WORLD NEWS

Getting countries ...
Select countries and read reports below or

Andorra

General
************************************
This small country is situated between France and Spain. Because of its elevation and proximity to the Pyrenees the climate is generally pleasant throughout the year.
Climate
**************
*********************
During the summer months the temperatures can rise to 30c but there is usually a cooling breeze. Lightening storms can occur during the summer months associated with torrential rain.
Sun Exposure and Dehydration
***************************************
Those from Northern Europe can develop significant sun exposure and so remember to use a wide brimmed hat when necessary. The altitude can also lead to significant tiredness and dehydration so take sufficient initial rest and drink plenty of fluids.
Safety & Security
************************************
The level of crime throughout the country directed at tourists is very low. Nevertheless take care of your personal belongings at all times and use hotel safety boxes where possible.
Local Customs
************************************
There are strict laws regarding the use of illegal drugs. Make sure you have sufficient supplies of any medication you required for your trip and that it is clearly marked. The European E111 form is not accepted in Andorra and so it is essential that you have sufficient travel insurance for your trip.
Winter Sports
************************************
Andorra is one of the regions where many travel to partake of their winter sport facilities. Generally this is well controlled and one of the safer regions. Nevertheless, make certain your travel insurance is adequate for the activities you are planning to undertake.
Vaccination
************************************
The only standard vaccine to consider for Andorra would be tetanus in line with many other developed countries of the world.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu, 12 Jul 2018 15:24:06 +0200

Andorra la Vella, Andorra, July 12, 2018 (AFP) - The tax haven of Andorra has long been a favourite destination for smokers looking to stock up on cheap cigarettes, but the enclave said Thursday that it would soon stop advertising the fact.   The government said it had signed up to the World Health Organization's (WHO) anti-tobacco convention, which aims to encourage people to quit smoking and combat contraband sales.   "The goal is to contribute to public health and pursue the fight against trafficking," government spokesman Jordi Cinca said at a press conference.

The tiny principality of Andorra, perched in the Pyrenees on the border between France and Spain, attracts millions of shoppers each year to duty-free stores, where prices of alcohol, cigarettes, electronics and clothes can be up to 20 percent cheaper than elsewhere in the EU.   High taxes on tobacco imposed by many countries to help people kick smoking make Andorra's cigarettes a particularly good deal.   The average pack costs just three euros ($3.50) compared with eight euros in France, which has said it will gradually raise the price to 10 euros a pack by November 2020.

Tobacco sales bring in some 110 million euros a year for Andorra, whose economy is otherwise based almost entirely on tourism.   It is also an enticing destination for smugglers, with French and Spanish border agents regularly seizing cartons from people trying to sneak them out, either by car or by hiking down the mountain trails which criss-cross the Pyrenees.   No date has been set for the advertising ban, which will come into effect three months after the ratification of the WHO accord is voted by parliament.
Date: Fri, 16 Mar 2018 02:41:51 +0100

Andorra la Vella, Andorra, March 16, 2018 (AFP) - The tiny principality of Andorra is witnessing a once in a generation phenomenon -- a widespread strike.   Around a third of civil servants across the mountainous micro-state have walked out to protest proposed reforms to their sector in what has been described as Andorra's first large-scale strike since 1933.

With no negotiation breakthrough in sight, picket lines are expected to be manned again on Friday with customs officers, police, teachers and prison staff among those taking part.   The first major strike in 85 years was sparked by plans from the government of Antoni Marti to reform civil servant contracts.   He has assured officials "will not do an hour more" work under the reforms and that 49 million euros would be allocated for the next 25 years to supplement civil servant salaries.   But government workers are unconvinced with unions warning the reforms could risk their 35 hour working week and pay.

Customs officers involved in the strike interrupted traffic on the Andorran-Spanish border this week, according to unions, while some 80 percent of teachers have walked out of classes.   Strikers have occupied the government's main administrative building and held noisy protests outside parliament calling for Marti's resignation.    "We have started collecting signatures to demand the resignation of the head of government and now nobody will stop us," Gabriel Ubach, spokesman for the public service union, told reporters.
Date: Mon 27 Sep 2017
Source: Contagion Live [edited]

A recent Dispatch article published in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Emerging Infectious Diseases journal, offers insight into a large norovirus outbreak that sprung up in Spain in 2016 that had been linked with bottled spring water. The Public Health Agency of Catalonia (ASPCAT) reported a staggering 4136 cases of gastroenteritis from 11-25 Apr 2016. Of the 4136 cases, 6 individuals required hospitalization. The CDC defines a "case-patient" as an "exposed person who had vomiting or diarrhoea (3 or more loose stools within 24 hours)," as well as 2 or more of the following symptoms: nausea, stomach pain, or fever.

ASPCAT investigators traced back the outbreak to contaminated bottled spring water in office water coolers. The water came from a source in Andorra, a small independent principality located between Spain and France. Norovirus is a "very contagious virus," according to the CDC, and it is common for individuals to become infected by eating contaminated food. Although it is possible to be infected by consuming contaminated drinking water, this mode of transmission is "rare in developed countries," according to the article.

The investigators collected water samples from a total of 4 19-L water coolers in 2 different offices located in Barcelona, "from which affected persons had drunk; samples 1 and 2 came from 2 water coolers in one office, while samples 3 and 4 came from 2 water coolers in another office. Using "positively charged glass wool and polyethylene glycol precipitation for virus concentration," the investigators tested the samples.

"We detected high RNA levels for norovirus genotype I and II, around 103 and 104 genome copies/L, in 2 of the 4 water cooler samples concentrated by glass wool filtration and polyethylene glycol precipitation," according to the article. The investigators noted that a drawback of using molecular methods is that they are not able to differentiate between particles that are infectious and those that are not. Therefore, they "predicted the infectivity of norovirus in the concentrated samples by treating the samples with the nucleic acid intercalating dye PMA propidium monoazide and Triton X surfactant before RT-qPCR," which allowed them to "distinguish between virions with intact and altered capsids."

In those 2 water samples, they found high genome copy values -- 49 and 327 genome copies/L for norovirus genotype I and 33 and 660 genomes copies/L for norovirus genotype II. This was not an unexpected finding, due to the large number of infected individuals associated with the outbreak. Through "PMA/Triton treatment before RT-qPCR assays," the investigators found that the proportion of infected virions accounted for 0.3% to 5.6% of the total number of physical particles in the water samples, "which was enough to cause gastrointestinal illness."

The investigators also analyzed faecal samples collected from infected individuals who worked at the office in which the 1st 2 water samples were collected. They detected the following genotypes in those faecal samples: GI.2 and GII.17. In the faecal samples collected from the other office, they isolated the following genotypes: GII.4/Sydney/2012, GI.2, GII.17, and GII.2.

"We hypothesize that the spring water was contaminated by all 4 strains (GI.2, GII.2, GII.4, and GII.17) but levels of viral contamination for each genotype were not homogeneous in all bottled coolers," the investigators wrote. "We may have detected only the GII.4 genotype in water samples 1 and 2 because of a higher concentration of this specific genotype or because of bias caused by the sampling, concentration, and molecular detection procedures."

The investigators admit one limitation to their study: the small number of water samples collected and analyzed. They attribute this to the fact that on 15 Apr 2016, 4 days after the onset of the outbreak, the company that produced the drinking water recalled over 6150 containers of water "of suspected quality" as a precautionary measure. The recall prevented the investigators from collecting more samples to assess, according to the article.

Although the exact cause of the contamination has not yet been identified, the investigators posit that "the high number of affected persons from 381 offices that received water coolers, and the many different genotypes found in some patients' faecal specimens" suggest that the spring aquifer had been contaminated by "sewage pollution," and the Andorra Ministry of Health and Welfare banned further use of the spring.

The investigators suggest that assessing commercially-produced mineral waters for different harmful pathogens, such as norovirus would be beneficial. They note, however, that creating, enhancing, and managing such "virus surveillance systems" would be costly. Thus, the investigators suggest taking a "balanced approach to keep both the cost and the time required for the analyses within feasibility limits."  [Byline: Kristi Rosa]
=====================
[The interesting article published in the September 2017 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases is:
Blanco A, Guix S, Fuster N, et al: Norovirus in bottled water associated with gastroenteritis outbreak, Spain, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017; 23(9): 1531-34; https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/23/9/16-1489_article. - ProMED Mod.LL]

[Catalonia and Andorra can be located on the HealthMap/ProMED-mail map at http://healthmap.org/promed/p/1341. - ProMED Sr.Tech.Ed.MJ]
Date: Thu, 26 Dec 2013 22:25:05 +0100 (MET)

ANDORRA LA VELLA, Andorra, Dec 26, 2013 (AFP) - A Spanish skier and a French snowboarder have died in avalanches in different mountain ranges in Europe, officials said Thursday.

The 27-year-old skier, a woman from Barcelona, died Wednesday while going off-piste alone in the Soldeu resort in Andorra, in the Pyrenees mountains between France and Spain, a resort manager told AFP.   Although she was rescued within 10 minutes, after her glove was spotted on the surface, she was unable to be revived despite a helicopter dash to hospital.

In the Italian Alps, close to the border with France, a 24-year-old Frenchman who was snowboarding with three friends on a closed run died Thursday when an avalanche swept over him in the resort town of Les Arnauds.   Local officials said he succumbed to multiple injuries, asphyxia and hypothermia.

Avalanches are common in Europe's ski resorts at this time of year, when early snows are heavy with moisture, and several deaths occur each winter.   Last Sunday, a 35-year-old Frenchman died in an avalanche in the Alps near the Italian border while on a three-day trek with a friend.
Date: Fri 7 Feb 2003 From: Jaime R. Torres Source: EFE Salud, Thu 6 Feb 2003 (translated by Maria Jacobs) [edited] -------------------------------------------------- Close to 300 students in one school and 173 tourists staying in 7 hotels in the Principality of Andorra have been affected by outbreaks of gastroenteritis that, according to local authorities, are not related to each other. Monica Codina, Minister of Health, stated that the outbreak that has affected almost 300 children and 8 adults in the San Ermengol school was detected last Monday [3 Feb 2003] but that it may have started Wednesday or Thursday of the previous week. The epidemiological surveys of a group of pre-school and grammar school students that may also be affected have not been performed yet. Also pending are the results of the microbiological tests of the food and water served in the school dining room, but the minister has indicated that the probable cause of the outbreak is the fact that water pitchers were filled with hoses directly from the faucet. The Minister stated that this outbreak of gastroenteritis is not related to the one that affected 173 tourists, most of them young people on holiday, who where staying in 7 hotels of the Principality. The government is also investigating the cause of this outbreak and has indicated that an anomaly in the system that supplies water to the hotels was detected, requiring a process of chlorination, which has not been carried out due to the heavy snowfall of the past few days. * * * * * * * * * * [The suspicion that defective water supplies may be responsible for all of these independent outbreaks suggests that the etiologic agent may be an enterovirus, hepatitis A virus, or non-viral, rather than one of the noroviruses associated with sudden-onset viral gastroenteritis. Information on the outcome of diagnostic tests in progress would be welcomed. - ProMed Mod.CP]
More ...

Puerto Rico

No Profile is available at present

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Sun, 15 Mar 2020 23:58:27 +0100 (MET)

San Juan, March 15, 2020 (AFP) - The US territory of Puerto Rico on Sunday ordered a 9:00 pm to 5:00 am curfew to stem the spread of the novel coronavirus, the strongest measure yet taken on American soil.   It took effect immediately and lasts until March 30.   "Faced with the possibility of transmission and propagation of the virus, I have ordered the imposition of a curfew for all residents of Puerto Rico," Governor Wanda Vazquez announced in a video message.   "We must take every precaution to ensure that we do not become potential carriers," Vazquez said.

The Caribbean territory of 2.9 million, whose residents are US citizens, also will close many businesses from Sunday until the end of the month, she said.   That includes malls, movie theaters, concert venues, gyms, bars and other businesses that bring together large crowds on the island popular with tourists.   The exceptions will be businesses in the food supply chain, and in the medical care system, as well as drugstores, gas stations, banks and senior citizens' group homes.

At night, only those who are providing or receiving medical care, or carrying out essential duties, will be allowed to be on Puerto Rico's streets.   Anyone defying the curfew faces a six-month jail term and a fine of up to $5,000.   The island declared a state of emergency when its first cases were reported March 12. The island has reported five cases.   On Friday, Vazquez accepted the resignation of Health Secretary Rafael Rodriguez Mercado, who was under fire for his handling the coronavirus emergency.

Recently, island residents were irate when two warehouses were found to be filled with abandoned supplies, apparently never used after Hurricanes Irma and Maria in 2017.   The storms' one-two punch left Puerto Ricans without power for months and killed nearly 3,000 people, according to the local government's official numbers.   President Donald Trump has accused the Puerto Rican government of incompetence and siphoning off hurricane relief money.   The Puerto Rican leaders accused Trump of treating the population of the island like second class citizens.
Date: Thu, 16 Jan 2020 02:45:27 +0100 (MET)
By Ivelisse RIVERA, con Leila MACOR en Miami

Yauco, Puerto Rico, Jan 16, 2020 (AFP) - Living out in the open, their nerves on edge after a series of earthquakes that have shaken Puerto Rico, some 5,000 people are hoping that their president, Donald Trump, will heed the island's plea to be designated a disaster zone and free up much-needed aid.   Since December 28, more than 1,000 tremors have rattled the US island territory in the Caribbean, which just two years ago was devastated by two powerful hurricanes in quick succession.

In Yauco, one of the areas worst hit by the earthquakes, dozens of people were sitting on cot beds Wednesday in the parking lot of a municipal stadium, sheltered from the sun by white tents and blue tarps handed out by the federal disaster management agency, known as FEMA.  "The most difficult thing is the psychological aspect," said Wilfredo Rodriguez, 31. His house had been fractured by the seismic movement and he has spent a week living with his kids, aged six and 10, under an awning.    "We are living in constant fear of another powerful tremor," he said.

He only returns to his house to wash, then hurries back to the shelter. "We worry that there'll be a more powerful tremor while we are inside the house," he said.   Throughout the day, volunteers arrive to hand out food and toys for the children who fill the shelters: schools have been suspended because the buildings are not sturdy enough to withstand another quake.    The island's earthquake detection system has registered 1,104 tremors in the past two weeks alone, of which 186 could be felt by the population. By comparison, during the whole of 2019 there were 6,442 tremors, of which just 62 could be felt by people on the island.

Further south, in Guanico, Juan Santiago decided to move into a shelter on Saturday after a tremor of 5.9 on the Richter scale hit the island. "The mountain shook and rocks and earth started to come down," said the 30-year-old.  "My house has a crack in it and is about to fall down," he added. His home had weathered the Category Five winds of Hurricane Maria in September 2017 and of Hurricane Irma which followed it just two weeks later.   "It's different to a hurricane. What is happening now is much nastier," he said.

As he was talking the earth shook again, a tremor of 5.2 magnitude. Vehicles rocked like hammocks in the wind, but the quake-hardened victims barely reacted.   The houses in this part of the island are mostly rudimentary constructions built by the people who live in them with scant resources available in the mountains, where no regulations stipulate that buildings should be earthquake resistant.    The government of Puerto Rico said that as of Monday, there were 4,924 people living in 28 shelters in 14 municipalities. There were no figures on how many buildings had been damaged or destroyed.

- Seeking disaster designation -
Puerto Rico's governor Wanda Vazquez Garced called on Trump to declare the earthquake a disaster and clear the way for desperately needed aid. Trump had declared an emergency days before, but the governor wanted more.   The declaration of an emergency frees up to $5 million dollars in aid for the island, although Congress can bump that figure up. But if the situation is designated a disaster, there is no ceiling on funding, a FEMA spokesman said.   On Wednesday, the government said it would release $8.2 billion in delayed hurricane relief that had been stalled after the president threatened to divert Puerto Rico's emergency funds to help pay for his wall on the US-Mexico border.

In the past few days there have been growing calls among Democratic lawmakers for Trump to declare the situation in Puerto Rico a disaster.   It is a delicate subject, as Trump has accused the government of Puerto Rico of incompetence and of siphoning off hurricane relief money, triggering a public spat between the president and the mayor of San Juan, Carmen Yulin Cruz, as well as the former governor Ricardo Rossello, who was forced to step down last summer amid massive protests.   The Puerto Rican leaders accused Trump of treating the population of the island like second class citizens.
Date: Sat, 11 Jan 2020 15:43:12 +0100 (MET)

Washington, Jan 11, 2020 (AFP) - A 5.9 magnitude earthquake rocked Puerto Rico Saturday, the latest in a series of powerful tremors that have shaken the US territory in recent days, the US Geological Survey reported.

The latest quake occurred at 8:54 am local time (1254 GMT) around 13 kilometres (eight miles) southeast of Guanica, a town on the island's southern Caribbean coastline that was hard hit by earlier quakes.   The USGS revised its initial report of a 6.0 magnitude quake to 5.9.   It follows a 6.4 magnitude quake Tuesday that killed one person, knocked
out electric power and caused widespread damage.

Puerto Rico Governor Wanda Vazquez declared a state of emergency after Tuesday's quake, which forced an automatic shutdown of the power grid.    Puerto Rico's electric power authority reported outages in the towns of Ponce, Lares, Adjuntas and San German after the latest quake.   The Pacific Tsunami Information Center in Hawaii issued a statement saying there was "no significant tsunami threat" but a small possibility of tsunami waves along coasts nearest the epicentre.

The island is still recovering from Hurricane Maria, which came ashore more than two years ago as a devastating Category 4 storm.   Starting December 28, a wave of tremors have swept the island, putting residents on edge.   The 6.4 quake on January 7 came a day after a 5.8 magnitude quake; it was followed by major aftershocks.   Saturday's quakes were also preceded by a string of smaller tremors.
Date: Tue, 7 Jan 2020 23:44:45 +0100 (MET)
By Ricardo Arduengo

Guayanilla, Puerto Rico, Jan 7, 2020 (AFP) - Puerto Rico's governor declared a state of emergency on Tuesday after a powerful 6.4 magnitude earthquake killed at least one person in the south of the island and caused widespread damage.   Governor Wanda Vazquez said the declaration would allow for the activation of National Guard troops in the US territory still recovering from a devastating 2017 hurricane.   The US Geological Survey said the quake struck at 4:24 am (0824 GMT) with the epicenter off the coast of the southern city of Ponce, and was followed by more than a dozen aftershocks.

Tuesday's quake was the most powerful in a series of tremors that have shaken the island since December 28.   Scientists initially sent out an alert about a potential tsunami but it was later canceled.   The island's electricity authority said the quake had forced an automatic shutdown of the power grid, already severely damaged by Hurricane Maria more than two years ago.   The worst damage appeared to be in towns on the southwest coast, including Ponce, Guayanilla and Guanica.   El Nuevo Dia newspaper said a 73-year-old man died after a wall fell in his home in Ponce. Eight others there were reported injured.

Two power plants in Guayanilla sustained major damage, the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority said. The city could be without power for two weeks, its mayor Nelson Torres Yordan said.   Celebrity chef Jose Andres announced that a charity he runs, World Central Kitchen, had started serving meals and distributing solar-powered lamps in quake-hit areas.   Vazquez announced that $130 million in emergency aid funding will be disbursed.   On social media, people wrote of being shaken awake by the force of the quake.   One woman on Twitter said she had been "wrenched from sleep."   "Everybody is awake & scared all over," she posted.   In Guayanilla, the Inmaculada Concepcion church, built in 1841, was heavily damaged.   Volunteers salvaged statues and other valuable items from the ruins as a priest consoled distraught parishioners.

- 'Be safe' -
A 5.8 magnitude quake on Monday toppled some structures, caused power outages and small landslides, but did not result in any casualties.   It also destroyed a popular tourist landmark, Punta Ventana, a natural stone arch that crumbled on the island's southern coast.   Vazquez, the governor, said government employees were being given the day off on Tuesday to take care of their families.   "We want everyone to be safe," she said.   She said ports were undamaged and there are several weeks' supply of gasoline, diesel and natural gas stored so people need not worry about shortages.

The White House said President Donald Trump had been briefed and Pete Gaynor, head of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), had been in touch with the governor.   Trump's administration came under severe criticism for its response to Hurricane Maria.   The Category 4 storm destroyed the island's already shaky power grid, overwhelmed public services, left many residents homeless and claimed several thousand lives, according to government estimates.
Date: Tue, 7 Jan 2020 12:52:34 +0100 (MET)

Washington, Jan 7, 2020 (AFP) - A strong earthquake struck south of Puerto Rico early Tuesday, the US Geological Survey said, the latest in a series of tremors that have shaken the island since December 28.   The shallow 6.5 magnitude quake struck 13.6 kilometres (8.5 miles) south of the city of Ponce, the USGS said, revising down its initial reading of 6.6.   The quake struck just off the US territory's southern Caribbean coastline at 4:24 am local time (0824 GMT).   "The whole island is without power," the director of Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, Jose Ortiz, told local media.

Puerto Rico's governor Wanda Vazquez Garced posted on Twitter that the government's security protocols had been activated.   She said government employees were not expected at work, adding: "We want everyone to be safe."   On social media, people wrote of being shaken awake by the force of the quake.   One woman on Twitter said she had been "wrenched from sleep", adding "Everybody is awake & scared all over."

Dramatic images also shared on social media appeared to show widespread damage in the town of Guayanilla, home to around 20,000 people, as well as nearby Guanica.   The mayor of Guayanilla told local news channel NotiUno that the town's church had collapsed in the incident.

An alert issued by the Tsunami Warning Center immediately following the earthquake was later cancelled.   Tuesday's quake was the strongest of a series of tremors that have shaken the island since December 28, topping Monday's 5.8 quake.   That earthquake toppled houses and caused power outages, but there were no reports of casualties.
More ...

Rwanda

Rwanda US Consular Information Sheet
May 19, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Rwanda is a landlocked developing country in central Africa which has made considerable progress in rebuilding its infrastructure and establishing security since the 19
4 civil war and genocide in which at least 800,000 people were killed. Economic activity and tourism are on the rise in Rwanda. Hotels and guesthouses are adequate in Kigali, the capital, and in major towns, but are limited in remote areas. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Rwanda for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: A passport and evidence of yellow fever immunization are required. Visas are not required for American citizens entering Rwanda for less than 90 days. U.S. citizens planning on working in Rwanda should apply for a work permit at the Directorate of Immigration as soon as possible after arrival in Rwanda. Detailed entry information may be obtained from Rwanda’s Directorate of Immigration at: http://www.migration.gov.rw/ or from the Embassy of the Republic of Rwanda, 1714 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20009, telephone 202-232-2882, fax 202-232-4544, web site http://www.rwandaembassy.org. Overseas, inquiries may be made at the nearest Rwandan Embassy or Consulate.
Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site. For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
There are currently no travel restrictions in place within Rwanda, but travelers should use caution when traveling near or crossing the border into Burundi, eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and Uganda.

In March 2005, the Congo-based Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR), comprising ex-Rwandese Armed Forces, Interahamwe, and other extremists, announced it would end its armed struggle against the Government of Rwanda, but thousands of combatants are estimated to remain in eastern Congo. The combatants currently are not well-organized or funded, nor do they pose a serious threat to Rwandan security. However, in early March 2007, in Gisenyi Province (near the Volcanoes National Park in northwestern Rwanda) they launched a mortar round and rocket into Rwandan territory. There were no casualties, and it appears to have been an isolated incident. While visitors may travel freely to Volcanoes National Park, they are not permitted to visit the park without permission from Rwanda's Office of Tourism and National Parks (ORTPN). ORTPN stipulates that the park can only be used for gorilla tours and nature walks. Since December 2006, all restrictions have been lifted in the Nyungwe Forest near the Burundian border in southwestern Rwanda. In the past, the FDLR infiltrated Rwanda from Burundi through the Nyungwe Forest, but the last reported incident in the park was in November 2003. However, FDLR rebel factions are known to operate in northeastern DRC, Burundi, Tanzania, and Uganda, including near the popular tourist area of Bwindi Impenetrable Forest National Park. For information on travel to those and other countries, and for the latest security information, American citizens traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.
From time to time, travel by U.S. Embassy personnel may be restricted based on changing security conditions. Visitors are encouraged to contact the appropriate U.S. Embassy Regional Security Office or Consular Section for the latest security information, including developments in eastern Congo, Uganda and Burundi. (See Registration/Embassy Location section below.)

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME: Pick-pocketing in crowded public places is common, as is petty theft from cars and hotel rooms. Although violent crimes such as carjacking, robbery, and home invasion occur in Kigali, they are rarely committed against foreigners. Americans are advised to remain alert, exercise caution, and follow appropriate personal security measures. Although many parts of Kigali are safe at night, walking alone after dark is not recommended since foreigners, including Americans, have occasionally been the targets of robbery.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime. The U.S. Embassy provides some information on its web site about criminal justice in Rwanda at http://rwanda.usembassy.gov/criminal_justice_in_rwanda.html.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Medical and dental facilities are limited, and some medicines are in short supply or unavailable. Travelers should bring their own supplies of prescription drugs and preventive medicines. In Kigali, Americans may go to King Faisal Hospital, a private facility that offers limited services and dental facilities. There is also a missionary dental clinic and a few private dentists. American-operated charitable hospitals with some surgical facilities can be found in Kibagora, in southwestern Rwanda, in Ruhengeri, near the gorilla trekking area, and in Rwinkavu, near the entrance to Akagera National Park. The U.S. Embassy maintains on its website a current list of healthcare providers and facilities in Rwanda at http://rwanda.usembassy.gov/medical_information.html; this list is also included in the Consular Section’s welcome packets for American citizens. There are periodic outbreaks of meningitis in Rwanda. Yellow fever can cause serious medical problems, but the vaccine, required for entry, is very effective in preventing the disease. Malaria is endemic to Rwanda. All visitors are strongly encouraged to take prophylactic medications to prevent malaria. These should be initiated prior to entry into the endemic area. Because of possible counterfeit of antimalarial medications, these should be obtained from a reliable pharmaceutical source. Multiple outbreaks of ebola have been reported in neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda in the past year, but none within Rwanda.
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s website at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.
TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Rwanda is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
Due to safety concerns, the use of motorbikes or van taxis for transportation is not recommended. Regulated orange-striped (along the base of the vehicle) sedan auto taxis are safer, but be sure to agree on a fare before beginning the trip. Public transportation can be dangerous due to overloading, inadequate maintenance, and careless drivers.
While the main roads in Rwanda are in relatively good condition, during the rainy season many side roads are passable only with four-wheel drive vehicles. Nighttime driving, particularly outside major cities, is hazardous and is discouraged. Often, roadways are not marked and lack streetlights and shoulders. Many sections have deteriorated surfaces. Due to possible language barriers and lack of roadside assistance, receiving help may be difficult. Travelers may be stopped at police roadblocks throughout the country, where their vehicles and luggage may be searched. Service stations are available along main roads.
In Rwanda, as in the U.S., traffic moves on the right-hand side of the road. Cars already in a traffic circle have the right of way. Until 2004, cars entering traffic circles had the right-of-way. Drivers should exercise caution at traffic circles, since some drivers might forget this change. Excessive speed, careless driving, and the lack of basic safety equipment on many vehicles are hazards on Rwanda's roads. Many vehicles are not well maintained, and headlights are either extremely dim or not used. Drivers also tend to speed and pass other cars with little discretion. Some streets in Kigali have sidewalks or sufficient space for pedestrian traffic; others do not, and pedestrians are forced to walk along the roadway. With the limited street lighting, drivers often have difficulty seeing pedestrians. Drivers frequently have unexpected encounters with cyclists, pedestrians and livestock.
Third-party insurance is required and will cover any damages from involvement in an accident resulting in injuries, if one is found not to have been at fault. The driver’s license of individuals determined to have caused an accident may be confiscated for three months. Causing a fatal accident could result in three to six months' imprisonment. Drunk drivers are jailed for 24 hours and fined Rwandan Francs 20,000 (approximately $35). In the city of Kigali, contact the following numbers for police assistance in the event of an accident: Kigali Center, 08311112; Nyamirambo, 08311113; Kacyiru, 08311114; Kicukiro, 08311115; Remera, 08311116. Ambulance assistance is very limited. Wear seat belts and drive with care and patience at all times. In case of an emergency, American citizens can contact the Embassy duty officer at 0830-0345.
For specific information concerning Rwandan driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax, and mandatory insurance, please contact the Rwandan Office of Tourism and National Parks, B.P. 905, Kigali, Rwanda, telephone 250-76514, fax 250-76512.
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. Visit the web site of the country’s national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at http://www.gov.rw/.
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Rwanda, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Rwanda’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

In recent months, Rwandair, which charters aircraft to fly its routes, has had difficulties maintaining its schedule, resulting in delayed and cancelled flights which have left passengers stranded for extended periods.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Telephone communication to and from Rwanda is generally reliable. Cellular telephones and Internet connections are available in Kigali and large towns.
Non-biodegradable plastic bags have been banned in Rwanda, and travelers carrying them upon arrival at the Kayibanda International airport may have them confiscated and have to pay approximately $4 for a reusable cloth replacement.
International ATMs are not available in Rwanda. The Rwandan franc is freely exchangeable for hard currencies in banks and the Bureaux de Change. Several Kigali banks can handle wire transfers from U.S. banks, including Western Union. Credit cards are accepted at only a few hotels in Kigali and only to settle hotel bills. Hotels currently accepting credit cards for payment include the Kigali Serena (formerly Intercontinental) Hotel, the Hotel des Mille Collines, the Novotel Umubano, Stipp Hotel and the Kivu Sun Hotel. Note that there may be an added fee for using a credit card. Travelers should expect to handle most expenses, including air tickets, in cash.

Traveler's checks can be cashed only at commercial banks. Because some travelers have had difficulty using U.S. currency printed before the year 2000, the Embassy recommends traveling with newer U.S. currency notes.
Please see our Customs Information.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Rwandan laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Rwanda are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.
The U.S. Embassy provides some information on its website about criminal justice in Rwanda.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction. Both foreigners and Rwandans taking Rwandan children to live outside Rwanda, e.g., after adoption, must obtain an exit permission letter from the Ministry of Family and Gender located within the Primature complex at P.O. Box 969, Kigali, Rwanda; Tel: 011-250-587-128; Fax: 011-250-587-127.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Rwanda are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration website so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Rwanda. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located at 2657 Avenue de la Gendarmerie; the mailing address is B.P. 28, Kigali, Rwanda; tel. (250) 596-400,; fax: (250) 596-591. The Consular Section’s email address is consularkigali@state.gov. The Embassy's web site is http://rwanda.usembassy.gov/. American Citizen Services hours are Tuesdays from 9:00 -17:00 and Fridays from 9:00 - 12:00 except on U.S. and Rwandan holidays.
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information for Rwanda dated October 4, 2007, to update sections on Country Description, Entry/Exit Requirements, Safety and Security, Information for Victims of Crime, Medical Facilities and Health Information, Traffic Safety and Road Conditions, Aviation Safety Oversight, Criminal Penalties, Children’s Issues, and Registration/Embassy Location.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu, 7 May 2020 19:25:27 +0200 (METDST)

Kigali, May 7, 2020 (AFP) - Floods have left 65 dead in Rwanda and heavy rains swept away scores of houses, several bridges and farms, the government said Thursday, as similar scenes played out across East Africa.   In Kenya, floods and landslides have killed nearly 200 people in the past month, while Uganda's Lake Victoria has overflown, submerging houses, a hospital and bridges and displacing thousands.

"Heavy rains that poured Wednesday night caused a number of disasters," Rwanda's ministry of emergency management said in a statement on Thursday.    "Up until midnight, 65 death cases had been registered due to floods. The rains also led to damage of infrastructure like roads, 91 houses, 5 bridges and several farms were swept away by the floors," said the statement.

In April 20 people were killed in flooding in Rwanda.   In Kenya, four teenagers drowned on Thursday after a river burst its banks, a day after the government announced 194 people had been killed due to floods and landslides since the rainy season began in April, and large areas of farmland and water infrastructure destroyed.

Uganda's President Yoweri Museveni on Thursday wrote on Twitter that Lake Victoria was near record levels.   "Encroachers on Lake Victoria and (its) river banks should vacate before they are swallowed by the water because you're in its way" he said.   The Red Cross issued a statement Thursday saying thousands were displaced in Uganda after two rivers burst their banks, and a major hospital in western Kasese had partly been submerged by water.

Ugandan MP Alex Byarugaba from Isingiro, a border district with Tanzania, told AFP Thursday: "We lost four people after the heavy rains in last four days pounded the district. Some were buried by the flash floods which have displaced over 5,000 people".   Somalia has also experienced flooding in several areas, with six people killed in northeastern Puntland last month.
Date: Mon, 4 May 2020 21:42:43 +0200 (METDST)

Kigali, May 4, 2020 (AFP) - Kigali traders eagerly resumed work on Monday as Rwanda partially lifted strict lockdown measures adopted six weeks ago to curb the spread of the coronavirus.    Businesses in the capital were flooded with customers hurrying to finish their shopping before an 8:00 pm curfew.

Rwanda imposed one of Africa's first total shutdowns on March 22, closing non-essential shops, shuttering schools, suspending public transport and banning all "unnecessary travel" outside the home.   The measures have had a heavy economic impact in the poor east African country.   Jane Mutoni, a waitress at a small restaurant in Kigali, said two of her male colleagues were let go.   "We are now two waitresses," she told AFP, adding: "It has been really good to return to work because we had no other source of income."   In the markets, only half the shops were allowed to reopen.

Hair salons in particular have benefited from the easing of restrictions, although measures have been taken to prevent them from becoming overcrowded.   "We are going back to work slowly. Usually we are eight people working as a team here. But today we work in shifts at only three at a time to respect the social distancing," said John Sibomana, a Kigali hairdresser.   "After three hours, a colleague will replace me. We don't earn much, but it is still better than staying at home," he said, adding that life had been "very hard" during the lockdown.

Residents were also happy to resume physical activity in the streets, which had been forbidden.    "You know, it's been 40 days without practising and touching a ball and most of the young guys here do sports every day," said Bonfils Rukundo, who lives in a Kigali suburb, after going for a run in the capital.   Bus stations were full Monday, with masks mandatory in all public places. Buses were allowed to operate only at half capacity and only within Kigali.    Rwanda has officially registered 259 cases of coronavirus and no deaths. 
Date: Fri, 1 May 2020 09:19:52 +0200 (METDST)

Kigali, May 1, 2020 (AFP) - Rwanda will partially lift its virus lockdown from next week and allow people to move freely during the day more than six weeks after being confined, the prime minister's office said Friday.   Rwanda was one of the first to impose strict lockdown measures in Africa, on March 22, when it had only 19 cases, and to date has officially recorded 225 cases and zero deaths.

From Monday May 4, citizens will be allowed to move freely from 5am to 8pm, and will need permission to do so later in the evening, the prime minister's office said in a statement.   Businesses, manufacturing and construction operations will be allowed to resume with essential workers, while markets will be allowed to open with no more than 50 percent of traders operating.

According to the statement hotels and restaurants will be allowed to operate but must close by 7pm.   People will be allowed to exercise in open spaces but sports facilities will remain closed.   No more than 30 people will be allowed to attend funerals, and schools, churches, gyms and bars will remain closed.   Transport between different provinces is still banned, borders remain closed and mass gatherings prohibited.   "Masks must be worn in public at all times," said the statement.
Date: Thu, 2 Apr 2020 12:22:23 +0200 (METDST)

Kigali, April 2, 2020 (AFP) - Rwanda has extended a national lockdown for another two weeks in a bid to curb the spread of coronavirus, which has so far infected 82 people, according to a government statement issued late Wednesday.

Rwanda was among the first nations in Africa to impose a lockdown, banning all "unnecessary movements" outside the home, shutting down schools, shops, and public transport.   "To further contain the outbreak, Cabinet extended the existing measures for an additional two weeks, until 23:59 on Sunday 19th April, 2020," read the statement issued after an extraordinary cabinet meeting via video conference chaired by President Paul Kagame.

Rwanda has the second highest number of infections in East Africa after Mauritius which stands at 154, although Kenya is rapidly catching up after a leap saw an increase to 81 on Wednesday.   Africa, which has lagged behind the global curve, has nearly 6,400 recorded cases, of which 234 have been fatal, according to a continent-wide tally compiled by AFP.
Date: Fri 20 Mar 2020
Source: VICE News [edited]

Rice farming is a priority crop in Rwanda but working in the flooded fields means 10 hours a day exposed to mosquitoes.

Rwanda's tens of thousands of acres of bright green, grassy rice fields present a paradox for the landlocked East African country. The crop is a dietary staple for virtually every family here, and it brings in a good chunk of the country's GDP. So, the government is embarking on an aggressive campaign to produce even more. But the waterlogged fields where the grain grows are the ideal breeding ground for mosquitoes, so the disease is rampant.

In 2016, researchers from the Rwanda Biomedical Center came to Bugesera District in Rwanda's Eastern Province. They brought with them a larvicide that kills mosquitoes before they hatch. The larvicide is called _Bacillus thuringiensis_ israelensis, or Bti, and is applied to the fields using the same machine they use for pesticides. The study also involved preparing community action teams to deliver malaria-prevention education to villages.

The study showed that over a year, there was a 90% decrease in mosquito density in rice fields. But when the study ended, farmers were left without the larvicide and with 10 times the amount of mosquitoes once again.

After their study concluded in 2015, the researchers from the Rwanda Biomedical Center and their Dutch partners recommended the government incorporate Bti into their farming practices. The larvicide has been used in the United States for over 30 years, and it's EPA-approved. The agency says it doesn't pose a risk to humans.

But the government never funded national Bti spraying. And over the next nearly 5 years, the government pushed to increase rice production by turning marshlands into rice fields. The number of reported malaria cases, meanwhile, increased 68%, from 2.5 million in 2015 to 4.2 million in 2018, according to the World Health Organization.

In a 2018 study, the country's experts "hypothesized that a potential contributor to the increase in cases" was this push to convert the marshlands.

In 2016, the government established a national strategy titled "The Rwanda We Want: Towards Vision 2050." In it, they outline their hope to eradicate malaria by mid-century. While cases began to decline between 2016 and 2018, malaria in Rwanda is still extremely widespread. The World Health Organization says the whole population is at risk for the disease. Without proper care, malaria's complications can be deadly.

And despite these widespread concerns about the lack of malaria prevention or education for tens of thousands of rice farmers and surrounding communities, Rwanda has been ramping up its push for more rice for years.

Charles Bucagu, the deputy director general of the Rwanda Agriculture Board, stood atop a hill overlooking vast fields. He said the government was undergoing a "crop intensification program," aiming to increase the amount of rice yield from under 2 tons per acre to almost 3 through farmer training and new tools.

Rice brings about USD 64.8 million of revenue to Rwanda annually. And although the country relies heavily on domestic rice production, they still have to import some. The government's goal is to be self-sufficient by 2050. As part of their efforts to expand farming, the government often rents parcels of land to farming cooperatives to exploit, and farmers get a cut of what they harvest.

Dr. Diane Gashumba, the country's then Minister of Health, told VICE News in September [2019] that malaria in and around rice fields must be addressed and that the government is "really committed" to exploring larviciding after seeing countries like Brazil apply the technique successfully. "We need rice," she said, "we cannot stop rice farming ... but also, there is a way."

On 14 Feb 2020, the office of the prime minister announced that he had accepted Dr. Gashumba's resignation. In a tweet, he said her resignation "follows a series of habitual gross errors and repeated leadership failures."

On 11 Mar 2020, one month after her resignation and 5 months after Bucagu's statement, the government finally reintroduced larvicide to Rwanda's rice fields. The announcement came as Rwandans started yet another agricultural season. But the commitment is only to a 6-month spraying program and only in the Gasabo district, one of 30 in Rwanda.

Bti will be sprayed 3 times each month, mainly using drones, and community health workers will help with the targeting of surrounding mosquito breeding sites. The decision was made in response to a request from Rwanda's Biomedical Center's team for almost USD 200,000 in funds, and the test run's success will determine whether the Bti program gets scaled nationally, said Dr. Emmanuel Hakizimana, the director of vector control at the center.

Hakizimana believes malaria eradication in rice paddies is feasible, but Bti spraying is just the 1st step. "The problem is not rice farming; the problem is lack of prevention," he said, explaining that larviciding must be combined with malaria detection and treatment, indoor spraying, insecticide-treated nets, and the use of repellent. "It's not impossible," Hakizimana added.

The around 1000 farmers on E's co-op earn about USD 1.4 per day. She gathered 567 pounds of rice during the last season and was given 128 pounds for her family by the co-op. She said she doesn't earn enough to buy bug repellent. The head of her co-op, Joseph Hitumukiza, said his organization doesn't have the resources to give farmers the tools to protect themselves either, so he advises them to save money in case they get malaria and need to be treated.

Citizens have good access to healthcare, but information around prevention is still lacking. When asked what measures she takes against the disease, E said she boils the water she drinks at home. While boiling water is recommended in areas where the quality is unreliable, it bears no effect on malaria.  [Byline: Patricia Guerra]
==================
[A study of mosquito distribution and risk of malaria in Rwanda found that: "For the 7 sentinel sites, the mean indoor density for _An. gambiae_ s.l. varied from 0.0 to 1.0 mosquitoes/house/night. _P. falciparum_ infection rates in mosquitoes varied from 0.87 to 4.06%. The entomological inoculation rate (EIR) ranged from 1.0 to 329.8 with an annual average of 99.5 infective bites/person/year." (Hakizimana E et al. Spatio-temporal distribution of mosquitoes and risk of malaria infection in Rwanda. Acta Trop. 2018;182:149-57).

The study using the larvicide _Bacillus thuringensis_ (Bti) referred to is Ingabire CM et al. (Community-based biological control of malaria mosquitoes using _Bacillus thuringiensis_ var. israelensis (Bti) in Rwanda: community awareness, acceptance and participation. Malar J. 2017;16:399). - ProMED Mod.EP]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
More ...

Costa Rica

Costa Rica - US Consular Information Sheet
June 05, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Costa Rica is a middle-income, developing country with a strong democratic tradition.
Tourist facilities are extensive and generally adequate.
The capi
al is San Jose.
English is a second language for many Costa Ricans.
Read the Department of State Background Notes on Costa Rica for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
For entry into Costa Rica, U.S. citizens must present valid passports that will not expire for at least thirty days after arrival, and a roundtrip/outbound ticket.
Some U.S. airlines may not permit passengers to board flights to Costa Rica without such a ticket.
Passports should be in good condition; Costa Rican immigration will deny entry if the passport is damaged in any way.
Costa Rican authorities generally permit U.S. citizens to stay up to ninety days; to stay beyond the period granted, travelers must submit an application for an extension to the Office of Temporary Permits in the Costa Rican Department of Immigration.
Tourist visas are usually not extended except under special circumstances, and extension requests are evaluated on a case-by-case basis.
There is a departure tax for short-term visitors.
Tourists who stay over ninety days may experience a delay at the airport when departing.
Persons who overstayed previously may be denied entry to Costa Rica.
Persons traveling to Costa Rica from some countries in South America and Sub-Saharan Africa must provide evidence of a valid yellow fever vaccination prior to entry.
The South American countries include Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela.
See “SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES” for information on requirements to carry documentation within Costa Rica and on travel by dual national minors.


The most authoritative and up-to-date information on Costa Rican entry and exit requirements may be obtained from the Consular Section of the Embassy of Costa Rica at 2114 “S” Street NW, Washington, DC 20008, telephone (202) 234-2945/46 , fax (202) 265-4795 , e-mail consulate@costarica-embassy.org, web site http://www.costarica-embassy.org, or from the Costa Rican consulates in Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Juan (Puerto Rico), San Francisco, and Tampa.
The Costa Rican immigration agency web site is http://www.migracion.go.cr.
It is advisable to contact the Embassy of Costa Rica in Washington or one of Costa Rica's consulates in the United States for specific information regarding customs requirements before shipping any items.
Visit the Embassy of Costa Rica web site at http://www.costarica-embassy.org for the most current visa information.
Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
There have been no recent acts of terrorism in Costa Rica.
Visitors to Costa Rica may experience the effects of civil disturbances such as work stoppages and strikes.
Although infrequent, these acts can create inconveniences for visitors.
On both the Caribbean and Pacific coasts, currents are swift and dangerous, and there are few lifeguards or signs warning of dangerous beaches.
Every year eight to twelve American citizens drown in Costa Rica due to riptides or sudden drop-offs while in shallow water.
Extreme caution is advised.

Adventure tourism is popular in Costa Rica, and many companies offer white-water rafting, bungee jumping, jungle canopy tours, deep sea diving, and other outdoor attractions.
Americans are urged to use caution in selecting adventure tourism companies.
The government of Costa Rica regulates and monitors the safety of adventure tourism companies; enforcement of safety laws is overseen by the Ministry of Health.
Registered tourism companies with operating permits must meet safety standards and have insurance coverage.
The safety regulations enforced in Costa Rica are not the same as safety regulations enforced in the United States.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
Over one and a half million foreign tourists, the majority American, visit Costa Rica annually.
All are potential targets for criminals, primarily thieves looking for cash, jewelry, credit cards, electronic items and passports.
U.S. citizens are encouraged to exercise the same level of caution they would in major cities or tourist areas throughout the world.
Local law enforcement agencies have limited capabilities and do not act according to U.S. standards.
Travelers should minimize driving at night, especially outside urban areas.

Americans should avoid areas with high concentrations of bars and nightclubs, especially at night, and steer clear of deserted properties or undeveloped land.
For safety reasons, the Embassy does not place its official visitors in hotels in the San Jose city center, but instead puts them at the larger hotels in the outlying suburbs.
Americans should walk or exercise with a companion, bearing in mind that crowded tourist attractions and resort areas popular with foreign tourists are common venues for criminal activities.
Travelers should ignore any verbal harassment, and avoid carrying passports, large amounts of cash, jewelry or expensive photographic equipment.
Tourists are encouraged to carry photocopies of the passport data page and Costa Rican entry stamp on their persons, and leave the original passport in a hotel safe or other secure place.
Costa Rican immigration authorities conduct routine immigration checks at locations, such as bars in downtown San Jose and beach communities, frequented by illegal immigrants.
American citizens detained during one of these checks who have only a copy of the passport will be required to provide the original passport with appropriate stamps.



Travelers should purchase an adequate level of locally valid theft insurance when renting vehicles, park in secured lots whenever possible, and never leave valuables in the vehicle.
The U.S. Embassy receives several reports daily of valuables, identity documents, and other items stolen from locked vehicles, primarily rental cars.
Thefts from parked cars occur in downtown San Jose, at beaches, in the airport and bus station parking lots, and at national parks and other tourist attractions.
Travelers should use licensed taxis, which are red with medallions (yellow triangles containing numbers) painted on the side.
Licensed taxis at the airport are painted orange.
All licensed taxis should have working door handles, locks, seatbelts and meters (called "marias"); passengers are required to use seatbelts.
When traveling by bus, avoid putting bags or other personal belongings in the storage bins.
At all times have your belongings in your line of sight or in your possession.

Thieves usually work in groups of two to four.
A common scam has one person drop change in a crowded area, such as on a bus, and when the victim tries to assist, a wallet or other item is taken.
The most prevalent
scam involves the surreptitious puncturing of tires of rental cars, often near restaurants, tourist attractions, airports, or close to the car rental agencies themselves.
When the travelers pull over, "good Samaritans" quickly appear to change the tire - and just as quickly remove valuables from the car, sometimes brandishing weapons.
Drivers with flat tires are advised to drive, if at all possible, to the nearest service station or other public area, and change the tire themselves, watching valuables at all times.
In late 2006, the government of Costa Rica established a Tourist Police force, and units were established in popular tourist areas throughout the country.
The Tourist Police can assist with the reporting of a crime, which can be difficult for victims due to language barriers and the requirement that only investigative police can accept crime reports.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Medical care in San Jose is adequate, but is limited in areas outside of San Jose.
Most prescription and over-the-counter medications are available throughout Costa Rica.
Doctors and hospitals often expect immediate cash payment for health services, and U.S. medical insurance is not always valid outside the United States.
A list of local doctors and medical facilities can be found at the website of the U.S. Embassy in San Jose, at http://sanjose.usembassy.gov.
An ambulance may be summoned by calling 911.
Most ambulances provide transportation but little or no medical assistance.
The best-equipped ambulances are called “unidad avanzada.”
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Costa Rica is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Costa Rica has one of the highest vehicle accident rates in the world.
The fatality rate for pedestrians and those riding bicycles and motorcycles is disproportionately high.
Traffic laws and speed limits are often ignored, turns across one or two lanes of traffic are common, turn signals are rarely used, passing on dangerous stretches of highway is common, and pedestrians are not given the right of way.
Roads are often in poor condition, and large potholes with the potential to cause significant damage to vehicles are common.
Pedestrians, cyclists, and farm animals may use the main roads.
Traffic signs, even on major highways, are inadequate and few roads are lined.
Shoulders are narrow or consist of drainage ditches.
All of the above, in addition to poor visibility due to heavy fog or rain, makes driving at night especially treacherous.
Landslides are common in the rainy season.
All types of motor vehicles are appropriate for the main highways and principal roads in the major cities.
However, some roads to beaches and other rural locations are not paved, and many destinations are accessible only with high clearance, rugged suspension four-wheel drive vehicles.
Travelers are advised to call ahead to their hotels to ask about the current status of access roads.
Costa Rica has a 911 system for reporting emergencies.
In the event of a traffic accident, vehicles must/must be left where they are.
Both the Transito (Traffic Police) and the Insurance Investigator must make accident reports before the vehicles are moved.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
Visit the website of Costa Rica’s national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at http://www.mopt.go.cr and www.visitecostarica.com.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Costa Rica’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Costa Rica’s air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Land Ownership and Shoreline Property: U.S. citizens are urged to use caution when making real estate purchases, and consult reputable legal counsel and investigate thoroughly all aspects before entering into a contract.
Coastal land within fifty meters of the high tide line is open to the public and therefore closed to development, and construction on the next one hundred fifty meters inland is possible only with the approval of the local municipality.

Squatters: Organized squatter groups have invaded properties in various parts of the country.
These squatter groups, often supported by politically active persons and non-governmental organizations, take advantage of legal provisions that allow people without land to gain title to unused agricultural property.
Local courts may show considerable sympathy for the squatters.
Victims of squatters have reported threats, harassment, and violence.
Documentation Requirements: Visitors are required to carry appropriate documentation at all times.
However, due to the high incidence of passport theft, tourists are permitted and encouraged to carry photocopies of the datapage and entry stamp from the passport, leaving the passport in a hotel safe or other secure place.
However, as noted under CRIME, Costa Rican immigration authorities conduct routine checks for illegal immigrants, especially in bars located in downtown San Jose and in beach communities.
An American citizen detained during one of these checks and carrying only the copy of the passport will be required to produce the original passport.
Tourists should consider carrying their passports when traveling overnight or a considerable distance from their hotel.
Tourists who carry passports are urged to place them securely in an inside pocket.

Exit Procedures for Costa Rican Citizens: Costa Rican children may only depart the country upon presentation of an exit permit issued by immigration authorities.
This policy, designed to prevent international child abduction, applies to dual national U.S./Costa Rican citizens.
Parents of minors who obtained Costa Rican citizenship through a parent or through birth in Costa Rica are advised to consult with appropriate Costa Rican authorities prior to travel to Costa Rica, especially if one (or both) parent(s) is not accompanying the child.



Disaster Preparedness: Costa Rica is located in an earthquake and volcanic zone.
Serious flooding occurs annually on the Caribbean side near the port city of Limon, but flooding occurs in other parts of Costa Rica as well, depending on the time of year and rainfall.
General information about natural disaster preparedness is available via the Internet from the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) at http://www.fema.gov/.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Costa Rica’s laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Costa Rica are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Costa Rica are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Costa Rica.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy is located in Pavas, San Jose, and may be reached at (506) 2519-2000; the extension for the Consular Section is 2453.
The Embassy is open Monday through Friday, and is closed on Costa Rican and U.S. holidays.
Those seeking information are strongly encouraged to utilize the embassy web site http://sanjose.usembassy.gov/, and can email consularsanjose@state.gov with any questions/concerns.
For emergencies arising outside normal business hours, U.S. citizens may call (506) 2220-3127 and ask for the duty officer.
*

*

*
This replaces the Country Specific Information for Costa Rica dated August 15, 2007, to update sections on Registration/Embassy Location and Special Circumstances.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Sun 23 Feb 2020
Source: Q Costa Rica News [edited]
<https://qcostarica.com/costa-rica-is-the-first-country-in-america-where-very-resistant-antibiotic-bacteria-for-meningitis-is-isolated/>

A 50-year-old man and a senior became the 1st 2 people in Costa Rica -- and in the Americas -- found to be infected with the bacteria most resistant to antibiotics used in the treatment of meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia that cause serious brain damage and even death. The Centro Nacional de Referencia en Bacteriolog­a (CNRB) -- National Center of Reference in Bacteriology, of the Instituto Costarricense de Investigacian y Enseaanza en Nutricin y Salud (Inciensa) -- Costa Rican Institute for Research and Education in Nutrition and Health (Incense), issued an alert, in early February [2020], after documenting the circulation of _Neisseria meningitidis_ (_N. meningitidis_) serogroup Y, resistant to penicillin and not sensitive to cefotaxime [and ceftriaxone?], two 3rd generation antibiotics, reports La Nation.
====================
[Invasive meningococcal disease (meningococcaemia and meningitis) is a life-threatening infection caused by _Neisseria meningitidis_ that evolves rapidly, often even when appropriate treatment has been started promptly. Because antimicrobial treatment for invasive meningococcal disease with a 3rd-generation cephalosporin (cefotaxime and ceftriaxone) is the widely accepted standard recommendation (<https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/39/9/1267/402080>), resistance of _N. meningitidis_ to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone is very worrisome.

The news report above says that 2 patients in Costa Rica were infected with _N. meningitidis_ serogroup Y resistant to penicillin and 2 3rd generation cephalosporins, one of which was cefotaxime. The other 3rd generation cephalosporin is not specified, but is perhaps ceftriaxone, the other 3rd generation cephalosporin usually used to treat this disease. We are also not told in the news report above if the 2 patients were epidemiologically linked, nor are we told the extent (that is, MICs [minimum inhibitory concentration] of penicillin or cefotaxime), the mechanisms of resistance, or resistance to any of the other antimicrobial drugs used to prevent or treat this disease.

More information would be appreciated from knowledgeable sources. Reduced susceptibility of _N. meningitidis_ to penicillin has been reported in the past in many countries, including the US (<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1169190/>), usually due to decreased affinity of target penicillin-binding proteins for penicillin and less commonly to beta-lactamase production (<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC89938/>, <https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3134848-relative-penicillin-g-resistance-in-neisseria-meningitidis-and-reduced-affinity-of-penicillin-binding-protein-3/>, and <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC162989/pdf/392577.pdf>).

Meningococcal isolates with reduced susceptibility to penicillin G usually were reported susceptible to 3rd-generation cephalosporins (cefotaxime and ceftriaxone). For example, despite the decrease in susceptibility to penicillin G in 33% of 2888 isolates of _N. meningitidis_, all isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone in Brazil from 2009 to 2016 (<https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29717974-surveillance-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-neisseria-meningitidis-strains-isolated-from-invasive-cases-in-brazil-from-2009-to-2016/>). Similar data have been reported for the US (<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1169190/>).

However, one previous study reported 8 clinical isolates _N. meningitidis_ in Delhi, India in 2006 that were resistant to ceftriaxone and cefotaxime, with most also resistant to penicillin, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol (<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1698303/>). All of the isolates were identified as serogroup A _N. meningitidis_, but no further details concerning these isolates were given in this report (<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1865813/>).

Resistance to other antimicrobial agents that may be used for therapy of meningococcal infections or for prophylaxis of case contacts has been reported in several countries. This includes resistance to chloramphenicol, fluoroquinolones, and rifampin. Horizontal exchange of genes that encode resistance for penicillin, rifampin, and the fluoroquinolones from other _Neisseria_ species that share a common ecological niche with _N. meningitidis_ in the nasopharynx has been proposed as one possible mechanism of acquisition of meningococcal antibiotic resistance (<http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/49/3/545>). - ProMED Mod.ML]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Costa Rica: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/17>]
Date: Tue 21 Jan 2020
Source: Ahora Noticias, Costa Rica [in Spanish, machine trans., edited]
<https://www.ahoranoticiascr.com/2020/01/21/autoridades-cerraron-pizzeria-debido-a-casos-de-hepatitis-a-en-san-ramon/>

As many as 22 people suffered from hepatitis A infection in San Ramon de Alajuela, and consequently the Health authorities closed a pizzeria in the area. A source close to this media confirmed the existence of the cases which were detected since 13 Jan 2020.

The cases were thought to be related to food consumption in that establishment 4 of patients were employees of the pizzeria. In statements to the media La Nación, Azalea Espinoza of the Directorate of Surveillance of the Ministry of Health, said they intervened in the business, issued a closing health order, and proceeded to cleaning and disinfecting it. [Byline: Carlos Miranda]
========================
[Although the eating establishment was identified as a pizzeria, pizza itself is not likely to be the vehicle of transmission as it is cooked before serving unless ingredients are added after the cooking process. It is unclear if the pizzeria employees were the source of, or just part of, the outbreak.

With an incubation period averaging 28 but up to 45 days, more cases may occur. The cases are not broken down in regard to age. In children, most cases of HAV infection are subclinical so it is likely that the cases reported were in adults. In the developing world, HAV is not reported much in adults as most children have been infected, and therefore immune to subsequent infection, by the age of 10. That outbreaks are occurring in the area suggests improvement in potable water so fewer children are infected and therefore still susceptible to HAV as adults. - ProMED Mod.LL]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at: Costa Rica:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/17>]
Date: Wed, 8 Jan 2020 02:28:38 +0100 (MET)

San José, Jan 8, 2020 (AFP) - Costa Rica on Tuesday vehemently objected to the US government's decision to raise the alert level for tourists visiting the Central American country due to the risk of crime.   "We express energetic protest on the part of the Costa Rican government for the decision to change the recommendation level for American tourists," said foreign minister Manuel Ventura.

Ventura's statement came shortly after the US government issued a new travel advisory for visitors to Costa Rica.   According to the alert, "petty crime is the predominant threat for tourists in Costa Rica."   But the advisory warns that "armed robbery, homicide and sexual assault" could also occur.   Costa Rica also rose from Level 1, the lowest level, to Level 2 on he US State Department's travel alert scale. The highest is Level 4, which recommends no visiting.

The Central American country, known for its natural resources and beaches, attracts 1.2 million US tourists each year, according to official figures. In 2019, a total of more than 3 million foreign tourists visited.   "The change is surprising, because it puts Costa Rica -- which ended 2019 with a rate of 11 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants -- on par with countries on the continent that are among the most violent in the world," the Costa Rican foreign ministry said in a statement.

Data from the Ministry of Public Service indicates that there were 688 cases of theft of mobile phones, passports and money from tourists in 2019 -- only 0.02 percent of visitors to Costa Rica.   Tourism in Costa Rica has been shaken in recent years by several murders of female tourists, as well as sexual violence, including a Venezuelan-American woman who was killed near her hotel outside of the capital San Jose.
Date: Thu 8 Jan 2020
Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]

The Costa Rica Ministry of Health reported [Tue 7 Jan 2019] (computer translated) on the 2nd ever _Naegleria fowleri_, or "brain-eating amoeba" infection in their history.

The case is a 15-year-old who is presenting with a clinical picture of primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) remains in a serious state at the Liberia Hospital. The investigation into the case shows the young man acquired the amoeba by inhaling water in the thermal springs of Guayabo de Bagaces.

The 1st case of primary amebic meningoencephalitis in the history of Costa Rica was recorded in 2014 in an American child who later died.

_Naegleria fowleri_ is a microscopic amoeba which is a single-celled living organism. It can cause a rare and devastating infection of the brain called primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). The amoeba is commonly found in warm freshwater such as lakes, rivers, ponds and canals.

Infections can happen when contaminated water enters the body through the nose. Once the amoeba enters the nose, it travels to the brain where it causes PAM (which destroys brain tissue) and is usually fatal. Infections usually occur when it is hot for prolonged periods of time, which results in higher water temperatures and lower water levels.  _Naegleria fowleri_ infections are rare. Most infections occur from exposure to contaminated recreational water. Cases due to the use of neti pots and the practice of ablution have been documented.

[Byline: Robert Herriman]
=======================
[Amoebic meningoencephalitis is rare but is found worldwide and the reservoir is fresh water sources like lakes and rivers. It has been discussed if it is found in household water supplies, but so far cases have not been linked to tap water although it is possible in theory. - ProMED Mod.EP]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Date: Fri 25 Oct 2019
From: Donald J. Brightsmith <dbrightsmith@cvm.tamu.edu> [edited]

There have been 37 cases of autochthonous transmission of malaria in 2019 as reported by the Costa Rican Ministry of Health (<https://www.ministeriodesalud.go.cr/index.php/vigilancia-de-la-salud/analisis-de-situacion-de-salud>). The ministry also reports 39 cases of malaria in country that were likely contracted in foreign countries, mostly in Nicaragua.

The autochthonous cases came mostly from the northern part of the country in the district of Crucitas, but cases were also reported from other areas of the country.
---------------------------------------------------
Donald J. Brightsmith
University College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences
Texas A&M University
College Station, TX
=============================
[ProMed thanks Dr. Donald J. Brightsmith for communicating this to us.

This is a comment from the WHO website, "Costa Rica: 'Ripe' for malaria elimination?"

"Costa Rica is one of 21 countries identified by WHO as having the potential to eliminate malaria by 2020. Its success in bringing down cases of indigenous malaria -- that is, transmission of the malaria parasite within a country's own borders -- has been commendable, so much so that it has received an award from the Pan American Health Organization in recognition of the strides made. Notably, no one has died from malaria since 2009.

"However, after recording 3 consecutive years of zero indigenous cases between 2013 and 2015, local transmission of the disease has slowly been creeping upwards: 4 cases in 2016 and 12 in 2017. Of equal concern is imported malaria: To date, 21 such cases have been detected in 2018, up from 5 for all of 2017.

"In June 2018, the Costa Rican Ministry of Health issued a public health alert following the reporting of 10 imported malaria cases in just one week in the country's northern region bordering malaria-endemic Nicaragua. The Ministry is working to quickly identify and treat imported cases to prevent onward transmission to local communities in high-risk zones of the country. The areas of concern are mainly agricultural sites, like banana plantations.

"One such area is the canton of Matina, home to some of Costa Rica's largest plantations that grow the yellow fruit. Situated next to a major port on the Caribbean Sea, the canton's agricultural produce is shipped to markets worldwide, making Matina an important economic hub.

"Although Matina is far from the area of the recent alert, and no cases of malaria have been reported this year, all 4 indigenous cases reported in 2016 originated from the canton, as well as 2 of the 12 indigenous cases in 2017. Health authorities are not taking any chances and are working with the canton's fincas bananeras (banana plantations) to step up malaria surveillance activities, particularly among plantation workers and nearby communities." - ProMED Mod.EP]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
More ...

Zambia

Zambia US Consular Information Sheet
June 02, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Zambia is a developing country in southern Africa. Tourist facilities outside of the capital, Lusaka, Livingstone (Victoria Falls), and well-known game parks are not f
lly developed. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Zambia for additional information.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: A passport and visa are required. A visa may be obtained in advance at a Zambian Embassy or Consulate or at the port of entry. Zambia raised the visa fee for American passport holders to $135 as of January 26, 2008. American citizens should bring exact change, whenever practical. Visas are valid for 3 years, and for multiple entries. At the time of entry, the immigration officer will stamp your passport with the permitted length of stay. This is normally 30 days and can ordinarily be extended twice (for a total time of 90 days) by visiting the immigration home office in Lusaka. All Americans, except resident diplomats, must pay an airport departure tax which is collected in U.S. dollars. Airlines include this tax in the cost of the ticket. However, passengers will need to verify that this tax has been paid at the airport. The passenger will receive a “no-fee” receipt reflecting this payment.

Travelers transiting through South Africa should ensure that they have at least two blank (unstamped) visa pages in their passports. South African immigration authorities routinely turn away visitors who do not have enough blank visa pages in their passports. Zambian Immigration officials insist visitors carry the original or a certified copy of their passport and their immigration permit at all times. Certified copies must be obtained from the immigration office that issued the permit. American citizens should closely follow immigration guidelines, including visa requirements for travel to Zambia.
NOTE: Some tour operators were previously able to obtain visas at reduced rates using a special tourism waiver. Zambia announced that they were ending this waiver program as of January 26, 2008 and that all American tourists would be required to pay the new $135 fee. Travelers with outstanding reservations with tour operators should be prepared to pay the difference upon arrival in Zambia.
Additional information on entry requirements may be obtained from the Embassy of the Republic of Zambia, 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008, telephone (202) 265-9717 or 19 or online at http://www.zambiaembassy.org. Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site. For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
U.S. citizens are advised to exercise caution when traveling in northern Luapula Province and in areas of the Northern Province adjacent to the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Although a cease-fire is currently in effect, the DRC is not yet stable and uncontrolled militias operate in the eastern DRC. In the past, armed gunmen have occasionally attacked vehicles near the DRC-Zambian border. Land mines and unexploded ordnance along the western, southern, and eastern borders make off-road travel to those areas potentially hazardous. For these reasons, the U.S. Embassy discourages travelers from driving off-road or on remote little-used tracks near the borders with DRC and Angola. American citizens who must drive in these areas are encouraged to drive in convoy and to carry satellite telephones.

U.S. citizens should avoid political rallies and street demonstrations and maintain security awareness at all times. For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphletA Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME: Travel in many sections of Lusaka, Livingstone and most other major cities as well as in the major game parks, is generally safe during daylight hours. Travelers using public transportation or visiting high pedestrian traffic areas are advised to be vigilant against robbery and pick-pocketing.

Vehicle thefts, burglaries, and armed robbery occur throughout the country. Carjacking remains an ongoing problem, especially in Lusaka and other major cities. Carjackers generally employ a strategy of blocking the back of one’s car when the car is waiting to pass through a security gate into a residence or other facility. It is recommended to drive with doors locked and windows closed at all times and remain vigilant when entering or exiting one’s residence.
Foreign tourists have frequently been the target of small-scale financial scams involving bogus “fees” to be paid to various Zambian officials and groups. The embassy cautions travelers to make sure that they receive an official, Government of Zambia receipt for any fines and duties paid. Often, travelers will be told that the official does not have a receipt book or that this type of fine is not receipted. Polite, but firm insistence on a Zambian Government receipt will often result in these fines disappearing.
INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed. See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Government hospitals and clinics are often understaffed and lack supplies. Private medical clinics in major cities can provide reasonable care in many cases, but major medical emergencies usually require medical evacuation to South Africa, Europe, or the United States. Basic medical care outside of major cities is extremely limited. Doctors and hospitals often expect immediate cash payment for health services. Travelers should carry their prescription drugs and medications in original labeled containers, as well as the written prescription from their physician. (See “Criminal Penalties” section.)
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Zambia is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
Traffic circulates on the left side of the road, and there are many British-style roundabouts rather than intersections with traffic lights. There is no left turn on red. Seat belts are mandatory, as are helmets for motorcyclists. A child's seat is not mandatory by law, but is essential for safeguarding children. The speed limit is 50 km/30 mph in Lusaka and 100 km/60 mph outside of city limits. However, speed limits are rarely respected, and most cars drive 80 km/50 mph in the city and 120 km/75 mph outside town. Most vehicles operate at even faster speeds on the road from Lusaka to Livingstone. Drivers under the influence of alcohol who are involved in accidents are tested at Lusaka's University Teaching Hospital (UTH) and then taken to court.

Driving on Zambian roads can be hazardous. Most roads do not have shoulders or sidewalks; pedestrians and livestock use the roadways both day and night. While the main roads in Lusaka as well as the principal highways linking Lusaka with the major provincial capital are generally maintained, many secondary roads are in poor repair. During the rainy season (end of October to mid-March), travelers who do not have a four-wheel drive vehicle will encounter problems driving on rural roads. Even in daylight, passing another vehicle can be particularly dangerous given the general condition of roads. Driving at night can be hazardous and is discouraged. When breakdowns occur, local drivers place a few branches behind the car to indicate trouble, but this is hardly visible at night. As a result, many drivers use their high beams at night to detect stopped vehicles and pedestrians.
Since 2000, Americans have been involved in a number of series car accidents. There are no emergency services for injured or stranded drivers. Car accident victims are vulnerable to theft by those who pretend to be “helpful.” It is advisable to have a cell phone when undertaking a trip outside of town, although many parts of the country do not yet have cell phone service.

City traffic is comprised mostly of cars and minibuses; motorcycles are rare. Minibuses serve as the primary means of inter-city travel in Zambia. They are often overcrowded and seldom punctual. Drivers often use pass using road shoulders or opposing traffic lanes. Often they will stop with little or no warning, in order to pick up or drop off passengers. Some luxury buses do ply the routes between Lusaka and Livingstone and the Copperbelt. Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. Visit the web site of the country’s national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at http://www.zambiatourism.com/.
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Zambia, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Zambia’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Perpetrators of business fraud often target foreigners, including Americans. While such fraud schemes in the past have been largely associated with Nigeria, they are now prevalent throughout Africa, including Zambia. For additional information, please consult The Department of State's publication "International Financial Scams." In addition, Americans are advised to exercise caution when approached with unsolicited offers to purchase gemstones or precious metals for export as the Embassy has received multiple recent complaints from Americans who have been victimized as a result of their involvement in these deals.
U.S. citizens are encouraged to carry a copy of their U.S. passports with them at all times, so that, if questioned by local officials, proof of identity and U.S. citizenship is readily available. Zambian police do not provide the U.S. Embassy with timely notification of the arrest of American citizens. If you are detained, you should insist on your right to contact a U.S. consular officer.
MasterCard and Visa cards are accepted in major supermarkets, restaurants, stores, and hotels in Lusaka and Livingstone (Victoria Falls). Credit card fraud is increasing in Zambia and there have been several cases involving fraudulent charges, including some at major hotels catering primarily to foreign visitors. Many businesses use carbonized paper documents to process payment. These documents are not secure and can pose a threat to cardholders. The Embassy urges caution when using debit or credit cards at any point of purchase, especially if the transaction is not processed electronically. Normally, American travelers can withdraw money (in local currency) from ATMs in major cities in Zambia using their ATM cards or credit cards from the United States. However, from time to time, the banks lose their connections with the credit card exchanges, thus making withdrawals impossible. Zambian banks and bureaux de change will not accept dollar-denominated notes issued before 1990.
Travel to military areas and photographing military facilities, airports, bridges, and other facilities deemed to be of security relevance, are prohibited. Often these sites are not clearly marked and the first notification that a tourist would receive is a police officer demanding their film and/or camera. Authorities may also challenge photography of areas other than tourist attractions. Service providers in Zambia, including the tourism sector, are not subject to the same standards of safety oversight that exist in the United States; visitors should evaluate risks carefully.

Travelers are cautioned to observe local or park regulations and heed all instruction given by tour guides. Even in the most serene settings, wild animals can pose a threat to life and safety.

Large numbers of travelers visit tourist destinations, including South Luangwa National Park and Livingstone (Victoria Falls), without incident. However, American citizens are advised to avoid rafting and other whitewater boating activities on the Zambezi River below Victoria Falls during the high-water season, February through June. During periods of high water, the Batoka Gorge section of the river becomes unpredictable and several tourists have been involved in fatal accidents.
Please see our Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Zambian laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Zambia are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

It is against both Zambian and U.S. law to buy, possess or transport animals or animal products, such as tortoise shell, rhino horn, elephant ivory, tusks of any animal or any items made out of these materials. In Zambia, penalties range from large fines to mandatory 5-year prison sentences. The Zambian Wildlife Authority has screeners at international ports of entry/exit and WILL prosecute offenders to the fullest extent of the law.

While many of these items are sold in open markets particularly aimed at foreign tourists, it remains the responsibility of the customer to ensure that he/she is not purchasing a prohibited item.

Further instructions on the importation of items to the U.S. may be found on the U.S. Customs and Border Protection web site at
http://www.customs.gov/xp/cgov/travel/vacation/kbyg/prohibited_restricted.xml.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Zambia are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Zambia. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located at the corner of Independence and United Nations Avenues. The mailing address is P.O. Box 31617, Lusaka, Zambia. Telephone exchanges have recently changed within Zambia. When calling from the United States, please contact the American Embassy during regular work hours, Monday through Thursday from 7:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., and on Friday from 7:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. by dialing 011-260-21-125-0955. For after-hours emergencies involving American citizens, please dial 011-260-21-125-0955 extension 1. The fax number is 260-21-125-2225. The web site is http://zambia.usembassy.gov.
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information for Zambia dated February 14, 2008, to update sections on Entry/Exit Requirements and Crime.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Wed, 18 Dec 2019 18:01:59 +0100 (MET)

Lusaka, Dec 18, 2019 (AFP) - Zambia's 19-hour rolling blackouts have sent homes plunging into darkness, crippling daily life and business operations with the worst power outages the nation has seen.   Recurring drought across southern Africa has cut the water reserves of the hydroelectric dam of Kariba, the main source of energy of the country.   "Water levels in the dam continued receding, dropping to 476.93 metres above sea level as at 10 December 2019," the country's Energy minister Matthew Nkhuwa told parliament last week.   Currently, the water level in the dam is at 1.48 metres above the minimum operating level which translates to 10 percent usable water for power generation.    "At a similar period in 2018 the water level in the dam... was at 55 percent," Nkhuwa said.   Residents are subjected to 19 hours of power outages daily but in some instances others stay without power for longer, fuelling popular anger.

Some residents of the slums of Lusaka's Chaisa and Chilenje areas have staged protests against prolonged blackouts, stoning power installations as well as offices of the power utility firm, ZESCO.   "These long hours of staying without power have really made us suffer," local barber shop owner John Likumbi said.   In November, state utility power operator ZESCO started importing power from ESKOM of South Africa to cushion the impact of the power deficit on the country's economy.   But the imported power has only reduced outages by two hours.   ESCO board chairperson Mbita Chitala admitted that despite importing power from ESKOM, the utility firm still faced challenges in "importing the full 300 megawatt from time to time."

Eskom faces its own woes, with its old and poorly maintained coal-fired power stations struggling to keep up with the electricity demands of Africa's most industrialised economy.    Opposition leader Chishimba Kambwili blamed the rolling blackouts on the "total failure by this government."   The energy minister has said he feared that if the rainfall for Zambia did not improve, the situation might worsen.   For some, solar energy is the only sure way to survive the power outages.    "I am making savings ... in future I plan to buy a solar panel," barber Likumbi told AFP, adding that the blackouts made it difficult to even take children to school.
Date: Mon, 16 Dec 2019 19:30:12 +0100 (MET)

Lusaka, Dec 16, 2019 (AFP) - Zambia on Monday decided to allow the cultivation of cannabis for export for medicinal purposes, a government spokesperson said.   Up to now, the cultivation or possession of cannabis for whatever reasons was prohibited in Zambia and subject to a jail sentence.   " I wish to confirm that the cabinet... gave its approval, in principle, ...  for the cultivation, processing and exportation of cannabis for economic and medicinal purposes," said spokesperson Dora Siliya in a statement.

Siliya added that the health ministry would provide overall leadership as well as coordinate the issuance of licenses.   Cannabis for medicinal purposes has been authorised in around 30 countries.   The small kingdom of Lesotho was the first African nation to allow medicinal cannabis in 2017.   South Africa followed suit a year later but went further and approved the consumption of marijuana for personal use by adults.
Date: Tue, 29 Oct 2019 20:07:03 +0100 (MET)

Lusaka, Oct 29, 2019 (AFP) - More than two million Zambians are facing "severe" food insecurity after drought and flooding reduced harvests, the Red Cross said Tuesday.   Southern Africa is grappling with one of the worst droughts in decades after months of erratic rainfall and record-high temperatures.   Zambia Red Cross warned the drought had left an estimated 2.3 million people facing "severe food insecurity", up from 1.7 million a month ago.   "The successive mixture of drought and flooding has been catastrophic for many communities," said Zambia Red Cross head Kaitano Chungu in a statement.

While rainfall hit a record low in southern and western Zambia, flash floods and  waterlogging occurred in the north and east of the country.   The Red Cross said that combination resulted in "poor harvests", with families in the worst-affected areas surviving on wild fruit and roots -- posing a serious risk to their health.   "In most of the affected areas there isn't enough drinking water, which means that people and animals-both livestock and wildlife-are having to use the same water points," said Chungu.    "This is unacceptable as it exposes people to diseases and creates a heightened risk of animal attacks," he added.

Zambia's regional neighbours have also felt the impact.   More than five million rural Zimbabweans -- nearly a third of the population -- could face food shortages before the next harvest in 2020, according to the United Nations.   And wildlife has been affected as well.   At least 55 elephants died in Zimbabwe and 100 in Botswana over the past two months due to lack of food and water.
Date: 21 Oct 2019
Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]
<http://outbreaknewstoday.com/polio-cases-reported-in-zambia-chad-and-togo-73820/>

Circulating vaccine-derived polio virus (cVDPV) type cases have been confirmed in 10 African countries through [16 Oct 2019] this year [2019]. Now, the World Health Organization (WHO) is reporting 3 additional countries from the continent that more recently reported circulating vaccine-derived polio virus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases: Zambia, Chad and Togo.

Zambia
The Ministry of Health of Zambia reported last week on a confirmed case of circulating vaccine-derived polio virus type 2 (cVDPV2) in a 2-year-old child in Chienge district, Luapula province on the border with Democratic Republic of the Congo. This is the 1st case of cVDPV2 reported from Zambia in 2019. [Date of onset of paralysis reported to be 16 Jul 2019 according to another media report <https://www.lusakatimes.com/2019/10/21/polio-case-has-been-recorded-in-zambias-luapula-province/>.

In addition to the initial case-patient, 34 stool samples were collected from healthy contacts, and 2 samples tested positive for VDPV2, which were genetically linked to the case-patient. No established links have so far been found with the ongoing outbreak of cVDPV2 in Democratic Republic of the Congo, where 37 cases have been reported in 2019. The last recorded case of indigenous polio in Zambia was in 1995, while between 2001 and 2002, 5 cases of wild polio virus were identified among Angolan refugees in the Western province of the country.

Chad
Last week, WHO was informed about cVDPV2 in Chad. A cVDPV2 was isolated from a 13-month-old case of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), with onset of paralysis on [9 Sep 2019] in Chari Baguirmi province, bordering Cameroon. The isolated virus has 32 nucleotide changes from Sabin 2, and is genetically linked to a cVDPV2 detected in Borno, Nigeria and is part of the Jigawa emergence. The last indigenous wild poliovirus cases were reported in 2000 in Chad.

Togo
In addition, last week WHO was informed about cVDPV2 in Togo. A cVDPV2 was isolated from a 30-month-old case of AFP with onset of paralysis on [13 Sep 2019] in Plateaux province, bordering Benin and Ghana. The isolated virus has 32 nucleotide changes from Sabin 2 and is genetically linked to a cVDPV2 detected in Irewole state, Nigeria and is part of the Jigawa emergence as well. The last indigenous wild poliovirus case was reported in 1999 in Togo.
======================
[Three more countries are joining the list of cVDPV outbreak countries, all with cVDPV2 isolates. Two of the 3 countries (Togo and Chad) have viruses related to the Jigawa, Nigeria cVDPV2 outbreak. The case in Zambia is suspected to be associated with the ongoing cVDPV2 transmission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo), but genetic testing is presumably still pending or has been negative. See my comments below after the following section, as they are relevant to what is ongoing globally with respect to cVDPVs.

Below are the HealthMap/ProMED map links to countries where cVDPV cases/outbreaks have occurred in the past 12 months, a total of 20 countries.

Angola: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/165>
Benin: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/59>
Cameroon: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/65>
Central African Republic: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/66>
Chad: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/57>
China: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/155>
Democratic Republic of the Congo: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/194>
Ethiopia: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/95>
Ghana: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/53>
Indonesia: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/184>
Kenya: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/174>
Mozambique: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/177>
Myanmar: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/148>
Niger: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/58>
Nigeria: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/62>
Papua New Guinea: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/188>
Philippines: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/158>
Somalia: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/125>
Togo: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/64>
Zambia: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/170> - ProMED Mod.MPP]
Date: Fri, 23 Aug 2019 15:08:04 +0200 (METDST)
By Obert SIMWANZA

Lusaka, Aug 23, 2019 (AFP) - Children living in a central Zambian mining town are still exposed to high levels of toxic lead 25 years after the mine closed, Human Rights Watch said Friday, as lawyers announced plans to take legal action.   Decades of lead mining have left Kabwe, around 150 kilometres (95 miles) north of Lusaka, severely polluted, with serious health implications for residents.   The mine, which operated from the early 1900s until its closure in 1994, was at one time the world's largest lead mine. It was run by the Zambian government from the early 1970s when the mining industry was nationalised.     In a report published Friday, HRW said the town in the Copperbelt area still has extreme levels of contamination and children continue to be exposed to high levels of toxic lead in soil and dust around their homes, schools and play areas.

HRW's children's rights fellow and report author Joanna Naples-Mitchell described the situation in Kabwe as "a public health emergency" and said the government was "not responding with the sense of urgency that is warranted".    "The Zambian government is aware that Kabwe has been severely contaminated... since the 1990s and efforts to clean up have been inadequate," she told AFP.   A class action suit is being prepared to demand compensation for poisoning from Anglo American South Africa, a former investor in the mine, London-based law firm Leigh Day announced Friday. The law firm deals in human rights issues.   The case will be brought in courts in South Africa, where the mining firm is based, said the lawyers, who are acting on behalf of some 200 children who have been treated for lead poisoning.   Anglo American on Friday said in a statement it did not believe it was "in any way responsible for the current situation" in Kabwe.    "We were concerned to learn of the situation at Kabwe as reported by the press," it said, adding "the nationalisation more than 40 years ago effectively placed these issues under the control of the Zambian Government".

- 'Severely contaminated' -
The HRW report said that although lead and zinc mining have stopped in the town, various medical studies conducted over the past seven years show children there still had elevated levels of lead in their blood.   Between 2003 and 2011, the World Bank funded a government project to decontaminate Kabwe's affected townships, and to test and treat children. But some 76,000 people, or a third of the town's population, still live in contaminated areas.   One recent study published last year and cited by HRW estimated that more than 95 percent of children in the townships surrounding the lead mine have elevated blood lead levels and that about half of them require medical intervention.   "This is the worst environmental disaster I have seen in 30 years of practice," said lawyer Richard Meeran of Leigh Day.    Johannesburg-based collaborating lawyer Zanele Mbuyisa said they will argue that "the environmental damage created has potentially contaminated almost three generations of men, women and children".

- Insufficient resources -
Three years ago, the government launched another five-year World Bank-funded project to get rid of the lead and carry out new rounds of testing and treatment.   The project targets around 10,000 people including children, pregnant women and mothers.   "We think this a very important opportunity for the Zambian government to find a lasting solution to this problem," said Naples-Mitchell.   She urged Zambia to find new and effective methods to clean up the lead, adding that their 2018 study indicated that pollution levels were "as high they had been in the 1970s".    In a letter last month, the government indicated to HRW that it does not have enough resources to address the full scale of the contamination.   The government did not immediately comment on the report.   Children are more vulnerable to lead poisoning since they absorb four to five times as much as an adult and this can retard their growth and IQ, while in worst cases it can result in brain damage or even death.
More ...

Chile

Chile US Consular Information Sheet
August 20, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Chile is a rapidly developing country with a large, educated middle class and a robust free-market economy.
Tourist facilities are generally good and are continu
usly improving.
Read the Department of State’s Background Notes on Chile for additional information.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
U.S. citizens entering Chile must have a valid passport.
U.S. visitors will be charged a reciprocity fee at the port of entry, and a small receipt for the fee will be stapled in the last page of the passport.
This visa is valid for multiple entries and remains valid until the expiration of the passport.
In addition, visitors will be issued a tourist visa consisting of a single sheet of paper placed in the passport. This visa is valid for a stay of up to 90 days.
An extension of stay for an additional 90 days is possible, but requires payment of an extension fee.
The visa document must be surrendered to immigration authorities upon departure.

Chilean entry and exit control laws require that a minor child under age 18 traveling unaccompanied must have permission from the parents or legal guardians.
The document must be notarized and, if issued in the United States, authenticated by a Chilean consul in the United States.

If the child is traveling in the company of only one parent or guardian, the non-traveling parent or guardian will also be required to grant permission for travel.
In this case, the document will also need to be notarized and authenticated by a Chilean consul.
The permission to travel may also be notarized by a Chilean notary in Chile.

Parents are required to have documentary evidence of their relationship to the child.
An original birth certificate or certified copy of an original birth certificate is required.
This requirement applies to all foreigners as well as Chileans.
This requirement is increasingly being enforced by Chilean immigration officers.
When traveling with a minor child in Chile on a tourist visa, having such documentation on hand will facilitate entry and departure.

Visit the Embassy of Chile web site www.chile-usa.org for the most current visa information and entry/exit requirements.
Visitors should be aware of the severe Chilean restrictions on the importation of fruit, vegetables & agricultural products.
Check the Ministry of Agriculture web site www.sag.gob.cl for current requirements.

Information about dual nationality and the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our website.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.
SAFETY AND SECURITY:
The potential for terrorist activity is low.
There has been some politically-motivated violence among indigenous communities in southern Chile, none of which has affected Americans.
Potential for civil disturbance is low, although demonstrations, sometimes violent, do occur.
Particularly violent days are March 29, the Day of the Young Combatant, and the anniversary of the September 11, 1973, coup against the government of President Salvador Allende.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department's web site where the current Worldwide Caution, Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts can be found.
Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).
The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME:
Crime rates are low to moderate throughout Chile and are moderate in Santiago, Valparaiso, and other major cities.
American citizens visiting Chile should be as careful in cities as they would be in any city in the United States.
There have been few violent crimes committed against Americans.
However, American tourists are at a heightened risk for pick-pocketing, purse or camera snatching, and theft from backpacks and rental cars.
Such crimes have been reported in all areas of Chile frequented by tourists.
In Santiago, visitors should be especially alert to the possibility of crime at the Plaza de Armas and the Mercado Central; at major hotels and restaurants in the Las Condes, Vitacura, and Providencia areas, and in the Suecia and Bellavista entertainment districts.
In Valparaiso, visitors should be especially alert in the port and adjoining tourist areas.
Tourists using taxis in Santiago should be alert to possible scams involving currency switching.
Tourists should also be especially alert while using public transportation, such as the Santiago Metro Subway and public buses and while in the vicinity of Metro stations and bus terminals. The emergency number for the police (Carabineros) is 133.

In many countries around the world, counterfeit and pirated goods are widely available.
Transactions involving such products may be illegal under local law.
In addition, bringing them back to the United States may result in forfeitures and/or fines.
More information on this serious problem is available at www.cybercrime.gov/18usc2320.htm.
INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed. You will find information about the Chilean legal system at the following website www.ministeriopublico.cl.
Women that are victims of domestic violence will find helpful information at the website www.sernam.cl.

The local equivalent to the “911” emergency line in Chile is:
131 – AMBULANCE (SAMU)
132 – FIRE DEPARTMENT (BOMBEROS)
133 – POL
ICE DEPARTMENT (CARABINEROS)
See our information on Victims of Crime.
MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Medical care, though generally good, may not meet U.S. standards, especially in remote areas.
Although emergency rooms in some major hospitals accept credit cards, many doctors and hospitals in Chile expect immediate payment in cash.
Prescriptions written by local doctors and over-the-counter medicines are widely available.
Air pollution is a major source of health concern in Santiago, resulting in severe bronchial ailments affecting infants, small children and the elderly.
The most severe air pollution occurs during the winter (May through August). Additional information on air quality levels is available at the National Air Quality Information Service (SINCA) web site - www.sinca.conama.cl.

The ozone layer is especially thin at the bottom of the world.
Travelers should take proper precautions to protect themselves from ultraviolet radiation.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRI (1-877-394-8747) or from the CDC’s web site http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at www.who.int/countries/chl/en/.
The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Chile.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Chile is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance
Driving in Chile is on the right-hand side of the road.
Traffic laws in Chile differ from traffic laws in the United States in some respects.
Right-hand turns are generally prohibited at red lights unless otherwise posted.
Seat belts are mandatory. Several modern toll highways have recently been opened in and around Santiago, dramatically improving transit into and through the city.
Major roads are generally in good condition throughout the country.
Some secondary roads, however, may be poorly maintained.
At night, occasional heavy fog in rural areas may lead to vehicle accidents with occasional deaths and injuries.
Care should be taken while driving in the mountains because the roads tend to have many tight switchbacks and may not have guardrails.
Chains are often required and should be used on mountain roads during the winter.
Many major highways in Chile are toll roads; drivers should carry a sufficient amount of local currency to cover the tolls.
The new major highways in and around Santiago generally collect tolls through use of an electronic transmitter issued by the concessionaire and placed on the vehicle.
“Day passes” may be purchased separately.
Vehicles rented at Santiago airport generally are equipped with the electronic transmitter and the rental car companies charge a surcharge for its use.
Some major arteries remain under construction in Santiago and drivers should be alert for detours and delays. Information on the major highways in the Metropolitan Region requiring an electronic transmitter is found at www.concesiones.cl.
Throughout Chile, care should be exercised when changing lanes or merging because many drivers do not signal lane changes and rarely yield to merging traffic.
Many Chilean drivers exceed posted speed limits, do not maintain safe distances, and do not observe posted road signs.
Buses are especially aggressive in moving between lanes.
Speeding is common, including in urban areas.
Traffic jams and detours in Santiago and other areas are common.
Taxis are plentiful and relatively inexpensive.
Drivers should drive with car doors locked at all times, especially in the southern parts of the city and near the airport, as there have been reports of thieves entering cars stopped at traffic lights or moving in slow traffic.
In Santiago, certain major arteries switch directions during morning and evening rush hours.
Visitors to Santiago should obtain up-to-date information on these changes from their auto rental company or the Chilean Automobile Association (please see below).
Visitors that wish to use the public bus and subway system in Santiago should visit the following websites for information on purchasing a “BIP” card, a prepaid ticket required for public buses, routes and other helpful information regarding the public transportation systems: www.transantiagoinforma.cl; www.metrosantiago.cl and www.micros.cl.
Driving under the influence of alcohol in Chile is severely punished, and can result in incarceration if the driver is involved in an accident. In accidents involving injuries or death, police may detain both drivers for many hours.
Visitors must have an international driver’s permit in order to drive legally in Chile. The international driver’s license must be obtained in the United States before traveling to Chile.
Although car rental firms may rent to customers with only a U.S. driver’s license, the police fine foreigners for driving without a valid international permit.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
Visit the website of Chile’s national tourist office at www.sernatur.cl and national authority responsible for road safety at www.vialidad.cl.
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Chile’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Chile’s air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Visitors should take care to use only the services of government licensed tour operators throughout Chile as the Embassy is aware of at least one accident involving American fatalities with an unauthorized tour operator.
Special care should be taken by arriving cruise ship passengers if arranging land tours not authorized by the cruise line.
Chile is an earthquake-prone country.
Information on Chilean earthquake preparedness is available from the Oficina Nacional de Emergencia de Chile (ONEMI) at www.onemi.cl.
General information about natural disaster preparedness is available via the Internet from the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) at www.fema.gov.
Information about emergency preparedness is also available on the Embassy web site at http://santiago.usembassy.gov/.
The U.S. Geological Survey provides earthquake information on Chile at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/world/index.php?regionID=8.
Minefields are found in Chile’s northern border with Peru and Bolivia and on the southern border with Argentina in Patagonia.
Minefields are generally marked, but markers may have been shifted, become obscured or been vandalized.
Travelers should pay attention to markers and follow clearly identified roads and trails when traveling in minefield areas.
Border crossings should only be made at authorized locations.
Persons visiting wilderness areas in the border regions mentioned above should check with park or other local officials concerning minefields and other potential hazards.
Chile is a popular destination for outdoors and adventure sports.
Much of the country is mountain, forest, desert, or glacier.
Despite the best efforts of local authorities, assisting persons lost or injured in such areas can be problematic.
American citizens have been killed in recent years in mountain climbing and whitewater rafting accidents, and seriously injured while skiing.
Persons planning to travel in isolated and wilderness areas should first learn about local hazards and weather conditions.
Information about parks and wilderness areas can be obtained from the Chilean Forestry Service at www.conaf.cl.
Information about mountain climbing in Chile can be obtained from the Federacion de Andinismo de Chile at www.feach.cl.
Current weather forecasts are available from the Chilean Meteorological Service at www.meteochile.cl.
Reports of missing or injured persons should be made immediately to the police so that a search can be mounted or assistance rendered.
Travelers in isolated areas should always inform park rangers, police, or other local authorities of their itinerary before starting off.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Chilean laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Chile are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Just as in the United States, foreigners in Chile must have proper immigration status and pay taxes on income earned in Chile.
Recently, Americans have been deported for working in Chile without authorization.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties and ensure compliance with all Chilean immigration regulations; consult the web site of the U.S. Embassy in Chile for more information at http://santiago.usembassy.gov/
CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
See our Office of Children’s Issues web pages for information on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.
Chile has demonstrated patterns of noncompliance with the Hague Child Abduction Convention. Chile’s patterns of noncompliance fall in its judicial performance. The courts continue to demonstrate a clear bias toward Chilean mothers.

REGISTRATION/ EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Chile are encouraged to register with the U.S. Embassy through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Chile.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the U.S. Embassy.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy is located at Avenida Andres Bello 2800, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile.
The telephone number is (56) (2) 330-3000.
The Embassy web site is http://santiago.usembassy.gov, and the email address for the American Citizen Services Unit is SantiagoAMCIT@state.gov.
The Consular Section fax number is (56) (2) 330-3005.
The American Citizen Services Unit is open to the public from 8:30am-11:30am, Monday through Friday, except U.S. and Chilean holidays and the first Friday of each month.
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information dated October 23, 2007 to update all sections except Aviation Safety Oversight.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Wed, 13 May 2020 23:07:42 +0200 (METDST)
By Paulina ABRAMOVICH

Santiago, May 13, 2020 (AFP) - Chile ordered a mandatory total quarantine for the capital Santiago's seven million people Wednesday after authorities reported a 60 percent spike in coronavirus infections in 24 hours, dealing a stunning blow to hopes the economy would soon reopen.   "The most severe measure I must announce is a total quarantine in Greater Santiago," the location of 80 percent of the country's 34,000-plus confirmed cases, Health Minister Jaime Manalich said.

Manalich said the lockdown -- including in several areas where earlier confinement measures had been lifted -- was necessary after 2,260 new infections and 12 deaths in the last 24 hours.    The announcement follows a government request to the IMF for a flexible line of credit amounting to around $23.8 billion for the next two years.    The credit line would help kickstart the economy after months of mass protests against the government of President Sebastian Pinera, a bodyblow to state revenues exacerbated by the coronavirus pandemic.

- 'Battle of Santiago' -
The lockdown -- which come into force on Friday at 10:00 pm (0200 GMT Saturday) -- means that people will be allowed to leave their homes only for essential reasons like buying food or medicine.   Chile had until now opted for a selective quarantine strategy in dealing with the pandemic. Curfews were imposed in Santiago and other cities, but quarantines were limited to areas with high incidences of infection.   Chile also has Latin America's highest rate of coronavirus testing -- 14,000 a day and around 200,000 overall.

However, the government had been increasingly concerned about rising infection numbers across the city of seven million people in the past 10 days, and last week ordered strict new confinement measures in three densely populated areas.   Health workers reported growing rates of infection in early May, just after the conservative government celebrated the fact that infections had "peaked," citing a persistent daily rate of around 500 new cases.

Within a few days, however, officials began to speak of "The Battle of Santiago."   "The month of May is being hard on our country and we have to take appropriate actions at the right time to stop this disease," Manalich said.    He added that the health system was able to cope, as deaths remain low, with 347 from COVID-19 since March 3.

Health authorities said the South American country had 553 ventilators available as of Wednesday, and more units would be added in the coming days.   The minister also announced that the government was imposing a mandatory quarantine on people over 75 years of age in the northern cities of Iquique and Alto Hospicio.   The government responded quickly to the first cases on March 3, introducing a nationwide curfew and selective quarantines on areas with high incidences of the virus.   Schools, universities and businesses were closed as part of social distancing measures and transport restricted.
Date: Mon, 4 May 2020 06:51:17 +0200 (METDST)

Santiago, May 4, 2020 (AFP) - Chile ordered strict new quarantine measures on three districts in the capital Santiago after a sudden spike in coronavirus cases Sunday.   The health ministry reported a surge of 1,228 new infections, bringing the total to nearly 20,000 nationwide and dealing a blow to hopes it was over the worst of the crisis.   "If we do not win the battle in Santiago, we can lose the war against the coronavirus," warned Health Minister Jaime Manalich.   Cerillos, Quilicura and Recoleta districts -- as well as the northern mining city of Antofagasta -- would be quarantined from next Tuesday, he said.   Santiago, with a population of seven million, has been the country's main centre of infections, particularly in its three richest suburbs.   However, the virus began to spread in the city's more densely populated areas over the past couple of weeks.

The setback follows criticism of the reopening of some commercial streets in Santiago after the government last week outlined "a return plan" for the economy.   The ministry reported 13 new deaths Sunday, all in the metropolitan area, bringing the total to 260.   Chile has Latin America's highest rate of coronavirus testing -- 14,000 a day and nearly 200,000 overall according to officials -- and had on Thursday cautiously celebrated evidence infections had peaked.   It was among the first countries to explore the idea of an "immunity passport" for recovered COVID-19 patients to allow people back to work.   However, it dropped the measure after the World Health Organization warned there was no certainty the disease could not strike a person twice.

Instead, Chile will provide "discharge cards" to some 10,000 recovered patients.    Manalich said these would be delivered in the next few days and would be valid for three months "until there is scientific evidence" on virus immunity.   The cards will enable holders to move freely in quarantined areas and to re-join the workforce.   The government responded quickly to the first cases on March 3, introducing a nationwide curfew and selective quarantines on areas with high incidences of the virus.   Schools, universities and businesses were closed as part of social distancing measures and transport restricted.
Date: Sat, 18 Apr 2020 01:07:14 +0200 (METDST)

Santiago, April 17, 2020 (AFP) - Chile President Sebastian Pinera said Friday his government is preparing a "progressive" restart of economic activity in the country that has been in lockdown for 45 days over the coronavirus pandemic.  "We're preparing for a progressive opening or reopening, taking a lot of precautions," said Pinera, adding that there would be "much stricter health measures."

The South American country has recorded more than 9,200 coronavirus cases and 116 deaths.   "We're going to have to learn to get used to (the fact that) the normal life we had before the coronavirus will not return for a long time and we have to get used to a new normal," the president added.

Amid a general lockdown, curfew and school closures, Chile on Friday also ordered the mandatory wearing of masks on public transportation, in elevators and at gatherings of more than 10 people.    "As president, I cannot ignore the fact that we're facing a deep global recession and we must also... protect employment and the earnings of families," Pinera said.   Chile's economy is expected to contract by 2.5 percent due to the pandemic.
Date: Fri, 10 Apr 2020 20:57:47 +0200 (METDST)

Sao Paulo, April 10, 2020 (AFP) - Latin America's biggest airline, the Brazilian-Chilean group LATAM, is suspending all international flights until May because of the coronavirus pandemic.   "Because of the health restrictions imposed by various countries, as well as the continuing fall in demand caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, regular international passenger operations will be suspended from April 13 to 30," the company said in a statement.   It said it would continue operating domestic flights in Brazil and Chile "to the extent that there is demand."   The airline had previously announced it was scaling back its operations this month by 95 percent in response to the global health crisis.   LATAM normally flies to 145 destinations in 26 countries, with around 1,400 flights a day.
Date: Thu, 9 Apr 2020 23:20:42 +0200 (METDST)

Santiago, April 9, 2020 (AFP) - Chile will issue certificates to people that have recovered from the coronavirus, which would allow them to move freely, the health minister said.   As of Thursday, Chile has seen 1,274 recover from the deadly virus.   "As of next week we'll issue a certificate. These people can be a great help to the community," said Jaime Manalich.    Chile has had almost 6,000 infections and 57 deaths from COVID-19.   Manalich expects a "slight increase" over the coming weeks.

People will be considered to have recovered from the virus if they suffered from COVID-19 but two weeks later tested negative.   "What interests us is saying that this person cannot contract the coronavirus again, because they are already immune, therefore that person can be of enormous help to communities, because they don't represent a risk," said Manalich.   The question of whether those who have contracted the virus are immune once recovered is still being studied elsewhere, including in Germany, which is planning a mass study with 100,000 people.

But even if the study is approved, initial readings might not be completely reliable.   Tests currently available can show false positives for coronavirus antibodies, as 90 percent of adults already have immunity against common, harmless viruses from the same family.   Chile has had a low number of deaths in relation to the number of infections, Manalich said.   The country has carried out a huge number of tests each day, with almost 8,000 on Wednesday and 70,000 since registering its first case on March 3.
More ...

Spain

Spain and Andorra US Consular Information Sheet
January 13, 2009
Spain and Andorra are both advanced stable democracies and modern economies. Spain is a member of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the European Union.
Read the D
partment of State Background Notes on Spain and Andorra for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
Spain is a party to the Schengen agreement.
As such, U.S. citizens may enter Spain for up to 90 days for tourist or business purposes without a visa.
The passport should be valid for at least three months beyond the period of stay.
For further details about travel into and within Schengen countries, please see our Schengen Fact Sheet.

In an effort to prevent international child abduction, many governments have initiated procedures at entry/exit points.
These often include requiring documentary evidence of relationship and permission for the child's travel from the parent(s) or legal guardian not present.
Having such documentation on hand, even if not required, may facilitate entry/departure.
For further information concerning entry requirements for Spain, travelers should contact the Embassy of Spain at 2375 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037, telephone (202) 452-0100, or the nearest Spanish Consulate in Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, or San Juan.
Spanish government web sites with information about entry requirements (in Spanish) can be found at http://www.mae.es and http://www.mir.es.
Additional information may be obtained from the Tourist Office of Spain in New York, telephone (212) 265-8822, or online at http://www.spain.info/.
For further information on entry requirements to Andorra, travelers should contact the Andorran Mission to the UN, 2 U.N. Plaza, 25th floor, New York, NY 10018, telephone (212) 750-8064 or online at http://www.andorra.ad.
Visit the Embassy of Spain and Andorra web sites for the most current visa information.
Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.
SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Spain and Andorra share with the rest of the world an increased threat of international terrorist incidents.
Like other countries in the Schengen area, Spain's open borders with its Western European neighbors allow the possibility of terrorist groups entering and exiting the country with anonymity.
Spain’s proximity to North Africa makes it vulnerable to attack from Al Qaeda terrorists in the Maghreb region.
Americans are reminded to remain vigilant with regard to their personal security and to exercise caution.

In the deadliest terrorist attack in recent European history, in March 2004, Islamist extremists bombed four commuter trains entering Madrid, causing 191 deaths and over 1,400 injuries.
Spanish authorities tried the suspected terrorists and their co-conspirators in February 2007 and convicted in October 2007.
The Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) terrorist organization remains active in Spain.
ETA has historically avoided targeting foreigners, directing their attacks against the police, military, local politicians, and Spanish government targets as well as attempts to disrupt transportation and daily life. However, foreigners have been killed or injured collaterally in ETA attacks.
Two examples of this are the Barajas Airport bombing in December 2006, in which two Ecuadorian nationals were killed and the bombing at the University of Navarre in October 2008, in which 17 students were injured including one American student.
In addition, bombs have been used as part of criminal extortion of businesses, particularly in the Basque region. The risk of “being in the wrong place at the wrong time” in event of an ETA action is a concern for foreign visitors and tourists.
U.S. tourists traveling to Spain should remain vigilant, exercise caution, monitor local developments, and avoid demonstrations and other potentially violent situations.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State’s Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll-free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME:
Andorra has a low rate of crime.
While most of Spain has a moderate rate of crime and most of the estimated one million American tourists have trouble free visits to Spain each year, street crimes against tourists occur in the principal tourist areas.
Madrid and Barcelona, in particular, report incidents of pick-pocketing, mugging and occasional violent attacks, some of which require the victim to seek medical attention.
Although crimes occur at all times of day and night and to people of all ages, older tourists and Asian Americans seem to be particularly at risk.
Criminals frequent tourist areas and major attractions such as museums, monuments, restaurants, outdoor cafes, Internet cafes, hotel lobbies, beach resorts, city buses, subways, trains, train stations, airports, and ATMs.

In Madrid, incidents have been reported in all major tourist areas, including the area near the Prado Museum, near Atocha train station, in Retiro Park, in areas of old Madrid including near the Royal Palace and in Plaza Mayor.
There have been a number of passport and bag thefts reported at Madrid’s Barajas Airport, local hotels, as well as in El Rastro (Madrid’s flea market) and in the Metro.

In Barcelona, the largest number of incidents reported also occurred in major tourist areas, on Las Ramblas, Barcelona’s El Prat airport, Sants train station, Metro stations, in the Sagrada Familia Area, in the Gothic Quarter, in Parc Güell, in Plaza Real, and along Barcelona’s beaches.
There has been a rise in the number of thefts reported at the Port Olimpic Area and nearby beaches.

Travelers should remain alert to their personal security and exercise caution. Travelers are encouraged to carry limited cash, only one credit card, and a copy of their passport; leaving extra cash, extra credit cards, passports and personal documents in a safe location.
When carrying documents, credit cards or cash, you are encouraged to secure them in a hard-to-reach place and not to carry all valuables together in a purse or backpack.
Thieves often work in teams of two or more people.
In many cases, one person distracts a victim while the accomplices perform the robbery.
For example, someone might wave a map in your face and ask for directions, “inadvertently” spill something on you, or help you clean-up bird droppings thrown on you by a third unseen accomplice.
While your attention is diverted, an accomplice makes off with the valuables.
Thieves may drop coins or keys at your feet to distract you and try to take your belongings while you are trying to help.
Attacks are sometimes initiated from behind, with the victim being grabbed around the neck and choked by one assailant while others rifle through or grab the belongings.
A group of assailants may surround the victim in a crowded popular tourist area or on public transportation, and only after the group has departed does the person discover he/she has been robbed.
Purse-snatchers may grab purses or wallets and run away, or immediately pass the stolen item to an accomplice.
A passenger on a passing motorcycle sometimes robs pedestrians.
There have been reports of thieves posing as plainclothes police officers, beckoning to pedestrians from cars and sometimes confronting them on the street asking for documents, or to inspect their cash for counterfeit bills, which they ultimately “confiscate” as evidence.
The U.S. Embassy in Madrid has received reports of cars on limited access motorways being pulled over by supposed unmarked police cars.
The Spanish police do not operate in this fashion.
American citizens are encouraged to ask for a uniformed law enforcement officer if approached.
Theft from vehicles is also common.
“Good Samaritan" scams are unfortunately common, where a passing car or helpful stranger will attempt to divert the driver’s attention by indicating there is a flat tire or mechanical problem.
When the driver stops to check the vehicle, the “good Samaritan” will appear to help the driver and passengers while the accomplice steals from the unlocked car. Drivers should be cautious about accepting help from anyone other than a uniformed Spanish police officer or Civil Guard.
Items high in value like luggage, cameras, laptop computers, or briefcases are often stolen from cars. Travelers are advised not to leave valuables in parked cars, and to keep doors locked, windows rolled up, and valuables out of sight when driving.
While the incidence of sexual assault is statistically very low, attacks do occur.
Spanish authorities warn of the availability of so-called "date-rape" drugs and other drugs, including "GBH" and liquid ecstasy.
Americans should not lower their personal security awareness because they are on vacation.
A number of American citizens have been victims of lottery or advance fee scams in which a person is lured to Spain to finalize a financial transaction. Often the victims are initially contacted via Internet or fax and informed they have won the Spanish Lottery (El Gordo), inherited money from a distant relative, or are needed to assist in a major financial transaction from one country to another.
For more information, please see the Bureau of Consular Affairs web site on International Financial Scams.

In many countries around the world, counterfeit and pirated goods are widely available. Transactions involving such products may be illegal under local law.
In addition, bringing them back to the United States may result in forfeitures and/or fines.
More information on this serious problem is available at http://www.cybercrime.gov/18usc2320.htm.
The Embassy’s U.S. Commercial Service receives reports of a type of scam targeting U.S. businesses, utilizing the name of a legitimate Spanish concern and legitimate-appearing Spanish bank references.
The scam usually involves a temptingly large order or business proposal.
The U.S. Commercial Service in Spain at http://www.buyusa.gov/spain/en/ stands ready to counsel any U.S. firm which would like to verify the legitimacy of an unsolicited business proposal purporting to come from a Spanish firm.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, help you find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.
Spain does have a Crime Victim’s Assistance program.
More information can be obtained at http://www.mjusticia.es/Directorio/Victimas?menu_activo=1057821035144&lang=es_es.

The local equivalent to the “911” emergency line in Spain is 112.
Please see our information on Victims of Crime, including possible victim compensation programs.
MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Good medical care is available in both Spain and Andorra.
Regulations regarding medications may vary from those in the United States; Americans with need for specific medications are encouraged to bring a supply sufficient for their anticipated period of stay, as the medication may not be available and customs regulations may prohibit certain medications to be mailed from the United States to Spain or Andorra.
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance companies prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and if it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
U.S. medical insurance plans may not cover health costs incurred outside the United States unless supplemental coverage is purchased.
Further, U.S. Medicare and Medicaid programs do not provide payment for medical services outside the United States. You should contact your insurance provider before departure so appropriate arrangements can be made.
Many travel agents and private companies offer insurance plans that will cover health care expenses incurred overseas, including emergency services such as medical evacuations.

When making a decision regarding health insurance, Americans should consider that many foreign doctors and hospitals require payment in cash prior to providing service and that a medical evacuation to the United States may cost well in excess of $50,000.
Uninsured travelers who require medical care overseas often face extreme difficulties, whereas travelers who have purchased overseas medical insurance have found it to be life saving when a medical emergency has occurred.
When consulting with your insurer prior to your trip, please ascertain whether payment will be made to the overseas healthcare provider or if you will be reimbursed later for expenses that you incur.
Some insurance policies also include coverage for psychiatric treatment and for disposition of remains in the event of death.

The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Spain or Andorra.
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning name of country is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
Traffic in Madrid and Barcelona is faster-paced than in U.S. cities and can be unnerving due to unfamiliar signs or motorbikes weaving between traffic lanes.
Drivers should always obey the closest traffic light, as there are separate pedestrian lights in the city.
Drivers should be alert when driving at night in urban areas, due to the possibility of encountering drivers or pedestrians under the influence of alcohol.
Night driving in isolated rural areas can be dangerous because of farm animals and poorly marked roads.
Rural traffic is generally heavier in July and August as well as during the Christmas and Easter seasons.
Traffic regulations in effect in Spain include the prohibition on the use of a mobile phone without a hands-free device while driving a car.
There is a fine of 300 euros for violation of this regulation and loss of driving privileges.
In addition, all drivers and passengers are required to carry a reflective vest and put it on if they need to stop on the roadside.
A reflective triangle warning sign for a vehicle stopped on the side of the road is also mandatory.
Those renting vehicles are encouraged to check with the rental company about traffic regulations and safety equipment.
U.S. citizens using U.S. issued drivers licenses must obtain International Driving Permits prior to their arrival if they plan to drive in Spain.
Pedestrians should use designated crossing areas when crossing streets and obey traffic lights.
Public transportation in large Spanish cities is generally excellent.
All major cities have metered taxis, in which extra charges must be posted in the vehicle.
Travelers are advised to use only clearly identified cabs and to ensure that taxi drivers always switch on the meter.
A green light on the roof indicates that the taxi is available.
Rail service is comfortable and reliable, but varies in quality and speed. Intercity buses are usually comfortable and inexpensive.
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
For specific information concerning Spanish driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, please contact the Spanish National Tourist Organization offices in New York at http://www.spain.info/us/TourSpain.
For information about driving in Andorra, refer to http://www.andorra.ad/en-US/Pages/default.aspx.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Spain’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Spain’s air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offences.
Persons violating the laws of Spain or Andorra, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Spain and Andorra are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. The cities of Madrid and Barcelona and The Balearics Regional Government have banned the consumption of alcohol in the street, other than in registered street cafes and bars.
Visitors to Madrid, Barcelona, Mallorca, Ibiza, and Menorca should be aware that failure to respect this law might result in the imposition of fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Spain or Andorra are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site to obtain updated information on travel and security within Spain or Andorra.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.

The U.S. Embassy is located at Serrano 75; telephone (34) (91) 587-2200, and fax (34) (91) 587-2303. U.S. citizens who register in the Consular Section at the U.S. Embassy, Consulate General, or one of the Consular Agencies listed below can obtain updated information on travel and security within Spain or Andorra.
Additional information and appointments for routine services are available through the U.S. Embassy’s home page at http://madrid.usembassy.gov.
Appointments are required for routine Consular Services.
To make an appointment, go to https://evisaforms.state.gov/acs/default.asp?postcode=MDD&appcode=1.
The U.S. Consulate in Barcelona is located at Paseo Reina Elisenda 23-25; telephone (34) (93) 280-2227 and fax (34) (93) 205-5206.
Visitors to Barcelona can access additional information from the Consulate General’s web page at http://madrid.usembassy.gov/barcelonaen.html.
There are six consular agencies in Spain, which provide limited services to American citizens, but are not authorized to issue passports.
Anyone requesting service at one of the consular agencies should call ahead to verify that the service requested will be available on the day you expect to visit the agency.
Fuengirola (in Malaga Province), at Avenida Juan Gomez Juanito #8, Edificio Lucia 1C, Fuengirola 29640 Spain. Telephone (34) (952) 474-891 and fax (34) (952) 465-189.
Hours 10:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m.
La Coruna, Calle Juana de Vega 8, 5º Piso, Oficina I, La Coruna 15003 Spain.
Telephone (34) (981) 213-233 and fax (34) (981 22 28 08).
Hours 10:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m.

Las Palmas, at Edificio Arca, Calle Los Martinez de Escobar 3, Oficina 7, Las Palmas, Gran Canaria 35007 Spain.
Telephone (34)(928) 222-552 and fax (34)(928) 225-863.
Hours 10:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m.
Palma de Mallorca, Edificio Reina Constanza, Porto Pi, 8, 9-D, 07015 Palma de Mallorca 07015 Spain.
Telephone (34) (971) 40-3707 or 40-3905 and fax (34) (971) 40-3971.
Hours 10:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m.
Seville, at Plaza Nueva 8-8 duplicado, 2nd Floor, Office E-2 No.4, Sevilla, 41101 Spain. Telephone: (34) (65) 422-8751 and fax (34) (91) 422-0791.
Hours: 10:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m.
Valencia, at Doctor Romagosa #1, 2-J, 46002, Valencia 46002 Spain.
Telephone (34) (96)-351-6973 and fax (34) (96) 352-9565.
Hours 10:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m.
For Andorra, please contact the U.S. Consulate in Barcelona.
*

*

*
This replaces the Country Specific Information for Spain and Andorra dated July 15, 2008, to update sections on Safety and Security and Medical Facilities and Health Information.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Fri, 15 May 2020 17:29:08 +0200 (METDST)

Madrid, May 15, 2020 (AFP) - Spain began on Friday to beef up screening of international travellers arriving at its airports, taking their temperature and imposing a 14-day quarantine to prevent a resurgence of the coronavirus in the country.

The government also began to restrict arrivals of foreigners who do not usually reside in Spain, with the exception of border workers, health personnel, diplomats and transporters.   The new measures will remain in force until June 15, the interior ministry said Friday.   Spain closed its land borders with France and Portugal on March 17 but until now had not imposed any restrictions on arrivals from the passport-free Schengen zone, which counts 26 member states.

One of the world's worst-hit countries in which the virus has killed nearly 27,000 people, Spain has begun a cautious process of slowly lifting its stringent mid-March lockdown.   The government is due to decide on Friday whether to ease lockdown measures in new regions as it already has for half of Spain's 47 million people.   Since Monday, those Spaniards can meet up to 10 people and return to café terraces.

The country's two largest cities, Madrid and Barcelona, have asked the government for permission to loosen restrictions which are among the strictest in the world.   Of the 138 daily new deaths recorded in 24 hours, nearly two-thirds were in the Madrid region and in Catalonia, which includes Barcelona.   "The risk of resurgence exists," warned Fernando Simon, the health ministry's emergencies coordinator, adding that in some places the threat remained "very high".

The government released a video on Friday of travellers having their temperatures taken and filling out forms at the Madrid-Barajas international airport.   Interior Minister Fernando Grande-Marlaska said that passengers were asked for contact information and details of where they would be quarantined.   Health officials have said they would track the travellers to ensure the quarantine was being followed, and that those affected would only be allowed out to buy essentials or for urgent medical care -- always wearing a mask.
Date: Tue, 12 May 2020 10:46:56 +0200 (METDST)

Madrid, May 12, 2020 (AFP) - People arriving in Spain will face a mandatory 14-day quarantine to slow the spread of the coronavirus, the government announced on Tuesday.    The measure comes into effect on Friday and will remain in force until May 24 when the state of emergency expires -- or beyond if the measure is extended, it said.    "This measure is considered proportionate to the gravity of the situation and in line with the controls re-established along internal borders by a large number of member states of the European Union," the order said.

"The favourable evolution of the epidemic in our country and the start of the rollback make it necessary to reinforce measures of control," it said.    "Given the global distribution of the virus and working from the principle of precaution, it is necessary that anyone coming from abroad observe a 14-day quarantine period."   During that time, they would only be allowed out to buy essentials or for urgent medical treatment and always wearing a mask.

The measure will not apply to cross-border workers, those transporting goods, airline staff and medical personnel arriving in Spain as long as they have not been in contact with anyone infected by the virus.    During the two-week period, the health care authorities "could make contact to ensure the quarantine is being followed", it warned.   Spain, one of the countries worst-hit by the virus which has so far claimed nearly 27,000 lives, closed its land border when the state of emergency was declared in mid-March.
Date: Fri, 8 May 2020 23:28:08 +0200 (METDST)

Madrid, May 8, 2020 (AFP) - Spain's two biggest cities Madrid and Barcelona will not enter the next phase out of coronavirus lockdown along with many other regions next week, the government said Friday.   One of the worst-hit countries by the pandemic, Spain is enacting a four-phase transition to lift its strict measures to be completed by the end of June.

The health ministry announced Friday that around half of the country's 47 million population could enter the next phase from Monday.    But the Madrid region, which has recorded a third of the country's 26,299 coronavirus-linked deaths, was excluded.   It was rebuffed despite the regional government requesting the central administration relax the capital's lockdown, which led to a dispute over which Madrid's top health official reportedly resigned.   "We felt it was not appropriate to move to the next phase... This is not a race," said Health Minister Salvador Illa.

The second most-affected region Catalonia including its capital Barcelona will also have to wait, but it had not requested measures to be eased. However many other parts of the country, such as southern city Seville or Bilbao in the north, will enter the new phase, which allows family or friends to meet in groups of up to 10, as well as travel within provinces.   In those regions, small shops will reopen without appointments and bars and restaurants can open on terraces -- with spaced seating.

Hotels will also be able to open, but will have to keep their communal areas shut.   Spain, which now has nearly 223,000 confirmed COVID-19 infections, has seen its death rate slow after entering the strict lockdown on March 14.   It recorded 229 new deaths on Friday -- slightly higher than the previous day's 214.   The number has hovered around 200 over the last few days, far from the peak of 950 seen in early April.
Date: Wed, 6 May 2020 19:17:16 +0200 (METDST)

Madrid, May 6, 2020 (AFP) - Spain's parliament on Wednesday voted to extend the country's state of emergency, allowing stringent coronavirus lockdown measures to remain in place for at least two more weeks.   The government imposed a nation-wide lockdown nearly eight weeks ago to curb the outbreak, which has killed more than 25,000 people and infected over 220,000 in the country -- one of the hardest hit in the world.

Spanish Prime Minister Pedro Sanchez warned that abruptly ending the strict lockdown would be "unforgivable", ahead of a parliamentary vote Wednesday to further extend the state of emergency.    "Ignoring the risk posed by the epidemic and lifting the state of emergency very quickly would be absolutely wrong, a total, unforgivable error," he said.

Despite efforts by his right-wing opponents to block the move, parliament approved the extension by 178 votes in favour to 75 votes against, with 97 abstentions.    It was the fourth time the measure had been approved, meaning the restrictions will now remain in place until May 23 as Spain slowly moves through a staged rollback of the lockdown.

A state of emergency was first declared on March 14 in Spain, allowing the government to roll out confinement measures for its nearly 47 million citizens.    The country has only recently started ease some restrictions, allowing children outdoors and adults to leave the house to exercise.    Some small businesses have also been permitted to receive customers with a prior appointment.   "We have limited freedom of movement and the freedom to gather, that is certain. But we've done it to save lives," Sanchez said.    He insisted it was "the only way to guarantee a gradual and prudent transition" out of the lockdown.

The latest daily toll on Wednesday showed a slight increase in deaths, rising to 244 after three days when it stayed below 200 -- a far cry from the 950 deaths of April 2 when the epidemic peaked.    "We are progressing very well," said Fernando Simon, head of the health ministry's emergencies department.    "It would be very sad if through leaving the lockdown faster than recommended we lost everything we've worked for."

Earlier this week, Spain's main opposition Popular Party said it would not support any extension of the state of emergency.    But thanks to backing from the centre-right Ciudadanos and the Basque PNV, the government got enough support to push through the measure.     Last week, the government unveiled plans for a four-phase transition out of the lockdown that is to be completed by the end of June, with the country already engaged in the first preparatory stage.
Date: Mon, 4 May 2020 13:13:45 +0200 (METDST)

Madrid, May 4, 2020 (AFP) - Masks became mandatory on public transport Monday as Spain took its first tentative steps towards a commercial reopening with small businesses accepting customers by appointment and restaurants prepping food for takeaway.   Spain's population of nearly 47 million have been confined to their homes for more than 50 days as the country sought to curb the spread of the deadly virus which has so far claimed 25,428 lives according to official figures.    But the daily death rate has been steadily falling, with the country on Monday counting another 164 deaths in 24 hours, an identical number to Sunday which was the lowest figure in nearly seven weeks.    And on Monday, the number of new cases fell to 545, the lowest figure since the country shut down on March 14 to slow the spread of the deadly virus.    Health chiefs believe the epidemic peaked on April 2 when 950 people died in one 24-hour period.    Spain began transitioning out of its strict virus lockdown on April 26 when it allowed children outside for an hour a day with the measure extended this weekend to adults who can now go out for a brief walk or exercise alone.

The government has said the restrictions will be gradually lifted in a four-phase process which will be completed by the end of June, with the country already engaged in the first preparatory stage.   On Monday, new rules went into effect on public transport, with police and civil protection officers handing out millions of masks at stations across the country to ensure commuters complied with the now-compulsory requirement.   "We remind you that it is obligatory to wear a mask, whether travelling on a train or anywhere inside the transport system," said a message over the loudspeakers at Sol station in central Madrid, which serves the metro and interurban trains.   "Until today I hadn't seen people wearing masks but now I can," said Cristina Jimenez, 31, who works in a currency exchange outlet and has been
working throughout the lockdown.

On Monday, easing measures went into effect for some small businesses with premises no larger than 400 square metres (4,300 square foot) which can now receive customers with a reservation.    "Today it's a bit chaotic with all the clients phoning for an appointment and trying to fit them all in," said Conchi Navarro, a 56-year-old hairdresser wearing a mask who has just opened her Barcelona salon.    Restaurants will also benefit from the changes. Until now, they have been allowed to prepare food for delivery, but from Monday they can also offer meals that customers can come and collect in person.    Spain is currently in the so-called preparatory phase zero and will enter stage one on May 11 when it will allow gatherings of up to 10 people within strict social distancing guidelines and the limited opening of bar terraces and street cafes.
More ...

Romania

Romania US Consular Information Sheet
March 02, 2009
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the European Union in 2007.
Read the Department of State Background Notes on Romania for additional information.

ENTR
/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A valid passport is required.
U.S. citizen visitors are granted 90 days of stay without a visa within a given six-month period.
For stays longer than 90 days, an extension of stay may be obtained in Romania from the Romanian Immigration Office in the area of residence.
An exit visa must be obtained in cases of overstay.
The Romanian Government is enforcing visa regulations more vigorously and a record of visa overstay can result in the assessment of large fines and the denial of entry without a visa for a specified time.
Visit the Embassy of Romania web site for the most current visa information or contact the Romanian Embassy at 1607 23rd St. NW, Washington, D.C. 20008, telephone number (202) 232-4747, or the Romanian Consulates in Los Angeles, Chicago, or New York City.
.

Foreigners are required to carry identification documents at all times. Americans who obtained a temporary or permanent stay permit must be able to present the document upon the request of any “competent authorities.”
Foreigners who do not have a stay permit should present their passports.
(The Embassy recommends carrying a copy of the relevant document).

U.S. visa information for Romanians and other foreign citizens can be found on the web site of the U.S. Embassy in Bucharest
or the Department’s travel website.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about custom regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
American citizens are reminded to exercise caution, remain vigilant with regard to their personal security, and monitor media reports.
Prior police notice is required for public demonstrations and police oversight is routinely provided.
Nonetheless, even demonstrations intended to be peaceful can turn confrontational and possibly escalate into violence.
American citizens are therefore urged to avoid the areas of demonstrations if possible, and to exercise caution if within the vicinity of any demonstrations.
Information on specific demonstrations can be found on the Embassy web site on the demonstration notices page.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, including the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada or, for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves overseas, see the Department of State’s A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
While most crimes in Romania are non-violent and non-confrontational, crimes do occur in which victims suffer personal harm.
Crimes against tourists, including robbery, mugging, pickpocketing and confidence schemes, remain a problem in Romania.
Organized groups of thieves and pickpockets, sometimes including minors, operate in train stations and on trains, subways, and buses in major cities.
A number of thefts and assaults have occurred on overnight trains, including thefts from passengers in closed compartments.
The Embassy recommends using the highest class available for train travel, and suggests traveling with at least one other person. As is always the case, travelers should never leave personal belongings unattended, maintaining control over them at all times.

The Embassy has received reports of bar/night club scams.
These scams involve unsuspecting patrons being charged exorbitant prices when they receive their bar bills.
Another scam involves patrons of “adult” establishments (strip clubs) who are charged for the female worker’s drinks or time while talking to the customers.
Because strip clubs frequently are fronts for organized crime, the Embassy recommends avoiding these establishments.
Patrons may be forced to pay the bills or risk physical confrontation.
If you find yourself in this situation, you should pay the bill and make a police report once the incident is over.

Money exchange schemes targeting travelers are common in Romania.
Some of these ploys have become rather sophisticated, involving individuals posing as plainclothes policemen, who approach the potential victim, flash a badge, and ask for the victim's passport and wallet.
In many of these cases, the thieves succeed in obtaining passports, credit cards, and other personal documents.

Credit card and Internet fraud remain among the most common crimes affecting foreigners in Romania.
Romania is largely a "cash only" economy.
While an increasing number of businesses accept credit cards, travelers are advised to use cash for goods and services rendered due to the prevalence of credit card fraud.
Vendors have been known to misuse credit card information by making illegal purchases on a customer’s account.
To make a credit card purchase, a PIN is usually required.
There are an increasing number of ATMs located throughout major cities, and increasingly sophisticated identity theft rings are targeting them.
Travelers should try to use ATMs located inside banks and check for any evidence of tampering with the machine before use.
Travelers' checks are of limited use but may be used to purchase local currency at some exchange houses.

Americans should exercise caution when traveling to Romania to meet individuals known only through contact over the Internet.
A significant number of confidence scams have been uncovered involving Romanians who contact their prospective American victims through chat rooms or personal advertisements. They generally identify themselves as young Romanian women and develop a “relationship” with their victim over time.
Variations of this scam have emerged but money extortion remains the ultimate goal.
Americans who suspect they may have fallen victim to this kind of scam should contact American Citizens Services at the U.S. Embassy.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to the local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you understand the local criminal justice process and find an attorney if needed.

The local equivalent to the "911" emergency line in Romania is: 112.
English speaking operators are available.
Please see our information on Victims of Crime, including possible victim compensation programs in the United States.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Romania’s laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession or use of, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Romania are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

Under Romanian law, engaging in sexual conduct with a minor under the age of 15 or a minor between the ages of 15 and 18 where the adult has abused the minor’s trust or had influence/authority over the minor is a crime punishable with a 3-10 year prison sentence.
Engaging in illicit sexual conduct with someone who has a physical or psychological disability is punishable with a 3-12 year prison sentence.
Distribution of obscene materials depicting minors is a crime punishable with a 1-5 year prison sentence.
Prostitution is illegal in Romania, regardless of the age of the participants.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Abandoned dogs are commonplace in Romania and generally tolerated.
Strays are often fed and are seen frequently on a daily basis especially in or near parks.
Some statistics report one dog bite hourly in Bucharest, the capital city. Because the immunization status of stray dogs is unknown, precautions to prevent rabies are recommended.
See the CDC’s web site for more details.
If you encounter dogs that appear aggressive, it is best to change your path to avoid contact with them.

In many countries around the world, counterfeit and pirated goods are widely available. Transactions involving such products may be illegal under local law. In addition, bringing them back to the United States may result in forfeitures and/or fines. More information on this serious problem is available at the U.S. Department of Justice, Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section.

Romania's customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from Romania of items such as firearms, antiquities, and medications.
Romanian law allows travelers to bring cash into or out of Romania; however, sums larger than 10,000 Euros or the equivalent must be declared.
Travelers are advised to contact the Embassy of Romania in Washington or one of Romania's consulates in the United States for specific information regarding customs requirements.

DISASTER PREPAREDNESS:
Romania is situated in a seismically active region and has a history of devastating and deadly earthquakes.
While responsibility for caring for disaster victims, including foreigners, rests with Romanian authorities, disaster preparedness is also a personal responsibility.
Additional information is available from the U.S. Embassy in Bucharest.
General information about natural disaster preparedness is available from the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Medical care in Romania is generally not up to Western standards, and basic medical supplies are limited, especially outside major cities.
Some medical providers that meet Western quality standards are available in Bucharest and other cities but can be difficult to identify and locate.
Travelers seeking medical treatment should therefore choose their provider carefully.
A list of hospitals and physicians is available on the website of the U.S. Embassy in Bucharest.
Information regarding health threats or other medical issues affecting visitors to Romania can also be found at this site. The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Romania.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site.
For
information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad, consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) website
Further health information for travelers is available from the WHO.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

Americans who wish to extend their stay in Romania must present proof of health insurance that applies overseas for the duration of their intended stay in Romania.
Useful information on medical emergencies abroad, including overseas insurance programs, is provided on the Department of State's web page, Medical Information for Americans Traveling Abroad.
TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Romania is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Traffic accidents are arguably the single most dangerous threat for American citizens visiting Romania. The World Economic Forum ranks Romania 126 out of 134 states for road quality.
Currently Romania has a total of only 270 kilometers of freeways.
While major streets in larger cities and major inter-city roads are generally in fair to good condition, many other roads are in poor repair, unpaved, badly lighted, or narrow, or lack marked lanes.
Part of the problem is that the infrastructure has failed to keep pace with the dramatic increase in motor vehicles since 1990.

Roads, especially in the mountains, can be particularly dangerous when wet or covered with snow or ice.
Pedestrians, animals, cyclists, and horse-drawn carts share many roads with motor vehicles and can be extremely difficult to see, particularly at night in rural areas.
Vehicles often block sidewalks, forcing pedestrians to walk in the streets.
Maintain vigilance when driving to avoid hitting those who are walking in the streets.
Cross the street only in crosswalks and always look both ways before crossing.
Crosswalks are generally poorly marked and drivers may ignore crosswalks even if there is a traffic light.

Driving practices in Romania can be aggressive and/or inattentive.
Combined with the substandard road conditions noted above, the result is a significant traffic mortality rate.
According to the European Union Road Federation, Romania has the highest per vehicle rate of traffic fatalities of any country in the E.U.
It is essential for drivers to practice defensive driving techniques.


Romanian traffic laws are very strict.
The traffic police can confiscate any form of driver's license or permit for 1-3 months, and payment of fines may be requested at the time of the infractions.
Some examples when this might occur are failure to yield the right of way, failure to stop at a red light or stop sign, or failure to yield to pedestrians at crosswalks.
While, in theory, drivers must yield to pedestrians at all marked pedestrian crosswalks, many of these are poorly maintained, difficult to see, and sometimes located in unexpected places for foreign drivers.
Pedestrians must take extreme caution when crossing any road.

Romanian traffic laws provide for retention of a driver’s license by the police and possible imprisonment for driving under the influence of alcohol or for causing an accident resulting in injury or death.
There is zero tolerance for driving under the influence of alcohol and police are required to give breathalyzer tests on the scene to all drivers involved in an accident.
Refusal to take a breathalyzer test will result in criminal penalties regardless of whether or not alcohol was involved.

U.S. driver's licenses are only valid in Romania for up to 90 days.
Before the 90-day period has expired, U.S. citizens must either obtain an international driving permit in addition to their U.S. driver's license or a Romanian driver's license.
Wearing a seat belt is mandatory.
Children under 12 years of age may not be transported in the front seat.

Unless otherwise marked with road signs, speed limits are as follows:
·


Inter-city traffic on highways

o
130 km/hr for cars and motorcycles (80 miles/hr)

o
110 km/hr for vans (65 miles/hr)

·


Urban traffic - 50 km/hr (30 miles/hr)

·


Express and European roads

o
100 km/hour for cars and motorcycles (60 miles/hr)

o
90 km/hour for vans (55 miles/hr)

·


All other roads

o
90 km/hr for cars and motorcycles (55 miles/hr)

o
80 km/hr for vans (50 miles/hr)

·


Motor vehicles with trailers and drivers with less than one year of driving experience have speed limits 20 km/hr (or 12 miles) slower than those listed above.

Inter-city travel is generally done via trains and buses, which vary in terms of quality, safety, cost, and reliability.
Pickpockets pose a danger on night trains and in train stations.
Inter-city travel by taxi is much more expensive, and safety depends on the quality of the driver.
Many older taxis are not equipped with seat belts.
To avoid being overcharged, passengers should request the taxi by phone through a reputable company and make sure the taxi has an operational meter or agree upon a price before entering the taxi.
The meter rate per km is posted on both sides of the taxi vehicle.

The host country authority responsible for road safety is the Traffic Police of the Romanian Ministry of Interior.
Emergency roadside help and information may be reached by dialing 9271 for vehicle assistance and towing services.
For ambulance services, fire brigade, or police, dial 112.

Please refer to our Road Safety page and the Bucharest Metropolitan Police Department web site for more information.
Also visit the website of Romania’s national tourist office.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Romania’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Romania’s air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA's web site.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.
In 2005, Romania banned intercountry adoptions except by biological grandparents.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Romania are encouraged to register with the U.S. Embassy through the State Department’s travel registration website, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Romania.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the U.S. Embassy.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy is located at Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9, telephone (40) 21-200-3300.
In emergencies, an after-hours duty officer may be reached by calling (40) 21-200-3433.
Consular services for U.S. citizens are performed at the Consular Section located at Strada Filipescu 26 (formerly Strada Snagov), one block from the U.S. Embassy at the corner of Strada Batistei.
The Consular Section can be reached through the Embassy operator at (40) 21-200-3300, and faxes can be sent to (40) 21 200-3381 or 200-3578.
*

*

*
This replaces the Country Specific Information sheet dated July 18, 2008 to update the information on Safety and Security, Crime, Traffic Safety and Road Conditions, Special Circumstances, and Disaster Preparedness.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Mon, 27 Apr 2020 15:21:52 +0200 (METDST)

Bucharest, April 27, 2020 (AFP) - Schools, kindergartens and universities will remain closed in Romania for the rest of the academic year because of the novel coronavirus pandemic, President Klaus Iohannis said Monday, with a re-opening planned for September.   "We gave up on the idea of reopening schools. It would be impossible, for example, for students to respect social distancing rules, so we are trying to avoid major risks," Iohannis said during a televised speech.

An exception will be made for students in the final year of primary and secondary schools who, for ten days in June, will be allowed to attend classes in order to prepare for final exams.   Over the coming months, instead of going to school students will continue to take part in distance learning programmes.   Education Minister Monica Anisie decided last week that online classes be made compulsory, a measure criticised by students' associations.   "Hundreds of thousands of students don't have access to digital instruments and cannot take part in online classes," the National Council of Students said in a statement, calling the measure "discriminatory".

Romania is one of the poorest countries in the European Union, with 38 percent of children at risk of social exclusion and poverty, according to Eurostat.   The country has so far reported 11,339 infections of the new coronavirus, and 631 deaths.   Two months after it was brought in, the country's state of emergency will be lifted on May 15, when restrictions on movement will end, but wearing a face mask will become mandatory on public transport and in other enclosed public spaces.
Date: Wed, 22 Apr 2020 15:26:20 +0200 (METDST)

Bucharest, April 22, 2020 (AFP) - Romania will make wearing masks in public transport and other enclosed public spaces compulsory from May 15 when a lockdown imposed to stop the new coronavirus's spread is lifted, its president said Wednesday.    "Maybe we'll be able to give up wearing masks next year, when this pandemic will be under control," Klaus Iohannis said as he appeared on camera wearing a mask.

Movement restrictions introduced as part of a state of emergency will be lifted, Iohannis added, though mass gatherings remain banned.   "We will move more freely, but life won't return to the normalcy we knew before this pandemic," Iohannis said.   "We must find a way to live with this virus... So while some measures will be relaxed, the personal responsibility of each of us will grow," he added.

Romania has reported more than 9,700 cases of new coronavirus infections so far with 512 deaths.   On April 14, the EU member of almost 20 million people extended its nationwide lockdown for another month in a bid to slow the virus's spread.    Under the restrictions enforced by the police and the army, citizens are banned from going outside except for work and essential shopping during the day.    Schools have been closed and most foreigners are barred from entering the country.
Date: Tue, 7 Apr 2020 13:46:16 +0200 (METDST)

Bucharest, April 7, 2020 (AFP) - A Romanian maternity unit was being investigated on Tuesday after 10 new-borns tested positive for the novel coronavirus, with the suspicion they contracted the virus from healthcare staff.   "The mothers tested negative, but the babies tested positive so we have to consider their contacts with medical staff," Health Minister Nelu Tataru said in an interview with the Antena 3 TV station late on Monday.   The babies have no symptoms and all but one of them, together with their mothers, have gone into self-isolation at home.   Tataru pointed to the "failures in the activities of both maternity officials and the local public health directorate (DSP)" and promised severe measures if necessary.

The local DSP chief has already been dismissed.    "For the past two days I have felt like I am living in a horror film," one of the mothers told the local pressalert.ro website.    "The staff were not wearing masks," she said, adding that the mothers had heard on Wednesday through unofficial channels that there was a case of coronavirus in the hospital.   "On Thursday the hospital was disinfected with us inside," she said.   The unit in the western Romanian city of Timisoara was briefly placed under quarantine on March 31 but was reopened the next day on the orders of the local DSP, which insisted at the time that there was "no risk of infection for patients or doctors" even though 13 members of staff had already tested
positive.

The latest case adds to worries about how Romania's system is coping with the epidemic.    Medical staff have spoken out in recent weeks over insufficient equipment for those on the frontline.   There are more than 4,400 confirmed cases in Romania so far and 180 people have died.    Around 700 of those infected are healthcare workers.
Date: Sat, 21 Mar 2020 23:05:17 +0100 (MET)

Bucharest, March 21, 2020 (AFP) - Romania's government barred most foreigners from entering the country on Saturday and tightened restrictions on movement inside the country to try to limit the spread of the new coronavirus.   "Foreign citizens and stateless persons are banned from entering Romania through all border points," Interior Minister Marcel Vela said during a national address.

Exceptions would be allowed for those transiting through Romania using corridors to be agreed with neighbouring states, he added.   Vela cited the example of neighbouring Hungary, which this week also barred entry to foreign nationals but has allowed Romanians returning from Western Europe to transit its territory.

Exceptions to the new ban will also be made for diplomats, people who need to travel for work purposes, those who have immediate Romanian family and those in humanitarian need.   The government also announced further restrictions to those adopted after President Klaus Iohannis declared a state of emergency on Monday.

As of Saturday evening, dental clinics were closed, people were forbidden to attend church services and any public gathering of more than three people was also forbidden.   Weddings and funerals are to be limited to eight people.   Between 10:00 pm and 6:00 am people are not to leave the house unless necessary for work reasons.   Romania has confirmed 367 cases of the novel coronavirus, but has so far reported no deaths.
Date: Wed, 26 Feb 2020 23:18:10 +0100 (MET)

Bucharest, Feb 26, 2020 (AFP) - Romania reported its first confirmed case of the novel coronavirus on Wednesday -- a man who was in contact with an Italian who visited the country last week.    "The patient, who is in good health and is showing no symptoms, will be transferred to Bucharest's hospital of infectious diseases," Health Minister Victor Costache told a press conference.

Seven other people who live at the same address as the man in the south-eastern Gorj county have all tested negative but will be quarantined for 14 days as a precaution, emergency department official Raed Arafat said.   The Italian believed to be the source of Romania's first diagnosis tested positive for the deadly virus upon returning to Italy after a four-day visit to Gorj.

New cases have been emerging across Europe, many linked to the continent's coronavirus hotspot in northern Italy.    Several governments have advised against travel to Italy, which has now recorded 400 cases and 12 deaths.   The COVID-19 outbreak has killed over 2,700 people and infected more than 80,000 in 34 countries, although the vast majority of cases remain in China, according to the World Health Organization.
More ...

World Travel News Headlines

Date: Tue, 19 May 2020 16:23:23 +0200 (METDST)

Dublin, May 19, 2020 (AFP) - This year's Dublin marathon scheduled for October 25 was cancelled on Tuesday despite Ireland's move to lift coronavirus lockdown measures, indicating potential long-term disruption caused by the outbreak.   Ireland plans to have fully lifted restrictions well before October, in a staggered process that began on Monday.   But organisers indicated the race -- which had 22,500 entrants last year -- would still not go ahead because of safety fears.   "We made the difficult decision in the best interest of the health and well-being of all those involved in making our events such a success from runners, supporters, volunteers, sponsors, to suppliers," said race director Jim Aughney.   "We explored many alternatives for running the events safely but ultimately none were viable."    Ireland's five-stage "roadmap" to reopen the nation is due to be completed in August, when the current ban on mass gatherings of more than 5,000 people is set to expire.   The cancellation suggests coronavirus fallout may last longer than suggested by official plans and could hit similar events.

The London Marathon, which attracts tens of thousands of runners, has been postponed until October 4.    "We need to be aware that we will continue to be in the acute emergency phase of this crisis for some time with further waves an ever present danger," the health department Secretary-General Jim Breslin told a special parliamentary committee on the crisis.   "This is not a one, a two or even a three-day storm, after which we move to a recovery phase. The acute phase of this crisis will definitely be measured in months and most probably in years."   Ireland has suffered 1,547 deaths from COVID-19, according to the department of health.   On Monday the number of daily deaths had fallen from a peak of 77 to just four.   "We have suppressed the virus and limited its impact on public health," said chief medical officer Tony Holohan on Monday.   "We need to sustain this in the weeks and phases ahead."
Date: Mon, 18 May 2020 18:54:14 +0200 (METDST)

Paris, May 18, 2020 (AFP) - Air France said Monday it hoped to double the number of cities it serves, including over 40 European destinations, by the end of June as nations begin to lift coronavirus travel restrictions.   "Between now and the end of June and subject to travel restrictions being lifted, Air France plans to gradually resume its flights,"  the airline said.   Like other airlines, Air France grounded most of its planes as governments imposed stay-at-home orders and demand for travel evaporated. 

Air France said it was currently operating between three and five percent of its usual schedule and serving 43 destinations for essential passenger traffic as well as cargo.   The airline, which received a 7-billion-euro rescue package from the French government, listed more than 90 destinations it hopes to serve by the end of June.   That would be equivalent to 15 percent of its normal schedule, and use 75 of its fleet of 224 aircraft.
Date: Mon, 18 May 2020 18:20:03 +0200 (METDST)

Abuja, May 18, 2020 (AFP) - Nigeria's government on Monday extended a coronavirus lockdown on the northern region of Kano after it became a hotspot for new infections.    The head of the country's coronavirus taskforce, Boss Mustapha, said the lockdown on the economic hub -- which includes Nigeria's second biggest city -- would be prolonged for two weeks.    The authorities will also start to impose "precision" lockdowns in any other areas that report a "rapidly increasing number of cases, when the need arises", he said.    The outbreak in Kano has become a major cause of concern after medics and residents last month began reporting a spike in deaths.

Regional officials at first put the "unexplained" fatalities down to other ailments, but government investigators later said coronavirus was suspected in most cases.    Neighbouring states to Kano have also begun reporting suspicious surges in death tolls that authorities are scrambling to investigate.    Nigeria has confirmed 5,959 infections and 182 deaths from the novel coronavirus across the country.    Kano is the second hardest hit region with 825 confirmed cases and 36 fatalities.   The region has already been under lockdown for a month but enforcement has been lax and measures have been eased sporadically for people to buy food during the Muslim holy month of Ramadan.

Testing has been a key problem across Nigeria and only 35,345 samples have so far been screened in Africa's most populous nation of 200 million people.    Mustapha insisted there had been a slowdown in the transmission rate of the virus, "elongating the doubling time" from seven to 11 days.    But he announced that measures would remain in place limiting businesses and restricting crowds across the rest of the country despite earlier plans to gradually roll them back.     "Nigeria is not yet ready for full opening of the economy and tough decisions have to be taken for the good of the greater majority," he said.   The government has also imposed a night-time curfew and made mask wearing mandatory in all regions.     Mustapha complained that "non-compliance was rampant" with social distancing measures.     "The fight against COVID-19 is long-term as the virus is not likely to go away very soon," he said.
Date: Mon, 18 May 2020 17:21:58 +0200 (METDST)

Stockholm, May 18, 2020 (AFP) - Sweden, whose softer approach to the new coronavirus pandemic has garnered worldwide attention, recorded its deadliest month in almost three decades in April, according to statistics released on Monday.   Sweden has stopped short of introducing the restrictive lockdowns seen elsewhere in Europe, instead opting for an approach based on the "principle of responsibility".

The Scandinavian country has kept schools open for children under the age of 16, along with cafes, bars, restaurants and businesses, and urged people to respect social distancing guidelines.   A total of 10,458 deaths were recorded in the country of 10.3 million inhabitants in April, Statistics Sweden said.   "We have to go back to December 1993 to find more dead during a single month," Tomas Johansson, population statistician at Statistics Sweden, said in a statement.

In total, 97,008 deaths were recorded in Sweden during the whole of 1993, which in turn was the deadliest year since 1918, when the Spanish flu pandemic ravaged the country.   Johansson told AFP there was no official breakdown explaining the high death toll in December 1993 but said there was a flu epidemic at the time.   According to preliminary data, the number of deaths has been on the decline since the end of April, including in Stockholm -- the epicentre of the Swedish epidemic -- where the highest number of deaths were recorded in early April.

The Swedish approach to the novel coronavisrus has come under criticism both at home and abroad, particularly as the number of deaths has far exceeded those in neighbouring Nordic countries, which have all imposed more restrictive containment measures.   On Monday, Sweden reported a total of 30,377 confirmed cased of the new coronavirus and 3,698 deaths.
Date: Mon, 18 May 2020 16:52:05 +0200 (METDST)

Helsinki, May 18, 2020 (AFP) - Finland's national airline will restart routes between Europe and Asia in July once countries begin to lift coronavirus restrictions on travel, the company announced on Monday.   Beijing and Shanghai will be the first long-haul destinations to reopen, alongside Hong Kong, Seoul, Singapore, Bangkok and three Japanese routes, Finnair said in a statement.

Flights to Delhi and New York will follow in August.    The move makes Finnair one of the first European carriers to restart intercontinental flights, after the Lufthansa Group announced on Friday it would resume 19 long-haul routes by early June.   "We expect aviation to recover gradually, starting in July," Finnair chief commercial officer Ole Orver said in a statement, adding that the company intends to bring its operations back to one-third of normal capacity.

Finnair cut 90 percent of its flights on April 1 and issued a profit warning as coronavirus restrictions brought international passenger travel almost to a standstill.     Facemasks will be mandatory on all Finnair flights "until at least the end of August," Finnair spokeswoman Paivyt Tallqvist told AFP.     "We have also taken a number of steps to avoid unnecessary movement on board," Tallqvist said, including having passengers disembark in smaller groups, and limiting capacity of shuttle bus transport between aircraft and the terminal to 50 percent.

Flights along the so-called "shorter northern route" between Helsinki and Asia, bypassing the Middle East, have been a key part of the Finnish carrier's growth strategy in recent years, with passenger numbers on its Asian routes doubling between 2010 and 2018.    On Monday, Finnair also announced it would restart 26 European routes in July, including to Brussels, Moscow, Prague and Paris.    Destinations including Rome, Madrid and Warsaw would be added in August, the firm said.     Finnair said it would open further routes on a monthly basis depending on demand and how travel restrictions change over the summer.
Date: Mon, 18 May 2020 10:28:18 +0200 (METDST)

Dublin, May 18, 2020 (AFP) - Ireland launched the first tentative step in its plan to lift coronavirus lockdown on Monday, with staff returning to outdoor workplaces as some shops resumed trade and sports facilities unlocked their doors.   The modest tweaks to the restrictions in place since 28 March start a staggered process set to stretch until August.

"I'm both pleased and nervous," health minister Simon Harris told state broadcaster RTE.    "I'm pleased that we've gotten to this point because of the incredible efforts of the Irish people in suppressing this virus."   "I'm nervous because the virus hasn't gone away, there still isn't a vaccine, there's still people in our country getting very sick, and there's still people dying every day."

Shops such as garden centres, hardware stores and farmers markets were permitted to open their doors whilst outdoor staff such as builders and gardeners returned to workplaces.   Football pitches, tennis courts and golf courses were also allowed to resume business whilst maintaining strict social distancing.

Meanwhile citizens were permitted to meet in small gatherings outside of people from different households.   But Harris urged caution as the republic took its first step in trying "to live successfully and safely alongside the virus".   "Just because somewhere is open doesn't mean we need to go," he said.   There have been 1,543 deaths from COVID-19 in Ireland according to the department for health.

Reported daily deaths peaked at 77 on 20 April, but by Sunday the figure had fallen to just 10.   As with other nations officials remain fearful a second wave of infections could inundate the healthcare system.   But Prime minister Leo Varadkar confirmed on Friday that Ireland would press ahead to the first of its five step plan to reopen the nation.   "This gives us reason to hope, but it is not a cause for celebration.  We have a long way to go yet," Varadkar said in a statement.

The fallout of the lockdown changes will be monitored for three weeks before the government decides whether to move to the next stage in the "roadmap" to reopening.   "Coronavirus is an inferno that is raging around the world", said Varadkar.   "In Ireland it is now a fire in retreat but it's not defeated -- we must extinguish every spark."
Date: Sun, 17 May 2020 22:46:20 +0200 (METDST)
By Román ORTEGA, Iván DUARTE y Germán CAMPOS

Puebla, Mexico, May 17, 2020 (AFP) - Scores of Mexicans are dying from drinking adulterated liquor, a consequence of the shortage of mainstream alcoholic beverages during the coronavirus pandemic, authorities say.   The first of at least 121 deaths in recent weeks occurred at the end of April in the western state of Jalisco, almost exactly a month after the government declared a health emergency over the spread of COVID-19.   Much of Mexico has run out of beer after factories producing liquor and beer were shut down, along with other non-essential firms.

Beer stocks were practically depleted within a month, and in some areas the prices of what was left doubled, according to industry sources.    Many of the 53 deaths in central Puebla province have been linked to a wake where people drank moonshine containing methanol -- a wood alcohol that in non-lethal doses can cause blindness and liver damage.    Twenty-three people died in the hours following the gathering in the town of Chiconcuautla, according to authorities.   The town's mayor said the popular "refino" drink, made from sugarcane, had been adulterated.

German Hernandez said his father died after being poisoned by drink known locally as "tejon" -- a blend of brandy with tejocote fruit (a type of hawthorn), in the Puebla town of Cacaloxuchitl.   "They sell it in the stores, and you can buy it and take it out. My father began trembling and feeling weak. He told us he felt bad, and we took him to the hospital," Hernandez told AFP.   "This has never happened before."    Deaths have also been recorded in the central state of Morelos and Yucatan and Veracruz in the east.

- Mafia trade -
Gangs specializing in bootleg booze are trying to take advantage of the lack of alternative alcohol sources during the shutdown.    "They usually have very well-structured mafias, and some escape the surveillance of the authorities," Ricardo Cardenas of the Federal Commission for Protection against Sanitary Risks told AFP.   "We presume that, as a result of this shortage and demand being very high, some people are offering or trying to sell methanol instead of ethyl alcohol," said Denis de Santiago, head of Sanitary Risks in Jalisco.

Methanol is used in fuel, solvents and antifreeze.   The country's largest beer producers, Grupo Modelo -- which makes the popular Corona beer -- and Heineken, which makes Sol, halted production in early April.   Alcohol sales have been banned in some states, including Yucatan. In others, alcoholic beverages can only be purchased at certain times.   Some drinks companies have switched production to antibacterial gel that they are donating to the federal government and health workers.

- 'Who would have thought?' -
In Yucatan, where 38 people have died so far, victims unknowingly drank methanol in their usual "pajaretes" -- a common cocktail that includes milk, coffee, vanilla and brand-name sugarcane alcohol.   Humberto Macias, 36, said he saw three of his relatives die within days of each other after drinking a pajarete cocktail, made using a trusted brand of alcohol.   "We had always drunk it, including myself, many people. Who would have thought it was like this?" Macias said.

In the Yucatan peninsula town of Acanceh, seven people have died from alcohol poisoning.   "It's the first time I've heard of a case like this. I don't remember anything similar," the town's mayor Felipe Medina told AFP.   In Veracruz, Morelos and Yucatan, investigators are still trying to determine what drinks the victims consumed.
Date: Sun, 17 May 2020 19:55:15 +0200 (METDST)
By Gregory WALTON

Doha, May 17, 2020 (AFP) - Qatar on Sunday began enforcing the world's toughest penalties of up to three years' in prison for failing to wear masks in public, in a country with one of the highest coronavirus infection rates.   More than 32,000 people have tested positive for COVID-19 in the tiny Gulf country -- 1.2 percent of the 2.75 million population -- although just 15 people have died.   Only the micro-states of San Marino and the Vatican have had higher per-capita infection rates, according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.   Violators of Qatar's new rules will face up to hree years in jail and fines of as much as $55,000.

Drivers alone in their vehicles are exempt from the requirement, but police erected checkpoints across the capital Doha on Sunday evening to check compliance by motorists.   Most customers gathered outside money lenders on Banks Street wore masks, while others produced a face covering when asked.   "From today it's very strict," said Majeed, a taxi driver waiting for business in the busy pedestrian area, who wore a black mask.   Heloisa, an expat resident, saw the steep penalties as "a bit of a scare tactic".   Wearing a mask is currently mandatory in around 50 countries, although scientists are divided on their effectiveness.

Authorities in Chad have made it an offence to be unmasked in public, on pain of 15 days in prison. In Morocco, similar rules can see violators jailed for three months and fined up to 1,300 dirhams ($130).   Qatari authorities have warned that gatherings during the Muslim fasting month of Ramadan may have increased infections.   Abdullatif al-Khal, co-chair of Qatar's National Pandemic Preparedness Committee, said Thursday that there was "a huge risk in gatherings of families" for Ramadan meals.   "(They) led to a significant increase in the number of infections among Qataris," he said.   Neighbouring Saudi Arabia will enforce a round-the-clock nationwide curfew during the five-day Eid al-Fitr holiday later this month to fight the coronavirus.

- Labourers at risk -
Mosques, along with schools, malls, and restaurants remain closed in Qatar to prevent the disease's spread.   But construction sites remain open as Qatar prepares to host the 2022 World Cup, although foremen and government inspectors are attempting to enforce social distancing rules.    Officials have said workers at three stadiums have tested positive for the highly contagious respiratory virus. Masks have been compulsory for construction workers since April 26.   A 12-strong team of masked labourers kept their distance from one another as they worked under baking sun on a road project in Doha's blue-collar Msheireb district on Sunday.

Tens of thousands of migrant workers were quarantined in Doha's gritty Industrial Area after a number of infections were confirmed there in mid-March, but authorities have begun to ease restrictions.   Khal said that most new cases were among migrant workers, although there has been a jump in infections among Qataris. He said the country had not yet reached the peak of its contagion.   Rights groups have warned that Gulf labourers' cramped living conditions, communal food preparation areas and shared bathrooms could undermine social distancing efforts and speed up the spread of the virus.
Date: Sun, 17 May 2020 13:43:50 +0200 (METDST)

Tehran, May 17, 2020 (AFP) - Iran said Friday it had recorded nearly 7,000 deaths from the novel coronavirus, warning of infection clusters in new regions after it partially eased lockdown measures.   Health ministry spokesman Kianoush Jahanpour said the COVID-19 illness had claimed a further 51 lives over 24 hours into Sunday.   The ministry raised the overall death toll to 6,988 since Iran announced its first fatalities in the Shiite pilgrimage city of Qom in February.   Jahanpour warned that cases were rising "in the province of Lorestan, and to some extent in Kermanshah, Sistan and Baluchistan".   "Khuzestan province is still in a critical situation," he added.

The southwestern province has become Iran's new coronavirus focal point, with the most critical "red" ranking on the country's colour-coded risk scale.   It is the only region so far where authorities have reimposed business lockdowns after a country-wide relaxation in April.   Iran stopped publishing provincial figures for the coronavirus last month, but the health ministry's latest report said there is a "rising trend or the beginning of a peak" in eight provinces, including Khuzestan.   The country on Friday reported its highest number of new infections in more than a month.   A virus taskforce official said Sunday that the increase was due to a surge in testing, not just of COVID-19 patients with severe symptoms.

Early in the outbreak "our focus was on severe cases that had to be hospitalised, but as we started to manage the disease we looked at those infected and not hospitalised," said Ali Akbar Haghdoost, head of the taskforce's epidemiology committee.   "It is possible that the reported number of infections have gone up, but this in no way means more have been infected with COVID-19," he told ISNA news agency.   According to Jahanpour, 1,806 new cases had been confirmed across Iran in the past day, bringing the total to 120,198.   Over 1,460 of the new cases were "outpatients, including those who had been in close contact with the infected," he said.

The ministry said 94,464 people hospitalised with the virus have recovered and been discharged.   Experts both at home and abroad have voiced scepticism about Iran's official figures, saying the real toll could be much higher.   Iran also cancelled rallies held annually in solidarity with the Palestinians, set for Friday next week.    President Hassan Rouhani had said Saturday that the Qods (Jerusalem) Day parades would go ahead with some measures against the virus.    But organisers said Sunday the event could not be held "decently" and would be scrapped apart from a televised speech by the supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei.
Date: Sun, 17 May 2020 13:31:10 +0200 (METDST)

Antananarivo, May 17, 2020 (AFP) - Madagascar on Sunday reported the first death of a patient suffering from novel coronavirus nearly two months after it was first detected in the country, official statistics showed.   The Indian ocean island which has reported 304 cases has hit the headlines over a home-grown herbal concoction that President Andry Rajoelina claims can cure people infected with the virus.

Several African countries have ordered or expressed interest in the purported remedy, which is known as Covid-Organics.   The tonic drink is derived from artemisia -- a plant with proven efficacy in malaria treatment -- and other indigenous herbs.   But the World Health Organization has warned against "adopting a product that has not been taken through tests to see its efficacy".