WORLD NEWS

Getting countries ...
Select countries and read reports below or

Andorra

General
************************************
This small country is situated between France and Spain. Because of its elevation and proximity to the Pyrenees the climate is generally pleasant throughout the year.
Climate
**************
*********************
During the summer months the temperatures can rise to 30c but there is usually a cooling breeze. Lightening storms can occur during the summer months associated with torrential rain.
Sun Exposure and Dehydration
***************************************
Those from Northern Europe can develop significant sun exposure and so remember to use a wide brimmed hat when necessary. The altitude can also lead to significant tiredness and dehydration so take sufficient initial rest and drink plenty of fluids.
Safety & Security
************************************
The level of crime throughout the country directed at tourists is very low. Nevertheless take care of your personal belongings at all times and use hotel safety boxes where possible.
Local Customs
************************************
There are strict laws regarding the use of illegal drugs. Make sure you have sufficient supplies of any medication you required for your trip and that it is clearly marked. The European E111 form is not accepted in Andorra and so it is essential that you have sufficient travel insurance for your trip.
Winter Sports
************************************
Andorra is one of the regions where many travel to partake of their winter sport facilities. Generally this is well controlled and one of the safer regions. Nevertheless, make certain your travel insurance is adequate for the activities you are planning to undertake.
Vaccination
************************************
The only standard vaccine to consider for Andorra would be tetanus in line with many other developed countries of the world.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu, 12 Jul 2018 15:24:06 +0200

Andorra la Vella, Andorra, July 12, 2018 (AFP) - The tax haven of Andorra has long been a favourite destination for smokers looking to stock up on cheap cigarettes, but the enclave said Thursday that it would soon stop advertising the fact.   The government said it had signed up to the World Health Organization's (WHO) anti-tobacco convention, which aims to encourage people to quit smoking and combat contraband sales.   "The goal is to contribute to public health and pursue the fight against trafficking," government spokesman Jordi Cinca said at a press conference.

The tiny principality of Andorra, perched in the Pyrenees on the border between France and Spain, attracts millions of shoppers each year to duty-free stores, where prices of alcohol, cigarettes, electronics and clothes can be up to 20 percent cheaper than elsewhere in the EU.   High taxes on tobacco imposed by many countries to help people kick smoking make Andorra's cigarettes a particularly good deal.   The average pack costs just three euros ($3.50) compared with eight euros in France, which has said it will gradually raise the price to 10 euros a pack by November 2020.

Tobacco sales bring in some 110 million euros a year for Andorra, whose economy is otherwise based almost entirely on tourism.   It is also an enticing destination for smugglers, with French and Spanish border agents regularly seizing cartons from people trying to sneak them out, either by car or by hiking down the mountain trails which criss-cross the Pyrenees.   No date has been set for the advertising ban, which will come into effect three months after the ratification of the WHO accord is voted by parliament.
Date: Fri, 16 Mar 2018 02:41:51 +0100

Andorra la Vella, Andorra, March 16, 2018 (AFP) - The tiny principality of Andorra is witnessing a once in a generation phenomenon -- a widespread strike.   Around a third of civil servants across the mountainous micro-state have walked out to protest proposed reforms to their sector in what has been described as Andorra's first large-scale strike since 1933.

With no negotiation breakthrough in sight, picket lines are expected to be manned again on Friday with customs officers, police, teachers and prison staff among those taking part.   The first major strike in 85 years was sparked by plans from the government of Antoni Marti to reform civil servant contracts.   He has assured officials "will not do an hour more" work under the reforms and that 49 million euros would be allocated for the next 25 years to supplement civil servant salaries.   But government workers are unconvinced with unions warning the reforms could risk their 35 hour working week and pay.

Customs officers involved in the strike interrupted traffic on the Andorran-Spanish border this week, according to unions, while some 80 percent of teachers have walked out of classes.   Strikers have occupied the government's main administrative building and held noisy protests outside parliament calling for Marti's resignation.    "We have started collecting signatures to demand the resignation of the head of government and now nobody will stop us," Gabriel Ubach, spokesman for the public service union, told reporters.
Date: Mon 27 Sep 2017
Source: Contagion Live [edited]

A recent Dispatch article published in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Emerging Infectious Diseases journal, offers insight into a large norovirus outbreak that sprung up in Spain in 2016 that had been linked with bottled spring water. The Public Health Agency of Catalonia (ASPCAT) reported a staggering 4136 cases of gastroenteritis from 11-25 Apr 2016. Of the 4136 cases, 6 individuals required hospitalization. The CDC defines a "case-patient" as an "exposed person who had vomiting or diarrhoea (3 or more loose stools within 24 hours)," as well as 2 or more of the following symptoms: nausea, stomach pain, or fever.

ASPCAT investigators traced back the outbreak to contaminated bottled spring water in office water coolers. The water came from a source in Andorra, a small independent principality located between Spain and France. Norovirus is a "very contagious virus," according to the CDC, and it is common for individuals to become infected by eating contaminated food. Although it is possible to be infected by consuming contaminated drinking water, this mode of transmission is "rare in developed countries," according to the article.

The investigators collected water samples from a total of 4 19-L water coolers in 2 different offices located in Barcelona, "from which affected persons had drunk; samples 1 and 2 came from 2 water coolers in one office, while samples 3 and 4 came from 2 water coolers in another office. Using "positively charged glass wool and polyethylene glycol precipitation for virus concentration," the investigators tested the samples.

"We detected high RNA levels for norovirus genotype I and II, around 103 and 104 genome copies/L, in 2 of the 4 water cooler samples concentrated by glass wool filtration and polyethylene glycol precipitation," according to the article. The investigators noted that a drawback of using molecular methods is that they are not able to differentiate between particles that are infectious and those that are not. Therefore, they "predicted the infectivity of norovirus in the concentrated samples by treating the samples with the nucleic acid intercalating dye PMA propidium monoazide and Triton X surfactant before RT-qPCR," which allowed them to "distinguish between virions with intact and altered capsids."

In those 2 water samples, they found high genome copy values -- 49 and 327 genome copies/L for norovirus genotype I and 33 and 660 genomes copies/L for norovirus genotype II. This was not an unexpected finding, due to the large number of infected individuals associated with the outbreak. Through "PMA/Triton treatment before RT-qPCR assays," the investigators found that the proportion of infected virions accounted for 0.3% to 5.6% of the total number of physical particles in the water samples, "which was enough to cause gastrointestinal illness."

The investigators also analyzed faecal samples collected from infected individuals who worked at the office in which the 1st 2 water samples were collected. They detected the following genotypes in those faecal samples: GI.2 and GII.17. In the faecal samples collected from the other office, they isolated the following genotypes: GII.4/Sydney/2012, GI.2, GII.17, and GII.2.

"We hypothesize that the spring water was contaminated by all 4 strains (GI.2, GII.2, GII.4, and GII.17) but levels of viral contamination for each genotype were not homogeneous in all bottled coolers," the investigators wrote. "We may have detected only the GII.4 genotype in water samples 1 and 2 because of a higher concentration of this specific genotype or because of bias caused by the sampling, concentration, and molecular detection procedures."

The investigators admit one limitation to their study: the small number of water samples collected and analyzed. They attribute this to the fact that on 15 Apr 2016, 4 days after the onset of the outbreak, the company that produced the drinking water recalled over 6150 containers of water "of suspected quality" as a precautionary measure. The recall prevented the investigators from collecting more samples to assess, according to the article.

Although the exact cause of the contamination has not yet been identified, the investigators posit that "the high number of affected persons from 381 offices that received water coolers, and the many different genotypes found in some patients' faecal specimens" suggest that the spring aquifer had been contaminated by "sewage pollution," and the Andorra Ministry of Health and Welfare banned further use of the spring.

The investigators suggest that assessing commercially-produced mineral waters for different harmful pathogens, such as norovirus would be beneficial. They note, however, that creating, enhancing, and managing such "virus surveillance systems" would be costly. Thus, the investigators suggest taking a "balanced approach to keep both the cost and the time required for the analyses within feasibility limits."  [Byline: Kristi Rosa]
=====================
[The interesting article published in the September 2017 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases is:
Blanco A, Guix S, Fuster N, et al: Norovirus in bottled water associated with gastroenteritis outbreak, Spain, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017; 23(9): 1531-34; https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/23/9/16-1489_article. - ProMED Mod.LL]

[Catalonia and Andorra can be located on the HealthMap/ProMED-mail map at http://healthmap.org/promed/p/1341. - ProMED Sr.Tech.Ed.MJ]
Date: Thu, 26 Dec 2013 22:25:05 +0100 (MET)

ANDORRA LA VELLA, Andorra, Dec 26, 2013 (AFP) - A Spanish skier and a French snowboarder have died in avalanches in different mountain ranges in Europe, officials said Thursday.

The 27-year-old skier, a woman from Barcelona, died Wednesday while going off-piste alone in the Soldeu resort in Andorra, in the Pyrenees mountains between France and Spain, a resort manager told AFP.   Although she was rescued within 10 minutes, after her glove was spotted on the surface, she was unable to be revived despite a helicopter dash to hospital.

In the Italian Alps, close to the border with France, a 24-year-old Frenchman who was snowboarding with three friends on a closed run died Thursday when an avalanche swept over him in the resort town of Les Arnauds.   Local officials said he succumbed to multiple injuries, asphyxia and hypothermia.

Avalanches are common in Europe's ski resorts at this time of year, when early snows are heavy with moisture, and several deaths occur each winter.   Last Sunday, a 35-year-old Frenchman died in an avalanche in the Alps near the Italian border while on a three-day trek with a friend.
Date: Fri 7 Feb 2003 From: Jaime R. Torres Source: EFE Salud, Thu 6 Feb 2003 (translated by Maria Jacobs) [edited] -------------------------------------------------- Close to 300 students in one school and 173 tourists staying in 7 hotels in the Principality of Andorra have been affected by outbreaks of gastroenteritis that, according to local authorities, are not related to each other. Monica Codina, Minister of Health, stated that the outbreak that has affected almost 300 children and 8 adults in the San Ermengol school was detected last Monday [3 Feb 2003] but that it may have started Wednesday or Thursday of the previous week. The epidemiological surveys of a group of pre-school and grammar school students that may also be affected have not been performed yet. Also pending are the results of the microbiological tests of the food and water served in the school dining room, but the minister has indicated that the probable cause of the outbreak is the fact that water pitchers were filled with hoses directly from the faucet. The Minister stated that this outbreak of gastroenteritis is not related to the one that affected 173 tourists, most of them young people on holiday, who where staying in 7 hotels of the Principality. The government is also investigating the cause of this outbreak and has indicated that an anomaly in the system that supplies water to the hotels was detected, requiring a process of chlorination, which has not been carried out due to the heavy snowfall of the past few days. * * * * * * * * * * [The suspicion that defective water supplies may be responsible for all of these independent outbreaks suggests that the etiologic agent may be an enterovirus, hepatitis A virus, or non-viral, rather than one of the noroviruses associated with sudden-onset viral gastroenteritis. Information on the outcome of diagnostic tests in progress would be welcomed. - ProMed Mod.CP]
More ...

Puerto Rico

No Profile is available at present

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu, 16 Jan 2020 02:45:27 +0100 (MET)
By Ivelisse RIVERA, con Leila MACOR en Miami

Yauco, Puerto Rico, Jan 16, 2020 (AFP) - Living out in the open, their nerves on edge after a series of earthquakes that have shaken Puerto Rico, some 5,000 people are hoping that their president, Donald Trump, will heed the island's plea to be designated a disaster zone and free up much-needed aid.   Since December 28, more than 1,000 tremors have rattled the US island territory in the Caribbean, which just two years ago was devastated by two powerful hurricanes in quick succession.

In Yauco, one of the areas worst hit by the earthquakes, dozens of people were sitting on cot beds Wednesday in the parking lot of a municipal stadium, sheltered from the sun by white tents and blue tarps handed out by the federal disaster management agency, known as FEMA.  "The most difficult thing is the psychological aspect," said Wilfredo Rodriguez, 31. His house had been fractured by the seismic movement and he has spent a week living with his kids, aged six and 10, under an awning.    "We are living in constant fear of another powerful tremor," he said.

He only returns to his house to wash, then hurries back to the shelter. "We worry that there'll be a more powerful tremor while we are inside the house," he said.   Throughout the day, volunteers arrive to hand out food and toys for the children who fill the shelters: schools have been suspended because the buildings are not sturdy enough to withstand another quake.    The island's earthquake detection system has registered 1,104 tremors in the past two weeks alone, of which 186 could be felt by the population. By comparison, during the whole of 2019 there were 6,442 tremors, of which just 62 could be felt by people on the island.

Further south, in Guanico, Juan Santiago decided to move into a shelter on Saturday after a tremor of 5.9 on the Richter scale hit the island. "The mountain shook and rocks and earth started to come down," said the 30-year-old.  "My house has a crack in it and is about to fall down," he added. His home had weathered the Category Five winds of Hurricane Maria in September 2017 and of Hurricane Irma which followed it just two weeks later.   "It's different to a hurricane. What is happening now is much nastier," he said.

As he was talking the earth shook again, a tremor of 5.2 magnitude. Vehicles rocked like hammocks in the wind, but the quake-hardened victims barely reacted.   The houses in this part of the island are mostly rudimentary constructions built by the people who live in them with scant resources available in the mountains, where no regulations stipulate that buildings should be earthquake resistant.    The government of Puerto Rico said that as of Monday, there were 4,924 people living in 28 shelters in 14 municipalities. There were no figures on how many buildings had been damaged or destroyed.

- Seeking disaster designation -
Puerto Rico's governor Wanda Vazquez Garced called on Trump to declare the earthquake a disaster and clear the way for desperately needed aid. Trump had declared an emergency days before, but the governor wanted more.   The declaration of an emergency frees up to $5 million dollars in aid for the island, although Congress can bump that figure up. But if the situation is designated a disaster, there is no ceiling on funding, a FEMA spokesman said.   On Wednesday, the government said it would release $8.2 billion in delayed hurricane relief that had been stalled after the president threatened to divert Puerto Rico's emergency funds to help pay for his wall on the US-Mexico border.

In the past few days there have been growing calls among Democratic lawmakers for Trump to declare the situation in Puerto Rico a disaster.   It is a delicate subject, as Trump has accused the government of Puerto Rico of incompetence and of siphoning off hurricane relief money, triggering a public spat between the president and the mayor of San Juan, Carmen Yulin Cruz, as well as the former governor Ricardo Rossello, who was forced to step down last summer amid massive protests.   The Puerto Rican leaders accused Trump of treating the population of the island like second class citizens.
Date: Sat, 11 Jan 2020 15:43:12 +0100 (MET)

Washington, Jan 11, 2020 (AFP) - A 5.9 magnitude earthquake rocked Puerto Rico Saturday, the latest in a series of powerful tremors that have shaken the US territory in recent days, the US Geological Survey reported.

The latest quake occurred at 8:54 am local time (1254 GMT) around 13 kilometres (eight miles) southeast of Guanica, a town on the island's southern Caribbean coastline that was hard hit by earlier quakes.   The USGS revised its initial report of a 6.0 magnitude quake to 5.9.   It follows a 6.4 magnitude quake Tuesday that killed one person, knocked
out electric power and caused widespread damage.

Puerto Rico Governor Wanda Vazquez declared a state of emergency after Tuesday's quake, which forced an automatic shutdown of the power grid.    Puerto Rico's electric power authority reported outages in the towns of Ponce, Lares, Adjuntas and San German after the latest quake.   The Pacific Tsunami Information Center in Hawaii issued a statement saying there was "no significant tsunami threat" but a small possibility of tsunami waves along coasts nearest the epicentre.

The island is still recovering from Hurricane Maria, which came ashore more than two years ago as a devastating Category 4 storm.   Starting December 28, a wave of tremors have swept the island, putting residents on edge.   The 6.4 quake on January 7 came a day after a 5.8 magnitude quake; it was followed by major aftershocks.   Saturday's quakes were also preceded by a string of smaller tremors.
Date: Tue, 7 Jan 2020 23:44:45 +0100 (MET)
By Ricardo Arduengo

Guayanilla, Puerto Rico, Jan 7, 2020 (AFP) - Puerto Rico's governor declared a state of emergency on Tuesday after a powerful 6.4 magnitude earthquake killed at least one person in the south of the island and caused widespread damage.   Governor Wanda Vazquez said the declaration would allow for the activation of National Guard troops in the US territory still recovering from a devastating 2017 hurricane.   The US Geological Survey said the quake struck at 4:24 am (0824 GMT) with the epicenter off the coast of the southern city of Ponce, and was followed by more than a dozen aftershocks.

Tuesday's quake was the most powerful in a series of tremors that have shaken the island since December 28.   Scientists initially sent out an alert about a potential tsunami but it was later canceled.   The island's electricity authority said the quake had forced an automatic shutdown of the power grid, already severely damaged by Hurricane Maria more than two years ago.   The worst damage appeared to be in towns on the southwest coast, including Ponce, Guayanilla and Guanica.   El Nuevo Dia newspaper said a 73-year-old man died after a wall fell in his home in Ponce. Eight others there were reported injured.

Two power plants in Guayanilla sustained major damage, the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority said. The city could be without power for two weeks, its mayor Nelson Torres Yordan said.   Celebrity chef Jose Andres announced that a charity he runs, World Central Kitchen, had started serving meals and distributing solar-powered lamps in quake-hit areas.   Vazquez announced that $130 million in emergency aid funding will be disbursed.   On social media, people wrote of being shaken awake by the force of the quake.   One woman on Twitter said she had been "wrenched from sleep."   "Everybody is awake & scared all over," she posted.   In Guayanilla, the Inmaculada Concepcion church, built in 1841, was heavily damaged.   Volunteers salvaged statues and other valuable items from the ruins as a priest consoled distraught parishioners.

- 'Be safe' -
A 5.8 magnitude quake on Monday toppled some structures, caused power outages and small landslides, but did not result in any casualties.   It also destroyed a popular tourist landmark, Punta Ventana, a natural stone arch that crumbled on the island's southern coast.   Vazquez, the governor, said government employees were being given the day off on Tuesday to take care of their families.   "We want everyone to be safe," she said.   She said ports were undamaged and there are several weeks' supply of gasoline, diesel and natural gas stored so people need not worry about shortages.

The White House said President Donald Trump had been briefed and Pete Gaynor, head of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), had been in touch with the governor.   Trump's administration came under severe criticism for its response to Hurricane Maria.   The Category 4 storm destroyed the island's already shaky power grid, overwhelmed public services, left many residents homeless and claimed several thousand lives, according to government estimates.
Date: Tue, 7 Jan 2020 12:52:34 +0100 (MET)

Washington, Jan 7, 2020 (AFP) - A strong earthquake struck south of Puerto Rico early Tuesday, the US Geological Survey said, the latest in a series of tremors that have shaken the island since December 28.   The shallow 6.5 magnitude quake struck 13.6 kilometres (8.5 miles) south of the city of Ponce, the USGS said, revising down its initial reading of 6.6.   The quake struck just off the US territory's southern Caribbean coastline at 4:24 am local time (0824 GMT).   "The whole island is without power," the director of Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, Jose Ortiz, told local media.

Puerto Rico's governor Wanda Vazquez Garced posted on Twitter that the government's security protocols had been activated.   She said government employees were not expected at work, adding: "We want everyone to be safe."   On social media, people wrote of being shaken awake by the force of the quake.   One woman on Twitter said she had been "wrenched from sleep", adding "Everybody is awake & scared all over."

Dramatic images also shared on social media appeared to show widespread damage in the town of Guayanilla, home to around 20,000 people, as well as nearby Guanica.   The mayor of Guayanilla told local news channel NotiUno that the town's church had collapsed in the incident.

An alert issued by the Tsunami Warning Center immediately following the earthquake was later cancelled.   Tuesday's quake was the strongest of a series of tremors that have shaken the island since December 28, topping Monday's 5.8 quake.   That earthquake toppled houses and caused power outages, but there were no reports of casualties.
Date: Mon, 6 Jan 2020 18:04:21 +0100 (MET)

Miami, Jan 6, 2020 (AFP) - A 5.8-magnitude earthquake shook Puerto Rico Monday, toppling houses and causing power outages and small landslides but there were no reports of casualties, the US Geological Survey said.   The quake, just off the US territory's southern Caribbean coastline, was felt throughout much of the island, including the capital San Juan.

Some 250,000 customers were hit by electric power outages after the quake, which struck at 6:32 am local time (1032GMT).   Images posted on social media showed houses tumbled from their supporting pillars, cracks in walls, cars crushed under collapsed houses and small scale landslides.   The quake was the strongest of a series that have rippled through the island since December 28, and it was followed by at least eight aftershocks, officials said.   No tsunami alerts were issued.
More ...

Gibraltar

United Kingdom and Gibraltar (England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland) US Consular Information Sheet
June 03, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a highly developed constitutional monarc
y comprised of Great Britain (England, Scotland and Wales) and Northern Ireland.
Read the Department of State Background Notes on the United Kingdom for additional information.
Gibraltar is a United Kingdom Overseas Territory bordering Spain and located at the southernmost tip of Europe at the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea.
It is one of thirteen former British colonies that have elected to continue their political links with London.
Tourist facilities are widely available.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A visa is not required for tourist or business visits to the UK of less than six months in duration.
Visitors wishing to remain longer than one month in Gibraltar should regularize their stay with Gibraltar immigration authorities.
Those planning to visit the UK for any purpose other than tourism or business, or who intend to stay longer than six months, should consult the website of the British Embassy in the United States at http://britainusa.com for information about current visa requirements.
Those who are required to obtain a visa and fail to do so may be denied entry and returned to their port of origin.
The British government is currently considering reducing the visa-free period from six months to 90 days.
Travelers should be alert to any changes in legislation.
The U.S. Embassy cannot intervene in UK visa matters.
In addition to the British Embassy web site at http://britainusa.com, those seeking current UK visa information may also contact UK consular offices via their premium rate telephone service at 1-900-656-5000 (cost $3/minute) or 1-212-796-5773 ($12 flat fee).
Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.
SAFETY AND SECURITY:
The United Kingdom is politically stable, with a modern infrastructure, but shares with the rest of the world an increased threat of terrorist incidents of international origin, as well as the potential, though significantly diminished in recent years, for isolated violence related to the political situation in Northern Ireland (a part of the United Kingdom).
On July 7, 2005, a major terrorist attack occurred in London, as Islamic extremists detonated explosives on three underground trains and a bus in Central London, resulting in over 50 deaths and hundreds of injuries.
Following the attacks, the public transportation system was temporarily disrupted, but quickly returned to normal.
A similar but unsuccessful attack against London’s public transport system took place on July 21, 2005.
UK authorities have identified and arrested people involved in these attacks.
Similarly, those involved in terrorist incidents in London and Glasgow during the summer of 2007 were identified and arrested.
Like the US, the UK shares its national threat levels with the general public to keep everyone informed and explain the context for the various increased security measures that may be encountered. UK threat levels are determined by the UK Home Office and are posted on its web site at http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/security/current-threat-level/.
Information from the UK Security Service, commonly known as MI5, about the reasons for the increased threat level and actions the public can take is available on the MI5 web site at http://www.mi5.gov.uk/.
On August 10, 2006, the Government of the United Kingdom heightened security at all UK airports following a major counterterrorism operation in which individuals were arrested for plotting attacks against US-bound airlines.
As a result of this, increased restrictions concerning carry-on luggage were put in place and are strictly enforced.
American citizens are advised to check with the UK Department for Transport at http://www.dft.gov.uk/transportforyou/airtravel/airportsecurity/ regarding the latest security updates and carry-on luggage restrictions.
The British Home Secretary has urged UK citizens to be alert and vigilant by, for example, keeping an eye out for suspect packages or people acting suspiciously at subway (called the “Tube” or Underground) and train stations and airports and reporting anything suspicious to the appropriate authorities.
Americans are reminded to remain vigilant with regard to their personal security and to exercise caution.
For more information about UK public safety initiatives, consult the UK Civil Contingencies Secretariat web site at http://www.ukresilience.gov.uk.
The political situation in Northern Ireland has dramatically improved since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the announcement by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) on July 28, 2005, that it would end its armed campaign, and the agreement to set up a power-sharing government on May 8, 2007.
The potential remains, however, for sporadic incidents of street violence and/or sectarian confrontation. American citizens traveling to Northern Ireland should therefore remain alert to their surroundings and should be aware that if they choose to visit potential flashpoints or attend parades sporadic violence remains a possibility. Tensions may be heightened during the summer marching season (April to August), particularly during the month of July around the July 12th public holiday.

The phone number for police/fire/ambulance emergency services - the equivalent of "911" in the U.S. - is “999” in the United Kingdom and “112” in Gibraltar.
This number should also be used for warnings about possible bombs or other immediate threats.
The UK Anti-Terrorist Hotline, at 0800 789 321, is for tip-offs and confidential information about possible terrorist activity.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings, Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution can be found.
Recent communications from U.S. Embassy London to the local American citizen community, called Warden Messages, can be found on the U.S. Embassy's American Citizens' Services web site at http://london.usembassy.gov/cons_new/acs/index.html.
Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).
The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet, A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME:
The United Kingdom and Gibraltar benefit from generally low crime rates and rates decreased slightly in 2007 in significant categories, including violent crime.
The crime situation in the UK is similar to the United States, with typical incidents including pick-pocketing; mugging; “snatch and grab” thefts of mobile phones, watches and jewelry; and theft of unattended bags, especially at airports and from cars parked at restaurants, hotels and resorts.
Pickpockets target tourists, especially at historic sites, restaurants, on buses, trains and the London Underground (the “Tube,” or subway).
Thieves often target unattended cars parked at tourist sites and roadside restaurants, looking for laptop computers and hand-held electronic equipment, especially global positioning satellite equipment.
Walking in isolated areas, including public parks, especially after dark, should also be avoided, as these provide advantageous venues for muggers and thieves.
At night or when there is little foot traffic, travelers should be especially careful using the underground pedestrian tunnels.
As a general rule, either walk the extra distance to use a surface crossing or wait until there are other adult pedestrians entering the tunnel.

In London, travelers should use only licensed “black taxi cabs,” or car services recommended by their hotel or tour operator.
Unlicensed taxis or private cars posing as taxis may offer low fares, but are often uninsured and may have unlicensed drivers.
In some instances, travelers have been robbed and raped while using these cars.
You can access 7,000 licensed “Black Cabs” using just one telephone number – 0871 871 8710. This taxi booking service combines all six of London’s radio taxi circuits, allowing you to telephone 24 hours a day if you need to “hail a cab.” Alternatively, to find a licensed minicab, text “HOME” to 60835 on your mobile phone to get the telephone number to two licensed minicab companies in the area. If you know in advance what time you will be leaving for home, you can pre-book your return journey.
The “Safe Travel at Night” partnership among the Metropolitan Police, Transport for London, and the Mayor of London maintains a website with additional information at http://www.cabwise.com/.
Travelers should not leave drinks unattended in bars and nightclubs.
There have been some instances of drinks being spiked with illegal substances, leading to incidents of robbery and rape.
Due to the circumstances described above, visitors should take steps to ensure the safety of their U.S. passports.
Visitors in England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, and Gibraltar are not expected to produce identity documents for police authorities and thus may secure their passports in hotel safes or residences.
Abundant ATMs that link to U.S. banking networks offer an optimal rate of exchange and they preclude the need to carry a passport to cash travelers’ checks.
Travelers should be aware that U.S. banks might charge a higher processing fee for withdrawals made overseas.
Common sense personal security measures utilized in the U.S. when using ATMs should also be followed in the UK.
ATM fraud in the UK is becoming more sophisticated, incorporating technologies to surreptitiously record customer ATM card and PIN information.
Travelers should avoid using ATMs that look in any way “temporary” in structure or location, or that are located in isolated areas.
Travelers should be aware that in busy public areas, thieves use distraction techniques, such as waiting until the PIN number has been entered and then pointing to money on the ground, or attempting to hand out a free newspaper.
When the ATM user is distracted, a colleague will quickly withdraw cash and leave.
If distracted in any way, travelers should press the cancel transaction button immediately and collect their card before speaking to the person who has distracted them.
If the person’s motives appear suspicious, travelers should not challenge them but remember the details and report the matter to Police as soon as possible.
In addition, travelers should not use the ATM if there is anything stuck to the machine or if it looks unusual in any way.
If the machine does not return the card, report the incident to the issuing bank immediately.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate at the opening of the next business day.
The U.S. Embassy or Consulate only issues replacement passports during regular business hours.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, report it to local police.
The nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate will also be able to assist by helping you to find appropriate medical care, contacting family members or friends, and explaining how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

Visit the “Victim Support” web site, maintained by an independent UK charity to helps people cope with the effects of crime: http://www.victimsupport.org.uk/
See our information for Victims of Crime.
MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
While medical services are widely available, free care under the National Health System is allowed only to UK residents and certain EU nationals.
Tourists and short-term visitors will be charged for medical treatment in the UK.
Charges may be significantly higher than those assessed in the United States.
Hiking in higher elevations can be treacherous.
Several people die each year while hiking, particularly in Scotland, often due to sudden changes in weather.
Visitors, including experienced hikers, are encouraged to discuss intended routes with local residents familiar with the area, and to adhere closely to recommendations.
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
If your medical insurance policy does not provide overseas coverage, you may want to purchase a short-term policy for your trip.
The Department of State provides a list of travel insurance companies that can provide the additional insurance needed for the duration of one’s trip abroad in its online at medical insurance overseas.
Remember also that most medical care facilities and medical care providers in the UK do not accept insurance subscription as a primary source of payment.
Rather, the beneficiary is expected to pay for the service and then seek reimbursement from the insurance company.
This may require an upfront payment in the $10,000 to $20,000 range

Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning the United Kingdom is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

UK penalties for driving under the influence of even minimal amounts of alcohol or drugs are stiff and often result in prison sentences.
In contrast to the United States and continental Europe, where traffic drives on the right side of the road, in the UK, it moves on the left.
The maximum speed limit on highways/motorways in the UK is 70MPH.
Motorways generally have a hard shoulder (breakdown lane) on the far left, defined by a solid white line.
It is illegal to stop or park on a hard shoulder unless it is an emergency.
In such cases, you should activate your hazard lights, get out of your vehicle and go onto an embankment for safety.
Emergency call boxes (orange telephone booths with “SOS” printed on them) may be found at half-mile intervals along the motorway.
White and blue poles placed every 100 yards along the motorway point in the direction of the nearest call box.
Emergency call boxes dial directly to a motorway center.
It is best to use these phones rather than a personal cell phone, because motorway center personnel will immediately know the location of a call received from an emergency call box.
Roadside towing services may cost approximately £125.
However, membership fees of automotive associations such as the RAC or AA (Automobile Association) often include free roadside towing service.
Visitors uncomfortable with, or intimidated by, the prospect of driving on the left-hand side of the road may wish to avail themselves of extensive bus, rail and air transport networks that are comparatively inexpensive.
Roads in the UK are generally excellent, but are narrow and often congested in urban areas.
If you plan to drive while in the UK, you may wish to obtain a copy of the Highway Code, available at http://www.highwaycode.gov.uk.
Travelers intending to rent cars in the UK should make sure that they are adequately insured.
U.S. auto insurance is not always valid outside the U.S., and travelers may wish to purchase supplemental insurance, which is generally available from most major rental agents.
The city of London imposes a congestion charge of £8 (eight pounds sterling, or approximately U.S. $16.00) on all cars entering much of central London Monday through Friday from 7:00 a.m. to 6:30 p.m.
Information on the congestion charge can be found at http://www.cclondon.com.
Public transport in the United Kingdom is excellent and extensive.
However, poor track conditions may have contributed to train derailments resulting in some fatalities.
Repairs are underway and the overall safety record is excellent.
Information on disruptions to London transportation services can be found at http://www.tfl.gov.uk and information about the status of National Rail Services can be found at http://www.nationalrail.co.uk.
Many U.S. pedestrians are injured, some fatally, every year in the United Kingdom, because they forget that oncoming traffic approaches from the opposite direction than in the United States.
Extra care and alertness should be taken when crossing streets; remember to look both ways before stepping into the street.
Driving in Gibraltar is on the right-hand side of the road, as in the U.S. and Continental Europe.
Persons traveling overland between Gibraltar and Spain may experience long delays in clearing Spanish border controls.
Please refer to our Road Safety Overseas page for more information.
For specific information concerning United Kingdom driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, refer to the United Kingdom’s Department of Environment and Transport web site at http://www.dft.gov.uk, the Driving Standards Agency web site at http://www.dsa.gov.uk or consult the U.S. Embassy in London’s web site at http://london.usembassy.gov/.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of the United Kingdom’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of the UK’s air carrier operations.
For further information, travelers may visit the FAA's web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
The legal drinking age in the UK is generally lower than in the U.S. and social drinking in pubs is often seen as a routine aspect of life in Britain. Parents, organizers of school trips, and young travelers should be aware of the impact that this environment may have when combined with the sense of adventure that comes with being abroad.
Please see our Students Abroad web site as well Studying Abroad to help students plan a safe and enjoyable adventure.
The UK has strict gun-control laws, and importing firearms is extremely complicated. Travelers should consider leaving all firearms in the United States.
Restrictions exist on the type and number of weapons that may be possessed by an individual.
All handguns, i.e. pistols and revolvers, are prohibited with very few exceptions.
Licensing of firearms in the UK is controlled by the Police.
Applicants for a license must be prepared to show 'good reason' why they require each weapon.
Applicants must also provide a copy of their U.S. gun license, a letter of good conduct from their local U.S. police station and a letter detailing any previous training, hunting or shooting experience. Background checks will also be carried out.
Additional information on applying for a firearm certificate and/or shotgun certificate can be found on the Metropolitan Police Firearms Enquiry Teams web site at http://www.met.police.uk/firearms-enquiries/index.htm.
A number of Americans are lured to the UK each year in the belief that they have won a lottery or have inherited from the estate from a long-lost relative.
Americans may also be contacted by persons they have “met” over the Internet who now need funds urgently to pay for hospital treatment, hotel bills, taxes or airline security fees.
Invariably, the person contacted is the victim of fraud.
Any unsolicited invitations to travel to the UK to collect winnings or an inheritance should be viewed with skepticism.
Also, there are no licenses or fees required when transiting a UK airport, nor is emergency medical treatment withheld pending payment of fees.
Please see our information on International Financial Scams. Please read our Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating British law, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in the UK are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.
Many pocketknives and other blades, and mace or pepper spray canisters, although legal in the U.S., are illegal in the UK and will result in arrest and confiscation if detected.
A UK Metropolitan Police guide to items that are prohibited as offensive weapons is available at http://www.met.police.uk/youngpeople/guns.htm.
A UK Customs Guide, detailing what items visitors are prohibited from bringing into the UK, is available at http://customs.hmrc.gov.uk/channelsPortalWebApp/downloadFile?contentID=HMCE_CL_001734.
Air travelers to and from the United Kingdom should be aware that penalties against alcohol-related and other in-flight crimes (“air rage”) are stiff and are being enforced with prison sentences.
Please also see our information on customs regulations that pertain when returning to the US.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children’s Issues.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in the United Kingdom are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within the United Kingdom.
By registering, Americans make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency, and to relay updated information on travel and security within the United Kingdom.
The Embassy and Consulates regularly send security and other information via email to Americans who have registered.
As noted above, recent communications from U.S. Embassy London to the local American citizen community, called Warden Messages, can be found on the embassy’s web site.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
The Consular Section also disseminates a newsletter every month.
Those wishing to subscribe to the monthly consular newsletter in London should send a request by email to SCSLondon@state.gov.
The U.S. Embassy is located at 24 Grosvenor Square, London W1A 1AE; telephone: in country 020-7499-9000; from the U.S. 011-44-20-7499-9000 (24 hours); Consular Section fax: in country 020-7495-5012; from the U.S. 011-44-20-7495-5012, and on the Internet at http://london.usembassy.gov.
The U.S. Consulate General in Edinburgh, Scotland, is located at 3 Regent Terrace, Edinburgh EH7 5BW; Telephone: in country 0131-556-8315, from the U.S. 011-44-131-556-8315.
After hours: in country 01224-857097, from the U.S. 011-44-1224-857097.
Fax: in country 0131-557-6023; from the U.S. 011-44-131-557-6023.
Information on the Consulate General is included on the Embassy’s web site at http://london.usembassy.gov/scotland.
The U.S. Consulate General in Belfast, Northern Ireland, is located at Danesfort House, 228 Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5GR; Telephone: in country 028-9038-6100; from the U.S. 011-44-28-9038-6100.
Fax:
in country 028-9068-1301; from the U.S. 011-44-28-9068-1301.
Information on the Consulate General is included on the Embassy’s web site at: http://london.usembassy.gov/nireland.
There is no U.S. consular representation in Gibraltar.
Passport questions should be directed to the U.S. Embassy in Madrid, located at Serrano 75, Madrid, Spain, tel (34)(91) 587-2200, and fax (34)(91) 587-2303.
The web site is http://madrid.usembassy.gov.
All other inquiries should be directed to the U.S. Embassy in London.
* * *
This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated December 12, 2007, to update the sections on Entry Requirements, Safety and Security, Crime, Victims of Crime, Medical Facilities, Medical Insurance, Traffic Safety and Road Conditions, and Special Circumstances.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu 24 Aug 2017
Source: Gibraltar Chronicle [edited]
<http://chronicle.gi/2017/08/tiger-mosquito-found-in-gibraltar-but-no-cause-for-concern-officials-say/>

An aggressive species of mosquito known to transmit viral diseases has been detected in Gibraltar, but public health officials insist there is no cause for alarm. Public Health Gibraltar and the Environmental Agency confirmed that the mosquito of the species _Aedes albopictus_, also known as the tiger mosquito, has been found in Gibraltar.

Last June [2017] after 9 months of intensive surveillance, officials said no tiger mosquito had been found in Gibraltar. But this has now changed after the 1st tiger mosquito was found in the urban dome   stic environment within Gibraltar. "This finding alone does not however materially alter any health risks in Gibraltar and there is no immediate cause for public concern," the government said in a statement. Public Health Gibraltar was first alerted in January 2016 to the discovery of the mosquito in Malaga and Algeciras [in Andalusia, Spain]. Since then, together with the Environmental Agency, it began working with international experts to mount surveillance in Gibraltar.

World Health Organization experts visited Gibraltar and gave advice on setting traps and monitoring locations, but no tiger mosquito had been detected until now. The tiger mosquito is not native to Gibraltar and has not been previously found here. It is common in other countries where it transmits viral diseases like Zika, dengue, and chikungunya. It is a domestic species, breeds in water in urban areas -- water butts, blocked drains, rainwater gullies -- and is able to reach high abundance around residential areas.

It is also a day-time mosquito, that aggressively bites humans. "Health risks to the public only arise if the virus causing these diseases is also present, which is not the case in Gibraltar," the government said.  "The virus can, however, be imported by travellers returning from an overseas country and if this happens, there is a risk of spread, but only if the mosquito bites within a small window period of about a week after the fever starts."

Public Health Gibraltar has been raising awareness of travel risk amongst travellers through its publication A Factsheet for Travellers and recommends the following precautions:
- before travelling to affected areas, consult your doctor or seek advice from a travel clinic, especially if you have an immune disorder or severe chronic illness;
- if you are pregnant or are considering pregnancy, consider postponing non-essential travel;
- when staying in a mosquito-prone area, wear mosquito repellents and take mosquito bite prevention measures;
- if you have symptoms within 3 weeks of return from an affected country, contact your doctor;
- if you have been diagnosed with any of the diseases Zika, dengue, or chikungunya, take strict mosquito bite prevention measures for 10 days after the fever starts.
========================== 
[The appearance of _Aedes albopictus_ in Gibraltar is not surprising. A map of the distribution of this species as of April this year (2017) shows it present around the Mediterranean Basin and up to Gibraltar on the west (<https://ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/aedes-albopictus-current-known-distribution-europe-april-2017>).

Now it has been found in Gibraltar. The concerns are real about transmission of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses should populations of _Ae. albopictus_ become established. In 2015 there were a few locally acquired cases of dengue in the south of France. This also happened on a larger scale in Emilia Romagna, Italy, when a viraemic man introduced chikungunya virus into Italy and sparked an outbreak.

One hopes that mosquito surveillance will continue in Gibraltar, perhaps be intensified, and help guide vector control efforts. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/517>.]
Date: Wed, 1 Jun 2011 01:46:48 +0200 (METDST)

GIBRALTAR, June 1, 2011 (AFP) - A fuel tank exploded and caught fire near a cruise ship in the British territory of Gibraltar Tuesday, injuring at least 15 people, most of them on the vessel, local officials and the ship's owners said. The blast was probably caused by a spark from welding operations, Chief Minister Peter Caruana told Radio Gibraltar. But police were not ruling out any possibility including that of an attack, he added. Flames several metres high could be seen coming out of the tank with dense black smoke billowing across the port as firefighters directed jets of water at the blaze from tugboats. The fire continued late into the night, with Radio Gibraltar reporting more explosions were heard. The tank was close to the giant cruise ship, Independence of the Seas, which had arrived in Gibraltar Tuesday morning. The ship made an emergency departure immediately after the blast Tuesday afternoon.

The Gibraltar government and the ship's owners, Royal Caribbean International, both said 12 people on the ship had been hurt. Gibraltar officials said one of the passengers had suffered a fractured arm. Two Spanish welders working on the tank were injured, including one who was in critical condition in a burns unit at a hospital in the southern Spanish city of Seville, Radio Gibraltar said. A police officer was also slightly injured in the rescue attempt, police said. "The lid of the tank was blown off by the blast," a police spokesman said. The statement from Royal Caribbean International said: "Immediately after the explosion, the ship retracted the gangway and moved a safe distance from the dock. "Twelve guests sustained minor injuries and have received medical treatment onboard." The boat was on a two-week cruise, having left the southern English port of Southampton on Saturday, the company added.

Air services to Gibraltar were suspended and offices in the port area evacuated. The police spokesman said the possibility of adjacent tanks overheating and exploding could not be ruled out. Caruana described it as a serious incident but said there was "no cause for concern". "Once it was established that there were welding operations going on, on top of the very tank at the time it exploded, (that) makes that a frontrunner for a likely explanation, but all possibilities are being kept open," he told Radio Gibraltar. "The police are obviously keeping their minds open to the possibility of maybe a security incident. It's looking unlikely but all possibilities are being looked into if only to be excluded."

"The plan is to allow it to carry on burning itself off," he said later Tuesday, but warned that the wind was due to change during the night, which could bring the smoke over land. Spanish tugs from a private company were helping the local fire services, he added. One witness said he was in his office nearby when he heard three loud explosions. "We started running out and saw one of the main tanks set alight. My concern was the poor people who were working there," he told Radio Gibraltar. The public was being advised to keep away from the area and keep windows closed due to the smoke. Gibraltar is a 6.5-square-kilometre (2.6-square-mile) British territory of around 30,000 people off the tip of southern Spain. Madrid ceded it to London in 1713 under the Treaty of Utrecht, but it has long fuelled tensions between the two countries.
Date: Tue, 10 Aug 2010 20:08:15 +0200 (METDST)

GIBRALTAR, Aug 10, 2010 (AFP) - Gibraltar on Tuesday condemned as "illegal" a proposal by the neighbouring Spanish town of La Linea to impose a tax on cars entering or leaving the tiny British territory by road.   The decision comes amid thorny relations between Madrid and London over the disputed British possession off the tip of southern Spain.

La Linea mayor Alejandro Sanchez on Monday announced the "congestion charge" of no more than five euros (6.5 dollars) on cars crossing into and out of Gibraltar, saying the measure will be imposed in October once it is passed by the town council.   He said lorries carrying debris and other materials used in Gibraltar to reclaim land from the sea will pay more, but the exact amount has not yet been determined.   Sanchez, a member of Spain's conservative opposition Popular Party, said the tax is needed partly to compensate the municipality for austerity measures imposed by the socialist government in Madrid.   La Linea residents would be exempt, but it was not clear if Gibraltarians would also have to pay.

The Gibraltar government reacted angrily and said it has contacted the Spanish authorities over the decision.   "The confused statements by the mayor of La Linea in respect of the proposed toll describe a litany of illegalities under EU Law and probably also under Spanish law," it said in a statement.   "The mayor of La Linea is clearly engaged in a political manoeuvre with his central government, which is unlikely to allow the proposal.

"The mayor's proposals are wholly unacceptable both legally and politically and in the unlikely event that these measures should be introduced, the (Gibraltar) government will take appropriate steps."   Spain ceded Gibraltar to Britain in 1713 under the Treaty of Utrecht but has retained first claim on the tiny peninsula should Britain renounce sovereignty.

"The Rock" has long fuelled tensions between Spain and Britain, with Madrid arguing the 6.5-square-kilometre (2.6-square-mile) territory that is home to roughly 30,000 people should be returned to Spanish sovereignty.   But its people overwhelmingly rejected an Anglo-Spanish proposal for co-sovereignty in a referendum in 2002.   In recent months British and Spanish naval and police boats have engaged in a series of cat and mouse games in the waters off Gibraltar, which lies at the strategic western entrance to the Mediterranean.
Date: Thu 23 Oct 2008
Source: Panorama.gi [edited]
---------------------------------
During the last 10 weeks, Gibraltar has experienced an outbreak of measles. "We have so far been notified of over 250 cases and notifications are still coming in at around 4-6 cases per day," said the Gibraltar Health Authority [GHA], who believe that the actual numbers are greater as many people with mild attacks have chosen not to report them. While the majority of infections in the outbreak have been mild, some have been severe and a few patients including babies have needed intensive care.  Measles is an unpleasant disease with fever, sore throat, streaming eyes, diarrhoea, and rash. Most people recover within a week or so, but complications like fits, bacterial infection, or pneumonia can develop. Long-term complications can also arise in very young children.

Says the GHA: It is important that all persons with symptoms suggestive of measles should report the illness to their doctor to enable complications to be detected at an early stage. In addition to medical advice, persons with the illness should follow general hygiene practices such as limiting contact with other people, carefully discarding soiled tissues, and washing their hands. Anyone who has had measles infection is immune for life and cannot get measles again. There is no basis for the rumour that some people have had measles twice. It is possible that infection with rubella (German measles, a different disease) may have caused the confusion. Vaccination with the MMR [measles, mumps, and rubella] vaccine is the only way to prevent measles infection.

[So far], the 250 cases have been in persons who are unvaccinated or partly vaccinated (one dose only). Not a single case has occurred in a person who has had a full course of MMR vaccine. MMR vaccine has been available free to children [from] Gibraltar's health service since 1989, although the boosters were only introduced in 2002. It is also a very safe and effective vaccine, with an impressive track record," they say. Gibraltar Health Authority adds that it is continuing to advise all parents of children who have not had the MMR vaccine to immunise their children. There had been some difficulties in obtaining vaccine recently due to an international shortage, but fresh supplies have now been received. The course consists of 2 injections, approximately 3 months apart. Please note that BOTH the doses are needed for adequate immunity. They add: If your child has received only one dose, either now or in the past, he or she could still be at risk. Arrangements have been made to offer additional  vaccination to all unimmunised children as follows: During October and November [2008], the Child Welfare Clinics (primary care centre) will be open on Mondays (2:00 pm to 4:00 pm), Wednesdays (9:00 am to 11:00 am) and Fridays (9:00 am to 11:00 am) for immunisations. Appointments are not necessary.
-------------------------------
[The Rock of Gibraltar is located at the entrance of the Mediterranean. Gibraltar is connected to Spain by a sandy isthmus, by a ferry to Morocco, and by flights to London. By virtue of its geographical position and political status Gibraltar is vulnerable to introduction of infectious disease from diverse sources. No information has been provided regarding the source of the measles virus responsible for this outbreak. In this respect it will be relevant to determine the genotype of the measles virus involved (see comment in ProMED-mail "Measles - Gibraltar 20080814.2529"). The outbreak has escalated from the 17 cases reported on 14 Aug 2008 to the current 250 cases. Despite the availability of free MMR vaccination it is clear that there is an appreciable number of unimmunised individuals in the community who remain susceptible to measles virus infection. It is encouraging that efforts are underway to expand vaccine coverage.


and the HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map at <http://healthmap.org/promed?g=2411586&amp;v=36.133,-5.35,7>. - ProMed Mod.CP]
Date: Wed, 16 Apr 2008 14:56:40 +0200 (METDST) GIBRALTAR, April 16, 2008 (AFP) - Animal rights groups have expressed outrage over a plan by Gibraltar's government to cull its famous Barbary Apes, which are posing a hazard as they roam the town in search of food. The government of the tiny British territory off Spain's southern coast plans to cull 25 of the simians, whose population has exploded to around 200. The mischievous primates climb over cars and pull out antennas, open rubbish bags and rifle through handbags left unattended in the popular tourist destination. Officially, the management of the apes is the responsibility of the Gibraltar Ornithological and Natural History Society (GONHS), on contract from the government. But the society said it has not approved the cull. "Our policy is that culling can be a population management solution but only in extreme cases when there is no other more suitable option," GONHS general secretary Dr. John Cortes said on Tuesday. "We would only ever recommend a cull after very careful assessment of the situation from a veterinary and a genetic point of view." However, Environment Minister Ernest Britto said a licence has been issued for the cull and two of the apes have already been given lethal injections. Helen Thirlway, the head of Britain's International Primate Protection League, said the government was failing to manage the apes "in a responsible manner." "There have been many advances and pilot studies in recent years on different methods of controlling free-roaming monkeys," she was quoted as saying in the local media Wednesday. "We are more than happy to work with the government of Gibraltar and with GONHS to help them develop more efficient, alternative solutions, but this needless slaughter has to stop." According to legend, if the apes disappear, Britain will lose control of Gibraltar. When wartime British prime minister Winston Churchill heard their population was low, British consuls in North Africa -- from where the apes originally came -- were tasked with sending new young simians to the Rock. At one time, the apes were looked after by the British army stationed in Gibraltar, which selected a place up the Rock where they were fed daily to keep them from loitering downtown. Spain ceded Gibraltar to Britain in 1713, but has retained a constitutional claim should Britain renounce sovereignty. The vast majority of the 30,000 people want to retain their links with Britain.
More ...

Tuvalu

Tuvalu US Consular Information Sheet
December 17, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Tuvalu is a South Pacific island nation consisting of four reef islands and five atolls.
A self governing member of the British Commonwealth, Tuvalu has a par
iamentary system of government.
Read the Department of State Background Notes on Tuvalu for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport, onward/return ticket, and proof of sufficient funds for the stay in Tuvalu are required.
Visitor permits valid for up to three months are issued upon arrival.
For further information about entry requirements, travelers may wish to contact the Tuvalu Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York, Suite 400 B, 800 2nd Avenue, NY 10017, tel.: (212) 490-0534, fax: (212) 808-4975.
This is particularly true for those persons planning to enter by sea.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Americans in Tuvalu requiring immediate emergency assistance should call the 24-hour police command center in Tuvalu at (688) 20726.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll-free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
Tuvalu has a low crime rate.
However, visitors should not be complacent regarding personal safety or the protection of valuables.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate for assistance.
The embassy/consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds may be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Medical and dental care is very limited in Tuvalu, including in the capital, Funafuti.
Serious medical problems are referred to Guam or Hawaii.
Serious medical conditions requiring hospitalization and/or medical evacuation to the United States can cost thousands of dollars.
Doctors and hospitals often expect immediate cash payment for health services.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

HIV/AIDS restrictions:
The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Tuvalu.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Tuvalu is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Traffic moves on the left in Tuvalu.
The main roads on Funafuti have been paved, but roads on these tiny islands are generally unpaved.
Animals and unwary pedestrians walking in the road make night driving on unlit secondary roads hazardous.
For specific information concerning Tuvalu driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, contact the Tuvalu Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
Visit the website of the country’s national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Tuvalu, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Tuvalu’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
In Tuvalu, the Australian dollar is the legal currency.
Traveler’s checks and all major currencies are accepted by banks and may also be exchanged for local currency at some local hotels.
Although Visa and MasterCard are accepted at most hotels, connectivity problems often make credit card payments impossible.
Travelers should be prepared to pay cash for hotel bills.
Tuvalu’s customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from Tuvalu of items such as agricultural products.
It is advisable to contact the Office of the Tuvalu Permanent Representative in New York, for specific information regarding customs requirements.
U.S. citizens are encouraged to carry a copy of their U.S. passports with them at all times, so that, if questioned by local officials, proofs of identity and U.S. citizenship are readily available.
If detained, U.S. citizens are encouraged to request that a consular officer at the U.S. Embassy in Suva, Fiji, be notified.

Please see our Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Tuvalu’s laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession or, use of, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Tuvalu are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
There is no U.S. Embassy or diplomatic post in Tuvalu.
The U.S. Embassy in Fiji provides assistance for U.S. citizens in Tuvalu.
Americans living or traveling in Tuvalu are encouraged to register with the U.S. Embassy in Suva through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Tuvalu.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the U.S. Embassy in Suva, Fiji.
The U.S. Embassy in Fiji is located at 31 Loftus Street in the capital city of Suva.
The telephone number is (679) 331-4466; the fax number is (679) 330-2267.
Information may also be obtained by visiting the Embassy’s home page at http://samoa.usembassy.gov.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.
*

*

*
This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated June 16, 2008, to update Medical Facilities and Health Information, and Special Circumstances.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

10 Aug 2019

Dengue1 outbreak declared on the 27 Mar 2019; 509 dengue-like illness (DLI) cases were reported in Funafuti from 25 Mar-3 Aug [2019], and 210 of them were confirmed. DLI cases in Funafuti peaked in weeks 14, 19, and 25. Only one (1) DLI suspected case was reported on Funafuti week 31. DLI cases from the Southern Outer Islands (OIs) follow the same downward trend now as in Funafuti but had peaked twice and at higher levels from Funafuti since end of June [2019] (week 26). Demographics: age range: 0-65 years; female: male ratio: 1:1.2; total average: 58%; median age: 9 years; majority of cases are children (5-9yrs).

HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Tuvalu:
Date: Fri, 9 Feb 2018 11:06:04 +0100

Wellington, Feb 9, 2018 (AFP) - The Pacific nation of Tuvalu -- long seen as a prime candidate to disappear as climate change forces up sea levels -- is actually growing in size, new research shows.   A University of Auckland study examined changes in the geography of Tuvalu's nine atolls and 101 reef islands between 1971 and 2014, using aerial photographs and satellite imagery.   It found eight of the atolls and almost three-quarters of the islands grew during the study period, lifting Tuvalu's total land area by 2.9 percent, even though sea levels in the country rose at twice the global average.

Co-author Paul Kench said the research, published Friday in the journal Nature Communications, challenged the assumption that low-lying island nations would be swamped as the sea rose.   "We tend to think of Pacific atolls as static landforms that will simply be inundated as sea levels rise, but there is growing evidence these islands are geologically dynamic and are constantly changing," he said.   "The study findings may seem counter-intuitive, given that (the) sea level has been rising in the region over the past half century, but the dominant mode of change over that time on Tuvalu has been expansion, not erosion."   It found factors such as wave patterns and sediment dumped by storms could offset the erosion caused by rising water levels.

The Auckland team says climate change remains one of the major threats to low-lying island nations.   But it argues the study should prompt a rethink on how such countries respond to the problem.   Rather than accepting their homes are doomed and looking to migrate to countries such as Australia and New Zealand, the researchers say they should start planning for a long-term future.   "On the basis of this research we project a markedly different trajectory for Tuvalu's islands over the next century than is commonly envisaged," Kench said.   "While we recognise that habitability rests on a number of factors, loss of land is unlikely to be a factor in forcing depopulation of Tuvalu."

The study's authors said island nations needed to find creative solutions to adapt to climate change that take into account their homeland's evolving geography.   Suggestions included moving populations onto larger islands and atolls, which have proved the most stable and likely to grow as seas rise.   "Embracing such new adaptation pathways will present considerable national scale challenges to planning, development goals and land tenure systems," they said.   "However, as the data on island change shows there is time (decades) to confront these challenges."
Date: Mon 3 Oct 2011
Source: Central News Agency (CNA) report [edited]

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) [of Taiwan] issued a yellow travel alert for Tuvalu Monday 3 Oct 2011, after suspected cases of cholera were reported in the Pacific island nation. The alert, the 2nd-least serious in the MOFA's 4-color travel advisory system, warns travelers there to heighten vigilance over their personal safety and advises would-be visitors to have 2nd thoughts about their travel plans.

The MOFA noted that Tuvalu is suffering from a drought and has declared a state of emergency due to a severe shortage of fresh water. Anyone traveling in Tuvalu should be on guard and should pay close attention to hygiene conditions, the MOFA said.  [Byline: Emmanelle Tzeng, Lilian Wu]
====================
[The Tuvalu Islands are located in the Western Pacific and have had no reported cases of cholera since the early 1990s based on the Weekly Epidemiologic Report (WER) of WHO. In WER, Tuvalu had 27 cases in 1990 and 293 cases in 1992.

The current severe drought involving the islands causes the small population to seek alternative sources of water, which are more likely to be less safe. - ProMed Mod.LL]

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map showing the location of Tuvalu can be seen at
<http://healthmap.org/r/1j9Q>. - ProMed Sr.Tech.Ed.MJ]
Date: Mon, 3 Oct 2011 08:49:22 +0200 (METDST)

Wellington, Oct 3, 2011 (AFP) - The tiny Pacific nation of Tuvalu has declared a state of emergency due to severe water shortages, prompting New Zealand to airlift in fresh supplies, officials in Wellington said Monday. New Zealand Foreign Minister Murray McCully said an air force transport plane carrying containers of water and two desalination units arrived in Tuvalu on Monday.

"Tuvalu has declared a state of emergency relating to water shortages in the capital, Funafuti, and a number of outer islands," McCully said in a statement. He said New Zealand officials were working with aid agencies including the Red Cross to ease the crisis in Tuvalu, one of the world's smallest independent nations with about 10,500 residents.

A Red Cross situation report released last week said the former British colony relied mostly on rainwater, which had been scarce this year because of a La Nina weather pattern across the Pacific. La Nina causes extreme weather, including both drought and floods, and was blamed for deluges in Australia, Southeast Asia and South America over late 2010 and early 2011.
Date: Fri, 7 Nov 2008 09:32:32 +0100 (MET)
 
SYDNEY, Nov 7, 2008 (AFP) - A strong earthquake with a magnitude of 6.4 struck off the south Pacific island of Vanuatu on Friday, but there was no immediate tsunami warning or reports of casualties, seismologists said.   The quake struck at 6:19 pm (0719 GMT), 320 kilometres (195 miles) north of the capital Port Vila, the US Geological Survey said.   The quake was registered at a depth of 35 kilometres.   Two aftershocks with magnitudes of 5.4 and 5.3 struck roughly the same spot in the next half-hour.   The Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre in Hawaii did not issue a tsunami alert for the region.   Vanuatu sits on the so-called Pacific Rim of Fire, where the meeting of continental plates causes high volcanic and seismic activity.
More ...

Netherlands

The Netherlands - US Consular Information Sheet
January 04, 2007
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
The Netherlands is a highly developed, stable democracy.
Tourist facilities are available throughout the Kingdom.
Read the Department of State
ackground notes on The Netherlands for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport is required.
Visas are not required for U.S. citizens for tourist visits of up to 90 days.
That period begins when you enter any of the Schengen group of countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden.
To be admitted into the Netherlands, travelers must have a passport with a validity that exceeds their intended stay, a return airline ticket, and enough money to finance the planned stay.
For further information on entry requirements, contact the Embassy of the Netherlands at 4200 Linnean Ave. N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008, telephone (202) 244-5300, or one of the Dutch consulates in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York or Miami.
Additional information is available on the Netherlands' National Bureau for Tourism's Internet web site at http://www.goholland.com.
See our Foreign Entry Requirements brochure for more information on the Netherlands and other countries.
Visit the Embassy of the Netherlands web site at http://www.netherlands-embassy.org/homepage.asp for the most current visa information.
Information on work, residency and immigration requirements in the Netherlands can be found on the web site of the Dutch immigration authorities at www.ind.nl.

Note: Although European Union regulations require that non-EU visitors obtain a stamp in their passport upon initial entry to a Schengen country; many borders are not staffed with officers carrying out this function.
If an American citizen wishes to ensure that his or her entry is properly documented, it may be necessary to request a stamp at an official point of entry.
Under local law, travelers without a stamp in their passport may be questioned and asked to document the length of their stay in Schengen countries at the time of departure or at any other point during their visit, and could face possible fines or other repercussions if unable to do so.

See Entry and Exit Requirements for more information pertaining to dual nationality and the prevention of international child abduction.
Please refer to our Customs Information to learn more about customs regulations.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
In 2004, the Dutch government implemented heightened security measures in response to concerns of international Islamic extremist terrorist activity on Dutch soil.
The November 2004 murder of Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh by an Islamic extremist in Amsterdam further increased concerns over Islamic extremist activity in the Netherlands.
One individual was arrested and later sentenced to life in prison for van Gogh's murder and related Islamic extremist activities.
Since the murder, the Dutch government has remained on heightened alert.

U.S. citizens in the Netherlands are encouraged to monitor media reports, and are reminded to maintain a high level of vigilance and to take appropriate steps to increase their security awareness.
As with other countries in the Schengen area, the Netherlands' open borders with its European neighbors allow the possibility of terrorist groups entering/exiting the country with anonymity.
Demonstrations are commonplace in the Netherlands and may range in number from a few people to several thousand.
Prior police approval is required for public demonstrations, and police oversight is routinely provided.
Nonetheless, situations may develop which could pose a threat to public safety.
U.S. citizens are advised to avoid areas in which public demonstrations are taking place.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department's Internet web site where the current Travel Warnings and Public Announcements, including the Worldwide Caution Public Announcement, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or, for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State's pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME:
While the rate of violent crime in the Netherlands is low, tourists are often targets of thieves.
Visitors frequently fall prey to pickpockets, bag snatchers and other petty burglars.
Theft from automobiles and hotel rooms are also on the rise.
Never leave baggage or other valuables unattended.

While thieves may operate anywhere, the U.S. Consulate General in Amsterdam receives frequent reports of thefts from specific areas.
Within Amsterdam, thieves are very active in and around train and tram stations, the city center and public transport.
More specifically, trains to and from Schiphol Airport are considered to be high risk, and theft of laptop computers has increased.
Thieves often work in pairs; one distracts the victim, often by asking for directions, while the accomplice moves in on the victim's momentarily unguarded handbag, backpack, laptop or briefcase.
The timing of these thefts usually coincides with train stops, enabling the thieves to escape.
In addition, many Americans have reported that their purses and briefcases have been stolen while eating in downtown restaurants, including hotel breakfast rooms.
A good rule of thumb is to never leave your personal items unattended when going to the restroom, buffet table, etc.

Confidence artists have victimized a number of Americans.
Typically, a U.S. citizen is notified via email of a winning lottery ticket, an inheritance, or other offer, which requires his/her assistance and cooperation to conclude.
The American is asked to forward advance payments for alleged"official expenses," "taxes," etc. and, often, to come to Amsterdam to conclude the operation.
Several Americans have lost tens of thousands of dollars in such scams.
Funds transferred in response to such offers cannot be recovered.
Information on fraud schemes can be found on the U.S. Embassy's web page.
For additional information, please contact the nearest office of the U.S. Secret Service or visit that agency's web site at www.secretservice.gov.
Additional information is also provided in the Department of State's pamphlet, Advance Fee Business Scams.
Travelers may also contact the Fraud Unit, Amsterdam Police, Police Headquarters, PB 2287, 1000 CG Amsterdam, Netherlands, tel. (31) (20) 559-2380, fax (31) (20) 559-5755.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
In the Netherlands, the U.S. Consulate General in Amsterdam provides all passport and American citizen services.
A lost or stolen passport can usually be replaced within a few hours during normal working hours for those with immediate travel plans.
If you are the victim of a crime while in the Netherlands, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the U.S. Consulate General for assistance.
It is a good idea to make a photocopy of the "biographic page" of your passport, to bring extra passport photos, and to keep these separate from your actual passport just in case it is lost or stolen.
Consulate staff can, for example, help you find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.
Contact information is provided at the bottom of this document.

The Criminal Injuries Compensation Fund (CICF) of the Netherlands provides financial compensation, under specific circumstances, for victims of crime and for those who have suffered injuries and consequent loss caused by such incidents.
The fund also provides for dependents or immediate family members of homicide victims.
For more information, contact the Dutch Ministry of Justice at (31) (70) 414-2000.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Good medical facilities are widely available.
Emergency medical response can be accessed by calling 1-1-2.
Reputable pharmacies are widely available and can assist with emergency prescription needs.
Some common medications are not available in the Netherlands without a prescription, and some prescription drugs cannot be mailed into the country.
Travelers are therefore urged to carry an adequate supply of prescription drugs in their original container while traveling.
Some U.S. over-the-counter medications are not available in the Netherlands and travelers should carry an adequate supply of these as well.
Those traveling with any preexisting medical problems should bring a letter from the attending physician, describing the medical condition and any prescription medications, including the generic name of prescribed drugs.

Vaccinations are not required for travel to the Netherlands.
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC's Internet site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's (WHO) website at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Medical evacuations cost thousands of dollars and are not always covered by travel insurance.
Foreign doctors and hospitals usually require payment at the time service is rendered, and this too may not be covered by a traveler's policy.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning the Netherlands is provided for general reference only, and it may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance:

Travel in, around, and between cities is possible via a highly advanced national train, light rail, tram, and bus network, by use of an extensive system of bike paths, and by automobile and motorcycle on the modern highway system.
Rail is often a convenient alternative to driving, particularly in the areas around Amsterdam, The Hague, and Rotterdam, where road congestion is frequent.
Rail network information is available at http://www.ns.nl.

Intercity travel by road is relatively safe in comparison with some other European countries.
Nonetheless, more than 1,000 people die and another 10,000 are injured in traffic accidents in the Netherlands each year.
More than two thirds of the fatal accidents occur outside urban areas.

A valid driver's license issued by a Department of Motor Vehicles in the U.S. is valid for use in the Netherlands for up to 180 days.
Seat belt and child seat use is compulsory.
Driving is on the right side of the road.
The maximum speed limit on highways is 120 km/h, with a highway speed limit of 100 km/h posted in most urban areas.
Secondary roads and some urban area highways have a speed limit of 80 km/h.
The speed limit in towns and cities is 50 km/h, with 30 km/h posted in residential areas.
The Dutch government has reduced speed limits on certain roads near cities in an effort to reduce air pollution.
During traffic jams, authorities also reduce speed limits; drivers should be sure to check for revised limits posted on electronic billboards above the highways.
Please note that drivers must yield the right-of-way to drivers and bikers coming from the right at intersections or traffic circles, unless otherwise posted.
The maximum allowable blood alcohol level in the Netherlands is 0.5 per mille.
The use of cellular telephones while driving is illegal without the use of a "hands-free" device.

Lanes at the center of many urban two-way streets are reserved for buses, trams and taxis.
In cities, pedestrians should be mindful of trams, which often cross or share bicycle and pedestrian paths.
Motorists must be especially mindful of the priority rights of bicyclists.
Pedestrians should not walk along bicycle paths, which are often on the sidewalk and usually designated by red pavement.
Travelers should also be watchful for one-way roads.

Taxi service in the Netherlands is safe but expensive.
Trams and buses are both convenient and economical, but often frequented by pickpockets.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
Visit the website of the Netherlands Bureau for Tourism at http://www.goholland.com.
Information also is available from the Netherlands Ministry of Transportation, Public Works and Water Management (Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstraat) at http://www.minvenw.nl.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of the Netherlands' Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of the Netherlands' air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA's website at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Dutch customs authorities stringently enforce regulations concerning importation into the Netherlands of items such as firearms and other controlled materials.
Contact the Embassy of the Netherlands in Washington, D.C., or one of the Dutch consulates in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles or New York for specific information regarding customs requirements.
Please see our Customs Information sheet.

Everyone age 14 and above is required to carry identification at all times while in the Netherlands.
Accepted forms of identification for U.S. citizens are either a Dutch residence card, issued by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, or a U.S. passport.

U.S. citizens who obtain Dutch nationality may be required by the Dutch authorities to relinquish their U.S. citizenship.
For further information visit http://www.ind.nl/EN/verblijfwijzer/ and/or http://netherlands.usembassy.gov/dual_nationality.html.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Dutch laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use or trafficking in illegal drugs in the Netherlands are strict and convicted offenders can expect jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in illicit sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children's Issues website.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in the Netherlands are encouraged to register with the U.S. Consulate General through the State Department's travel registration website, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within the Netherlands.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the U.S. Consulate General in Amsterdam.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency and to provide periodic information on issues of interest to American citizens.

The U.S. Embassy is located in The Hague, at Lange Voorhout 102; tel. (31) (70) 310-2209.
However, all requests for consular assistance should be directed to the Consulate General in Amsterdam at Museumplein 19, tel. (31) (20) 575-5309.
The after-hours emergency telephone number is (31) (70) 310-2209.
The U.S. Embassy and Consulate General web site at http://netherlands.usembassy.gov/ answers many questions of interest to Americans visiting or residing in the Netherlands.
*
*
*
This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated June 28, 2006, to update the sections on Safety and Security and Aviation Safety Oversight.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Mon, 10 Feb 2020 11:36:09 +0100 (MET)

London, Feb 10, 2020 (AFP) - Storm Ciara caused travel chaos on Monday, severely disrupting commutes and grounding hundreds of flights as swathes of Europe were left without power by torrential rain and winds of up to 180 kilometres (110 miles) per hour that also caused flash flooding and the cancellation of sporting fixtures.   In one of the most violent storms for years, one man died and another was reported missing in southern Sweden when their boat capsized, while three people were seriously injured in Germany by falling trees and branches.   Parts of northern France were put on orange alert and 130,000 homes had electricity cut off.

The Netherlands closed one of its big storm surge barriers as the tempest approached on Sunday night. Police said it caused Monday morning traffic jams over 600 kilometres of roads.   Around 220 flights were cancelled during the morning at Amsterdam's Schiphol airport -- Europe's third-busiest -- most destined for other European cities. Around 240 never took off on Sunday.   Another man was injured by a tree in the Czech Republic, where winds reached up to 180 kph on the country's highest mountain, Snezka. The storm left 100,000 without power there and even toppled over a truck.    Tiny Luxembourg cancelled school classes and morning rush hour traffic ground to a halt in Brussels due to street closures and flooding.

- Britain cleans up -
Britain began a clean-up after bearing the brunt of one of the most of violent and destructive storms in years.   "While Storm Ciara is clearing away, that doesn't mean we're entering a quieter period of weather," Met Office meteorologist Alex Burkill warned. "Blizzards aren't out of the question".   Transport was disrupted across the country with planes and trains cancelled or delayed.

The highest wind speed recorded was 150 kilometres per hour (93 mph) in the northwest Welsh village of Aberdaron.   More than 15 centimetres (six inches) of rain fell over 24 hours at Sleddale Reservoir in northwest England's Lake District national park.   More than 170 flood warnings remained in place Monday.   The West Yorkshire towns of Hebden Bridge and neighbouring Mytholmroyd were among the worst hit by the storm.    Cars were submerged in the floodwaters and tens of thousands of homes had their electricity cut.

- Wind farm shut -
Much of the initial damage and disruption in Europe was along the coasts.   Channel ferry services between the southern English port of Dover and Calais in northern France resumed Monday morning after being halted Sunday.

The whole Belgian offshore wind farm was shut down as powerful gusts caused the turbines to stop automatically for safety reasons.   The storm was so violent that "we are forced to completely stop mainline train traffic in Germany this Sunday evening," Deutsche Bahn spokesman Achim Stauss told AFP.   The disruptions in Germany also began Sunday with more than a hundred flights across three big cities cancelled.

- Sports events hit -
Sports events were also hit.   Sunday's English Premier League fixture between Manchester City and West Ham was called off due to "extreme and escalating weather conditions", City said in a statement.   The entire Women's Super League football programme was also called off. Sunday's Scotland-England clash in the Women's Six Nations rugby tournament has been rescheduled for Monday.

But there was an upside for passengers flying British Airways to London from New York.   The storm helped the flight to finish in the sub-sonic flight record time of 4 hours 56 minutes, according to flight-tracking website Flightradar24.   A British man wearing only a pair of swimming trunks braved the weather on a charity walk the length of mainland Britain from Lands End, southwest England, to John o'Groats, northeast Scotland.   "Speedos are designed to get wet and mine are absolutely soaking in this weather," said fundraiser Michael Cullen as he trekked in Glastonbury.
Date: Fri 4 Oct 2019
Source: Dutch News [edited]

A total of 3 people have died and one woman has had a miscarriage after eating cold meat contaminated with _Listeria_, the public health institute RIVM [Netherlands National Institute for Public Health and the Environment] said on Friday [4 Oct 2019]. All are thought to have become ill after eating meat products from the Offerman company over the past 2 years, the agency said.

In total, at least 20 people have become ill after eating Offerman cold cuts. The company issued a health warning on Friday [4 Oct 2019], and Jumbo, which stocks 135 different products from Offerman, ordered an immediate recall. Aldi too has recalled its Offerman products, which were also widely sold to company canteens.

The source of the infection was traced by the RIVM and product safety board NVWA [Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety] after an analysis of the different types of _Listeria_ infection this week. "It has only been recently possible to use this technique and without it, we would not have been able to identify the source," the RIVM said. [Probably they are referring to whole genome sequencing. - ProMED Mod.ML]

The factory where the bacteria originate[d] is located in Aalsmeer and has been closed pending a thorough clean-up, the AD reported on Friday afternoon [4 Oct 2019]. According to broadcaster NOS, the NVWA had ordered Offerman to take extra hygiene measures because there were suspicions that something was going wrong. "But this would appear not to have done the job," an NVWA spokesman told the broadcaster.

_Listeria_ is found in meat that has not been properly cooked and in raw foods [that] have been kept [refrigerated?] for a long time, the RIVM said. Most people suffer mild flu-like symptoms, but the bacteria can cause serious symptoms in the elderly, new-borns and people with weak immune systems. It is particularly dangerous to pregnant women and can cause miscarriages. Every year about 80 cases of [listeriosis] are reported to the RIVM.
========================
[Genotyping, e.g., by whole genome sequencing, clinical isolates of _Listeria monocytogenes_ can identify clusters of cases that have a common source, and genotyping the isolates from the food and environmental surfaces at food processing facilities can confirm the source, if genotypes match, as likely happened in the outbreak described above.

Refrigerated cold cut meats that are not cooked before eating (i.e., ready-to-eat) are well-recognized sources for listeriosis. Even if initial contamination adds only a few _Listeria_ organisms to the food, the contamination can be significant for refrigerated foods because _L. monocytogenes_ can subsequently multiply at refrigerator temperatures to a sufficient number to cause disease. People at increased risk for disseminated listeriosis include pregnant women (and their new-borns), adults aged 65 years or older, and people with weakened immune systems. - ProMED Mod.ML]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Date: Sat 28 Sep 2019
Source: Food Safety News [abridged, edited]

About 30 people are part of a _Salmonella_ outbreak in the Netherlands linked to eggs from Spain. The Dutch Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA) in August 2019 advised people not to eat eggs stamped with the code 3-ES-4624944A because of _Salmonella_ contamination. The agency added it was important to wash hands after touching them, as the _Salmonella_ can be found on the outside of the eggs. The eggs were supplied to neighborhood supermarkets, market stalls and catering establishments that may have further processed them into various dishes. They are not thought to have been sold at large supermarket chains in the country.

Salmonellosis is not a notifiable infection in the Netherlands. There were an estimated 27 440 patients with acute gastroenteritis due to salmonellosis in 2017.

A total of 30 patients have been reported with an identical _Salmonella_ Enteritidis type based on whole genome sequencing, some of which fell ill last year, in 2018. At least 5 patients are known to have eaten eggs from the batch the NVWA issued a warning about, according to the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM).

Harald Wychgel, a RIVM spokesman, said because these studies ask people what they have eaten in recent weeks, it is not expected consumption of eggs can be confirmed for all patients. "The outbreak has been going on since 2018 with a number of patients that is insufficient to initiate source detection. RIVM linked a small cluster of patients to a batch of eggs that were withdrawn from the market at the end of August [2019]," he told Food Safety News.

"Although there has been a recall, it may still be the case that patients will be found because they may still have products at home. The eggs in question have been traced by the NVWA and are withdrawn from the market."

Information from the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) shows the eggs were also distributed to Belgium.  [Byline: Joe Whitworth]
==========================
[Salmonellosis is often thought to be associated with cracked eggs or eggs dirty with faecal matter, a problem controlled by cleaning procedures implemented in the egg industry. It is clearly the case, however, that most of the salmonellosis outbreaks linked to eggs were associated with uncracked, disinfected grade A eggs, or foods containing such eggs. The undamaged eggs become contaminated during ovulation, and thus were contaminated with the bacteria before the eggshell was formed. To avoid this, uncooked eggs should only be used as an ingredient if pasteurized. - ProMED Mod.LL]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Date: Mon 23 Sep 2019
Source: NL Times [edited]

A Hyalomma tick, commonly referred to as a giant tick, was found in Wageningen. This is the 3rd specimen of this type of tick, which can carry dangerous diseases like Crimean Congo virus and spotted fever, to be found in the Netherlands this year [2019]. The other sightings were in Drenthe and in the Achterhoek in July 2019.

This latest giant tick was found on a pony in Wageningen, according to Omroep Gelderland. It was previously thought that the Netherlands is too cold for the giant tick to grow into adulthood, but due to climate change, the conditions in the Netherlands are increasingly favourable for the animal. It is believed that this type of tick enters the Netherlands through migratory birds.

The Hyalomma tick is known as the giant tick because it is much larger than a normal tick. It can be recognized by the line pattern on its legs. Unlike other ticks that passively wait for a host to pass by, this type of tick actively hunts its host, according to the European center for disease control. They've been known to follow a host for 10 minutes or more, covering a distance of up to 100 meters.

This type of tick is a known carrier of the Crimean-Congo virus, which causes Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever. This is a serious disease that has a fatality rate of up to 50 percent, according to the American Centers for Disease Control. The tick found in Drenthe earlier this year [2019] was tested for this virus and was not a carrier, public health institute RIVM said at the time.

The Drenthe tick was a carrier of the _Rickettsia aeschlimannii_ bacterium, which causes the rare spotted fever. "Spotted fever is easy to diagnose and treat with antibiotics," Dutch health agency RIVM said in a statement released over the summer.  Several Dutch agencies track sightings of the tick. Those who have seen the Hyalomma tick should report it to the NVWA, the agency said.  [Byline: Janene Pieters]
========================
[With the discovery of this tick in the 3rd locality in the Netherlands, one wonders whether it is as yet undiscovered in other parts of the country. This giant tick that was found earlier this year (2019) in Drenthe was confirmed as a _Hyalomma marginatum_, a species originating in tropical climates and previously confined to southern parts of Europe. Specimens of the tick have been found in several other northern European countries, including Germany, where it is thought to have overwintered, and in Sweden. Most have been found on livestock, primarily horses. Fortunately, Crimean-Congo virus has not been found in any of the ticks in the Netherlands,

An image of _Hyalomma marginatum_ can be accessed at the source URL above. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Date: Sun, 1 Sep 2019 17:22:26 +0200 (METDST)

The Hague, Sept 1, 2019 (AFP) - Dutch national carrier KLM will scrap 10 European flights Monday due to a two-hour strike by ground staff demanding higher wages, an airline spokeswoman said Sunday.   The move, which will see ground staff down tools between 8.00 am and 10.00 am (0600 GMT to 0800 GMT), comes after the airline and Dutch union federation FNV failed to reach an agreement.   "KLM have preventively decided to annul 10 European flights because of the strike," Manel Vrijenhoek said.   "We are still looking at which flights at this stage," she told AFP.

Air France, Delta and other SkyTeam airlines as well as no-frills carrier Transavia are also set to be affected by the strike, KLM spokeswoman Vrijenhoek confirmed.   The FNV said Saturday it was demanding a four percent increase for some 15,000 members of ground staff, with KLM's latest offer stalling at two percent.   "It's no good. Therefore we are calling a work stoppage," FNV campaign leader Joost van Doesburg said.   "If KLM retains its position after the strike, new labour actions cannot be excluded," he said in a statement.   A strike by public transport workers in May forced dozens of flights to be cancelled at Schiphol, one of Europe's busiest air travel hubs.   More than 41 million passengers passed through Schiphol in the first six months of the year, according to the latest airport figures.
More ...

World Travel News Headlines

Date: Mon, 17 Feb 2020 11:56:28 +0100 (MET)

Tokyo, Feb 17, 2020 (AFP) - Organisers said Monday they are cancelling the amateur portion of the Tokyo marathon, affecting around 38,000 runners, on fears about the spread of the new coronavirus in Japan.   "We reached the conclusion that unfortunately it is difficult to organise the event... after several cases (of the virus) were confirmed in Tokyo," the Tokyo Marathon Foundation said in a statement.
Date: Mon, 17 Feb 2020 10:59:27 +0100 (MET)

Cairo, Feb 17, 2020 (AFP) - Egypt's Sharm el-Sheikh has welcomed the first British charter flights since 2015, when the Islamic State group's bombing of a Russian airliner dealt a devastating blow to the Red Sea resort.   Britain halted flights to Sharm el-Sheikh following the attack, which killed all 224 people on board the plane that took off from the resort, long popular with British tourists.

After multiple airport inspections and visits by aviation security experts, Britain announced in October that it was lifting the flight restrictions.   "Sharm el-Sheikh airport received the first two direct charter flights... from London's Gatwick airport carrying 184 passengers and Manchester airport carrying 190 passengers," Egypt's civil aviation ministry said in a statement late Sunday.    The flights were operated by Britain's biggest travel agency, TUI.

The company has scheduled three flights a week between London's Gatwick Airport and Sharm el-Sheikh until late March, the statement said.   British budget airline easyJet said in January it would restart flights to the resort town in June.   On Sunday, flag carrier EgyptAir said it would start operating a weekly flight between London and Sharm el-Sheikh later this month.   British tourists have long been vital to the tourism industry in Sharm el-Sheikh, which was left reeling after the airliner bombing.

Egypt has since sought to lure tourists back, boosting airport security and allowing international inspections of security procedures there.   Russia, another major source of tourists to Egypt, initially suspended all direct flights to the North African country following the attack.   It resumed direct flights to Cairo in 2018 but has yet to restart them to popular Red Sea resorts.   Egypt's tourism industry has shown signs of recovery in recent years with arrivals reaching 11.3 million in 2018, compared with 5.3 million in 2016.
Date: Mon, 17 Feb 2020 10:43:58 +0100 (MET)

Hong Kong, Feb 17, 2020 (AFP) - A gang of knife-wielding men jumped a delivery driver in Hong Kong and stole hundreds of toilet rolls, police said Monday, in a city wracked by shortages caused by coronavirus panic-buying.   Toilet rolls have become hot property in the densely packed business hub, despite government assurances that supplies remain unaffected by the virus outbreak.   Supermarkets have found themselves unable to restock quickly enough, leading to sometimes lengthy queues and shelves wiped clean within moments of opening.

There has also been a run on staples such as rice and pasta, as well as hand sanitiser and other cleaning items.     Police said a truck driver was held up early Monday by three men outside a supermarket in Mong Kok, a working-class district with a history of "triad" organised crime gangs.   "A delivery man was threatened by three knife-wielding men who took toilet paper worth more than HK$1,000 ($130)," a police spokesman told AFP.   A police source told AFP the missing rolls were later recovered and two suspects were arrested on scene although it was not clear if they were directly involved in the armed robbery.

Footage from Now TV showed police investigators standing around multiple crates of toilet roll outside a Wellcome supermarket. One of the crates was only half stacked.   Hong Kongers reacted with a mixture of bafflement and merriment to the heist.   One woman passing by the scene of the crime who was interviewed by local TV station iCable quipped: "I'd steal face masks, but not toilet roll."   The city, which has 58 confirmed coronavirus cases, is currently experiencing a genuine shortage of face masks.    The hysteria that has swept through Hong Kong since the coronavirus outbreak exploded on mainland China is partly fuelled by the city's tragic recent history of confronting a deadly disease.

In 2003, some 299 Hong Kongers died of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), an outbreak that began on the mainland but was initially covered up by Beijing -- action that left a lasting legacy of distrust towards the authorities on public health issues.   The new coronavirus outbreak also comes at a time when the city's pro-Beijing leadership has historic low approval ratings after refusing to bow to months of angry pro-democracy protests last year.   Authorities have blamed online rumours for the panic-buying and say supplies of food and household goods remain stable.   But the panic-buying has itself created shortages in one of the world's most densely populated cities where supermarkets and pharmacies have limited
floor space.

Photos posted online have shown some people proudly stuffing their cramped city apartments with packets of hoarded toilet rolls.    On Sunday, the head of the city's Consumer Council warned people not to stockpile toilet rolls in their flats as they were prone to mould in the notoriously humid climate.   She also reiterated that there were ample stocks of paper.    Supermarket chain Wellcome called Monday's robbery a "senseless act", and called on people not to bulk buy or hoard toilet roll.    "We want to emphasize that we have sufficient toilet roll supply to meet demand," it said in a statement. "The temporary shortage was caused by the sudden and unusual surge in demand."
Date: Mon, 17 Feb 2020 10:11:30 +0100 (MET)

Tokyo, Feb 17, 2020 (AFP) - An additional 99 people have tested positive for coronavirus on a cruise ship off the Japan coast, Japanese media said Monday, citing new figures from the health ministry.   That would take the total number of positive cases on the Diamond Princess to 454. The health ministry declined to confirm the reports immediately.   It was also not clear whether the figures included 14 US citizens who tested positive for the virus but were allowed to board evacuation flights home.

The Diamond Princess vessel moored in Yokohama near Tokyo has become the second-largest cluster of coronavirus cases outside the epicentre in China.    Passengers have been largely confined to quarters since February 5 with only brief and occasional breaks to take air on deck -- with face masks.   The quarantine period is over on Wednesday but many countries have decided to repatriate their citizens after an alarming climb in cases on board.

The US was the first country to evacuate its citizens from the ship but Australia, Canada, Italy and Hong Kong have indicated they will follow suit.   On land, cases in Japan have risen to 65, with authorities warning that the outbreak is entering a "new phase" and advising people to avoid large gatherings.    A public celebration of the new emperor's birthday on Sunday has been scrapped and organisers of the Tokyo Marathon scheduled on March 1 are reportedly considering cancelling the amateur part of the race.
Date: Sat, 15 Feb 2020 15:25:00 +0100 (MET)
By Benoît Pavan à Moûtiers avec Thomas Rossi dans les Pyrénées

Moûtiers, France, Feb 15, 2020 (AFP) - French protests at planned labour reforms hit ski resorts on Saturday, with chairlift operators and other seasonal staff downing tools over fears their livelihoods could be on a slippery slope.   Hundreds of staff at a clutch of resorts in the Alps and Pyrenees walked out in response to calls for action by the CGT and FO unions, forcing some runs to be closed or partially closed.   They are concerned that reforms extending the required period of employment before people are eligible for benefits, set to take effect from April 1, could stop thousands of seasonal workers from claiming.

Some voiced their protest in song at the bottom of pistes at Serre-Chevalier close to the Italian border, chanting: "We're going down the mountain to get rid of Macron," referring to French President Emmanuel Macron.   The French leader's attempts to overhaul pensions and welfare have led to months of bitter protests and strikes.    "Our situation will become even more precarious with these reforms," explained Christophe Dupuis, who works as a ski patroller at La Plagne, one of the world's most popular ski areas.   "We will need six months instead of four before we can apply for unemployment benefit," added Dupuis, who works as a lifeguard during the summer.   "We don't have six-month seasons, not least as the winter seasons are tending to get shorter rather than longer," said Maud Goret, a seasonal worker and CGT member at Font-Romeu in the Pyrenees -- where half the workforce had downed tools.

Many relatively low altitude resorts are suffering from a lack of snow owing to climate change, compounding fears over what the future holds.   As the workers voiced their grievances, further signs of the shortage of snow increasingly hitting resorts came as local authorities at Luchon-Superbagneres in the French southwest told AFP they had decided to have extra snow helicoptered in to three areas running short.

A union official said some 50 tons were being brought in for between 5,000 and 6,000 euros ($5,500-6,500) "in the knowledge that in terms of return on the investment you need to multiply that at least by ten," for an operation lasting around two-and-a-half hours.   He added that it might not be a "particularly ecological" solution but "we had no choice" at the height of the season when many children in French are on half-term holiday.
Date: Wed 12 Feb 2020
Source: Teresina Municipal Health Foundation [in Portuguese, machine trans., edited]

Health Surveillance Directorate - Epidemiology Management
---------------------------------------------------------
Given the laboratory confirmation of 5 human cases of melioidosis (ICD-10 A24.4) that occurred in the state of Piaui in 2019 (including one death), the FMS Health Surveillance Directorate recommends Hospital Infection Control Commissions, to the Hospital Surveillance Centers, public and private microbiology laboratories, infectious disease specialists, pulmonologists, microbiologists, biochemists and physicians in general who are attentive, immediately report any case with a result of a culture of biological material (blood culture, urine culture, wound culture, tracheal secretion, cerebrospinal fluid, bronchial lavage, ascitic fluid, abscess, tissues, etc.) positive for the bacterium _Burkholderia pseudomallei_ (or _Burkholderia_ sp.). The notification must be made through the individual notification form of SINAN (available at <http://portalsinan.saude.gov.br/images/documentos/Agravos/NINDIV/Notificacao_Individual_v5.pdf>) and sent to the FMS, with the code appended ICD10: A24.4.

The positive bacterial isolate should be sent to the Central Public Health Laboratory, Dr. Costa Alvarenga (LACEN - PI) for confirmatory examination (Nested - PCR), upon registration in the GAL system (research: _Burkholderia pseudomallei_ sample: swab), in swab with Stuart's medium, at room temperature, along with a copy of the notification form.
======================
[This 2016 article (Limmathurotsakul D, Golding N, Dance DA, et al., Predicted global distribution of _Burkholderia pseudomallei_ and burden of melioidosis. Nat Microbiol. 2016;1:15008. <https://doi.org/10.1038/nmicrobiol.2015.8>; article available at <http://www.nature.com/articles/nmicrobiol20158.pdf>) for 2015 estimates the burden of melioidosis for the areas of major and some risk as follows:

Area / Population at risk in millions / Melioidosis cases in thousands / Melioidosis deaths in thousands
South Asia / 1525 / 73 / 42
East Asia and Pacific / 858 / 65 / 31
Sub-Saharan Africa / 602 / 24 / 15
Latin America and Caribbean / 246 / 2 / 1
Middle East and North Africa / 49 / less than 1 / less than 1

Although a classical infection in eastern Asia and northern Australia, cases have been acquired in Africa, the Caribbean basin, Central America, and, as in this case, South America. - ProMED Mod.LL]

Date: Tue 11 Feb 2020
Source: SABC News [edited]

A 56-year-old was admitted at the Klerksdorp Tshepong Hospital on Saturday [8 Feb 2020] with a history of tick bite followed by flulike symptoms including headaches and fatigue.

The North West Health Department says while no active bleeding was noted, treatment was started immediately.

Crimean-Congo fever, also known as Congo fever/haemorrhagic fever, is a disease caused by a tick-borne virus with a case fatality rate of 10% to 40%.

Transmission to humans occurs through contact with infected animal blood or ticks. It can be transmitted from one infected human to another by contact with infectious blood or body fluids.

Symptoms include high fever, vomiting and abdominal pain, but as the illness progresses, large areas of severe bruising and severe nosebleeds are also common.

Clinical Manager at the Klerksdorp Hospital Dr. David Leburu says: "Crimean-Congo fever can make a person bleed. It can make people bleed just like Ebola but not as aggressive as Ebola."
===================
[Occupational groups such as herders, farmers, abattoir workers, veterinarians/animal health workers, hunters and persons informally slaughtering domestic/wild animals are at higher risk of infection. These persons often have exposure to ticks on the animals and in the animal environment, and also often have exposure to animal blood/tissues (e.g., during castration of calves, vaccination, notching/tagging of ears, slaughtering).

Humans can become infected in the following ways:
- Being bitten by infected ticks;
- Squashing infected ticks (if fluid from the ticks enters into cuts/grazes on the skin, or splashes onto mucous membranes, including the eyes, nose and mouth);
- If blood/tissue from infected animals (during the short period that the animals have virus in circulation) comes into contact with cuts/grazes on the skin, or splashes onto mucous membranes, including the eyes, nose and mouth;
- Needle-stick/sharps injuries in healthcare workers from infected patients.

The patient in the above report had a history of tick bite, but no other epidemiological information is available.

Human CCHF cases have been reported annually from South Africa since 1981, when it was first recognized in the country; between 0 and 20 cases of CCHF are reported each year. Through nearly 30 years of passive surveillance, more than 180 cases have been laboratory-confirmed. Although cases have been reported from all 9 provinces in the past 30 years, more than half of the cases originate from the semi-arid areas of Northern Cape Province (31.5% of cases) and Free State Province (23% of cases) (<http://www.nicd.ac.za/assets/files/CCHF_FAQ-General_Public.pdf>). - ProMED Mod.UBA]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail maps:
North West Province, South Africa:
Date: Wed 12 Feb 2020 05:23 PM EST
Source: ABC27/WHTM [edited]

Two Newberry Township [York County] men are getting treatments for rabies after a coyote that attacked them tested positive for the deadly virus.

One man was with his dog when the coyote attacked [Mon 10 Feb 2020] on Red Bank Road. The 2nd man was working nearby in his garage when the coyote entered and bit him.

A neighbour shot and killed the coyote the following day and gave the carcass to the Pennsylvania Game Commission. A test confirmed the animal was rabid.
=====================
[[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Pennsylvania, United States:
Pennsylvania county map:

Rabies is a serious disease, and is always fatal in animals. In humans there is post exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which must be given within a prescribed amount of time. Individuals bitten by a rabid animal who do not seek treatment within the narrow window for PEP in all likelihood will die if they develop rabies. Heroic measures have succeeded in preserving the lives of only a handful of individual, and yet their live is never a complete return to normal.

Rabies is a serious disease and should be taken seriously by all individuals, whether you are a pet owner or not. Animal owners, regardless of whether your animal is a horse, or dog, or cow, or cat, or goat, or other animal, vaccinate the animal against this fatal disease. Protect your investment in your farm animals, and protect yourself by vaccinating farm animals and pets.

Rabies can be in wildlife, as these stories note. However, we seldom get one involving an otter. While otters are cute and playful on the nature programs, they are susceptible to rabies, as is any mammal, so it is imperative we be alert to the animals around us, no matter where we are or what animal is involved. - ProMED Mod.TG]
Date: Sat 8 Feb 2020 05:16 PM EST
Source: Fox 8 [edited]

A Florida mom says she had to tackle an otter to protect her daughter and dog, WFLA reports. We don't often hear about aggressive river otters. But by fighting its way inside a home in Florida, experts say the otter was definitely not acting normal.  "My husband's like 'you just alligator wrangled an otter in the living room!'" [CE] said. The otter learned to not mess with a mother's instincts. "I think life is full of surprises, and you should just be ready for whatever," [she] said.

The story starts after 17-year old [GE] let their dog Scooter out before dawn Tuesday morning [4 Feb 2020]. Scooter had found an enemy.  "I sprinted to the backdoor, and I was like 'Scooter!' All I saw was like a big black ball just all over the place. So he stumbled in the door, and I tried to shut it as fast as possible, but then the otter got stuck," [GE] said.

By this time, the whole house is awake and her mother bursts in.  "I snatched it by the tail," [CE] said. "And then I held it up like a prize. And the otter's going crazy. It was like clawing at me and grabbing on to the backs of the furniture in my house." [CE] tossed the otter outside and discovered it had bit her daughter in the leg.

Several rabies shots later, [GE] and Scooter are on the mend. Now Florida Fish and Wildlife is trying to find the otter. It is unknown whether the otter has rabies because it has not been caught. His behaviour was definitely abnormal.  "Any time an otter's onshore going for a human, there's something not right. Usually, they see you, they're gone," said Dustin Hooper, an animal trapper, and owner of All Creatures Wildlife Control.
=====================
[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Florida, United States:
Florida county map:
Date: Tue 4 Feb 2020
Source: Robesonian [edited]

A 9-year-old boy is undergoing treatment after being bitten by a rabid fox, according to the [Robeson] County Department of Public Health.

The boy was riding his bicycle Sunday evening [2 Feb 2020] on Barnhill Road in Lumberton when he was attacked by a fox, according to the Health Department. The fox was killed at the scene and its head was submitted for testing on [Mon 3 Feb 2020]. The results came back positive for rabies on [Tue 4 Feb 2020].

The boy will undergo a series of shots to prevent the onset of rabies, according to the Health Department. Area residents have been alerted and advised to monitor their children's and pets' activities.

According to the Health Department release, Sunday's bite case was properly reported "and as such, the system responded correctly. After-hour calls go to communications who contact the Animal Control officer on call."

Sunday's attack by a rabid wild animal is the 1st confirmed case of rabies in Robeson County this year [2020], said Bill Smith, Health Department director.

"I believe we had 3 this past year," he said. Those cases were animal-on-animal attacks, Smith said. "I think they were all pets last year," he said.

County residents need to be aware there are many more rabid animals in the area, he said. But the rate of confirmed contact between rabid animals and humans or pets is low because Robeson County is a rural county with large tracts of forests.

In rural areas the most likely scenario is an animal attacking a pet or human and then running into the woods, where it will die without anyone knowing if it had rabies or not, Smith said. In urban areas, there is more contact between humans and pets and animals known to be rabid because the attacking animal has no woods into which to run and hide. Therefore, the animal is easier to catch and test.

If someone is bitten by an animal that runs into the woods and is not caught and tested then precautions have to be taken, he said.

"We would treat that as a rabid animal," Smith said.

Sunday's incident prompted the county Health Department to issue the following advisories:
- all dogs, cats, and ferrets 4 months and older are required to be vaccinated against rabies and wear a current rabies vaccination tag per North Carolina law;
- if an animal is destroyed, try not to damage the head because it jeopardizes the testing of the brain;
- avoid feeding wild animals. Foxes and raccoons are the main sources of rabies in the Robeson County area and feeding them increases the likelihood of interaction between the wildlife and dogs, cats and humans.
=======================
[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of North Carolina, United States:
North Carolina county map: