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Andorra

General
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This small country is situated between France and Spain. Because of its elevation and proximity to the Pyrenees the climate is generally pleasant throughout the year.
Climate
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During the summer months the temperatures can rise to 30c but there is usually a cooling breeze. Lightening storms can occur during the summer months associated with torrential rain.
Sun Exposure and Dehydration
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Those from Northern Europe can develop significant sun exposure and so remember to use a wide brimmed hat when necessary. The altitude can also lead to significant tiredness and dehydration so take sufficient initial rest and drink plenty of fluids.
Safety & Security
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The level of crime throughout the country directed at tourists is very low. Nevertheless take care of your personal belongings at all times and use hotel safety boxes where possible.
Local Customs
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There are strict laws regarding the use of illegal drugs. Make sure you have sufficient supplies of any medication you required for your trip and that it is clearly marked. The European E111 form is not accepted in Andorra and so it is essential that you have sufficient travel insurance for your trip.
Winter Sports
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Andorra is one of the regions where many travel to partake of their winter sport facilities. Generally this is well controlled and one of the safer regions. Nevertheless, make certain your travel insurance is adequate for the activities you are planning to undertake.
Vaccination
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The only standard vaccine to consider for Andorra would be tetanus in line with many other developed countries of the world.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu, 12 Jul 2018 15:24:06 +0200

Andorra la Vella, Andorra, July 12, 2018 (AFP) - The tax haven of Andorra has long been a favourite destination for smokers looking to stock up on cheap cigarettes, but the enclave said Thursday that it would soon stop advertising the fact.   The government said it had signed up to the World Health Organization's (WHO) anti-tobacco convention, which aims to encourage people to quit smoking and combat contraband sales.   "The goal is to contribute to public health and pursue the fight against trafficking," government spokesman Jordi Cinca said at a press conference.

The tiny principality of Andorra, perched in the Pyrenees on the border between France and Spain, attracts millions of shoppers each year to duty-free stores, where prices of alcohol, cigarettes, electronics and clothes can be up to 20 percent cheaper than elsewhere in the EU.   High taxes on tobacco imposed by many countries to help people kick smoking make Andorra's cigarettes a particularly good deal.   The average pack costs just three euros ($3.50) compared with eight euros in France, which has said it will gradually raise the price to 10 euros a pack by November 2020.

Tobacco sales bring in some 110 million euros a year for Andorra, whose economy is otherwise based almost entirely on tourism.   It is also an enticing destination for smugglers, with French and Spanish border agents regularly seizing cartons from people trying to sneak them out, either by car or by hiking down the mountain trails which criss-cross the Pyrenees.   No date has been set for the advertising ban, which will come into effect three months after the ratification of the WHO accord is voted by parliament.
Date: Fri, 16 Mar 2018 02:41:51 +0100

Andorra la Vella, Andorra, March 16, 2018 (AFP) - The tiny principality of Andorra is witnessing a once in a generation phenomenon -- a widespread strike.   Around a third of civil servants across the mountainous micro-state have walked out to protest proposed reforms to their sector in what has been described as Andorra's first large-scale strike since 1933.

With no negotiation breakthrough in sight, picket lines are expected to be manned again on Friday with customs officers, police, teachers and prison staff among those taking part.   The first major strike in 85 years was sparked by plans from the government of Antoni Marti to reform civil servant contracts.   He has assured officials "will not do an hour more" work under the reforms and that 49 million euros would be allocated for the next 25 years to supplement civil servant salaries.   But government workers are unconvinced with unions warning the reforms could risk their 35 hour working week and pay.

Customs officers involved in the strike interrupted traffic on the Andorran-Spanish border this week, according to unions, while some 80 percent of teachers have walked out of classes.   Strikers have occupied the government's main administrative building and held noisy protests outside parliament calling for Marti's resignation.    "We have started collecting signatures to demand the resignation of the head of government and now nobody will stop us," Gabriel Ubach, spokesman for the public service union, told reporters.
Date: Mon 27 Sep 2017
Source: Contagion Live [edited]

A recent Dispatch article published in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Emerging Infectious Diseases journal, offers insight into a large norovirus outbreak that sprung up in Spain in 2016 that had been linked with bottled spring water. The Public Health Agency of Catalonia (ASPCAT) reported a staggering 4136 cases of gastroenteritis from 11-25 Apr 2016. Of the 4136 cases, 6 individuals required hospitalization. The CDC defines a "case-patient" as an "exposed person who had vomiting or diarrhoea (3 or more loose stools within 24 hours)," as well as 2 or more of the following symptoms: nausea, stomach pain, or fever.

ASPCAT investigators traced back the outbreak to contaminated bottled spring water in office water coolers. The water came from a source in Andorra, a small independent principality located between Spain and France. Norovirus is a "very contagious virus," according to the CDC, and it is common for individuals to become infected by eating contaminated food. Although it is possible to be infected by consuming contaminated drinking water, this mode of transmission is "rare in developed countries," according to the article.

The investigators collected water samples from a total of 4 19-L water coolers in 2 different offices located in Barcelona, "from which affected persons had drunk; samples 1 and 2 came from 2 water coolers in one office, while samples 3 and 4 came from 2 water coolers in another office. Using "positively charged glass wool and polyethylene glycol precipitation for virus concentration," the investigators tested the samples.

"We detected high RNA levels for norovirus genotype I and II, around 103 and 104 genome copies/L, in 2 of the 4 water cooler samples concentrated by glass wool filtration and polyethylene glycol precipitation," according to the article. The investigators noted that a drawback of using molecular methods is that they are not able to differentiate between particles that are infectious and those that are not. Therefore, they "predicted the infectivity of norovirus in the concentrated samples by treating the samples with the nucleic acid intercalating dye PMA propidium monoazide and Triton X surfactant before RT-qPCR," which allowed them to "distinguish between virions with intact and altered capsids."

In those 2 water samples, they found high genome copy values -- 49 and 327 genome copies/L for norovirus genotype I and 33 and 660 genomes copies/L for norovirus genotype II. This was not an unexpected finding, due to the large number of infected individuals associated with the outbreak. Through "PMA/Triton treatment before RT-qPCR assays," the investigators found that the proportion of infected virions accounted for 0.3% to 5.6% of the total number of physical particles in the water samples, "which was enough to cause gastrointestinal illness."

The investigators also analyzed faecal samples collected from infected individuals who worked at the office in which the 1st 2 water samples were collected. They detected the following genotypes in those faecal samples: GI.2 and GII.17. In the faecal samples collected from the other office, they isolated the following genotypes: GII.4/Sydney/2012, GI.2, GII.17, and GII.2.

"We hypothesize that the spring water was contaminated by all 4 strains (GI.2, GII.2, GII.4, and GII.17) but levels of viral contamination for each genotype were not homogeneous in all bottled coolers," the investigators wrote. "We may have detected only the GII.4 genotype in water samples 1 and 2 because of a higher concentration of this specific genotype or because of bias caused by the sampling, concentration, and molecular detection procedures."

The investigators admit one limitation to their study: the small number of water samples collected and analyzed. They attribute this to the fact that on 15 Apr 2016, 4 days after the onset of the outbreak, the company that produced the drinking water recalled over 6150 containers of water "of suspected quality" as a precautionary measure. The recall prevented the investigators from collecting more samples to assess, according to the article.

Although the exact cause of the contamination has not yet been identified, the investigators posit that "the high number of affected persons from 381 offices that received water coolers, and the many different genotypes found in some patients' faecal specimens" suggest that the spring aquifer had been contaminated by "sewage pollution," and the Andorra Ministry of Health and Welfare banned further use of the spring.

The investigators suggest that assessing commercially-produced mineral waters for different harmful pathogens, such as norovirus would be beneficial. They note, however, that creating, enhancing, and managing such "virus surveillance systems" would be costly. Thus, the investigators suggest taking a "balanced approach to keep both the cost and the time required for the analyses within feasibility limits."  [Byline: Kristi Rosa]
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[The interesting article published in the September 2017 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases is:
Blanco A, Guix S, Fuster N, et al: Norovirus in bottled water associated with gastroenteritis outbreak, Spain, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017; 23(9): 1531-34; https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/23/9/16-1489_article. - ProMED Mod.LL]

[Catalonia and Andorra can be located on the HealthMap/ProMED-mail map at http://healthmap.org/promed/p/1341. - ProMED Sr.Tech.Ed.MJ]
Date: Thu, 26 Dec 2013 22:25:05 +0100 (MET)

ANDORRA LA VELLA, Andorra, Dec 26, 2013 (AFP) - A Spanish skier and a French snowboarder have died in avalanches in different mountain ranges in Europe, officials said Thursday.

The 27-year-old skier, a woman from Barcelona, died Wednesday while going off-piste alone in the Soldeu resort in Andorra, in the Pyrenees mountains between France and Spain, a resort manager told AFP.   Although she was rescued within 10 minutes, after her glove was spotted on the surface, she was unable to be revived despite a helicopter dash to hospital.

In the Italian Alps, close to the border with France, a 24-year-old Frenchman who was snowboarding with three friends on a closed run died Thursday when an avalanche swept over him in the resort town of Les Arnauds.   Local officials said he succumbed to multiple injuries, asphyxia and hypothermia.

Avalanches are common in Europe's ski resorts at this time of year, when early snows are heavy with moisture, and several deaths occur each winter.   Last Sunday, a 35-year-old Frenchman died in an avalanche in the Alps near the Italian border while on a three-day trek with a friend.
Date: Fri 7 Feb 2003 From: Jaime R. Torres Source: EFE Salud, Thu 6 Feb 2003 (translated by Maria Jacobs) [edited] -------------------------------------------------- Close to 300 students in one school and 173 tourists staying in 7 hotels in the Principality of Andorra have been affected by outbreaks of gastroenteritis that, according to local authorities, are not related to each other. Monica Codina, Minister of Health, stated that the outbreak that has affected almost 300 children and 8 adults in the San Ermengol school was detected last Monday [3 Feb 2003] but that it may have started Wednesday or Thursday of the previous week. The epidemiological surveys of a group of pre-school and grammar school students that may also be affected have not been performed yet. Also pending are the results of the microbiological tests of the food and water served in the school dining room, but the minister has indicated that the probable cause of the outbreak is the fact that water pitchers were filled with hoses directly from the faucet. The Minister stated that this outbreak of gastroenteritis is not related to the one that affected 173 tourists, most of them young people on holiday, who where staying in 7 hotels of the Principality. The government is also investigating the cause of this outbreak and has indicated that an anomaly in the system that supplies water to the hotels was detected, requiring a process of chlorination, which has not been carried out due to the heavy snowfall of the past few days. * * * * * * * * * * [The suspicion that defective water supplies may be responsible for all of these independent outbreaks suggests that the etiologic agent may be an enterovirus, hepatitis A virus, or non-viral, rather than one of the noroviruses associated with sudden-onset viral gastroenteritis. Information on the outcome of diagnostic tests in progress would be welcomed. - ProMed Mod.CP]
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Puerto Rico

No Profile is available at present

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Sun, 15 Mar 2020 23:58:27 +0100 (MET)

San Juan, March 15, 2020 (AFP) - The US territory of Puerto Rico on Sunday ordered a 9:00 pm to 5:00 am curfew to stem the spread of the novel coronavirus, the strongest measure yet taken on American soil.   It took effect immediately and lasts until March 30.   "Faced with the possibility of transmission and propagation of the virus, I have ordered the imposition of a curfew for all residents of Puerto Rico," Governor Wanda Vazquez announced in a video message.   "We must take every precaution to ensure that we do not become potential carriers," Vazquez said.

The Caribbean territory of 2.9 million, whose residents are US citizens, also will close many businesses from Sunday until the end of the month, she said.   That includes malls, movie theaters, concert venues, gyms, bars and other businesses that bring together large crowds on the island popular with tourists.   The exceptions will be businesses in the food supply chain, and in the medical care system, as well as drugstores, gas stations, banks and senior citizens' group homes.

At night, only those who are providing or receiving medical care, or carrying out essential duties, will be allowed to be on Puerto Rico's streets.   Anyone defying the curfew faces a six-month jail term and a fine of up to $5,000.   The island declared a state of emergency when its first cases were reported March 12. The island has reported five cases.   On Friday, Vazquez accepted the resignation of Health Secretary Rafael Rodriguez Mercado, who was under fire for his handling the coronavirus emergency.

Recently, island residents were irate when two warehouses were found to be filled with abandoned supplies, apparently never used after Hurricanes Irma and Maria in 2017.   The storms' one-two punch left Puerto Ricans without power for months and killed nearly 3,000 people, according to the local government's official numbers.   President Donald Trump has accused the Puerto Rican government of incompetence and siphoning off hurricane relief money.   The Puerto Rican leaders accused Trump of treating the population of the island like second class citizens.
Date: Thu, 16 Jan 2020 02:45:27 +0100 (MET)
By Ivelisse RIVERA, con Leila MACOR en Miami

Yauco, Puerto Rico, Jan 16, 2020 (AFP) - Living out in the open, their nerves on edge after a series of earthquakes that have shaken Puerto Rico, some 5,000 people are hoping that their president, Donald Trump, will heed the island's plea to be designated a disaster zone and free up much-needed aid.   Since December 28, more than 1,000 tremors have rattled the US island territory in the Caribbean, which just two years ago was devastated by two powerful hurricanes in quick succession.

In Yauco, one of the areas worst hit by the earthquakes, dozens of people were sitting on cot beds Wednesday in the parking lot of a municipal stadium, sheltered from the sun by white tents and blue tarps handed out by the federal disaster management agency, known as FEMA.  "The most difficult thing is the psychological aspect," said Wilfredo Rodriguez, 31. His house had been fractured by the seismic movement and he has spent a week living with his kids, aged six and 10, under an awning.    "We are living in constant fear of another powerful tremor," he said.

He only returns to his house to wash, then hurries back to the shelter. "We worry that there'll be a more powerful tremor while we are inside the house," he said.   Throughout the day, volunteers arrive to hand out food and toys for the children who fill the shelters: schools have been suspended because the buildings are not sturdy enough to withstand another quake.    The island's earthquake detection system has registered 1,104 tremors in the past two weeks alone, of which 186 could be felt by the population. By comparison, during the whole of 2019 there were 6,442 tremors, of which just 62 could be felt by people on the island.

Further south, in Guanico, Juan Santiago decided to move into a shelter on Saturday after a tremor of 5.9 on the Richter scale hit the island. "The mountain shook and rocks and earth started to come down," said the 30-year-old.  "My house has a crack in it and is about to fall down," he added. His home had weathered the Category Five winds of Hurricane Maria in September 2017 and of Hurricane Irma which followed it just two weeks later.   "It's different to a hurricane. What is happening now is much nastier," he said.

As he was talking the earth shook again, a tremor of 5.2 magnitude. Vehicles rocked like hammocks in the wind, but the quake-hardened victims barely reacted.   The houses in this part of the island are mostly rudimentary constructions built by the people who live in them with scant resources available in the mountains, where no regulations stipulate that buildings should be earthquake resistant.    The government of Puerto Rico said that as of Monday, there were 4,924 people living in 28 shelters in 14 municipalities. There were no figures on how many buildings had been damaged or destroyed.

- Seeking disaster designation -
Puerto Rico's governor Wanda Vazquez Garced called on Trump to declare the earthquake a disaster and clear the way for desperately needed aid. Trump had declared an emergency days before, but the governor wanted more.   The declaration of an emergency frees up to $5 million dollars in aid for the island, although Congress can bump that figure up. But if the situation is designated a disaster, there is no ceiling on funding, a FEMA spokesman said.   On Wednesday, the government said it would release $8.2 billion in delayed hurricane relief that had been stalled after the president threatened to divert Puerto Rico's emergency funds to help pay for his wall on the US-Mexico border.

In the past few days there have been growing calls among Democratic lawmakers for Trump to declare the situation in Puerto Rico a disaster.   It is a delicate subject, as Trump has accused the government of Puerto Rico of incompetence and of siphoning off hurricane relief money, triggering a public spat between the president and the mayor of San Juan, Carmen Yulin Cruz, as well as the former governor Ricardo Rossello, who was forced to step down last summer amid massive protests.   The Puerto Rican leaders accused Trump of treating the population of the island like second class citizens.
Date: Sat, 11 Jan 2020 15:43:12 +0100 (MET)

Washington, Jan 11, 2020 (AFP) - A 5.9 magnitude earthquake rocked Puerto Rico Saturday, the latest in a series of powerful tremors that have shaken the US territory in recent days, the US Geological Survey reported.

The latest quake occurred at 8:54 am local time (1254 GMT) around 13 kilometres (eight miles) southeast of Guanica, a town on the island's southern Caribbean coastline that was hard hit by earlier quakes.   The USGS revised its initial report of a 6.0 magnitude quake to 5.9.   It follows a 6.4 magnitude quake Tuesday that killed one person, knocked
out electric power and caused widespread damage.

Puerto Rico Governor Wanda Vazquez declared a state of emergency after Tuesday's quake, which forced an automatic shutdown of the power grid.    Puerto Rico's electric power authority reported outages in the towns of Ponce, Lares, Adjuntas and San German after the latest quake.   The Pacific Tsunami Information Center in Hawaii issued a statement saying there was "no significant tsunami threat" but a small possibility of tsunami waves along coasts nearest the epicentre.

The island is still recovering from Hurricane Maria, which came ashore more than two years ago as a devastating Category 4 storm.   Starting December 28, a wave of tremors have swept the island, putting residents on edge.   The 6.4 quake on January 7 came a day after a 5.8 magnitude quake; it was followed by major aftershocks.   Saturday's quakes were also preceded by a string of smaller tremors.
Date: Tue, 7 Jan 2020 23:44:45 +0100 (MET)
By Ricardo Arduengo

Guayanilla, Puerto Rico, Jan 7, 2020 (AFP) - Puerto Rico's governor declared a state of emergency on Tuesday after a powerful 6.4 magnitude earthquake killed at least one person in the south of the island and caused widespread damage.   Governor Wanda Vazquez said the declaration would allow for the activation of National Guard troops in the US territory still recovering from a devastating 2017 hurricane.   The US Geological Survey said the quake struck at 4:24 am (0824 GMT) with the epicenter off the coast of the southern city of Ponce, and was followed by more than a dozen aftershocks.

Tuesday's quake was the most powerful in a series of tremors that have shaken the island since December 28.   Scientists initially sent out an alert about a potential tsunami but it was later canceled.   The island's electricity authority said the quake had forced an automatic shutdown of the power grid, already severely damaged by Hurricane Maria more than two years ago.   The worst damage appeared to be in towns on the southwest coast, including Ponce, Guayanilla and Guanica.   El Nuevo Dia newspaper said a 73-year-old man died after a wall fell in his home in Ponce. Eight others there were reported injured.

Two power plants in Guayanilla sustained major damage, the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority said. The city could be without power for two weeks, its mayor Nelson Torres Yordan said.   Celebrity chef Jose Andres announced that a charity he runs, World Central Kitchen, had started serving meals and distributing solar-powered lamps in quake-hit areas.   Vazquez announced that $130 million in emergency aid funding will be disbursed.   On social media, people wrote of being shaken awake by the force of the quake.   One woman on Twitter said she had been "wrenched from sleep."   "Everybody is awake & scared all over," she posted.   In Guayanilla, the Inmaculada Concepcion church, built in 1841, was heavily damaged.   Volunteers salvaged statues and other valuable items from the ruins as a priest consoled distraught parishioners.

- 'Be safe' -
A 5.8 magnitude quake on Monday toppled some structures, caused power outages and small landslides, but did not result in any casualties.   It also destroyed a popular tourist landmark, Punta Ventana, a natural stone arch that crumbled on the island's southern coast.   Vazquez, the governor, said government employees were being given the day off on Tuesday to take care of their families.   "We want everyone to be safe," she said.   She said ports were undamaged and there are several weeks' supply of gasoline, diesel and natural gas stored so people need not worry about shortages.

The White House said President Donald Trump had been briefed and Pete Gaynor, head of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), had been in touch with the governor.   Trump's administration came under severe criticism for its response to Hurricane Maria.   The Category 4 storm destroyed the island's already shaky power grid, overwhelmed public services, left many residents homeless and claimed several thousand lives, according to government estimates.
Date: Tue, 7 Jan 2020 12:52:34 +0100 (MET)

Washington, Jan 7, 2020 (AFP) - A strong earthquake struck south of Puerto Rico early Tuesday, the US Geological Survey said, the latest in a series of tremors that have shaken the island since December 28.   The shallow 6.5 magnitude quake struck 13.6 kilometres (8.5 miles) south of the city of Ponce, the USGS said, revising down its initial reading of 6.6.   The quake struck just off the US territory's southern Caribbean coastline at 4:24 am local time (0824 GMT).   "The whole island is without power," the director of Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, Jose Ortiz, told local media.

Puerto Rico's governor Wanda Vazquez Garced posted on Twitter that the government's security protocols had been activated.   She said government employees were not expected at work, adding: "We want everyone to be safe."   On social media, people wrote of being shaken awake by the force of the quake.   One woman on Twitter said she had been "wrenched from sleep", adding "Everybody is awake & scared all over."

Dramatic images also shared on social media appeared to show widespread damage in the town of Guayanilla, home to around 20,000 people, as well as nearby Guanica.   The mayor of Guayanilla told local news channel NotiUno that the town's church had collapsed in the incident.

An alert issued by the Tsunami Warning Center immediately following the earthquake was later cancelled.   Tuesday's quake was the strongest of a series of tremors that have shaken the island since December 28, topping Monday's 5.8 quake.   That earthquake toppled houses and caused power outages, but there were no reports of casualties.
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Lithuania

Lithuania US Consular Information Sheet
May 19, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Lithuania is a stable democracy undergoing rapid economic growth. Tourist facilities in Vilnius, the capital, and to a lesser extent in Kaunas and Klaipeda, are simi
ar to those available in other European cities. In other parts of the country, however, some of the goods and services taken for granted in other countries may not be available. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Lithuania for additional information.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: A valid passport is required to enter Lithuania. As there are no direct flights from the U.S. to Lithuania, U.S. citizens should be aware of passport validity requirements in transit countries. American citizens do not need a visa to travel to Lithuania for business or pleasure for up to 90 days. That 90-day period begins with entry to any of the “Schengen Group” countries: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, and Sweden. Multiple visits to Schengen countries may not exceed 90 days in any 6 month period. Travelers remaining in Lithuania for more than 90 days within any six-month period must apply for temporary residency.

Lithuanian authorities recommend applying or a residency permit through a Lithuanian embassy or consulate before initial entry into Lithuania, as processing times can run beyond 90 days. All foreigners of non-European Union countries seeking entry into Lithuania must carry proof of a medical insurance policy contracted for payment of all costs of hospitalization and medical treatment in Lithuania. Visitors unable to demonstrate sufficient proof of medical insurance must purchase short-term insurance at the border from a Lithuanian provider for roughly $1.00 per day. The number of days will be calculated from the day of entry until the date on the return ticket. Children residing in Lithuania must have written permission to travel outside the country from at least one parent if their parents are not accompanying them on their trip. This policy is not applicable to temporary visitors. See our Foreign Entry Requirements brochure for more information on Lithuania and other countries. Visit the Embassy of Lithuania web site at www.ltembassyus.org for the most current visa information.
Note: Although European Union regulations require that non-EU visitors obtain a stamp in their passport upon initial entry to a Schengen country, many borders are not staffed with officers carrying out this function. If an American citizen wishes to ensure that his or her entry is properly documented, it may be necessary to request a stamp at an official point of entry. Under local law, travelers without a stamp in their passport may be questioned and asked to document the length of their stay in Schengen countries at the time of departure or at any other point during their visit, and could face possible fines or other repercussions if unable to do so.
Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site. For further information abut customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.
SAFETY AND SECURITY: Civil unrest is not a problem in Lithuania, and there have been no incidents of terrorism directed toward American interests. Incidents of anti-Americanism are rare.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, including the Worldwide Caution, can be found.
Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).
The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME: Lithuania is a relatively safe country. Visitors should maintain the same personal security awareness that they would in any metropolitan U.S. city. Large amounts of cash and expensive jewelry should be secured in a hotel safe or left at home. Crimes against foreigners, while usually non-violent, do occur. Pickpocketing and thefts are problems, so personal belongings should be well protected at all times. Theft from cars and car thefts occur regularly. Drivers should be wary of persons indicating they should pull over or that something is wrong with their car. Often, a second car or person is following, and when the driver of the targeted car gets out to see if there is a problem the person who has been following will either steal the driver’s belongings from the vehicle or get in and drive off with the car. Drivers should never get out of the car to check for damage without first turning off the ignition and taking the keys. Valuables should not be left in plain sight in parked vehicles, as there have been increasing reports of car windows smashed and items stolen. If possible, American citizens should avoid walking alone at night. ATMs should be avoided after dark. In any public area, one should always be alert to being surrounded by two or more people at once. Additionally, criminals have a penchant for taking advantage of drunken pedestrians. Americans have reported being robbed and/or scammed while intoxicated.
Following a trend that has spread across Eastern and Central Europe, racially motivated verbal, and sometimes physical, harassment of foreigners of non-Caucasian ethnicity has been reported in major cities. Incidents of racially motivated attacks against American citizens have been reported in Klaipeda and Vilnius.
In many countries around the world, counterfeit and pirated goods are widely available. Transactions involving such products may be illegal under local law. In addition, bringing them back to the United States may result in forfeitures and/or fines. More information on these serious problems is available at http://www.cybercrime.gov/18usc2320.htm.
INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed. For more information about assistance for victims of crime in Lithuania, please visit the Embassy’s web site at http://vilnius.usembassy.gov/service/crime-victim-assistance.html.
See our information on Victims of Crime.
MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Medical care in Lithuania has improved in the last 15 years, but medical facilities do not always meet Western standards. There are a few private clinics with medical supplies and services that nearly equal Western European or U.S. standards. Most medical supplies are now widely available, including disposable needles, anesthetics, antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals. However, hospitals and clinics still suffer from a lack of equipment and resources. Lithuania has highly trained medical professionals, some of whom speak English, but their availability is decreasing as they leave for employment opportunities abroad. Depending on his or her condition, a patient may not receive an appointment with a specialist for several weeks. Western-quality dental care can be obtained in major cities. Elderly travelers who require medical care may face difficulties. Most pharmaceuticals sold in Lithuania are from Europe; travelers will not necessarily find the same brands that they use in the United States. Serious medical problems requiring hospitalization and/or medical evacuation can cost thousands of dollars or more. Doctors and hospitals often expect immediate cash payment for health services, particularly if immigration status in Lithuania is unclear.

Tick-borne encephalitis and lyme disease are widespread throughout the country. Those intending to visit parks or forested areas in Lithuania are urged to speak with their health care practitioners about immunization. Rabies is also increasingly prevalent in rural areas.
The Lithuanian Government does not require HIV testing for U.S. citizens. However, sexually transmitted diseases are a growing public health problem.
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747); or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.
MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. All foreigners of non-European Union countries seeking entry into Lithuania must carry proof of a medical insurance policy contracted for payment of all costs of hospitalization and medical treatment in Lithuania (please see entry/exit requirements above). Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.
TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Lithuania is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
The Police allow Americans to drive in Lithuania with an American driver’s license for up to 90 days. Americans who reside in Lithuania for 185 days or more in one calendar year and who wish to continue driving in Lithuania must acquire a Lithuanian driver's license. The foreign license must be given to the Lithuanian Road Police to be processed by the Consular Department of the Lithuanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which in turn sends it to the U.S. Embassy’s Consular Section, where the owner is expected to claim it.
Roads in Lithuania range from well-maintained two- to four-lane highways connecting major cities to small dirt roads traversing the countryside. Violation of traffic rules is common. It is not unusual to be overtaken by other automobiles, traveling at high speed, even in crowded urban areas. Driving at night, especially in the countryside, can be particularly hazardous. In summer, older seasonal vehicles and inexperienced drivers are extra hazards. Driving with caution is urged at all times. Driving while intoxicated is a very serious offense and carries heavy penalties. The speed limit is 50 km/hr in town and 90 km/hr out of town unless otherwise indicated. The phone number for roadside assistance is 8-800-01414 from a regular phone and 1414 from a GSM mobile phone.
Seatbelts are mandatory for the driver and all passengers except children under the age of 12. During the winter, most major roads are cleared of snow. Winter or all-season tires are required from November 10th through April 1st. Studded tires are not allowed from April 10th through October 31st. Drivers must have at least their low beam lights on at all times while driving. Public transportation is generally safe.
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. Visit the website of the country’s national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at www.tourism.lt and at www.lra.lt/index_en.html.
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Lithuania, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Lithuania’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO aviation safety standards. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: Lithuanian customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning the temporary importation into or export from Lithuania of items such as firearms and antiquities. Please see our Customs Information.
Telephone connections are generally good. American 1-800 numbers can be accessed from Lithuania but not on a toll-free basis; the international long distance rate per minute will be charged. Local Internet cafes offer computer access. ATMs are widely available. Most hotels and other businesses accept major credit cards.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Lithuanian laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Lithuania are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or possessing or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime prosecutable in the United States. For more information about arrest procedures in Lithuania, please visit the Embassy’s web site at http://vilnius.usembassy.gov/arrests.html. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.
CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children’s Issues web page.
REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION: Americans living or traveling in Lithuania are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Lithuania. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located at Akmenu Gatve 6, tel. (370) (5) 266-5500 or 266-5600; fax (370) (5) 266-5590. Consular information can also be found on the Embassy Vilnius web site at http://vilnius.usembassy.gov/.
* * *
This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated November 5, 2007 to update sections on Crime and Medical Facilities and Health Information.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Sat, 14 Mar 2020 21:41:50 +0100 (MET)

Vilnius, March 14, 2020 (AFP) - Lithuania said Saturday it would shut its borders to most foreign visitors while fellow Baltic EU members Estonia and Latvia imposed security measures of their own to stem the spread of the novel coronavirus.   Lithuanian Prime Minister Saulius Skvernelis said the country of 2.8 million people has decided to reinstate checks on its borders with Latvia and Poland, becoming the fifth nation to do so within the bloc's zone of free travel.

Foreigners will be banned from entering the country starting 1000 GMT on Sunday, with the exception of individuals with a residence permit, diplomatic workers and NATO troops.   Freight transport will not be affected, he added.   "Our goal is to delay the spread of the virus as long as possible inside the country and to reduce the negative consequences," Skvernelis said.

Lithuania, which has eight confirmed COVID-19 cases, has been on partial lockdown since Friday after the government shut down all schools, kindergartens and universities and banned large public events.   From Monday, the ban will also cover most shops, restaurants and pubs, although food delivery will be allowed. The measure does not concern grocery stores and pharmacies.   Skvernelis said his cabinet will approve an economic stimulus plan on Monday worth "at least one billion euros".

Fellow Baltic states Estonia and Latvia also imposed movement restrictions on Saturday but stopped short of border shutdown.   Latvia, which has a population of 1.9 million people and 26 confirmed cases of the coronavirus, said it will suspend all international flights, ferries, buses and trains from Monday.   "Border crossings by private car will continue, as well as international freight and cargo flow," Latvian Transport Minister Talis Linkaits told reporters.

Estonia, the northernmost Baltic state with 1.3 million people and 115 confirmed cases of COVID-19, banned travel to six of its islands for all but their permanent residents.   The government also decided to close down all leisure centres, sports clubs, spas and swimming pools.    Most of the measures will apply for a couple of weeks but will likely be prolonged according to Baltic authorities.
Date: Wed 7 Aug 2019 01:17:58 EEST
Source: Xinhua News Agency [edited]

The rate of tick-borne encephalitis in Lithuania remains the highest in Europe, announced the country's Center for Communicable Diseases and AIDS (ULAC) on [Tue 6 Aug 2019].

According to ULAC, the rate of tick-borne encephalitis cases was 16.6 cases per 100 000 population in 2017, based on the latest data provided by the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) in its latest annual epidemiological report.  "In Lithuania the rate of encephalitis remains the highest in Europe," said ULAC.

Lithuania was followed by the Czech Republic and Estonia with the rate of 6.4 cases per 100 000 population, according to ULAC.  ULAC notes the largest proportion of tick-borne encephalitis cases is at the age group of 45-64 years and the lowest among the children of the age of 0-4 years.  "ULAC medics remind vaccination is the most reliable protection from tick-borne encephalitis," said ULAC in the announcement, noting vaccines have a reliability rate of 98 percent.

ULAC's warning comes amid increasing number of tick-borne encephalitis cases this year [2019] in Lithuania, a Baltic country with a population of around 3 million.  More than 90 cases of tick-borne encephalitis were reported during the 1st half of the year [2019] in Lithuania, 1/3 more compared to the same period last year [2018], according to local data by ULAC.

According to the ECDC's report, the highest prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis historically is found in the Baltic countries. Tick-borne encephalitis usually reaches its seasonal peak during the warmest months -- July and August.

Tick-borne encephalitis is a human viral infectious disease of central nervous system caused by infected ticks, usually found in woodland habitats. The disease manifests itself with symptoms similar to fever, fatigue, headache, nausea, and can cause meningitis.
=====================
[Cases of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) have been reported before (see ProMED mail archive Tick-borne encephalitis - EU (Czech Rep., Latvia, Lithuania) http://promedmail.org/post/20040624.1677). Given the high rate of TBE cases in Lithuania reported above, there doubtless have been cases occurring there annually in recent years.

A report in Eurosurveillance Weekly in 2004 stated, "Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is endemic in virtually all countries in Central and Eastern Europe. It is caused by several closely related but distinct flaviviruses. 3 subtypes are recognised at present: a Far-Eastern subtype, a Siberian subtype and a European subtype. The Siberian subtype is associated with Russian spring-summer encephalitis and is transmitted predominantly by the tick _Ixodes persulcatus_, whereas the European subtype causes central European encephalitis and is transmitted by _Ixodes ricinus_.

The clinical spectrum of acute TBE ranges from symptoms of mild meningitis to severe meningoencephalitis with or without myelitis. The incubation period of central European TBE is 7-14 days. Onset is generally biphasic. The 1st phase involves a non-specific influenza-like illness with fever, headache, nausea, and vomiting, lasting about a week. After a period of remission lasting a few days, the fever returns with aseptic meningitis or encephalomyelitis. The case fatality rate is 1-5 percent and about 20 percent of survivors have neurological sequelae. Residual motor defects are rare." - ProMED Mod.TY]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Lithuania:
Date: Wed, 3 Jul 2019 15:49:43 +0200

Vilnius, July 3, 2019 (AFP) - Lithuania declared an emergency on Wednesday as a severe drought hit the Baltic EU state, threatening to slash this year's harvest by up to half.   Apart from jeopardising crops, scant rainfall has also drastically reduced water levels in some rivers, threatening fish stocks and shipping activities.

The formal declaration of an "emergency situation" will allow the government to compensate farmers for some losses as well as help them to avoid EU financial sanctions should they fail to reach production goals.   "Farmers believe their harvest can be slashed by 40 percent or 50 percent, while fish stocks are also endangered," environment minister Kestutis Mazeika told AFP.

Mazeika said "nobody has any doubt" that global climate change is behind the prolonged and more intensive dry spells and heatwaves in recent years.   He also appealed to neighbouring Belarus to increase the water level in the Neris river by allowing more water to flow from its reservoirs.   Last month was the hottest June ever recorded with soaring temperatures worldwide capped off by a record-breaking heatwave across Western Europe, satellite data showed Tuesday.   Lithuania also registered its hottest-ever June, with a peak of 35.7 degrees Celsius (96.2 degrees Fahrenheit) recorded on June 12.

Over the last week, firefighters have fought wildfires triggered by the heat in peat bogs in western Lithuania and neighbouring Latvia.   Elsewhere in Central Europe, Polish authorities said this week that varying degrees of drought have put grain crops at risk in 14 of the EU country's 16 regional districts.   The Czech Academy of Sciences said it expects drought to affect the entire country, with 80 percent of the territory facing "exceptional to extreme drought".
Date: Thu, 13 Jun 2019 15:12:32 +0200

Vilnius, June 13, 2019 (AFP) - Lithuanian temperatures have hit record June highs, meteorologists said Thursday, as a heatwave forced school closures and threatened to reduce harvests in the draught-hit Baltic region.   Kaisiadorys in central Lithuania was the hottest place at 35.7 degrees Celsius (96.2 degrees Fahrenheit) on Wednesday, the highest-ever temperature recorded for June in the country, weather forecaster Paulius Starkus told AFP.   Six people drowned in the Baltic EU state on Wednesday, the deadliest day of the year to date, while some schools put classes on hold or cut lessons short due to the heatwave.

Scientists say the extreme weather is in part a result of climate change.   "Lithuania used to have heatwaves but now they occur more often and are more intense due to climate change," Vilnius University climatologist Donatas Valiukas told AFP.   Starkus said a downpour with thunder and hail could follow in some areas on Thursday afternoon.   Agriculture Minister Giedrius Surplys told lawmakers that some areas were experiencing "a real climatic draught" threatening harvests, while hydrologists warned that river water levels posed a threat to fish.   Demand for air-conditioning has also soared in recent weeks.   Lithuania's hot weather is expected to last through the week, then temperatures may ease below 30 degrees Celsius starting Monday.   Fellow Baltic state Latvia is also experiencing unusual heat for June, with temperatures over 32 degrees Celsius.

In recent days, Latvia's western region of Kurzeme saw thunderstorms with hail damaging buildings, smashing greenhouses and tearing power lines.   Two people have been hospitalised in the northern Latvian town of Cesis after a tree fell on their camper van while they were inside.    Fellow Baltic state Estonia had a heatwave last week and is now experiencing rainy and windy weather.   Poland has also been experiencing high temperatures this month, which has resulted in increased air-conditioner use. The power transmission system operator PSE said that on Wednesday there was record electricity demand for a summer morning at nearly 24.10 gigawatts (GW).   Forty-two people have already drowned in Poland this month, according to the government security centre RCB.
Date: Sat 30 Mar 2019
Source: PM News Nigeria [abridged, edited]

Measles in Lithuania is up to 310 cases this year [2019] compared to 30 cases for 2018 in total. The number of measles cases is projected to increase further in Lithuania, as people have lost their collective immunity to this highly contagious viral disease, Director of Lithuania's Centre for Communicable Diseases and AIDS (ULAC), Saulius Caplinskas, said on Fri [29 Mar 2019].  "The collective immunity has been lost, as a 95 per cent measles vaccination coverage rate is considered as minimum to prevent an outbreak. There are new suspected cases of measles; blood samples are being examined. I have no doubt that in the nearest future, there will be new cases,'' Caplinskas was quoted as saying by local news website lrt.lt.

Recent data from ULAC shows that the proportion of children vaccinated against measles in the country has decreased from 97 per cent in 2009 to 92.2 per cent in 2018 due to parents' reluctance to vaccinate their kids.  According to ULAC, every year, some 5000 children are not vaccinated in Lithuania. "Measles outbreaks feature certain upswings and descents, yet we will have to live under the threat of measles for a while,'' Caplinskas said.

In total, 310 cases of measles have been registered as of Fri [29 Mar 2019] in Lithuania this year [2019], compared to 30 cases for the whole of 2018, ULAC data showed.  The largest number of cases, 149, was registered in Kaunas, Lithuania's 2nd largest city. In Vilnius, the capital, 39 measles cases have been registered to date. Measles is a highly contagious, serious disease caused by a virus, says the World Health Organization.
More ...

Algeria

Algeria US Consular Information Sheet
May 08, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Algeria is the second-largest country in Africa, with over four-fifths of its territory covered by the Sahara desert.
The country has a population of 35 million p
ople mainly located near the northern coast.
Algeria is a multi-party, constitutional republic.
Facilities for travelers are available in populated areas, but sometimes limited in quality and quantity.
Read the Department of State Background Notes on Algeria for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
Passports and visas are required for U.S. citizens traveling to Algeria.
The Algerian visa application must be typed.
The Algerian Embassy no longer accepts handwritten visa applications.
For further information on entry/exit requirements, travelers may contact the Embassy of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria at 2137 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008, telephone (202) 265-2800.
Visit the Embassy of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria web site at http://www.algeria-us.org for the most current visa information.
Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY: Although no Americans are known to have been killed by terrorists in Algeria, more than 120 foreigners were murdered at the height of the terrorism threat in Algeria in the 1990s.
In response to the terrorist threat, the U.S. government substantially reduced the number of U.S. Government personnel in Algeria during the 1990s.
Small-scale terrorist activities, including bombings, false roadblocks, kidnappings, ambushes, and assassinations, occur regularly.
Since early 2007, vehicle-borne suicide bomb attacks have emerged as a terrorist tactic in Algeria, including in the capital.
Suicide car bomb attacks in December 2007 targeted the UN Headquarters and the Algerian Constitutional Council in Algiers.
The attacks occurred in areas where many diplomatic missions and residences are located.
The group that claimed credit for the December attacks has pledged more attacks against foreign targets, and specifically American targets.

The Travel Warning for Algeria contains the most current information concerning the threat from terrorism.
Currently, Embassy staffing is at full capacity and the Embassy is able to provide full services. U.S. Government employees traveling between cities must be accompanied by a security escort.
U.S. citizens should also carefully consider the security risks involved when using public transportation such as buses and taxis.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affair’s web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.
Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll-free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
The crime rate in Algeria is moderately high and increasing.
Serious crimes have been reported in which armed men posing as police officers have entered homes and robbed the occupants at gunpoint.
False roadblocks/checkpoints have been employed to rob motorists (see Traffic Safety and Road Conditions section below).
Some of these incidents resulted in the murder of the vehicles' occupants; there has been an increase in the kidnapping of vehicle occupants who appear to be wealthy.
Petty theft and home burglary occur frequently, and muggings are on the rise, especially after dark in the cities.
Theft of contents and parts from parked cars, pick-pocketing, theft on trains and buses, theft of items left in hotel rooms and purse snatching are common.
Alarms, grills, and/or guards help to protect most foreigners' residences.

In many countries around the world, counterfeit and pirated goods are widely available. Transactions involving such products may be illegal under local law.
In addition, bringing them back to the United States may result in forfeitures and/or fines.
More information on this serious problem is available at http://www.cybercrime.gov/18usc2320.htm.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Hospitals and clinics in Algeria are available and improving in the large urban centers, but are still not up to Western standards. Doctors and hospitals often expect immediate cash payment for services.
Most medical practitioners speak French; English is not widely used.
Prescription medicines are not always readily available.
Some pharmacies may at times be out-of-stock.
In addition, the medicine may be sold under a different brand name and may contain a different dosage than in the U.S.
Please be aware that some newer medications may not yet be available in Algeria.
It is usually easy to obtain over-the-counter products.
Emergency services are satisfactory, but response time is often unpredictable.
In all cases, response time is not as fast as in the U.S.

Cases of tuberculosis are regularly reported, but do not reach endemic levels.
Every summer, public health authorities report limited occurrences of water-borne diseases, such as typhoid.
In addition, HIV/AIDS is a concern in the remote southern part of the country, especially in border towns.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en .

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Algeria is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Algerian roads are overcrowded and traffic-related accidents kill a large number of people every year.
Drivers will encounter police and military checkpoints on major roads within and on the periphery of Algiers and other major cities.
Security personnel at these checkpoints expect full cooperation.
Motorists should be aware that terrorists employ false roadblocks as a tactic for ambushes and kidnappings, primarily in the central regions of Boumerdes and Tizi Ouzou and some parts of eastern Algeria (see Crime section above).

Travel overland, particularly in the southern regions, may require a permit issued by the Algerian government.
For specific information concerning Algerian driver's permits, vehicle inspection, road tax, and mandatory insurance, contact the Algerian Embassy.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
Visit the website of the national authority responsible for road safety at http://www.ministere-transports.gov.dz/ .

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Algeria, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Algeria’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Algeria maintains restrictions on the import and export of local currency.
Foreign currency must be exchanged only at banks or authorized currency exchange locations, such as major hotels.
Photography of military and government installations is prohibited.
It is also illegal to import weapons, body armor, handcuffs or binoculars.
Please see our Customs Information.

PROSELYTIZING:
Islam is the state religion of Algeria.
The Algerian government allows non-Muslim religious worship only in structures exclusively intended and approved for that purpose. Activities such as proselytizing, engaging in activities which the Algerian authorities could view as encouraging conversion to another faith, and convening religious ceremonies in private residences are prohibited under a March 2006 law.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Algerian laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Algeria are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction, please see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Algeria are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department's travel registration web site, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Algeria.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy is located at 5 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, B.P. 408 (Alger-gare) 16000, in the capital city of Algiers.
The telephone number is [213] 770-08-20-00 which can also be reached after hours.
The fax number is [213] 21-9822-99.
The U.S. Embassy work week is Saturday through Wednesday.
* * * * * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information dated March 26, 2008, to update the section on Crime.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Tue, 25 Feb 2020 22:34:38 +0100 (MET)

Algiers, Feb 25, 2020 (AFP) - Algerian authorities on Tuesday announced the country's first case of the novel coronavirus, in an Italian citizen who arrived in the country on February 17.   "One case was confirmed positive for coronavirus (COVID-19), out of two suspected cases (both) of Italian nationality," the North African country's health ministry said.   State television said the infected person had been placed in isolation, without offering further details.   The health ministry said it had reinforced its "monitoring and surveillance systems at all points of entry" into Algeria.
Date: Mon, 9 Sep 2019 11:25:29 +0200 (METDST)

Paris, Sept 9, 2019 (AFP) - Some 13,000 passengers, mainly booked on flights to and from Algeria, are still stranded after France's second-largest airline Aigle Azur went into receivership, a senior French official said Monday, adding that several potential buyers had been identified.   The airline, which employs almost 1,200 staff, filed for bankruptcy and suspended flights last week after losses which prompted a shareholder coup that ousted the chief executive.   "Out of 19,000 passengers who found themselves in difficulty at the peak of the crisis, there are still 13,000" who have yet to be repatriated, the secretary of state for transport, Jean-Baptiste Djebbari, told the Le Parisien daily.

He said these included 11,000 passengers booked on flights into and out of Algeria, 600 on Mali flights as well as other destinations ranging from Russia to Lebanon.   Air France chartered two special flights on Saturday and then again on Sunday to help passengers booked on Algeria flights, which flew out one quarter full but were full on the return.   "The hardest moment of the crisis will be over before the end of the week. At least half the passengers (affected) will have been repatriated," Djebbari said.

The airline transported last year some 1.9 million passengers, with destinations in Algeria making up half of its operations that brought in 300 million euros ($329 million) of revenue.   "There needs to be a serious buyer who is capable of offering guarantees for a maximum number of employees. The good news is that many (potential buyers) have expressed interest," said Djebbari.

He said the former chief executive of Air France's subsidiary Hop!, Lionel Guerin, was among interested parties, backed by a team of aviation professionals with financial support.   He added that Air France itself also appeared interested in making an offer.    "This shows there is still an interest in Aigle Azur," he added. Neither party has so far publicly confirmed an interest, with Air France declining to comment on an "evolving" situation.

According to union officials, Air France could be interested in the medium-haul routes to Algeria and the Dubreuil group, the majority shareholder in Air Caraibes, the long haul routes to destinations like Brazil and Mali.   The largest shareholder in Aigle Azur is the Chinese conglomerate HNA Group, which owns Hainan Airlines, with a 49-percent stake.    David Neeleman, an American airline entrepreneur whose companies include JetBlue and TAP Air Portugal, owns 32 percent, and French businessman Gerard Houa owns 19 percent.
Date: Fri 30 Aug 2019
Source: Depeche de Kabylie [in French, translated, edited]

The current human brucellosis epidemic in Ath Mansour has again claimed new victims. These are 2 citizens of Ath Vouali, hospitalized Wednesday [28 Aug 2019] at the EPH Kaci Yahia M'Chedallah. The affected subjects are a 40-year-old father and his 15-month-old son. Met in the halls of the hospital, the father indicated that he and his family have consumed raw milk from the farmer whose goats were infected almost 2 months ago.

After these 2 new victims, 6 cases of human brucellosis have been detected since last week [18-24 Aug 2019] in this commune and hospitalized at M'Chedallah hospital. In this context, we learned that a Daira commission, composed of a member of the APC executive of Ath Mansour, the subdivisionary of agriculture of Ahnif, a member of the prevention of the Ahnif EPSP and the M'Chedallah Civil Protection Unit, was set up on the instructions of the Daira Chief.

This commission has already visited the premises where the goat farmer in question resides, in Rodha, south of the capital of the commune, to make the necessary arrangements, such as the census of the animals and their quarantine (isolation) with slaughter orientation on those carrying this disease. It should be remembered that caprine brucellosis was detected by an animal health practitioner at the farm level in June 2019 and that part of the herd was already slaughtered at the municipal slaughterhouse.

A total of 75 goats were slaughtered out of 300 heads, with carcass burial as stipulated by the regulations in force. "The transmission of this epidemic was made from the consumption of milk that the farmer of the contaminated livestock sold to a merchant of this commune. This product, raw or curd, was then sold retail to customers. It should be noted that the brucellosis virus has an incubation period that can last several months before the 1st symptoms, which are fever and nausea followed by a general weakness, begin to appear. The treatment is also spread over a long period of time," says a medical source who expects more cases to be detected in the coming days.

Distraught, the citizens of Ath Mansour storm the health institutions of the region where samples are taken for the purposes of screening. A source close to the agricultural services says that none of the citizens hitherto infected by this bacterium has goats.  [Byline: Oulaid Soualah]
==========================
[This infection, a bacterial zoonosis, is classified among the category B biowarfare agents. Natural transmission to humans occurs after occupational exposure or through ingestion of contaminated food products. Although brucellosis has become a rare entity in the USA and many industrialized nations because of animal vaccination programs, this condition remains a significant health problem in many developing countries.

Each species of _Brucella_ has a specific animal reservoir in which chronic disease is present. The bacilli tend to localize in the reproductive organs of the animals, causing sterility and abortions, and are shed in large numbers in the animal's urine, milk, and placental fluid. This localization allows for efficient spread to farmers, veterinarians, slaughterhouse workers, and consumers.

Among the 4 species known to cause disease in humans, _Brucella melitensis_ (from goats, sheep, or camels) may be the most virulent, producing the most severe and acute cases of brucellosis with disabling complications. A prolonged course of illness, which may be associated with suppurative destructive lesions, is associated with _B. suis_ (from feral or commercially raised pigs) infection. _B. abortus_ (from cattle, buffalo, and camels) is associated with mild-to-moderate sporadic disease that is rarely associated with complications. - ProMED Mod.LL]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Date: Mon 10 Jun 2019
Source: Algerie 360, a Lequotidien-oran.com report [in French, trans. ProMED Corr.SB, edited]

A total of 3 cases of brucellosis, known as "Malta fever", a disease that affects farm animals, were recorded at Ksar-Chellala, in the far east of the Tiaret wilaya (province). These are 3 women who consumed curd in the last days of Ramadan, according to doctors at the local hospital. In all, more than 150 cases of brucellosis in humans have been recorded since the beginning of 2019.

According to the Department of Health and Population (DSP), the wilaya of Tiaret has recorded 154 cases of brucellosis in humans in 25 municipalities since the beginning of 2019. Due mainly to the consumption of dairy products and unpasteurized derivatives, cases of brucellosis have been recurrent in the wilaya of Tiaret for several years. Blood samples from cattle and goats were collected as part of an epidemiological survey, in collaboration with the Mostaganem Regional Veterinary Laboratory, which has already confirmed cases of brucellosis in localities in the eastern part of the country in wilayat such as Zmalet Emir Aek and Ksar Chellala.

However, the services concerned, starting with the veterinary inspection of wilaya, have always warned against the consumption of natural raw milk without boiling or direct contact with the infected animal.  [Byline: El-Houari Dilmi]
=========================
[This infection, a bacterial zoonosis, is classified among the category B biowarfare agents. Natural transmission to humans occurs after occupational exposure or through ingestion of contaminated food products. Although brucellosis has become a rare entity in the United States and many industrialized nations because of animal vaccination programs, this condition remains a significant health problem in many developing countries.

Each species of _Brucella_ has a specific animal reservoir in which chronic disease is present. The bacilli tend to localize in the reproductive organs of the animals, causing sterility and abortions, and are shed in large numbers in the animal's urine, milk, and placental fluid. This localization allows for efficient spread to farmers, veterinarians, slaughterhouse workers, and consumers.

Among the 4 species known to cause disease in humans, _Brucella melitensis_ (from goats, sheep, or camels) may be the most virulent, producing the most severe and acute cases of brucellosis with disabling complications. A prolonged course of illness, which may be associated with suppurative destructive lesions, is associated with _B. suis_ (from feral or commercially raised pigs) infection. _B. abortus_ (from cattle, buffalo, and camels) is associated with mild-to-moderate sporadic disease that is rarely associated with complications.

In the Maghreb and the Middle East, human brucellosis is usually contracted through consumption of raw goat/ewe's milk or local artisanal cheese made from raw milk, and _Brucella melitensis_ is responsible for the great majority of the reported cases, with a marked predominance of its biovar 3, as in other Mediterranean countries. - ProMED Mod.LL]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
12th May 2019

Algeria - National.
8 May 2019. 358 confirmed cases [of Dengue] and 1100 records of patients with fever
More ...

Cape Verde

General
The Cape Verde islands are situated off the west coast of Africa (adjacent to Senegal) and are becoming a more popular destination for European travellers aiming to avoid the major busy tourist destinations of the world. There are nine inhabi
ed islands within the group and also some uninhabited volcanic ones. The capital is Praia (on Santiago) and Portugese is the official language. The major port is Mindelo on the island of Sao Vicente.

Travelling to Cape Verde
There is a recently opened international airport in Praia and a second international airport (Amilcar Cabral) located on Sal Island which is about 150 kms northeast of the capital. Generally the facilities for tourists are still quite limited though improving and most developed on Sal.
Arriving in Cape Verde
The climate is oceanic tropical with temperatures varying from 20oC to 30oC throughout the year. The light rainfall tends to occur in Aug to November. During this time humidity can be higher but this is not usually a significant factor.
Food & Water
In line with many hotter regions of the world the level of food and water hygiene varies greatly from area to area and depending on the establishment. Travellers are advised to eat freshly cooked hot food, to avoid cold meals (salads etc) and particularly to avoid any undercooked bivalve shellfish meals (clams, mussels, oysters etc). Fresh milk may be unpasteurised and should be avoided.
Travelling around the islands
As with many archipelago destinations there is a way of moving from island to island if you wish to explore. This can be by boat or plane in many but not all cases. However if travelling by plane be aware that the limited baggage handling capacity of the small planes may lead to some delay in eventually receiving your luggage. During the dry dusty season (December to April) flights may be cancelled due to poor visibility. The road traffic moves on the right and seatbelts are compulsory for all in the front seat. Motorcyclists must wear helmets and have their lights on at all times.

Accidents
The majority of accidents occur because of unlit narrow winding roads, aggressive driving and alcohol impairing the senses. There are a large number of festivals and around these times alcohol intake increases considerably with the resultant increase in danger for all road users.
Emergency numbers
The emergency numbers are 130 for medical assistance, 131 for fire assistance and 132 for the police. There is no organised roadside assistance and travellers are strongly advised to avoid hiring cars or motorbikes. Taxis and buses provide a reasonable service and are a much safer option.
Sun Exposure & Dehydration
Many travellers from Europe will enjoy the beautiful climate to excess and run the risk of severe sunburn and dehydration. This is particularly true for the first 24 to 48 hours after arrival (when the traveller may fall asleep under the glaring sun) and also for young children. Sensible covering, avoiding the midday sun and replacing lost fluids and salt are essential to maintain your health.
Swimming and Water Sports
Island life in the tropics tends to increase the amount of water exposure for many tourists. It is important to check out the facilities (both the professionalism of their personnel and the equipment) before undertaking any water sports. Talk to others who have already taken part or your holiday representative and listen to their experiences. This will help you make the right choices. Remember the tides and currents around the various islands can be very strong so always follow local advice and never swim alone. Watch children carefully.
Mosquitoes and Malaria
This island chain has only a few species of mosquitoes and the risk of malaria is thought to be negligible. WHO (2006) does not recommend prophylaxis for travellers but comments that there is a mild risk on Santiago mainly between August and November during the rainy season. Good repellents should be used by all travellers - especially at dusk and dawn.
Safety & Security
Unfortunately there is no idyllic destination throughout the world and petty crime occurs in Cape Verde as elsewhere. Take special care at festivals and in market places. Don't flaunt your personal wealth while out and about. Gangs of children have been involved in attacks against tourists so avoid any potential confrontation.
Contacts
U.S. Embassy: Rua Abilio m. Macedo 81, Praia Tel.: 238-61-56-16/17; Fax: 238-61-13-55; Web: usembassy.state.gov/praia
U.K. Embassy: Shell Cabo Verde, Sarl, Av Amilcar Cabral CP4, Sao Vincente
Tel.: 238-32-66-25/26/27; Fax: 238-32-66-29; E-mail: antonio.a.canuto@scv.sims.com
Vaccines
Travelling directly from Europe there are no essential vaccines for entering Cape Verde. It is a Yellow fever risk region but there have been no cases for many years. Other vaccines need to be considered against food and water borne diseases such as Hepatitis A & Typhoid.
Healthcare
This is a beautiful destination and direct flight will increase the numbers travelling. However all travellers to Cape Verde will need to be seen for a detailed medical consultation to ensure that they have appropriate advice and protection for their individual trip. Further information on health issues and all the latest world travel news reports are available at www.tmb.ie

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Tue, 24 Mar 2020 16:16:53 +0100 (MET)

Praia, Cape Verde, March 24, 2020 (AFP) - A 62-year-old British man has died in Cape Verde after contracting COVID-19, the government said Tuesday, marking the West African archipelago's first fatality from the disease.   The man arrived on the island of Boavista -- a tourist hotspot and one of Cape Verde's 10 islands -- on March 9, and began showing symptoms a week later.     His condition "began to worsen, and unfortunately he died on Monday evening," Health Minister Arlindo do Rosario said Tuesday.

All staff at the hotel where the man was staying are now in confinement, according to the authorities.   The British tourist was the first coronavirus case to be detected in the former Portuguese colony.    Authorities have detected two other cases on Boavista: one in a friend of the British tourist, the other in a 60-year-old Dutch tourist, whose case is considered worrying.
Date: Fri, 3 May 2019 12:24:17 +0200
By Anne-Sophie FAIVRE LE CADRE

Cha das Caldeiras, Cape Verde, May 3, 2019 (AFP) - Four years after the volcano erupted -- razing everything in its path in Cape Verde's Cha das Caldeiras valley -- the floor tiles of the small, rebuilt inn are warm to the touch.    "We constructed too quickly on lava that had not yet cooled down," says hotel owner Marisa Lopes, in her early 30s.   "For the first months, the floors in the rooms were so hot that you couldn't walk on them with bare feet."

Lopes is one of dozens of entrepreneurs locked in a perpetual tug of war with the Pico do Fogo volcano towering over Cha das Caldeiras, whose population numbers 500.    The name means Peak of Fire in Portuguese.   The volcano generates the bulk of the crater community's gross domestic product, attracting some 5,000 tourists every year who need hotel beds, food and tour guides -- about 30 make a living as guides in this remote part of West Africa.   But on the downside, the festering giant erupts once a generation -- six times in the last 200 years -- destroying everything in its path; crops, homes, roads.   On November 23, 2014, Lopes watched helplessly as the Pico -- almost 2,900 metres (9,500 feet) high -- erupted after a 19-year slumber.

Lava engulfed her brand new tourist hostel, eponymously named Casa Marisa.   Three months later, she built a new one, again in the flow zone of the crater.   "The volcano took a house from me, but it gave me another. Without it, there would be no tourism," she told AFP, undeterred.   Despite the constant danger and government efforts to dissuade them, the inhabitants of Cha das Caldeiras keep coming back.     After the last eruption, the military evacuated those in the path of the lava and the state provided food aid for six months afterwards.   But it was the people themselves who reconstructed roads and found the materials for rebuilding homes and hotels. Again.

- 'It's home' -
Cicilio Montrond, 42, was also there in 2014, looking on as a river of molten rock spewing from the Pico do Fogo burnt his fruit trees and buried everything he owned in a thick, grey coat.   The eruption killed no one, but left 1,500 people homeless.   After a few weeks in Sao Filipe, a nearby town to where the valley inhabitants were relocated, Montrond returned to Cha das Caldeiras with his wife.   Not a bird stirred in the air still polluted with ash, not a creature moved on the still warm lava ocean that now covered the valley floor.

For weeks, Montrond and his wife lived in a tent on the roof of their destroyed house with no water, no electricity and no food apart from a few canned goods.   "We lived in makeshift shelters, it was precarious, dangerous. But we were home."   For Montrond, it is unimaginable to live anywhere else than the fertile, lava-fed valley that, between outbursts, boasts an abundance of vines, fig trees and cassava.   "It is the volcano that allows us to live," said Montrond, tourist guide-turned-hotelkeeper and restaurateur.   The Pico's eruptions are rarely deadly in terms of human life.   But what about the next time?   "The volcano is my life," Montrond shrugged, as he gazed upon the house he built with his own hands.    "I was born here, I will die here."

- Rocks were falling -
The volcano gives. The volcano takes.   First it destroys the vines, then it provides fruitful soil for the planting of new ones. These produce wines -- some of it for the export market.   Far from fearing or despising the peak's constant threatening presence, the inhabitants appear to embrace it and have made it part of their identity.   They evoke past eruptions with a smile, sometimes even a touch of nostalgia.   Margarita Lopes Dos Santos, 99, has been forced out of her home by the three last eruptions of the Pico do Fogo.

The first was in June 1951, shortly after she gave birth to her first child.   "I remember the first time like it was yesterday," she said, through a beaming, toothless smile.   "It was a lot more violent. Rocks were falling from the sky. There were tornadoes of ash and of smoke," she recounted, while husking beans.   Outside her house, Lopes Dos Santos has planted flowers -- flashes of red begonias that provide the only colour in the grey and black landscape.   "The resilience of the people of Cha is extraordinary," said Jorge Nogueira, president of the municipal council of Sao Filipe, capital of the island of Fogo, Cape Verde.   "As soon as they could, they came back -- to poor living conditions, but no matter: the only thing that counted for them was to be home."
Date: Tue 3 Oct 2017
Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]

In a follow-up on the locally transmitted malaria increases reported on Cabo Verde [Cape Verde] this year [2017], 254 indigenous cases were reported through [24 Sep 2017].

Most cases (75 percent) have not sought treatment until 48-96 hours after illness onset. Despite this, case fatality rates have remained low (0.4 percent), with one death reported in an indigenous case to date. 7 severe malaria cases and 2 cases of malaria in pregnancy have been reported. There are also anecdotal reports of recrudescence.

To date, the disease has been localized to the city of Praia on Santiago Island without any further spread.

A handful of cases have also been detected on neighbouring islands (Sao Vicente, Sal, and Porto Novo); however, their infections were likely all acquired during travel to Praia or overseas, with no evidence of onward local transmission.

The malaria epidemic in Cabo Verde has begun to show early signs of improvement but the situation remains tenuous, with heavy rainfall continuing between August and October, health officials said.
===================
[The last news from ProMED from 4 Sep 2017 (archive no. http://promedmail.org/post/20170904.5293108) reported 116 cases of malaria in Praia. Thus, over the last month 136 new cases have been diagnosed. It is good news that the outbreak has not spread, showing that the control measures are working. Due to the present outbreak, the CDC is now recommending malaria chemoprophylaxis for travellers visiting the city of Praia on Santiago Island (<https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/new_info/2017/Cape_Verde_2017.html>). - ProMED Mod.EP]

[Maps of Cape Verde can be seen at
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/6553>. - ProMED Sr.Tech.Ed.MJ]

08 Sep 2017


Following an increase in malaria cases, additional malaria prevention advice for some UK travellers to the capital city of Praia in Cape Verde is recommended.

Since June 2017, the Ministry of Heath for Cape Verde has reported an increase in locally acquired malaria cases in the capital city of Praia on the island of Santiago. As of 5 September 2017, a total of 164 locally acquired falciparum malaria cases have been reported in the local population [2][3]. Currently, there are no reports of malaria in tourists who have visited Cape Verde in 2017.  

Those travelling to Praia who are at increased risk of malaria e.g. long term travellers, or those at risk of severe complications from malaria: pregnant women, infants and young children, the elderly and travellers who do not have a functioning spleen, should consider taking anti-malarials and seek advice about which antimalarial is suitable for them from their travel health advisor.

Date: Sun 3 Sep 2017 08:58:00 WEST
Source: The Portugal News (TPN) Online [edited]
<http://theportugalnews.com/news/portugal-health-department-issues-malaria-warning-for-cape-verde-capital/43059

The Portuguese health department has advised pregnant women not to travel to the Cape Verde island of Santiago [where the capital, Praia, is located], and if travellers cannot put their journey off, they should take anti-malaria drugs.

The health department warning comes after the World Health Organisation (WHO) said in August [2017] that there was an outbreak of malaria in Praia, the archipelago's capital. Travellers are also advised that adults and children should use insect repellent throughout the day and reapply it as often as necessary. If travellers also use sun cream, they should apply the insect repellent on top of the sun cream, not under it, the warning said. So far, there have been 116 cases of malaria in Praia, numbers never before seen in the city, where the highest number was 95 cases in the whole of 2001.
============
[The Cape Verde authorities reported 45 cases of malaria up to 30 Jul 2017 (see archive no. http://promedmail.org/post/20170808.5236283).

The outbreak continues and it is important to introduce identification and spraying of breeding sites. Also using a single dose of primaquine after treatment, which kills gametocytes, to ensure that the cases cannot transmit the infection, as recommended by the WHO (http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/atoz/who_pq_policy_recommendation/en/). - ProMED Mod.EP

Maps of Cape Verde can be seen at
<http://www.nationsonline.org/maps/Cape-Verde-Map.jpg>
and <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/15>. - ProMED Sr.Tech.Ed.MJ]
More ...

South Korea

General Information
****************************************
The land mass of Korea is currently divided into North and South since World War 11. The South is a democratic Republic and there are extensive tourist facilities available throughout
he main urban areas. The national tourism organisation (KNTO) operates an English language web site (http://www.knto.or.kr) which provides useful information for intending tourists.
Weather Profile
****************************************
South Korea has four distinct seasons throughout the year. The winters can be very cold while the summers hot and very humid. The rainfall is mainly concentrated during the summer season.
Overcoming Jet Lag
****************************************
ry to arrange your flights so that you arrive in plenty of time before the first match. Allow 48 hours if at all possible to get over the inevitable jet lag. Walk about on the flight, drink plenty of water and stay off the alcohol. Flight crews are understandably very sensitive nowadays about any disturbance and the last thing you will want is to be dumped off the flight to make your own way home. Sleep on the plane if possible though remember this may increase the risk of blood clots so move your legs about when awake. Talk to your doctor about taking aspirin if you are at higher than normal risk (older age group, over weight, on the contraceptive pill, varicose veins etc).
Arriving into Seoul
****************************************
The new Incheon international airport is an hour or two away from Seoul and there are no subways or rail systems connecting the airport to the city. However, buses and taxis are easily available. Customs facilities are good but careful so remember not to carry any parcels for another unless you are certain of the contents. A departure tax may be payable on leaving South Korea.
Personal Safety
****************************************
In Seoul, like any other major city, there is an increased risk of petty crime (pickpocketing, purse snatching etc) so take extra care of your belongings - especially in crowded places like markets, local buses and football matches! The Itaewon and other large markets are known risk areas for this type of activity. Use the hotel safe for your main valuables and carry little of importance while out and about.
Emergency Numbers
****************************************
In South Korea the emergency number for the main services is 112. The operators will usually speak good English. There is also a 24/7 service available through the Korean National Police where travellers can report crime etc. The number in Seoul is 313-0842 and in other regions 02-313-0842.
Medical Services
****************************************
Generally the level of health facilities throughout most of the main urban centres is excellent. However, treatment can be expensive and the medical providers will expect payment before treatment is started. Make sure your travel health insurance is adequate for your journey.
Road Safety
****************************************
The road infrastructure throughout most of South Korea is excellent. However, accidents do occur and if hiring a car ‘defensive’ driving is essential at all times while abroad. Safety belts are compulsory at all times for both front and rear seats. Any accident tends to lead to long delays as the paperwork is sorted out. The Koreans may at times drive their motorbikes and scooters on foot pavements so care should be taken at all times.
Customs Regulations
****************************************
The level of security at South Korean immigration is high so beware of the delays which may be incurred.
Food & Water Care
****************************************
While travelling it is essential that care is taken to protect your stomach against unnecessary risk. Generally tourists will be keen to try out the local cuisine but this can lead to days of illness. In most circumstances it is wise to stick to hot, freshly cooked food fruit you peel yourself. Bivalve shell fish (mussels, clams, oysters etc) are seldom cooked sufficiently to sterilise them completely and are best avoided. Undercooked fish (Sushi) or any meats should also be avoided.
Heat & Humidity
****************************************
The summer months in South Korea are hot and sticky. It will be important to have the right clothing (light weight loosely fitted cotton) and to drink plenty of water to replace what is lost through dehydration. Salt will also need to be replaced and providing there is no medical contraindication eating crisps, salted nuts etc is an excellent way to replenish your levels.
Avoiding Prickly Heat
****************************************
The term prickly heat is used in a variety of ways but the cause is generally the same. In a hot climate the body perspires to maintain the internal temperature at a correct level. In the perspiration there will be fluid and your personal salts. The fluid evaporates but the salt dries against the skin. It is your individual reaction to this salt that leads to the ‘prickly heat rash’. The reaction to these salts can be minimised by removing the salts from the skin surface as soon as possible. Change your clothes regularly, use plenty of talcum powder to absorb the perspiration and dry off well after showering.
Breathing the air
****************************************
Any of the airborne diseases are most commonly spread when folks crowd together. International football matches, market places, local transport and the cinema are times when exposure and infection are most likely. Carrying some simple cold remedies might be a wise precaution and avoid the crowds where possible!
Vaccines for your trip
****************************************
In most cases the only particular problem for those visiting either Japan or South Korea will be the risk of Hepatitis A (food and water spread). Of course Tetanus and various other food and water problems can occur but generally the risk is small providing a sensible approach is taken to act sensibly.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Mon 30 Mar 2020
Source: Ministry of Health and Welfare, Korean CDC [in Korean, machine trans., edited]

Data taken from a table on the website of the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW). Data source: Korean CDC [in Korean]

Date and time:
29 Mar 2020 0:00 AM KT 9583 confirmed cases, 152 deaths
30 Mar 2020 0:00 AM KT 9661 confirmed cases, 158 deaths Change: 78 newly confirmed infections; 6 new deaths.

Distribution of cases by metropolitan city/province:
total case / change from 0:00 AM 29 Mar 2020 to 0:00 AM 30 Mar 2020:

  • Seoul: 426 / 16
  • Busan: 118 / 1
  • Daegu: 6624 / 14
  • Incheon: 58 / 0
  • Gwangju: 20 / 0
  • Daejeon: 34 / 0
  • Ulsan: 39 / 0
  • Sejong: 46 / 0
  • Gyeonggi: 463 / 15
  • Gangwon: 36 / 2
  • Chungbuk: 44 / 3
  • Chungnam: 127 / 0
  • Jeonbuk: 13 / 1
  • Jeonnam: 9 / 0
  • Gyeongbuk: 1298 / 11
  • Gyeongnam: 95 / 1
  • Jeju: 9 / 1
  • Quarantine: 202 / 13
*******
Total: 9661 / 78
===========================
[In the past 24 hours, the tally of confirmed cases of COVID-19 in South Korea has increased by 78 cases and 6 deaths as compared with yesterday's 24 hour period (28-29 Mar 2020) when there were 105 newly confirmed cases. A total of 9661 cases including 158 deaths were reported today, up from 9538 cases and 152 deaths yesterday [28 Mar 2020]. The daily newly confirmed case count had been at or below 100 newly confirmed cases per day for 8 consecutive days. Daegu continues to stand out as a focal point for transmission with 68.6% of the total cases reported followed by Gyeongbuk with 13.4% of the total cases reported. In the past 24 hours, Daegu reported 18% of the total newly confirmed cases while Seoul represented 20.5% of the newly confirmed case reports and in Gyeonggi 19.2%. Quarantined imported cases represented 16.7% of the newly confirmed cases.

Similar to what is being seen in China, Korea is identifying increasing numbers of imported cases returning to South Korea. There are now 202 imported cases in quarantine with the 1st report of patients in quarantine on 16 Mar 2020, when 4 cases were reported (COVID-19 update (41): global, surge capacity, vaccine development, WHO http://promedmail.org/post/20200316.7096222). As in China, there is strict surveillance and follow-up of these individuals, reversing the pattern of the western countries strengthening screenings of individuals from South Korea and China. There are obvious concerns regarding initiating new clusters that might escape into the community.

A map of South Korea showing provinces can be seen at
and a HealthMap/ProMED-mail map at
Date: Fri, 13 Mar 2020 12:05:42 +0100 (MET)

Seoul, March 13, 2020 (AFP) - South Korea -- once grappling with the largest coronavirus outbreak outside China -- saw its newly recovered patients exceed fresh infections for the first time on Friday, as it reported the lowest number of new cases for three weeks.   The country confirmed 110 new infections, the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) said, taking its total to date to 7,979.   But 177 fully recovered patients were released on Thursday, it added.   South Korea has an advanced medical system widely available to all, and has embarked on a huge coronavirus testing drive.

Its stock market was caught up Friday in global economic concerns over the pandemic, with trading briefly halted on the Korea stock exchange for six minutes after the opening when the benchmark KOSPI index fell to 1707.90, down 6.8 percent or 126.43 points.   It was the second consecutive day that trading had been halted on the main bourse and the first time since 2011.   To curb speculative trading, Seoul's Financial Services Commission announced a six-month ban on short-selling of shares on the Kospi and Kosdaq.   President Moon Jae-in called for "unprecedented measures" to help the world's 12th-largest economy cope with the outbreak, describing it as "an emergency economic situation".   The number of new cases in Daegu, the southern city at the centre of the country's virus spread, had declined "dramatically" along with those in neighbouring North Gyeongsang province, officials said.

So far, nearly 90 percent of South Korea's cases have been in the two regions.   But Prime Minister Chung Sye-kyun, who is leading the response in Daegu, warned that the government "should not be complacent even a bit".   "The battle against the coronavirus has now become a global fight going far beyond Daegu," he said.   Each morning the government announces how many cases were diagnosed the previous day, and recent figures have been well below the 500-600 increases the country was confirming in early March, raising hopes the outbreak is being brought under control.   The 110 new cases announced Friday by the KCDC was the lowest figure since February 21. One more person had died, it said, bringing the death toll to 67.
Date: Sun 23 Feb 2020
Source: Ministry of Health and Welfare [in Korean, machine trans. edited]

Data taken from a table on the website of the Korean MOHW (Ministry of Health and Welfare). Data source: Korean CDC:

Date and time:
23 Feb 2020 9:00 AM KT 556 confirmed cases, 4 deaths
23 Feb 2020 16:00 (4:00 PM) KT 602 confirmed cases, 5 deaths

Change: 46 newly confirmed infections; 1 new death among previously confirmed case

Information on newly reported fatality: a 57-year-old female associated with the Shinchon Earth Church.

Information on 46 newly confirmed infections:
Associated with Sincheon Earth Church: 20; Busan (1), Daegu (12), Gwangju (1), Daejeon (1), Gyeonggi (2), Gyeongbuk (5), Gyeongnam (6)

Others (under investigation): Seoul (1), Busan (5), Daegu (12), Daejeon (1), Gyeonggi (1), Gyeongbuk (3), Gyeongnam (3)
====================
[Since the last ProMED-mail update finalized less than 24 hours ago, there have been 46 newly confirmed cases reported by South Korea, bringing the total up to 602. According to a KCDC report on 22 Feb 2020, 309 out of the 556 cases confirmed (55.6%) were related to the Sincheon Earth Church (<https://www.cdc.go.kr/board/board.es?mid=a20501000000&bid=0015&list_no=366304&act=view>). In today's [23 Feb 2020] report, there are an additional 20 cases related to the Sincheon Earth Church from 9 different provinces in the country. In addition, there has been 1 newly reported fatality bringing the total number of reported deaths associated with COVID-19 in South Korea to 5.

A flash alert from Yonhap news gave the 9 AM total cases and deaths -- 161 newly confirmed cases and 1 new fatality -- bringing the total number of cases to 763 including 7 deaths.

A good map showing provinces in South Korea can be found at
Date: 20 Jan 2020
Source: News Joins [In Korean, machine trans. edited]
----------------------------
An unexplained pneumonia in China caused the Korean quarantine authorities to strengthen the quarantine, and a fever-sensing camera is installed to monitor the body temperature of Chinese tourists who entered Korea at Incheon Port 1 International Passenger Terminal. 

Pneumonia confirmed by the new coronavirus, which is prevalent in Wuhan, China, was confirmed for the first time on [20 Jan 2020]. According to health officials, a Chinese woman, A, who arrived at Incheon International Airport on a plane from Wuhan last weekend, was confirmed with pneumonia. The patient showed signs of pneumonia, including high fever and cough. The health authorities entered the airport at the same time, confirmed the symptoms of high fever, suspected pneumonia, and went into quarantine and testing. The Centers for Disease Control immediately quarantined A and entered treatment with a nationally designated quarantine bed. The Centers for Disease Control will hold an emergency press conference at 1:30 pm on [20 Jan 2020] and release the reporter A.
 
Meanwhile, Beijing's Daxing District Health and Welfare Committee said 2 fever patients who had been to Wuhan were confirmed as a new pneumonia patient on [19 Jan 2020]. They are currently being treated at a designated hospital and said they are stable. Daxing District is where Beijing New Airport opened last year [2019]. The Guangdong Provincial Health and Welfare Committee said on [19 Jan 2020] that a 66-year-old man who had visited a relative's home in Wuhan showed fever and lethargy and was diagnosed with Wuhan pneumonia. Confirmation patients have also emerged in Shenzhen, a neighbouring Hong Kong province in southern China, raising concerns that the new pneumonia has already spread throughout China.
 
The Chinese government has said that "there is no basis for human-to-human propagation," but domestic experts pointed out that "the nature of coronavirus is less likely to prevent human-to-human propagation."   [Byline: Esther Toile]
========================
[This is now the 4th international identification of the 2019-nCoV (novel coronavirus) associated illness reported outside of China.  To date, all 4 cases have reported being in Wuhan China in the 14 days preceding onset of illness.  Illness in each involved a history of fever and dry cough.  Cases were reported by Thailand (2 cases) and Japan, and now South Korea.  An update following a Ministry of Health Korea press conference mentioned that there were 5 individuals accompanying this woman, none of whom were currently showing symptoms. (<http://news1.kr/articles/?3821049>).

As mentioned in an earlier post (see Novel coronavirus (10): China (HU, GD, BJ) http://promedmail.org/post/20200119.6898567), there have also been cases confirmed in China outside of Wuhan City, with cases reported in Beijing, Guangdong and possibly Shanghai. It is becoming more difficult to conclude that there has been limited person-to-person transmission as the case numbers are climbing both inside of Wuhan City, elsewhere in China, and in individuals travelling from Wuhan China to other countries (Japan, Thailand and South Korea).

A map of South Korea can be found at:
Date: Thu, 3 Oct 2019 10:18:25 +0200 (METDST)

Busan, South Korea, Oct 3, 2019 (AFP) - At least nine people were killed and several others missing after Typhoon Mitag lashed South Korea with heavy rain and strong winds, authorities said Thursday.   The storm hit southern parts of the country on Wednesday night, prompting flood warnings and triggering landslides in affected areas.   A total of nine people were killed across the country as of Thursday afternoon, the Ministry of Interior and Safety said, but the toll was expected to rise with several people missing.

A woman in her 60s was found dead after her home was buried in a landslide in the southern port city of Busan and around 600 rescue workers were trying to locate three others believed to be trapped beneath the rubble.   Park Young-hak was inside his tool shed -- later buried in the landslide -- and said he escaped after hearing a loud "roar".   "When I ran out to see what it was the house next to me had already disappeared," Park told AFP.   More than 1,000 homes were damaged and over 1,500 people evacuated their houses in advance, the ministry said.   Mitag is the 18th typhoon this year and seventh to hit the Korean peninsula.
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Croatia

Croatia US Consular Information Sheet
January 16, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Croatia is an increasingly well-developed nation in the process of accession to the EU. Facilities for tourism are available throughout the country, and the Adriat
c coast is an increasingly popular tourist destination. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Croatia for additional information or go to http://www.hr/english.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport is required for travel to Croatia. A visa is not required for U.S. passport holders for tourist or business trips of fewer than 90 days within a six-month period. All foreign citizens must register with the local police within 24 hours of arrival and inform the office about any change in their address. Registration of foreign visitors staying in hotels or accommodations rented through an accommodation company is done automatically by the hotelier or accommodation company. Failure to register is a misdemeanor offense; some Americans have been fined as a result of their failure to register. U.S. citizens already in Croatia who wish to remain in Croatia for more than 90 days must obtain a temporary residence permit from the local police having jurisdiction over their place of residence in Croatia. With their residency application, applicants will need to provide a copy of their birth and marriage certificates (obtained within 90 days before application) and a police report authenticated for use abroad from their state of residence in the U.S. or from the country where they permanently reside. All documents should have an “apostille” stamp certifying their authenticity. Information regarding apostilles and authentication of documents is available at http://travel.state.gov/law/info/judicial/judicial_701.html.

For information on obtaining FBI or local police reports, please see http://travel.state.gov/tips/emergencies/emergencies_1201.html.
If an extension of the approved temporary stay is needed, the request should be submitted no later than 30 days in advance of the last day of authorized stay. For more information on obtaining residence or work permits, please see http://www.usembassy.hr/acs/entry.htm.

For further information on entry requirements for Croatia, including information regarding requirements for residency and work permits, travelers may contact the Embassy of Croatia at 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008, tel. (202) 588-5899, the Croatian Consulates in New York City, Chicago, and Los Angeles or the Croatian Ministry of Internal Affairs/Office for Foreigners, tel. (385) (1) 4563-111 or http://www.mup.hr and http://www.mvpei.hr/MVP.asp?pcpid=1123. Visit the Embassy of Croatia web site at www.croatiaemb.org for the most current information.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site. For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet or visit www.carina.hr for specific information about Croatian customs regulations.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Although hostilities in all parts of the country ended in 1995, de-mining of areas along former confrontation lines is not complete. It is estimated that de-mining operations will continue at least until 2010. Mine-affected areas are well-marked with the Croatian-language warning signs using the international symbol for mines. Travelers in former conflict areas, including Eastern Slavonija, Brodsko-Posavska county, Karlovac county, areas around Zadar, and in more remote areas of the Plitvice Lakes National Park should exercise caution and not stray from known safe roads and areas.
Mine clearance work may lead to the closure of roads in former conflict areas. For more information about mine-affected areas and de-mining operations in Croatia, please see the Croatian Mine Action Center’s web site at www.hcr.hr/en/minskaSituacija.asp.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
Croatia has a relatively low crime rate, and violent crime is rare. Foreigners do not appear to be singled out. However, in tandem with increased numbers of American tourists visiting Croatia, the Embassy is receiving increased reports of thefts. Travelers are advised to safeguard their belongings in public areas, especially in bus or railroad stations, airports and on public transportation. As in many countries, outward displays of wealth may increase a traveler’s chances of being targeted by thieves.

While violent crime is rare, there have been isolated attacks targeted at specific persons or property, which may have been racially motivated or prompted by lingering ethnic tensions from Croatia’s war for independence.

Additionally, American citizens are cautioned to be mindful that Croatia is predominantly Catholic and, in some regions, quite conservative. Behavior that may be generally acceptable by American standards may offend local sensitivities and be met with hostility and, in a few cases, even violence.

American citizens are urged to be cautious when frequenting so called "gentlemen's clubs." A few such establishments have presented foreign patrons with grossly inflated bar bills, sometimes in the thousands of dollars, and threatened those customers who refuse to pay.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Health facilities in Croatia, although generally of western caliber, are under severe budgetary strains. Some medicines are in short supply in public hospitals and clinics. The number of private medical and dental practitioners is substantial, and private pharmacies stock a variety of medicines not readily available through public health facilities. Croatian health care facilities, doctors and hospitals may expect immediate cash payment for health services and generally will not accept credit cards. Tick-borne encephalitis, a disease preventable with a three-shot vaccination series, is found throughout inland Croatia but is not prevalent along the coast. Travelers to Croatia may obtain a list of English-speaking physicians and dentists at the Embassy’s web site at www.usembassy.hr/acs/medical.htm or by calling: (385) (1) 661-2376 during working hours, or (385) (1) 661-2400 after working hours. Ambulance services can be reached by dialing 94. Ambulance services are effective; however, response times may be longer to more isolated areas.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad, consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Americans who plan to stay in Croatia for more than 90 days may be required by Croatian authorities to pay into the Croatian health insurance system for the period of their stay in Croatia, regardless of whether they hold private American insurance or not.

Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Croatia is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Road conditions and maintenance in Croatia vary widely. Two modern highways linking Zagreb with Rijeka and Split opened in 2004. Construction is complete between Zagreb and Split and Zagreb and Rijeka, but work is still ongoing between Split and Dubrovnik; This work may cause delays and road closures. Additionally, there are stretches of highway, with average travel speeds up to 130km/hour, which are still only one lane in each direction. Opposing traffic may not be separated by a divider. Highway tolls are higher than in the United States. Primary roads, including roads along the coast, are generally adequate, but most have only one lane in each direction. Coastal roads are narrow and congested, and tend to be slippery when wet. Rock slides are also possible on roads along the coast as well as through the mountain regions of Lika and Gorski Kotar. There is heavy congestion on major routes on weekends (towards the coast, for example) and in major cities during rush hours. Congestion on coastal routes, at border crossings and at tunnels is especially heavy in the summer months. Drivers should be prepared for sudden slowdowns when approaching tunnels at any time of year. Drivers tend to be aggressive in Croatia. Passing on curves or in oncoming lanes is common on highways and poses a higher risk of accidents. Drivers traveling though former conflict areas should stay on paved roads to reduce the risk of encountering unmarked mines and unexploded ordnance left over from the 1991-1995 war. In Zagreb, motorists and pedestrians alike should also pay special attention to trams (streetcars), which in downtown areas may travel at a high rate of speed through the narrow, congested streets.

Right turns on red lights are strictly forbidden in Croatia, unless an additional green light (in the shape of an arrow) allows it. At unmarked intersections, right of way is always to the vehicle entering from the right. The use of front seat belts is obligatory and passengers in vehicles equipped with rear seat belts are required to use them. Special seats are required for infants, and children under age 12 may not sit in the front seat of an automobile. The use of a cellular phone while operating a motor vehicle is prohibited unless the driver is using a hands-free device. Cars must have headlights on while in operation.

Croatia has adopted a policy of zero tolerance to driving under the influence of alcohol. It is illegal for a driver to have blood alcohol level greater than 0.00. Police routinely spot-check motorists for drinking and driving and will administer breath-analyzer tests at even the most minor accident. Drivers who refuse to submit to a breath-analyzer are automatically presumed to have admitted to driving while intoxicated. In case of accidents resulting in death or serious injury, Croatian law requires police to take blood samples to test blood alcohol levels.

Within Croatia, emergency road help and information may be reached by dialing 987, a service of the Croatian Automobile Association (HAK), staffed by English speaking operators. The police can be reached by dialing 92 and the ambulance service by dialing 94. Additional road condition and safety information may be obtained from HAK at tel. (385-1) 464-0800 ext. 0 (English speaking operators available 24 hours), or (385-1) 455-4433 or (385-1) 661-1999, or via their web site, www.hak.hr. During the tourist season, traffic information in English is also available at 98.5 FM on Croatian radio thirty minutes past the hour between 6:30 a.m. and 8:30 p.m.

According to Croatian law, U.S. citizens in Croatia for tourism or business may use a U.S. driver’s license for up to three months. U.S. citizens in Croatia with an approved extended tourist visa or permit for permanent residence may continue to use a U.S. driver’s license for up to twelve months, after which a Croatian driver’s license must be obtained. Please see http://www.usembassy.hr/acs/driver_license.htm for more information on obtaining a Croatian driver’s license. For specific information concerning Croatian driver’s permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, please contact the Croatian National Tourist Office, 350 Fifth Avenue, Suite 4003, New York, NY 10118; phone 1-800-829-4416 or 212-278-8672; fax 212-279-8683.

In cases of traffic accidents involving a foreign-registered vehicle, the investigating police officer on the scene is required to issue a vehicle damage certificate to the owner of the foreign-registered vehicle. This certificate is necessary to cross the state border. Upon written request, the police station in the area where the accident occurred will issue a Traffic Accident Investigation Record. For further information, please visit http://www.mup.hr/1266.aspx.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.

For travelers arriving by private marine craft, please refer to the nautical information and regulations available at www.mmtpr.hr.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by Croatian carriers, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed the Government of Croatia’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Croatia’s air carrier operations. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
With numerous automated teller machines and ever-wider acceptance of credit cards in Croatia, traveler’s checks are accepted less frequently or exchanged at an unfavorable rate. Western Union money transfer is available. For information on money transfers, call (385)(1) 4839-166 or fax (385)(1) 4839-122.

Recreational Boating:
The Government of Croatia adopted a law (effective January 1, 2006) requiring all recreational skippers chartering Croatian flagged vessels to have a certificate of competence. Under the law, the Ministry of Sea, Tourism and Transport will only recognize licenses issued by national authorities of other states. As no such national licensing regime exists in the U.S., Americans wishing to charter and pilot a Croatian-flagged vessel may be required to pass a certification test at the Ministry in Zagreb or a designated harbormaster's office on the coast.

Tourists can be certified in Croatia at harbormasters' offices in Pula, Rijeka, Senj, Zadar, Sibenik, Split, Ploce and Dubrovnik, as well as at the Ministry in Zagreb. Candidates need to contact the harbormaster's office or the Ministry to schedule the test. Please note that the test will be administered only to groups, so individuals may need to wait until a sufficient number of interested applicants apply. The certification costs 850 kuna (roughly $165) and is valid indefinitely. A study guide is available and the test can be taken in Croatian, English, German, and Italian.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Croatian laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Croatia are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable also in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION/EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Croatia are encouraged to register with the U.S. Embassy through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Croatia.Americans withoutInternet access may register directly with the U.S. Embassy. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy in Zagreb is located at ul. Thomasa Jeffersona 2, 10010 Zagreb, tel. (385) (1) 661-2200. The Embassy is located in the southern outskirts of Zagreb near the airport. For emergencies on weekends, holidays and after hours, an embassy duty officer can be reached at tel. (385) (1) 661-2400 or (385) (91) 455-2247.
* * *
This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated July 6, 2007, to update sections on Traffic and Road Conditions.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Sun, 22 Mar 2020 09:43:49 +0100 (MET)

Zagreb, Croatia, March 22, 2020 (AFP) - A 15-year-old boy was crushed to death by a 5.3-magnitude earthquake that rocked Croatia on Sunday, state media reported.   "We got a call about a collapsed building... Teams went to the spot and found a seriously injured child who did not show signs of life", Zarko Rasic, the head of Zagreb's emergency unit told state-run HINA news agency, adding the boy's age was 15.
Date: Fri 21 Feb 2020
Source: Eurosurveillance [abridged, edited]
Selection from Eurosurveillance for week 08 [2020]
Citation: Tomlijenovic M, Lakic M, Vilibic-Cavlek T, et al.: Measles outbreak in Dubrovnik-Neretva County, Croatia, May to June 2018. Euro Surveill. 2020; 25(7): pii: 1900434. DOI:

Abstract
------
In May 2018, measles was introduced in the Dubrovnik region by an adult who recently travelled to Kosovo*. Control measures and an outbreak investigation were implemented: 15 epidemiologically linked cases met the outbreak case definition of a visitor/resident of Dubrovnik-Neretva County with laboratory-confirmed measles and symptom onset beginning on 19 May [2018]. New cases were identified through hospitals and primary care physicians. Throat swabs, urine, and/or serum samples were collected from outbreak cases. RT-PCR detection of viral RNA and IgM/IgG was used to confirm infection. The median age of cases was 33 years, with one 8-month-old infant. Vaccination status was unknown for 9 cases, 3 were unvaccinated, one case had a history of one dose, and 2 cases reported receiving 2 doses of measles-containing vaccine.

There were 11 hospitalisations, and one person developed pneumonia.

Control teams undertook an extensive search of contacts and implemented a range of control measures. Despite the outbreak occurring at the beginning of the summer tourism season, it was contained and did not spread to neighbouring regions. With continuing measles transmission in Europe, even small outbreaks create a burden on the health system in countries that have eliminated measles and illustrate the importance of maintaining high immunisation coverage.
Date: Tue, 16 Jul 2019 10:44:51 +0200

Zagreb, July 16, 2019 (AFP) - Some 10,000 tourists were evacuated from a popular party beach on a Croatian island after a forest fire erupted early Tuesday, police said.

Police ordered visitors to night clubs on Zrce beach on the northern island of Pag to leave after the blaze erupted in a pine forest at around 1:00 am (2300 GMT Monday), a police statement said.   No one was injured in the fire which was brought under control, the mayor of the nearby town of Novalja, Ante Dabo, told national radio.  The cause was not immediately known.   Three firefighting planes were rushed to the scene to help extinguish the blaze which spread to a local road that had to be closed.

The island of Pag and its Zrce beach are popular with young tourists, notably British, who party there.  Tourism is a pillar of Croatia's economy, with visitors flocking to hundreds of islands and islets along its stunning Adriatic coast.   Last year the country of 4.2 million people welcomed more than 19 million tourists.
Date: Tue, 25 Sep 2018 19:50:04 +0200

Zagreb, Sept 25, 2018 (AFP) - A forest fire erupted Tuesday in Croatia's southern Peljesac peninsula, prompting the evacuation of dozens of villagers and tourists and destroying four houses, officials said.   The blaze broke out near the town of Orebic. It threatened the hamlet of Mokalo whose 40 inhabitants were evacuated, the national rescue and protection directorate (DZUS) said.   Tourists from two nearby camps were also evacuated, it added.

Meanwhile, strong winds hampered firefighting efforts and prevented the use of two water-bombing planes, they said.   "The situation in the Orebic area is pretty serious," national firefighting commander Slavko Tucakovic told state-run television.   "Unfortunately four houses were burned down but there are no casualties," he said.   This summer Croatia did not see major forest fires which mainly namely threaten its Adriatic coast.   But in 2017, summer fires were among the worst in several years, with 83,000 hectares (205,000) of forests damaged.
Date: Mon 3 Sep 2018, 11:43 PM
Source: Xinhua [edited]

A total of 26 people in Croatia have been diagnosed with the West Nile virus (WNV) this year [2018] and one has died, the Croatian Institute of Public Health announced on [Mon 3 Sep 2018].

Since last week, the institute has received 10 new reports of the disease, which is most often transmitted by infected mosquitoes and birds. The victims all came from the northwest and eastern parts of the country.

According to the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control, by [30 Aug 2018] there were 710 cases of WNV infections in Europe. Most of them in were in Italy (327), Serbia (243) and Greece (147).

Croatian news portal index.hr reported on [Mon 3 Sep 2018] that at least 20 people in Croatia who have been diagnosed with the virus were infected in Croatia.

WNV can cause neurological disease and death. The virus 1st appeared in Croatia in 2012 and since then 38 people have been infected. However, only a small percentage of the infected has been recorded, as the disease is usually mild and goes without any symptoms.

It is estimated that 80 percent of infected people have no symptoms while others develop a disease with flu-like symptoms such as high temperature, headache, sickness, and vomiting. Only 1 percent of infected people are hit by a heavy fever that usually leads to meningitis or encephalitis.  [Byline: Mu Xuequan]
======================
[In 2012, the 1st outbreak of human WNV neuroinvasive disease was reported in Croatia with 7 confirmed cases in 3 north-eastern counties [1]. In addition, acute asymptomatic infections in horses were noted in the same counties where human cases occurred [2].

All the cases of the West Nile virus infection in 2018 have been reported in the north-western and eastern regions of the country [3]

Vector surveillance and control measures can be helpful in reducing the burden of WNV and other vector borne diseases such as Dengue and Chikungunya.

References
1. Pem-Novosel, Vilibic-Cavlek T, Gjenero-Margan I, et al. First outbreak of West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease in humans, Croatia, 2012. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2014 Jan;14(1):82-4. doi: 10.1089/vbz.2012.1295, available at:

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
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World Travel News Headlines

Date: Tue, 31 Mar 2020 10:27:16 +0200 (METDST)

Nairobi, March 31, 2020 (AFP) - Six of Africa's 54 nations are among the last in the world yet to report cases of the new coronavirus. The global pandemic has been confirmed in almost every country, but for a handful of far-flung tiny island states, war-torn Yemen and isolated North Korea.  In Africa authorities claim they are spared by god, or simply saved by low air traffic to their countries, however some fear it is lack of testing that is hiding the true impact.

- South Sudan -
The east African nation is barely emerging from six years of civil war and with high levels of hunger, illness and little infrastructure, observers fear the virus could wreak havoc.   Doctor Angok Gordon Kuol, one of those charged with overseeing the fight against the virus, said the country had only carried out 12 tests, none of which were positive.   He said the reason the virus has yet to reach South Sudan could be explained by the low volume of air traffic and travel to the country.   "Very few airlines come to South Sudan and most of the countries affected today they are affected by... people coming from abroad."   He said the main concern was foreigners working for the large NGO and humanitarian community, or people crossing land borders from neighbouring countries.   South Sudan has shut schools, banned gatherings such as weddings, funerals and sporting events and blocked flights from worst-affected countries. Non-essential businesses have been shuttered and movement restricted.   The country can currently test around 500 people and has one isolation centre with 24 beds.

- Burundi -
In Burundi, which is gearing up for general elections in May, authorities thank divine intervention for the lack of cases.   "The government thanks all-powerful God who has protected Burundi," government spokesman Prosper Ntahorwamiye said on national television last week.   At the same time he criticised those "spreading rumours" that Burundi is not capable of testing for the virus, or that it is spreading unnoticed.   Some measures have been taken, such as the suspension of international flights and placing handwashing stations at the entrances to banks and restaurants in Bujumbura.   However several doctors have expressed their concerns.   "There are zero cases in Burundi because there have been zero tests," a Burundian doctor said on condition of anonymity.

- Sao Tome and Principe -
Sao Tome and Principe -- a tiny nation of small islands covered in lush rainforest -- has reported zero cases because it is unable to test, according to World Health Organisation representative Anne Ancia.   However "we are continuing preparations," with around 100 people in quarantine after returning from highly-affected countries, and the WHO keeping an eye on cases of pneumonia.   With only four ICU beds for a population of 200,000 people, the country is desperate to not let the virus take hold and has already shut its borders despite the importance of tourism to the local economy.

- Malawi -
Malawi's health ministry spokesman Joshua Malango brushed aside fears that Malawi might not have registered any Covid-19 cases due to a lack of testing kits: "We have the testing kits in Malawi and we are testing."   Dr Bridget Malewezi from the Society of Medical Doctors told AFP that while "we may not be 100 percent ready", government was gearing up for the arrival of the virus.   She suggested it may only be a matter of time before the pandemic hits Malawi.    "It's only been in the past few weeks that it has been rampantly spreading across Africa so most people feel it will get here at some point...," she said.   Malawi has asked people coming from hard-hit countries to self-quarantine, which Malawezi said had helped "safeguard the country from any possible spread of the virus".

- Lesotho -
Tiny Lesotho, a kingdom encircled by South Africa with only two million inhabitants, went into national lockdown on Monday despite registering zero cases.   Until last week the country had no tests or testing centres, and received its first kits thanks to a donation by Chinese billionaire Jack Ma.   Authorities had reported eight suspected cases which they had not been able to test and the first results are expected soon.

- Comoros -
The Indian Ocean island nation of the Comoros, situated between Madagascar and Mozambique, has yet to detect a single case of the virus, according to the health ministry.   One doctor in the capital Moroni, Dr Abdou Ada, wonders if it may not be because of the wide use of the drug Artemisinin to treat malaria.   "I believe that the mass anti-malarial treatment explains the fact that the Comoros are, at least for now, spared from Covid-19. it is a personal belief that needs to be confirmed scientifically."
Date: Tue, 31 Mar 2020 09:50:04 +0200 (METDST)
By Sophie DEVILLER with Dene-Hern CHEN

Bangkok, March 31, 2020 (AFP) - Underfed and chained up for endless hours, many elephants working in Thailand's tourism sector may starve, be sold to zoos or be shifted into the illegal logging trade, campaigners warn, as the coronavirus decimates visitor numbers. Before the virus, life for the kingdom's estimated 2,000 elephants working in tourism was already stressful, with abusive methods often used to 'break them' into giving rides and performing tricks at money-spinning animal shows.   With global travel paralysed the animals are unable to pay their way, including the 300 kilograms (660 pounds) of food a day a captive elephant needs to survive.

Elephant camps and conservationists warn hunger and the threat of renewed exploitation lie ahead, without an urgent bailout. "My boss is doing what he can but we have no money," Kosin, a mahout -- or elephant handler -- says of the Chiang Mai camp where his elephant Ekkasit is living on a restricted diet.   Chiang Mai is Thailand's northern tourist hub, an area of rolling hills dotted by elephant camps and sanctuaries ranging from the exploitative to the humane.   Footage sent to AFP from another camp in the area shows lines of elephants tethered by a foot to wooden poles, some visibly distressed, rocking their heads back and forth.

Around 2,000 elephants are currently "unemployed" as the virus eviscerates Thailand's tourist industry, says Theerapat Trungprakan, president of the Thai Elephant Alliance Association. The lack of cash is limiting the fibrous food available to the elephants "which will have a physical effect", he added.  Wages for the mahouts who look after them have dropped by 70 percent.   Theerapat fears the creatures could soon be used in illegal logging activities along the Thai-Myanmar border -- in breach of a 30-year-old law banning the use of elephants to transport wood.  Others "could be forced (to beg) on the streets," he said. It is yet another twist in the saga of the exploitation of elephants, which animal rights campaigners have long been fighting to protect from the abusive tourism industry.

- 'Crisis point' -
For those hawking a once-in-a-lifetime experience with the giant creatures -- whether from afar or up close -- the slump began in late January.   Chinese visitors, who make up the majority of Thailand's 40 million tourists, plunged by more than 80 percent in February as China locked down cities hard-hit by the virus and banned external travel. By March, the travel restrictions into Thailand -- which has 1,388 confirmed cases of the virus -- had extended to Western countries.

With elephants increasingly malnourished due to the loss of income, the situation is "at a crisis point," says Saengduean Chailert, owner of Elephant Nature Park.   Her sanctuary for around 80 rescued pachyderms only allows visitors to observe the creatures, a philosophy at odds with venues that have them performing tricks and offering rides.   She has organised a fund to feed elephants and help mahouts in almost 50 camps nationwide, fearing the only options will soon be limited to zoos, starvation or logging work.  For those restrained by short chains all day, the stress could lead to fights breaking out, says Saengduean, of camps that can no longer afford medical treatment for the creatures.

Calls are mounting for the government to fund stricken camps to ensure the welfare of elephants. "We need 1,000 baht a day (about $30) for each elephant," says Apichet Duangdee, who runs the Elephant Rescue Park. Freeing his eight mammals rescued from circuses and loggers into the forests is out of the question as they would likely be killed in territorial fights with wild elephants. He is planning to take out a two million baht ($61,000) loan soon to keep his elephants fed.   "I will not abandon them," he added.
Date: Tue, 31 Mar 2020 07:10:34 +0200 (METDST)
By Bernadette Carreon

Koror, Palau, March 31, 2020 (AFP) - A coronavirus-free tropical island nestled in the northern Pacific may seem the perfect place to ride out a pandemic -- but residents on Palau say life right now is far from idyllic.   The microstate of 18,000 people is among a dwindling number of places on Earth that still report zero cases of COVID-19 as figures mount daily elsewhere.   The disparate group also includes Samoa, Turkmenistan, North Korea and bases on the frozen continent of Antarctica.

A dot in the ocean hundreds of kilometres from its nearest neighbours, Palau is surrounded by the vast Pacific, which has acted as a buffer against the virus.   Along with strict travel restrictions, this seems to have kept infections at bay for a number of nations including Tonga, the Solomons Islands, the Marshall Islands and Micronesia.   But remoteness is not certain to stop the relentless march of the new disease. The Northern Mariana Islands confirmed its first cases over the weekend, followed by a suspected death on Monday.

Klamiokl Tulop, a 28-year-old artist and single mum, is hopeful Palau can avoid the fate of Wuhan, New York or Madrid -- where better-resourced health services were overrun.   But she describes a growing sense of dread, a fear that the virus is coming or could already be on the island undetected.   "You can feel a rising tension and anxiety just shopping," she told AFP. "Stores are crowded even more during non-payday weeks."   There have been several scares on Palau, including a potential case that saw one person placed into quarantine this week as authorities await test results.

- Antarctic seclusion -
Inside Australia's four remote Antarctic research bases, around 90 people have found themselves ensconced on the only virus-free continent as they watch their old home transform beyond recognition.   There is no need for social distancing in the tundra.   "They're probably the only Australians at the moment that can have a large dinner together or have the bar still open or the gym still open," Antarctic Division Operations manager Robb Clifton told AFP.   The bases are now isolated until November, so the group is safe, but Clifton admits "the main thing that's on the mind of expeditioners is how their loved ones are going back home."

In some places, reporting no cases does not always mean there are no cases to report.   North Korea has portrayed emergency measures as an unqualified success in keeping COVID-19 out, despite sustained epidemics in neighbouring China and South Korea.   But state media also appears to have doctored images to give ordinary North Koreans face masks -- handing sceptics reason to believe the world's most secretive government may not be telling the whole truth.

- 'Waiting for the inevitable?' -
While Palau has no confirmed cases, it has still been gripped by the society-altering fears and economic paralysis that have affected the rest of the world.   Supermarket aisles in the country's largest town Koror have seen panic buying and there are shortages of hand sanitisers, masks and alcohol.   The islands depend heavily on goods being shipped or flown in, meaning supplies can quickly run low.

United Airlines used to fly six times a week from nearby Guam -- which has seen more than 50 cases -- but now there is just one flight a week.   "Look at how bad we coped when shipments were late before this pandemic happened," Tulop said. "Everyone was practically in uproar."   Residents have been practising social distancing. Doctors are waiting for test kits to arrive from Taiwan. The government is building five isolation rooms that will be able to hold up to 14 patients.   It all feels like waiting for the inevitable.   "I would like to be optimistic we won't get the virus," Tulop said. "But Palau would most definitely get it. We rely heavily on tourism and most of us even need to travel for work."

Rondy Ronny's job is to host big tourist events, but work has already dried up, and he admits to being "very anxious".   "I have loans and bills and payments due," he said. "This will definitely put me back, I hope the government will do something about our economy too, to help it recover."   Palau's biggest test may yet come with the first positive case.   But even in the most remote corners of the world, the impact of this truly global pandemic is already being felt.   Nowhere, it seems, is truly virus-free.
Date: Tue, 31 Mar 2020 04:46:26 +0200 (METDST)

Panama City, March 31, 2020 (AFP) - The government of Panama on Monday announced strict quarantine measures that separate citizens by gender in an effort to slow the spread of the novel coronavirus.   From Wednesday, men and women will only be able to leave their homes for two hours at a time, and on different days.   Until now, quarantine regulations were not based on gender.

Men will be able to go to the supermarket or the pharmacy on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays, and women will be allowed out on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays.   No one will be allowed to go out on Sundays.

The new measures will last for 15 days.   "This absolute quarantine is for nothing more than to save your life," security minister Juan Pino said at a press conference.   According to Pino, more than 2,000 people were detained last week for not abiding by the quarantine.   Since the first case was reported on March 10, Panama has confirmed 1,075 cases of the coronavirus, 43 of which are in intensive care, and 27 deaths.
Date: Tue, 31 Mar 2020 00:54:08 +0200 (METDST)
By Celia Lebur with AFP Africa Bureaux

Lagos, March 30, 2020 (AFP) - More than 20 million Nigerians on Monday went into lockdown in sub-Saharan Africa's biggest city Lagos and the capital Abuja, as the continent struggles to curb the spread of coronavirus.   President Muhammadu Buhari ordered a two-week "cessation of all movements" in key cities to ward off an explosion of cases in Africa's most populous country.

Businesses are being closed, non-food shops shut and people required to stay at home as officials look to track down possible carriers of the disease after reporting 131 confirmed cases and two deaths so far.   Enforcing the restrictions in sprawling Lagos will be a mammoth challenge as millions live crammed into slums and rely on daily earnings to survive.

In the ramshackle outdoor markets of Lagos Island, anxious locals complained they did not have the money to stock up, while at higher-end supermarkets better-off residents queued to buy supplies.    "Two weeks is too long. I don't know how we will cope," said student Abdul Rahim, 25, as he helped his sister sell foodstuffs from a stall in Jankarra market.    "People are hungry and they won't be able to stock food."

City officials have pledged to provide basic provisions to 200,000 households but the central government in Africa's largest oil producing nation is already facing financial strain as the price of crude  has collapsed.    The streets of Ghana's capital Accra were also empty as most people in two regions appeared to be following a presidential order to stay indoors after it went into force.

- Zimbabwe locks down -
Dozens of African nations have imposed restrictions ranging from night-time curfews to total shutdowns.    Zimbabwe, which is already suffering a recession, began enforcing a three-week lockdown after the disease left one person dead and infected six others.   Police mounted checkpoints on routes leading to Harare's central business district, stopping cars and turning away pedestrians who had no authorisation to be in the area.   "We don't want to see people here on the streets. We don't want to see people who have no business in town just loitering," a policewoman said through a loud hailer. "Everyone to their homes."

Some people were trying to head for villages.   "We would rather spend the 21 days at our rural home, where we don't have to buy everything. I can't afford to feed my family here when I am not working," said Most Jawure.   "We have been waiting here for more than two hours but there are no buses," Jawure told AFP while standing with his wife and daughter beside a bulging suitcase.

For many of Zimbabwe's 16 million people, the lockdown means serious hardship.   With the unemployment rate estimated at around 90 percent, most Zimbabweans have informal jobs to eke out a living and few have substantial savings.   As a similar scenario played out in other poor nations, the UN on Monday called for a $2.5-trillion aid package to help developing countries weather the pandemic, including debt cancellation and a health recovery "Marshall Plan".

- 'A matter of time' -
Experts warn that Africa is highly vulnerable to COVID-19 given the weak state of health systems across the continent.    The number of infections lags far behind Europe but testing has been limited and the figures are growing rapidly.    Angola and Ivory Coast on Sunday became the latest countries to record their first deaths, bringing the number of African fatalities to around 150 of nearly 4,800 recorded cases.

In Democratic Republic of Congo, two new cases were reported in the volatile South Kivu region and an adviser to the nation's president announced he had tested positive.

Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni ordered a 14-day lockdown in a bid to halt the spread of the disease after reporting 33 infections.    Police in South Sudan, one of a few nations in Africa yet to confirm a case, enforced strict new rules, shutting shops selling non-essential items and limiting passengers in public transport.   Mauritius, which has 128 cases -- the highest in East Africa -- has extended its lockdown to April 15.

South Africa's defence minister Nosiviwe Mapisa-Nqakula on Monday denounced alleged intimidation by security forces after videos emerged showing some forcing civilians to squat or roll on the ground for allegedly violating restrictions.   In an interview with local Newzroom Afrika television channel, she said she was aware of two videos "which have circulated where clearly there (is) some abuse".   "I'm saying I condemn that, we will not allow that to continue," she said.
Date: Mon, 30 Mar 2020 21:41:43 +0200 (METDST)

Kampala, March 30, 2020 (AFP) - Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni on Monday ordered an immediate 14-day nationwide lockdown in a bid to halt the spread of the coronavirus which has so far infected 33 people in the country.   Uganda last week banned public transport and sealed its borders and urged the population to stay home, but stopped short of a full shutdown.

Museveni said that from 10:00pm Monday private vehicles would also be banned, seeking to avoid give a more advanced warning that would see people flee the city, as has happened across the continent where many poor residents see better chances of survival in the countryside.   "I would have given the public time to adjust but... a longer time would give people time to go to the villages and in so doing they would transfer the very sickness we're trying to prevent. This freezing of movement will last for 14 days," he said in a televised address.

Museveni also ordered a 14-day nationwide curfew from 7:00pm.   Shopping malls and businesses selling non-food items were ordered to close.   Food market vendors who continue to trade are forbidden to return to their homes for the duration of the 14-day lockdown, while factories could stay open if remain on the premises for the duration of the shutdown.

People are still allowed to move around on foot but not gather in groups of more than five at a time.    In recent days, opposition leaders Kizza Besigye and Bobi Wine had undertaken small-scale food deliveries to people who had ost their incomes due to earlier restrictions but Museveni criticised such actions as "cheap politics".   "I direct the police to arrest the opportunistic and irresponsible politicians who tried to distribute food," he said.   "Anybody arrested in that effort will be charged with attempted murder."   Museveni said the government would begin distributing food to those who needed it, without providing details.

A weary looking Museveni, 75, pleaded with the population to change their behaviour in the face of the threat from the virus.   "This virus would not do much damage if it was not for the carelessness of people. Don't go into a group of people if you have a cold. Stay at home," he pleaded.   Last week police and Local Defence Units (LDUs) -- a uniformed militia under the control of the military - violently cleared streets in central Kampala.   Following a public outcry, army chief General David Muhoozi on Monday apologised for those actions, describing them as "high-handed, unjustified and regrettable" and said the culprits would be "dealt with".
Date: Sun 29 Mar 2020
Source: Spanish government COVID-19 update 58 [in Spanish, trans. ProMed Mod.MPP, edited]

COVID-19 update 59 [data as of 28 Mar 2020 21:00 CET]
-----------------------------------------------------
Situation in Spain
------------------
In Spain, to date [28 Mar 2020], 78 797 cases have been reported, of which 6528 have died and 14,709 recovered (table 1 and figure 1 -- at source URL above). The Autonomous Communities with the greater cumulative incidence in the last 14 days are La Rioja 419.5 per 100,000 population), Madrid 287.1 per 100,000 population), Navarre (279.4 per 100,000 population), and Castile-La Mancha (238.3 per 100,000 population) (figures 2, 3). The distribution by age groups of hospitalized patients, those admitted to the ICU, and deaths is found in table 2.

Autonomous Community:
Total / last 24 hours / Incidence per 100,000 population in past 14 days

  • Madrid: 22,677 / 1157 / 287.14
  • Catalonia: 15,026 / 763 / 186.46
  • Basque Country: 5740 / 604 / 231.45
  • Castile and Leon: 5414 / 623 / 213.46
  • Castile-La Mancha: 5246 / 734 / 238.33
  • Valencia: 4784 / 750 / 87.43
  • Andalusia: 4682 / 405 / 50.45
  • Galicia: 3139 / 367 / 109.06
  • Navarre: 2011 / 182 / 279.42
  • Aragon: 1858 / 266 / 129.69
  • La Rioja: 1629 / 193 / 419.51
  • Extremadura : 1456 / 62 / 127.47
  • Canary Islands: 1125 / 100 / 47.18
  • Asturias: 1088 / 84 / 92.98
  • Cantabria: 1023 / 86 / 167.28
  • Balearic Islands: 958 / 96 / 79.69
  • Murcia: 872 / 70 / 53.62
  • Melilla: 48 / 3 / 46.25
  • Ceuta: 21 / 4 / 23.59
********
Total: 78,797 / 6549 / 151.04
======================
[Spain has been rapidly accelerating in terms of transmission of the SARS-CoV-2. As of today (29 Mar 2020), there have been a total of 78 797 cases and 6528 deaths reported, an increase from 72 248 cases with and 5690 deaths confirmed in the preceding 24 hours. The countrywide 2-week incidence per 100 000 population is 151. It is now 2nd in Europe, behind Italy, and 4th globally behind the USA, Italy, and China, in terms of absolute numbers of cases.

Of the 78,797 cases, 43 397 (55.1%) were hospitalized, 4907 (6.2%) were admitted to the ICU. The crude reported death rate was 8.3% with more deaths occurring than reported ICU admissions.

A map of Spain showing provinces (autonomous communities) can be seen at
and a HealthMap/ProMED-mail map at <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/43>.

La Rioja, Navarre, and Basque Country are located together in the north of the country. Madrid is in the northern part of central Spain and Castilla de la Mancha is just to the south of Madrid, with Toledo as its capital. - ProMed Mod.MPP]
Date: Sun 29 Mar 2020
Source: Worldometer [accessed 10:30 PM EDT]

USA cases by state
State: Total cases / New cases

  • New York: 59,648 / 6193
  • New Jersey: 13,386 / 2262
  • California: 6312 / 653
  • Michigan: 5486 / 836
  • Massachusetts: 4955 / 698
  • Florida: 4950 / 912
  • Washington: 4483 / 173
  • Illinois: 4596 / 1105
  • Louisiana: 3540 / 225
  • Pennsylvania: 3419 / 668
  • Texas: 2808 / 479
  • Georgia: 2683 / 237
  • Colorado / 2307 / 246
  • Connecticut: 1993 / 469
  • Tennessee: 1720 / 208
  • Ohio: 1653 / 247
  • Indiana: 1514 / 282
  • Maryland: 1239 / 247
  • North Carolina: 1167 / 145
  • Wisconsin: 1154 / 165
  • Nevada: 920 / 299
  • Arizona: 919 / 146
  • Missouri / 903 / 65
  • Virginia: 890 / 151
  • Alabama: 827 / 125
  • South Carolina: 774 / 114
  • Mississippi: 758 / 179
  • Utah: 719 / 117
  • Oregon: 548 / 69
  • Minnesota: 503 / 62
  • Arkansas: 449 / 40
  • Kentucky: 439 / 45
  • Oklahoma: 429 / 52
  • District of Columbia: 401 / 59
  • Iowa: 336 / 38
  • Kansas: 319 / 58
  • Idaho: 310 / 49
  • Rhode Island: 294 / 55
  • New Hampshire: 258 / 44
  • Maine: 253 / 42
  • New Mexico: 237 / 29
  • Vermont: 235 / 24
  • Delaware: 232 / 18
  • Hawaii: 175 / 24
  • Montana: 161 / 32
  • West Virginia: 124 / 11
  • Nebraska: 120 / 24
  • Alaska: 102 / 17
  • North Dakota: 98 / 15
  • South Dakota: 90 / 22
  • Wyoming: 87 / 3
  • Guam / 56 / 5
  • Northern Mariana Islands: 2
  • Puerto Rico: 127 / 27
  • US Virgin Islands: 21 / 0
  • Wuhan repatriated: 3 / 0
  • Diamond Princess Cruise: 46 / 0
**************
Total: 142 321 / 38 179
Total reported deaths: 2484
====================
[The above are the latest breakdowns of confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the USA, as per Worldometer data. The total number of confirmed cases in the USA and territories is now 142 321 including 2484 deaths. New York state, with 59 648 (41.9%) cumulative cases reports and 6193 (33.3%) newly confirmed cases over the past 24 hours, is clearly the epicenter of the outbreak in the USA, although case reporting elsewhere is showing increases. Daily reported case counts are accelerating in New Jersey, Michigan, Florida, Louisiana, Massachusetts, and Illinois.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website (<https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/cases-updates/cases-in-us.html>) has 2 epidemic curves. One focuses on date of confirmation of disease, the other on date of onset of illness. The curve of interest, by date of onset of disease, is based on 14.6% of the number of cases plotted on the epidemic curve using date of confirmation of disease.

A map of the United States can be seen at
<http://www.mapsofworld.com/usa/> and a HealthMap/ProMED-mail map at
Date: Sun 29 Mar 2020 11:46 AM GST
Source: Reuters [abridged, edited]

Iran's coronavirus death toll has risen to 2640, a health ministry official said on Sunday [29 Mar 2020], as the Middle East's worst-hit country grapples with the fast-spreading outbreak. "In the past 24 hours we had 123 deaths and 2901 people have been infected, bringing the total number of infected people to 38 309," Alireza Vahabzadeh, an adviser to the health minister, said in a tweet. "12,391 people infected from the virus have recovered." Health ministry spokesman Kianush Jahanpur told state TV that 3467 of those infected were in "critical condition".  "I am happy to announce that also 12,391 people who had been infected across the country have recovered," Jahanpur said. "The average age of those who have died of the disease is 69."

President Hassan Rouhani urged Iranians to adapt to their new way of life, which was likely to continue for some time. "We must prepare to live with the virus until a treatment is discovered ... The new measures that have been imposed are for everyone's benefit ... Our main priority is the safety and the health of our people," Rouhani said during a televised meeting.

The government has banned inter-city travel after warning of a potential surge in coronavirus cases because many Iranians defied calls to cancel travel plans for the Persian New Year holidays that began on [20 Mar 2020]. The authorities told Iranians to stay at home, while schools, universities, cultural, religious, and sports centres have been temporarily closed.

To stem the spread of the virus in crowded jails, Iran's judiciary on Sunday [29 Mar 2020] extended furloughs for 100,000 prisoners. On [17 Mar 2020], Iran said it had freed about 85,000 people from jail temporarily, including political prisoners. "The 2nd wave of (the) temporary release of prisoners had already started and their (100,000 prisoners) furloughs have been extended until [19 Apr 2020]," judiciary spokesman Gholamhossein Esmaili was reported as saying by state television. Iran said it had 189,500 people in prison, according to a report submitted by the UN special rapporteur on human rights in Iran to the Human Rights Council in January [2020].  [byline: Parisa Hafezi]
===================
[In the 24 hours from 28 to 29 Mar 2020, the number of cases of COVID-19 confirmed in Iran grew from 35 408 to, 38 309, an increase of 2901 newly confirmed cases. The number of deaths has also increased from 2517 to 2640 an increase of 123 deaths in the 24-hour period. In terms of total numbers of confirmed cases, Iran ranks 7th globally behind USA, Italy, China, Spain, Germany and France. In early March 2020, Iran and Italy were on the same trajectory with respect to daily growth in cumulative newly confirmed cases, but starting 8 Mar 2020, Italy's daily reported newly confirmed cases accelerated at an alarming speed. By 14 Mar 2020, Italy was reporting almost twice as many cases as Iran on a daily basis.

A map of Iran showing provinces can be seen at
HealthMap/ProMED-mail map at <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/128>. - ProMed Mod.MPP]
Date: Sun 29 Mar 2020
Source: Italian Government Health Ministry [in Italian, machine trans., edited]

Cases in Italy as of 6:00 pm 29 Mar 2020
----------------------------------------
Regarding health monitoring related to the spread of the new coronavirus [SARS-CoV-2] on the national territory, there are a total of 97,689 cases. At the moment 73,880 people are positive for the virus; 13,030 people have recovered. There are 27,386 patients hospitalized with symptoms, 3906 are in intensive care, and 42,588 are in home isolation.

There have been 10,779 reported deaths, however, this number can only be confirmed after the Istituto Superiore di Sanita has established the actual cause of the death.

Case distribution by province:
number of cases (number of new cases in past 24 hours)

  • Lombardy: 41 007 (1592)
  • Emilia-Romagna: 13 119 (736)
  • Veneto: 8358 (428)
  • Marche: 3558 (185)
  • Piedmont: 8206 (535)
  • Tuscany: 4122 (305)
  • Campania: 1759 (167)
  • Lazio: 2706 (201)
  • Liguria: 3076 (254)
  • Friuli Venezia Giulia: 1480 (44)
  • Sicily: 1460 (101)
  • Apulia: 1549 (91)
  • Umbria: 1023 (54)
  • Abruzzo: 1293 (160)
  • Molise: 127 (4)
  • Trento: 1594 (89)
  • Bolzano: 1214 (105)
  • Sardinia: 638 (14)
  • Basilicata: 202 (20)
  • Aosta Valley: 584 (73)
  • Calabria: 614 (59)
*********
Total: 97,689 (5217)
======================
[The tally of confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Italy is now 97,689 cases, including 10,779 deaths, up from 92,472 cases and 10,023 deaths reported on 28 Mar 2020. The 24-hour change between 28 and 29 Mar 2020 was 5217 newly confirmed cases, compared with 5974 newly confirmed cases between 27 and 28 Mar 2020. Cases continue to be concentrated in Lombardy (41 007), the epicenter of the outbreak, Emilia-Romagna (13 119), and Veneto (8358), all in the northern part of the country. Those 3 provinces combined account for 52.8% of newly confirmed cases in the past 24 hours, representing a drop from the previous 24 hours when they represented 56.% of nationally reported cases. Another active province is Piemonte with a total of 8206 cases and represents 10.3% of newly reported cases. In the past 24 hours Tuscany has reported 5.9% of newly reported cases, a slight drop from the preceding day when it was reporting 6.1% of newly confirmed cases. There is an excellent interactive map at <http://opendatadpc.maps.arcgis.com/apps/opsdashboard/index.html#/b0c68bce2cce478eaac82fe38d4138b1> to visualize the caseloads per region in near real time.

On 9 Mar 2020, Italy announced a lockdown for the northern provinces where the outbreak was concentrated. On 10 Mar 2020, this was expanded to be countrywide. On 11 Mar 2020, Italy announced the closure of non-essential businesses. It is now 19 days since the start of the lockdown in the north and 18 days since the countrywide lockdown.

A map of Italy showing regions can be seen at
HealthMap/ProMED-mail map at <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/75>. - ProMed Mod.MPP]