,"  she said.

Another resident in the area, Didier Levy, who lives in a 15th century castle, told AFP that "chandeliers were still trembling" several minutes after the quake.   Levy, who said his dog starting barking even before humans felt the tremors, added: "I have never experienced anything like it, I could feel the trembling even though these wall are one metre thick."   One person was seriously hurt when some scaffolding collapsed, the regional prefect's office said.   Three other people in the neighbouring Ardeche region were slightly injured.

Quakes in this region are rarely higher than Magnitude 5, said Mustapha Meghraoui of the IPGP's office in Strasbourg.   "We can say that this is a rare one," he added. But he said there might be an aftershock of around 4.5.   "If people are in a fragile house, they would be better leaving it" for something more robust for a while, he said.   The scale of the damage suggested the quake happened at a depth of between five and 10 kilometres, he added. But they were working on a more accurate reading.
Date: Mon, 11 Nov 2019 13:19:54 +0100 (MET)

Goma, DR Congo, Nov 11, 2019 (AFP) - A local radio station that has been involved in the fight against Ebola in eastern DR Congo said Monday it was closing down after one of its broadcasters was murdered.   Joel Musavuli, head of Lwemba radio in Mambasa in Ituri province, told AFP that the station had been targeted by armed groups hostile to the campaign to roll back the Ebola epidemic.

"Each of us have received threats since last month. We have now decided to stop broadcasting, Musavuli said, adding that he himself had escaped two kidnap attempts.   "We are victims of our commitment to the awareness campaign about the spread of Ebola virus disease. We don't know why the militiamen are targeting us."   Nearly 2,200 people have died since the notorious haemorrhagic disease erupted in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo in August 2018, according to the latest official figures.

The fight against the outbreak has been hampered by local fears and superstititions, exploited by militia groups that are rampant in the remote region.   Several health workers have been killed and media that have supported the campaign have received threats.

Several radio stations in the Mambasa area say they have stopped broadcasting anti-Ebola messages because of intimidation.   On November 2, Lwemba broadcaster Papy Mahamba was killed at his home by unidentified men. His wife was injured and their house set ablaze.    The station said the authorities had failed to take action against the threats. It said it would resume broadcasts after "the state has restored authority in the area".