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Andorra

General
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This small country is situated between France and Spain. Because of its elevation and proximity to the Pyrenees the climate is generally pleasant throughout the year.
Climate
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During the summer months the temperatures can rise to 30c but there is usually a cooling breeze. Lightening storms can occur during the summer months associated with torrential rain.
Sun Exposure and Dehydration
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Those from Northern Europe can develop significant sun exposure and so remember to use a wide brimmed hat when necessary. The altitude can also lead to significant tiredness and dehydration so take sufficient initial rest and drink plenty of fluids.
Safety & Security
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The level of crime throughout the country directed at tourists is very low. Nevertheless take care of your personal belongings at all times and use hotel safety boxes where possible.
Local Customs
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There are strict laws regarding the use of illegal drugs. Make sure you have sufficient supplies of any medication you required for your trip and that it is clearly marked. The European E111 form is not accepted in Andorra and so it is essential that you have sufficient travel insurance for your trip.
Winter Sports
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Andorra is one of the regions where many travel to partake of their winter sport facilities. Generally this is well controlled and one of the safer regions. Nevertheless, make certain your travel insurance is adequate for the activities you are planning to undertake.
Vaccination
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The only standard vaccine to consider for Andorra would be tetanus in line with many other developed countries of the world.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu, 12 Jul 2018 15:24:06 +0200

Andorra la Vella, Andorra, July 12, 2018 (AFP) - The tax haven of Andorra has long been a favourite destination for smokers looking to stock up on cheap cigarettes, but the enclave said Thursday that it would soon stop advertising the fact.   The government said it had signed up to the World Health Organization's (WHO) anti-tobacco convention, which aims to encourage people to quit smoking and combat contraband sales.   "The goal is to contribute to public health and pursue the fight against trafficking," government spokesman Jordi Cinca said at a press conference.

The tiny principality of Andorra, perched in the Pyrenees on the border between France and Spain, attracts millions of shoppers each year to duty-free stores, where prices of alcohol, cigarettes, electronics and clothes can be up to 20 percent cheaper than elsewhere in the EU.   High taxes on tobacco imposed by many countries to help people kick smoking make Andorra's cigarettes a particularly good deal.   The average pack costs just three euros ($3.50) compared with eight euros in France, which has said it will gradually raise the price to 10 euros a pack by November 2020.

Tobacco sales bring in some 110 million euros a year for Andorra, whose economy is otherwise based almost entirely on tourism.   It is also an enticing destination for smugglers, with French and Spanish border agents regularly seizing cartons from people trying to sneak them out, either by car or by hiking down the mountain trails which criss-cross the Pyrenees.   No date has been set for the advertising ban, which will come into effect three months after the ratification of the WHO accord is voted by parliament.
Date: Fri, 16 Mar 2018 02:41:51 +0100

Andorra la Vella, Andorra, March 16, 2018 (AFP) - The tiny principality of Andorra is witnessing a once in a generation phenomenon -- a widespread strike.   Around a third of civil servants across the mountainous micro-state have walked out to protest proposed reforms to their sector in what has been described as Andorra's first large-scale strike since 1933.

With no negotiation breakthrough in sight, picket lines are expected to be manned again on Friday with customs officers, police, teachers and prison staff among those taking part.   The first major strike in 85 years was sparked by plans from the government of Antoni Marti to reform civil servant contracts.   He has assured officials "will not do an hour more" work under the reforms and that 49 million euros would be allocated for the next 25 years to supplement civil servant salaries.   But government workers are unconvinced with unions warning the reforms could risk their 35 hour working week and pay.

Customs officers involved in the strike interrupted traffic on the Andorran-Spanish border this week, according to unions, while some 80 percent of teachers have walked out of classes.   Strikers have occupied the government's main administrative building and held noisy protests outside parliament calling for Marti's resignation.    "We have started collecting signatures to demand the resignation of the head of government and now nobody will stop us," Gabriel Ubach, spokesman for the public service union, told reporters.
Date: Mon 27 Sep 2017
Source: Contagion Live [edited]

A recent Dispatch article published in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Emerging Infectious Diseases journal, offers insight into a large norovirus outbreak that sprung up in Spain in 2016 that had been linked with bottled spring water. The Public Health Agency of Catalonia (ASPCAT) reported a staggering 4136 cases of gastroenteritis from 11-25 Apr 2016. Of the 4136 cases, 6 individuals required hospitalization. The CDC defines a "case-patient" as an "exposed person who had vomiting or diarrhoea (3 or more loose stools within 24 hours)," as well as 2 or more of the following symptoms: nausea, stomach pain, or fever.

ASPCAT investigators traced back the outbreak to contaminated bottled spring water in office water coolers. The water came from a source in Andorra, a small independent principality located between Spain and France. Norovirus is a "very contagious virus," according to the CDC, and it is common for individuals to become infected by eating contaminated food. Although it is possible to be infected by consuming contaminated drinking water, this mode of transmission is "rare in developed countries," according to the article.

The investigators collected water samples from a total of 4 19-L water coolers in 2 different offices located in Barcelona, "from which affected persons had drunk; samples 1 and 2 came from 2 water coolers in one office, while samples 3 and 4 came from 2 water coolers in another office. Using "positively charged glass wool and polyethylene glycol precipitation for virus concentration," the investigators tested the samples.

"We detected high RNA levels for norovirus genotype I and II, around 103 and 104 genome copies/L, in 2 of the 4 water cooler samples concentrated by glass wool filtration and polyethylene glycol precipitation," according to the article. The investigators noted that a drawback of using molecular methods is that they are not able to differentiate between particles that are infectious and those that are not. Therefore, they "predicted the infectivity of norovirus in the concentrated samples by treating the samples with the nucleic acid intercalating dye PMA propidium monoazide and Triton X surfactant before RT-qPCR," which allowed them to "distinguish between virions with intact and altered capsids."

In those 2 water samples, they found high genome copy values -- 49 and 327 genome copies/L for norovirus genotype I and 33 and 660 genomes copies/L for norovirus genotype II. This was not an unexpected finding, due to the large number of infected individuals associated with the outbreak. Through "PMA/Triton treatment before RT-qPCR assays," the investigators found that the proportion of infected virions accounted for 0.3% to 5.6% of the total number of physical particles in the water samples, "which was enough to cause gastrointestinal illness."

The investigators also analyzed faecal samples collected from infected individuals who worked at the office in which the 1st 2 water samples were collected. They detected the following genotypes in those faecal samples: GI.2 and GII.17. In the faecal samples collected from the other office, they isolated the following genotypes: GII.4/Sydney/2012, GI.2, GII.17, and GII.2.

"We hypothesize that the spring water was contaminated by all 4 strains (GI.2, GII.2, GII.4, and GII.17) but levels of viral contamination for each genotype were not homogeneous in all bottled coolers," the investigators wrote. "We may have detected only the GII.4 genotype in water samples 1 and 2 because of a higher concentration of this specific genotype or because of bias caused by the sampling, concentration, and molecular detection procedures."

The investigators admit one limitation to their study: the small number of water samples collected and analyzed. They attribute this to the fact that on 15 Apr 2016, 4 days after the onset of the outbreak, the company that produced the drinking water recalled over 6150 containers of water "of suspected quality" as a precautionary measure. The recall prevented the investigators from collecting more samples to assess, according to the article.

Although the exact cause of the contamination has not yet been identified, the investigators posit that "the high number of affected persons from 381 offices that received water coolers, and the many different genotypes found in some patients' faecal specimens" suggest that the spring aquifer had been contaminated by "sewage pollution," and the Andorra Ministry of Health and Welfare banned further use of the spring.

The investigators suggest that assessing commercially-produced mineral waters for different harmful pathogens, such as norovirus would be beneficial. They note, however, that creating, enhancing, and managing such "virus surveillance systems" would be costly. Thus, the investigators suggest taking a "balanced approach to keep both the cost and the time required for the analyses within feasibility limits."  [Byline: Kristi Rosa]
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[The interesting article published in the September 2017 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases is:
Blanco A, Guix S, Fuster N, et al: Norovirus in bottled water associated with gastroenteritis outbreak, Spain, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017; 23(9): 1531-34; https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/23/9/16-1489_article. - ProMED Mod.LL]

[Catalonia and Andorra can be located on the HealthMap/ProMED-mail map at http://healthmap.org/promed/p/1341. - ProMED Sr.Tech.Ed.MJ]
Date: Thu, 26 Dec 2013 22:25:05 +0100 (MET)

ANDORRA LA VELLA, Andorra, Dec 26, 2013 (AFP) - A Spanish skier and a French snowboarder have died in avalanches in different mountain ranges in Europe, officials said Thursday.

The 27-year-old skier, a woman from Barcelona, died Wednesday while going off-piste alone in the Soldeu resort in Andorra, in the Pyrenees mountains between France and Spain, a resort manager told AFP.   Although she was rescued within 10 minutes, after her glove was spotted on the surface, she was unable to be revived despite a helicopter dash to hospital.

In the Italian Alps, close to the border with France, a 24-year-old Frenchman who was snowboarding with three friends on a closed run died Thursday when an avalanche swept over him in the resort town of Les Arnauds.   Local officials said he succumbed to multiple injuries, asphyxia and hypothermia.

Avalanches are common in Europe's ski resorts at this time of year, when early snows are heavy with moisture, and several deaths occur each winter.   Last Sunday, a 35-year-old Frenchman died in an avalanche in the Alps near the Italian border while on a three-day trek with a friend.
Date: Fri 7 Feb 2003 From: Jaime R. Torres Source: EFE Salud, Thu 6 Feb 2003 (translated by Maria Jacobs) [edited] -------------------------------------------------- Close to 300 students in one school and 173 tourists staying in 7 hotels in the Principality of Andorra have been affected by outbreaks of gastroenteritis that, according to local authorities, are not related to each other. Monica Codina, Minister of Health, stated that the outbreak that has affected almost 300 children and 8 adults in the San Ermengol school was detected last Monday [3 Feb 2003] but that it may have started Wednesday or Thursday of the previous week. The epidemiological surveys of a group of pre-school and grammar school students that may also be affected have not been performed yet. Also pending are the results of the microbiological tests of the food and water served in the school dining room, but the minister has indicated that the probable cause of the outbreak is the fact that water pitchers were filled with hoses directly from the faucet. The Minister stated that this outbreak of gastroenteritis is not related to the one that affected 173 tourists, most of them young people on holiday, who where staying in 7 hotels of the Principality. The government is also investigating the cause of this outbreak and has indicated that an anomaly in the system that supplies water to the hotels was detected, requiring a process of chlorination, which has not been carried out due to the heavy snowfall of the past few days. * * * * * * * * * * [The suspicion that defective water supplies may be responsible for all of these independent outbreaks suggests that the etiologic agent may be an enterovirus, hepatitis A virus, or non-viral, rather than one of the noroviruses associated with sudden-onset viral gastroenteritis. Information on the outcome of diagnostic tests in progress would be welcomed. - ProMed Mod.CP]
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Puerto Rico

No Profile is available at present

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Sun, 15 Mar 2020 23:58:27 +0100 (MET)

San Juan, March 15, 2020 (AFP) - The US territory of Puerto Rico on Sunday ordered a 9:00 pm to 5:00 am curfew to stem the spread of the novel coronavirus, the strongest measure yet taken on American soil.   It took effect immediately and lasts until March 30.   "Faced with the possibility of transmission and propagation of the virus, I have ordered the imposition of a curfew for all residents of Puerto Rico," Governor Wanda Vazquez announced in a video message.   "We must take every precaution to ensure that we do not become potential carriers," Vazquez said.

The Caribbean territory of 2.9 million, whose residents are US citizens, also will close many businesses from Sunday until the end of the month, she said.   That includes malls, movie theaters, concert venues, gyms, bars and other businesses that bring together large crowds on the island popular with tourists.   The exceptions will be businesses in the food supply chain, and in the medical care system, as well as drugstores, gas stations, banks and senior citizens' group homes.

At night, only those who are providing or receiving medical care, or carrying out essential duties, will be allowed to be on Puerto Rico's streets.   Anyone defying the curfew faces a six-month jail term and a fine of up to $5,000.   The island declared a state of emergency when its first cases were reported March 12. The island has reported five cases.   On Friday, Vazquez accepted the resignation of Health Secretary Rafael Rodriguez Mercado, who was under fire for his handling the coronavirus emergency.

Recently, island residents were irate when two warehouses were found to be filled with abandoned supplies, apparently never used after Hurricanes Irma and Maria in 2017.   The storms' one-two punch left Puerto Ricans without power for months and killed nearly 3,000 people, according to the local government's official numbers.   President Donald Trump has accused the Puerto Rican government of incompetence and siphoning off hurricane relief money.   The Puerto Rican leaders accused Trump of treating the population of the island like second class citizens.
Date: Thu, 16 Jan 2020 02:45:27 +0100 (MET)
By Ivelisse RIVERA, con Leila MACOR en Miami

Yauco, Puerto Rico, Jan 16, 2020 (AFP) - Living out in the open, their nerves on edge after a series of earthquakes that have shaken Puerto Rico, some 5,000 people are hoping that their president, Donald Trump, will heed the island's plea to be designated a disaster zone and free up much-needed aid.   Since December 28, more than 1,000 tremors have rattled the US island territory in the Caribbean, which just two years ago was devastated by two powerful hurricanes in quick succession.

In Yauco, one of the areas worst hit by the earthquakes, dozens of people were sitting on cot beds Wednesday in the parking lot of a municipal stadium, sheltered from the sun by white tents and blue tarps handed out by the federal disaster management agency, known as FEMA.  "The most difficult thing is the psychological aspect," said Wilfredo Rodriguez, 31. His house had been fractured by the seismic movement and he has spent a week living with his kids, aged six and 10, under an awning.    "We are living in constant fear of another powerful tremor," he said.

He only returns to his house to wash, then hurries back to the shelter. "We worry that there'll be a more powerful tremor while we are inside the house," he said.   Throughout the day, volunteers arrive to hand out food and toys for the children who fill the shelters: schools have been suspended because the buildings are not sturdy enough to withstand another quake.    The island's earthquake detection system has registered 1,104 tremors in the past two weeks alone, of which 186 could be felt by the population. By comparison, during the whole of 2019 there were 6,442 tremors, of which just 62 could be felt by people on the island.

Further south, in Guanico, Juan Santiago decided to move into a shelter on Saturday after a tremor of 5.9 on the Richter scale hit the island. "The mountain shook and rocks and earth started to come down," said the 30-year-old.  "My house has a crack in it and is about to fall down," he added. His home had weathered the Category Five winds of Hurricane Maria in September 2017 and of Hurricane Irma which followed it just two weeks later.   "It's different to a hurricane. What is happening now is much nastier," he said.

As he was talking the earth shook again, a tremor of 5.2 magnitude. Vehicles rocked like hammocks in the wind, but the quake-hardened victims barely reacted.   The houses in this part of the island are mostly rudimentary constructions built by the people who live in them with scant resources available in the mountains, where no regulations stipulate that buildings should be earthquake resistant.    The government of Puerto Rico said that as of Monday, there were 4,924 people living in 28 shelters in 14 municipalities. There were no figures on how many buildings had been damaged or destroyed.

- Seeking disaster designation -
Puerto Rico's governor Wanda Vazquez Garced called on Trump to declare the earthquake a disaster and clear the way for desperately needed aid. Trump had declared an emergency days before, but the governor wanted more.   The declaration of an emergency frees up to $5 million dollars in aid for the island, although Congress can bump that figure up. But if the situation is designated a disaster, there is no ceiling on funding, a FEMA spokesman said.   On Wednesday, the government said it would release $8.2 billion in delayed hurricane relief that had been stalled after the president threatened to divert Puerto Rico's emergency funds to help pay for his wall on the US-Mexico border.

In the past few days there have been growing calls among Democratic lawmakers for Trump to declare the situation in Puerto Rico a disaster.   It is a delicate subject, as Trump has accused the government of Puerto Rico of incompetence and of siphoning off hurricane relief money, triggering a public spat between the president and the mayor of San Juan, Carmen Yulin Cruz, as well as the former governor Ricardo Rossello, who was forced to step down last summer amid massive protests.   The Puerto Rican leaders accused Trump of treating the population of the island like second class citizens.
Date: Sat, 11 Jan 2020 15:43:12 +0100 (MET)

Washington, Jan 11, 2020 (AFP) - A 5.9 magnitude earthquake rocked Puerto Rico Saturday, the latest in a series of powerful tremors that have shaken the US territory in recent days, the US Geological Survey reported.

The latest quake occurred at 8:54 am local time (1254 GMT) around 13 kilometres (eight miles) southeast of Guanica, a town on the island's southern Caribbean coastline that was hard hit by earlier quakes.   The USGS revised its initial report of a 6.0 magnitude quake to 5.9.   It follows a 6.4 magnitude quake Tuesday that killed one person, knocked
out electric power and caused widespread damage.

Puerto Rico Governor Wanda Vazquez declared a state of emergency after Tuesday's quake, which forced an automatic shutdown of the power grid.    Puerto Rico's electric power authority reported outages in the towns of Ponce, Lares, Adjuntas and San German after the latest quake.   The Pacific Tsunami Information Center in Hawaii issued a statement saying there was "no significant tsunami threat" but a small possibility of tsunami waves along coasts nearest the epicentre.

The island is still recovering from Hurricane Maria, which came ashore more than two years ago as a devastating Category 4 storm.   Starting December 28, a wave of tremors have swept the island, putting residents on edge.   The 6.4 quake on January 7 came a day after a 5.8 magnitude quake; it was followed by major aftershocks.   Saturday's quakes were also preceded by a string of smaller tremors.
Date: Tue, 7 Jan 2020 23:44:45 +0100 (MET)
By Ricardo Arduengo

Guayanilla, Puerto Rico, Jan 7, 2020 (AFP) - Puerto Rico's governor declared a state of emergency on Tuesday after a powerful 6.4 magnitude earthquake killed at least one person in the south of the island and caused widespread damage.   Governor Wanda Vazquez said the declaration would allow for the activation of National Guard troops in the US territory still recovering from a devastating 2017 hurricane.   The US Geological Survey said the quake struck at 4:24 am (0824 GMT) with the epicenter off the coast of the southern city of Ponce, and was followed by more than a dozen aftershocks.

Tuesday's quake was the most powerful in a series of tremors that have shaken the island since December 28.   Scientists initially sent out an alert about a potential tsunami but it was later canceled.   The island's electricity authority said the quake had forced an automatic shutdown of the power grid, already severely damaged by Hurricane Maria more than two years ago.   The worst damage appeared to be in towns on the southwest coast, including Ponce, Guayanilla and Guanica.   El Nuevo Dia newspaper said a 73-year-old man died after a wall fell in his home in Ponce. Eight others there were reported injured.

Two power plants in Guayanilla sustained major damage, the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority said. The city could be without power for two weeks, its mayor Nelson Torres Yordan said.   Celebrity chef Jose Andres announced that a charity he runs, World Central Kitchen, had started serving meals and distributing solar-powered lamps in quake-hit areas.   Vazquez announced that $130 million in emergency aid funding will be disbursed.   On social media, people wrote of being shaken awake by the force of the quake.   One woman on Twitter said she had been "wrenched from sleep."   "Everybody is awake & scared all over," she posted.   In Guayanilla, the Inmaculada Concepcion church, built in 1841, was heavily damaged.   Volunteers salvaged statues and other valuable items from the ruins as a priest consoled distraught parishioners.

- 'Be safe' -
A 5.8 magnitude quake on Monday toppled some structures, caused power outages and small landslides, but did not result in any casualties.   It also destroyed a popular tourist landmark, Punta Ventana, a natural stone arch that crumbled on the island's southern coast.   Vazquez, the governor, said government employees were being given the day off on Tuesday to take care of their families.   "We want everyone to be safe," she said.   She said ports were undamaged and there are several weeks' supply of gasoline, diesel and natural gas stored so people need not worry about shortages.

The White House said President Donald Trump had been briefed and Pete Gaynor, head of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), had been in touch with the governor.   Trump's administration came under severe criticism for its response to Hurricane Maria.   The Category 4 storm destroyed the island's already shaky power grid, overwhelmed public services, left many residents homeless and claimed several thousand lives, according to government estimates.
Date: Tue, 7 Jan 2020 12:52:34 +0100 (MET)

Washington, Jan 7, 2020 (AFP) - A strong earthquake struck south of Puerto Rico early Tuesday, the US Geological Survey said, the latest in a series of tremors that have shaken the island since December 28.   The shallow 6.5 magnitude quake struck 13.6 kilometres (8.5 miles) south of the city of Ponce, the USGS said, revising down its initial reading of 6.6.   The quake struck just off the US territory's southern Caribbean coastline at 4:24 am local time (0824 GMT).   "The whole island is without power," the director of Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, Jose Ortiz, told local media.

Puerto Rico's governor Wanda Vazquez Garced posted on Twitter that the government's security protocols had been activated.   She said government employees were not expected at work, adding: "We want everyone to be safe."   On social media, people wrote of being shaken awake by the force of the quake.   One woman on Twitter said she had been "wrenched from sleep", adding "Everybody is awake & scared all over."

Dramatic images also shared on social media appeared to show widespread damage in the town of Guayanilla, home to around 20,000 people, as well as nearby Guanica.   The mayor of Guayanilla told local news channel NotiUno that the town's church had collapsed in the incident.

An alert issued by the Tsunami Warning Center immediately following the earthquake was later cancelled.   Tuesday's quake was the strongest of a series of tremors that have shaken the island since December 28, topping Monday's 5.8 quake.   That earthquake toppled houses and caused power outages, but there were no reports of casualties.
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Samoa

General:
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Cuba is an independent island country situated in the Caribbean. It is the largest of the islands and covers 42,000sq miles. The climate is sub tropical throughout the year with most of the rainfall in
the northern parts of the country. Temperatures of between 20C to 35C are fairly standard throughout the year. Generally the winter effects of the American continent only last for short periods.
Safety & Security:
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The majority of tourists visiting Cuba will have no difficulty but bag snatching and other street crime appears to be increasing. The old Havana area and other major tourist resorts may be particular areas of concern in this regard. On arrival be careful to only use your recognised tour operator. If you are taking a taxi at any stage make sure it is a registered one and not a private vehicle. It is unwise to carry large quantities of money or jewellery away from your hotel and try not to flaunt wealth with your belongings. Pickpockets are too common an occurrence on buses and trains and at train stations so be careful with your essential documents and credit cards. Valuables should not be stored in suitcases when arriving in or departing from Havana as there have been a number of thefts from cases during the time the cases are coming through baggage handling. There is an airport shrink-wrap facility for those departing Havana which reduces the risk of tampering. Remember to carry a photocopy of your main documents (passport, flight tickets etc).
Road Safety:
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Following a number of serious road accidents involving tourists, you are advised not to use mopeds for travelling around Cuba or in Havana. Also, if you are involved in any accident a police investigation will be required to clear you and this may significantly delay your travel plans. On unlit roads at night there have been a number of accidents associated with roaming cattle (sounds like Ireland!). The traffic moves on the right side of the roads. There is a main highway running the length of the country but many of the country roads are in poor repair.
Local Laws & Customs:
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When arriving into Cuba make sure you are not carrying any items which could be considered offensive. Any illicit drug offense is treated very seriously and Cuban law allows for the death penalty to be used under these circumstances. If you require personal medication for your health, make sure it is in original packing and carry a letter from your doctor describing the medication. Never agree to carry any item for another individual and always secure your cases once they are packed. Taking photographs of military or police installations or around harbours, rail and airport facilities is strictly forbidden.

Currency:
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Since 1993 it is now possible to use US dollars for all transactions within Cuba. Remember, there is a 20$ airport departure tax. Certain travellers cheques and credit cards may not be acceptable within Cuba. This is particularly true of American Express cheques and cards but check your situation with the travel operator before departure.
Health Facilities:
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Generally healthcare facilities outside of Havana are limited and many standard medications may not be available. It is important to carry sufficient quantities of any medications which may be required for the duration of your time in Cuba.
Food & Water:
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The level of food and water hygiene varies throughout the country and between resorts. On arrival check the hotel cold water supply for the smell of chlorine. If it is not present then use sealed bottled water for both drinking and brushing your teeth throughout your stay. Cans and bottles of drinks are safe but take care to avoid pre-cut fruit. Peel it yourself to make sure it is not contaminated. Food from street vendors should be avoided in most cases. Bivalve shellfish are also a high risk food in many countries and Cuba is no exception in this regard. (Eg Mussels, Oysters, Clams etc)
Malaria & Mosquito Borne Diseases:
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Malaria transmission does not occur within Cuba and so prophylaxis is not required. However, a different mosquito borne disease called Dengue has begun to reoccur in the country over the past few years. This viral disease can be very sickening and even progress to death. It is rare for tourists to become infected but avoiding mosquito bites is a wise precaution.
Swimming, Sun & Dehydration:
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The extent of the Cuban sun (particular during the summer months (April to October) can be very excessive so make sure your head and shoulders are covered at all times when exposed. Watch children carefully as they will be a significant risk. Drink plenty of fluids to replace what will be lost through perspiration and, unless there is a reason not to,
take extra salt either on your food or in crisps, peanuts etc. Take care if swimming in the Caribbean to stay with others and to listen to local advice. Never swim after a heavy meal or alcohol.
Rabies Risk in Cuba:
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This viral disease does occur throughout Cuba and it is essential that you avoid any contact with all warm blooded animals. Dogs, cats and monkeys are the most commonly involved in spreading the disease to humans. Don't pick up a monkey for a photograph! If bitten, wash out the wound, apply an antiseptic and seek urgent medical attention.
Vaccinations for Cuba:
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There are no essential vaccines for entry / exit if coming from Ireland. However, for your own personal protection travellers are advised to have cover against the following;
*
Tetanus (childhood booster)
*
Typhoid (food & water borne disease)
*
Hepatitis A (food & water borne disease)
For those planning a longer or more rural trip vaccine cover against conditions like Hepatitis B and Rabies may also need to be considered.
Summary:
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Cuba is becoming a popular destination for tourists and generally most will stay very healthy. However commonsense care against food and water borne disease is essential at all times. Also take care with regard to sun exposure, dehydration and mosquito bites.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Tue 4 Feb 2020
Source: Samoa News [abridged, edited]

While there are no new laboratory-confirmed measles cases for American Samoa as of 1 Feb [2020], health officials are awaiting results of one suspected case sent to the Hawaii state lab. This was the latest update provided by the health department and LBJ Medical Center during a cabinet briefing late on Sunday afternoon [2 Feb 2020] on the new coronavirus and measles outbreaks.

Based on data shared by the Samoa Ministry of Health, the department of health [DoH] informed cabinet members that numbers remain the same for measles cases in the independent state since the last briefing on 26 Jan [2020], with 5707 total cases and 83 deaths.

For American Samoa, DoH's Dr Saipale Fuimaono said that as of 2 Feb [2020], the total number of confirmed laboratory cases remain at 15, which is the same from the 26 Jan [2020] briefing. He added that there is one pending case, for which a sample was sent to the Hawaii laboratory for testing.

Data provided by LBJ shows that the suspected case is a female, 24, from Falenui, who was born in American Samoa with no travel history outside of the territory. The person has had the 1st MMR shot. She was seen at the hospital with a rash on her forehead accompanied by a fever and cough. She was treated and released the same day while swabs were taken and sent to Hawaii.

LBJ's Dr Annie Fuavai said if the results come back negative, the person will be given the 2nd MMR shot. As with previous suspected and confirmed cases, DoH carried out the usual contact tracing, checking on those who came in contact with the individual.

DoH also provided the latest update on its MMR overall coverage for both public and private schools as well as day-care centres. As of 1 Feb [2020], a total of 99.7% of children 12 years and older have been given the 1st MMR dose, leaving only 0.3% -- or 44 children -- needing shots.

For students 14 years and older who have received the 2 MMR shots, the percentage has reached 98.4%, leaving 1.6% -- or 208 [students] -- needing the 2nd MMR dose. Of those needing to complete the 2 MMR doses, 83 students are in public elementary schools and 72 attend private elementary schools. For high schools, 34 students in the public education system and 12 in private schools still need to get the 2nd MMR shot.

Education director Dr Ruth Matagi-Tofiga requested that DoH re-check their records for public schools, saying there may be cases of students who have already received both doses but are not properly recorded, as well as students who moved off island.

Governor Lolo Matalasi Moliga reiterated what he had said in previous briefings: ensure all students get their required immunization shots, especially the 44 who are required to get the 1st MMR dose. According to DoH, medical staff will carry out school visits again this week from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. to update immunization records. DoH this week also continues vaccinations at the same 5 sites as last week.

DoH data on border control for the Pago Pago International Airport shows that 15 passengers were denied entry between 27 Jan and 1 Feb [2020]. There was no explanation on whether the denied entries were passengers from Samoa or Hawaiian Airlines. At the conclusion of the briefing, Lolo said there are no changes to current policies implemented to address both the measles and coronavirus.  [byline: Fili Sagapolutele]
=====================
[This is good news, as the outbreak appears to be basically over, and the vaccination campaign is continuing. - ProMED Mod.LK]
Date: Thu 30 Jan 2020
Source: Kealaka'i [abridged, edited]

Measles continues to spread like wildfire through Samoa, with about 50 cases being reported per day, according to the official Government of Samoa Twitter. The number of dead, as of 14 Dec [2019] is 72, with more than 5200 people sick. Most of the dead are children. BYU-Hawaii professors said much of the problem comes from low vaccination rates, caused by fear and misinformation being spread throughout the Pacific.

Colby Weeks, assistant professor of science, added, "There are thousands of people who are horribly sick and going to the hospitals, putting a massive strain on the healthcare system. This is imminently avoidable because of the healthcare system. Headlines always say deaths, but there is a lot more going on than those individuals. Pick the easiest route and get vaccinated."

Line Kruse, a special instructor, explained the situation is occurring all across Oceania, but it is worst in Samoa. "There is an epidemic in Samoa. There have also been measles reported by the World Health Organization and UNICEF in New Zealand, Australia, Tonga, and Fiji.

"It has been declared a state of emergency in the Kingdom of Tonga, the Republic of the Fiji Islands, and Samoa. Samoa, however, is the only country in Oceania, as of this entire year [2019], that has this many reported deaths."

Akanoa shared the death toll is so high in Samoa because their vaccination rate is much lower than the other Pacific Islands. "This is due to a lack of understanding with parents about how important it is to vaccinate your children. There are still people out there who don't believe in vaccination. With this outbreak, we know it is the only solution."

According to one NPR article, the vaccination rate dropped from 58% in 2018 to 31% in 2019. The situation has become urgent, and unvaccinated homes are being marked with red flags as part of a mass door-to-door vaccination campaign by the government.

"People also rely heavily on their faith," shared Akanoa. "When things like this happen, they have this really great faith Heavenly Father will not let anything worse happen. When children started dying, they finally realize that maybe God wants them to do something about it."

Kruse said, "The government of Samoa has gone through several series of responses to the measles epidemic. They started to mandate vaccinations, but as of 5 and 6 Dec [2019], they have shut down the government. They have shut down roads. They have shut down public gatherings."

One purpose of the government shutdown, said Akanoa, is because "all the government workers in the public sector are going out to help with vaccinations and to assist families."

The biggest argument of anti-vaccination supporters in Oceania, or anti-vaxxers, according to Kruse, is that vaccinations made in India, which is where most Oceanic countries get their vaccinations, are lower quality than European-made vaccines.

"The anti-vaxxers are trying to create this false narrative that [vaccines] from India are bad for you, which is very Eurocentric and downright racist ... It is reckless because there are no scientific journals that validate any deaths attributed to manufacture vaccines from India," she explained.

One anti-vaxxer on Twitter wrote, "Talking with friends. Most are pro-vax, but none of them want to harm their children with this Indian vaccine. People are really going to be hiding their children in the attic to protect them from the government." He attached a screenshot of a text saying, "I'd rather infect my kids with measles than inject them with those cheap Indian vaccines."

The anti-vaccination sentiment came right on the heels of a tragic mix-up in vaccines in Samoa in 2018, said both Akanoa and Kruse. The vaccine, which is supposed to be mixed with water, was combined with muscle relaxer by 2 nurses in Samoa, explained Kruse. Two young children were killed.

"Parents were afraid to take their kids to get the vaccination," shared Akanoa. "[Parents] hear horror stories and freak out."

According to Kruse, another unfortunate side effect of disasters like this is that charlatans, or people who use deception to obtain money from people, begin to appear. One such man, Fritz Alai'asa, showed up during the measles epidemic.

"A man has come into Samoa and set up shop," she shared. "Kangen water is what he had said is going to cure them. 'Pay me 10 tala [WST 10 / USD 3.68]. Bring your family,' he says. So, the family comes, and hegets this Kangen water, this alkaline water, and he sprinkles it on them."  [Byline: Haeley van der Werf]
Date: Tue 7 Jan 2020
Source: Xinhuanet [abridged, edited]

Samoa's Ministry of Health confirmed on Tuesday [7 Jan 2020] 2 more deaths in the island nation's measles epidemic, bringing the death toll to 83 since the measles outbreak in mid-October [2019]. The Samoan Ministry of Health said that the 2 fatalities, an infant and [an] adult, died between 29 Dec last year [2019] and 5 Jan this year [2020].

A total of 5697 measles cases have been reported to the Disease Surveillance Team so far, with 30 new cases recorded during the same period. A total of 16 people with measles are currently hospitalized in the island nation, including 4 critically ill children.

Currently, there are no travel restrictions or vaccination requirement for those travelling to Samoa.

With the latest measles case, the reopening of day-care centres in Samoa has now been delayed until next week, but public schools will resume on Tuesday [7 Jan 2020] as planned. Death may occur in up to 5-10% of infected young children in developing countries.
Date: Thu, 5 Dec 2019 00:51:07 +0100 (MET)
By Neil SANDS

Wellington, Dec 4, 2019 (AFP) - Samoa entered a two-day lockdown Thursday as authorities launched an unprecedented mass vaccination campaign to contain a deadly measles outbreak that has devastated the Pacific island nation.   Officials ordered all businesses and non-essential government services to close, shut down inter-island ferry services and told private cars to keep off the roads.

Residents were advised to stay in their homes and display a red flag if they were not yet immunised as hundreds of vaccination teams fanned out across the nation of 200,000 in the early hours of the morning.   The operation, carried out under emergency powers invoked as the epidemic took hold last month, is a desperate bid to halt an inexorably rising death toll that reached 62 on Thursday, most of them young children.   "I've seen mass mobilisation campaigns before, but not over an entire country like this," UNICEF's Pacific island chief Sheldon Yett told AFP.   "That's what we're doing right now. This entire country is being vaccinated."

Immunisation rates in Samoa were about 30 percent before the outbreak and have risen to more than 55 percent since a compulsory mass vaccination campaign began a fortnight ago.   Yett said the aim of this week's two-day drive was to push the rate above 90 percent, which should help curb the current outbreak and stop future epidemics.   He said the normally busy streets of the capital Apia were almost deserted early Thursday.   "It's very, very quiet out here. I can just hear a few barking dogs. The streets are empty. There are no cars," he said.   "People are staying at home waiting for the vaccination campaign. The teams are getting their supplies together and getting ready to go out."   Even Prime Minister Tuilaepa Sailele Malielegaoi's residence had a red flag fluttering outside it, with the leader saying his nephew had recently arrived from Australia and needed a measles shot.

Malielegaoi said he was angered by anecdotal reports that some parents were encouraging their children to hide from the vaccination teams to avoid the mandatory immunisation injection.    "The message is that we have vaccinated a lot of people and they are OK," he told reporters.   "The only cure for this is vaccination... having your children vaccinated is the only way."   Children are the most vulnerable to measles, which typically causes a rash and fever but can also lead to brain damage and death.

The latest figures show that 54 of the 62 dead were aged four or less and infants account for most of the 4,217 cases recorded since the outbreak began in mid-October.   There have also been measles epidemics in neighbouring Fiji and Tonga, but higher immunisation rates mean they have been more easily contained, with no fatalities.
Date: Tue, 3 Dec 2019 06:07:45 +0100 (MET)

Wellington, Dec 3, 2019 (AFP) - The World Health Organisation warned of a "slide back" in global efforts to eliminate measles Tuesday, as the death toll from an outbreak that has killed dozens of children in Samoa continued to climb.   A total of 55 people have died since the epidemic began in mid-October, 50 of them children aged four or under, officials in the Pacific nation said Tuesday.   Another 18 infants are critically ill in hospital and the crisis shows no sign of slowing, with 153 new cases in the past 24 hours, taking the national total to 3,881 in a population of 200,000.   Emergency measures including compulsory mass immunisations and school closures have so far done little to stop the virus spreading in a country that was particularly vulnerable to measles due to low vaccination rates of about 31 percent.

World Health Organisation (WHO) medical officer for the western Pacific, Jose Hagan, said it was a grim reminder of the danger posed by "probably the most infectious disease that we know of".   "Unfortunately the case (to) fatality rate of measles is much higher than people realise," he told Radio New Zealand.   "This is quite a severe disease and we just aren't used to seeing it, so it comes as quite a surprise when we see how fatal it can be."   He said the fatality rate in Samoa was less than two percent but had been known to reach five percent in developing countries.

Hagen said increased access to measles vaccines was estimated to have saved 21 million lives over the past 20 years.   "But we are starting to have a slide back and there are outbreaks happening all over the world in all WHO regions and it's leading to the virus being exported through international travel," he said.   Cases have skyrocketed in Europe, leading to Britain, Greece, the Czech Republic and Albania all losing their measles-free status in August.   The United States narrowly maintained its "measles eliminated" status a few months later, despite experiencing its worst outbreak since 1992.   The WHO has pointed to various reasons for declining immunisation rates including lack of access to healthcare and complacency about the need to vaccinate.

Another major factor, which has been cited by the WHO as a reason for the severity of the Samoa outbreak, is misinformation about immunisation from anti-vaccine campaigners.   Prime Minister Tuilaepa Sailele Malielegaoi this week said vaccination was the only answer to the epidemic.   He has ordered the government to cease non-essential operations on Thursday and Friday so public servants can help a mandatory vaccination campaign that aims to give anti-measles jabs to everyone aged below 60.
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Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Sun, 29 Jun 2014 22:45:31 +0200 (METDST)

SYDNEY, June 29, 2014 (AFP) - A strong 6.7-magnitude earthquake struck off the South Pacific islands of Wallis and Futuna in the early hours of Monday, following another powerful earthquake off Tonga.   The latest quake hit at 5:15 am local time (1715 GMT Sunday) and occurred 205 kilometres (127 miles) southeast of the Wallis and Futuna capital of Mata-Utu, the US Geological Survey said.

It came less than two hours after a 6.4-magnitude quake struck off Tonga.   Neither generated tsunami alerts and there were no immediate reports of damage.   The undersea quake off Tonga hit at 3:52 am (1552 GMT Sunday) and was 197 kilometres northwest of the town of Hihifo, USGS said.   The epicentre was also at a depth of 10 kilometres.    That tremor was followed less than three hours later by a 5.6-magnitude quake a few kilometres further west.   The region lies in the so-called Pacific Ring of Fire, an area of frequent seismic activity due to collisions between continental plates.
Date: Tue, 13 Dec 2005 08:51:25 +0100 (MET) NOUMEA, New Caledonia, Dec 13 (AFP) - An earthquake measuring 6.6 on the open-ended Richter scale shook the French Pacific islands of Wallis and Futuna on Tuesday, but no one was injured, local officials said. The US Geological Survey said the tremor occurred at 0316 GMT. Its epicenter was located in the ocean 115 kilometers (70 miles) from the town of Sigave on Futuna island. "The population clearly felt the quake, but no casualties or damage was reported," said Jean-Jacques Feve, chief of staff to the French government's administrator of Wallis and Futuna. Around 15,000 people live in Wallis and Futuna, which is made up of three main islands located in the Pacific Ocean northeast of Fiji. Earthquakes occur regularly in the islands, which are located near a major fault line. In March 1993, three people were killed and a dozen others injured when a 6.3-magnitude quake hit Futuna. The Hawaii-based Pacific Tsunami center said the quake did not pose any destructive Pacific-wide tsunami threat. It said local tsunamis could sometimes occur within a 100-kilometer (60-mile) radius of the quake's epicenter. In nearby Fiji, the mineral resources department said there had been no reports of a tsunami following the quake and that the quake had not been felt anywhere in the South Pacific nation, the Fijilive online news service said.
Date: Fri 24 Jan 2003 From: ProMED-mail Source: MASTA Health Report, Fri 24 Jan 2003 [edited] --------------------------------------------------------- Australian radio reported on 23 Jan 2003 an outbreak of dengue fever affecting the French overseas territory of Wallis and Futuna Islands (Territoire des Iles Wallis et Futuna), which lie to the northeast of Fiji. An awareness campaign was launched in October 2002 to warn people of the dangers of the disease. There is a risk of dengue fever particularly during the rainy season.
Date: Sun, 12 Jan 2003 06:51:27 +0100 (MET) AUCKLAND, Jan 12 (AFP) - A new cyclone, Ami, was born in the South Pacific Sunday and weather experts say it threatens Fiji, Tonga and the French islands of Wallis and Futuna. Ami formed out of a tropical depression 900 kilometres (560 miles) north of Fiji's capital Suva, around two degrees east of where on Christmas Day Cyclone Zoe was formed. It went on to devastate the Polynesian island of Tikopia, in the Solomon Islands. But while Zoe went west, the Fiji Meterological Service in Nadi said Ami Sunday afternoon was moving southwest toward Fiji. It will pass over Wallis and Futuna late Sunday and early Monday, with maximum winds estimated at 74 kilometres per hour (40 knots) within 144 kilometres (90 miles) of the centre and increasing to 83 kph (45 knots) within the next 24 hours. Its forecasts currently put it as less powerful than Zoe which was at the top end of the cyclone intensity scale. However unlike Zoe, Ami is heading towards areas of greater population, with 15,000 people on Wallis and Fatuna. Also in the projected path are Fiji's Lau islands, mostly low lying atolls. Tonga may be in line for Ami. In January last year Cyclone Waka destroyed homes and crops on the northern Vava'u islands in Tonga.
UK Department of Foreign Affairs 18/09/2002 10:15:53 ENTRY REQUIREMENTS ************************************************* Wallis and Futuna Islands are an Overseas Territory (Territoire d'outre-mer) of France. UK citizens with a valid passport do not need a visa to enter Wallis and Futuna Islands. Visitors intending to work or to remain in Wallis and Futuna Islands for more than three months should apply for a residence permit at the local Préfecture. GENERAL ************************************************* The E111 medical form does not provide any health cover in Wallis and Futuna Islands. It is recommended therefore that all visitors take out comprehensive travel and medical insurance. CONTACT DETAILS ************************************************* There is no resident British Diplomatic Mission in Wallis and Futuna Islands. Routine consular matters are covered by the British Consulate-General in Paris. In case of real emergency, the British High Commission in Suva may be able to provide some assistance; (tel: +679 311033; fax: +679 301406).
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Cameroon

Cameroon - US Consular Information Sheet
April 02, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Cameroon is a developing country in central Africa.
Although there are many natural and cultural attractions in Cameroon, facilities catering to Western-styl
tourism are quite limited.
The capital is Yaoundé, though Douala, the country's largest city, is its main port and commercial center.
Official languages are French and English, though French predominates in most of the country.
English may be used in Cameroon's two Anglophone provinces of Southwest and Northwest, and the larger cities.
The staff of major hotels in Cameroon’s large cities is usually bilingual.
In February 2008, social and political unrest led to civil unrest, although the immediate threat of violence has now receded.
For general information on Cameroon, read the Department of State Background Notes on Cameroon.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A valid passport, visa, evidence of yellow-fever vaccination, and current immunization records are required, and travelers may be denied entry if they lack the proper documentation.
Travelers should obtain the latest information and details from the Embassy of the Republic of Cameroon, 2349 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington D.C. 20008, tel: (202) 265-8790, fax: (202) 387-3826.
Visit the Embassy of Cameroon’s web site at http://www.ambacam-usa.org/ for the most current visa information.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
During the week of February 25, 2008, Cameroon experienced significant civil unrest in half of its ten provinces, most notably in the port city of Douala.
Demonstrators clashed violently with police and then military personnel, resulting in the reported deaths of forty persons and arrest of over 1,600 individuals.
The unrest was marked by widespread road blockages, attacks on public and private vehicles, looting, burning of government and other buildings, and roaming crowds of malcontents.
This disturbance created shortages of fuel, food and other supplies throughout the country, and was ended through the deployment of military units and the use of significant force.

Following the restoration of order, some efforts have been made to address fuel and food prices that were among the key grievances of the demonstrators.
However, economic conditions, notably the high unemployment rate, remain difficult without the prospect for rapid improvement.
Political tensions also remain, particularly over a possible amendment to the Constitution that would allow President Biya to serve again.
Although a rapid resumption of violence is considered unlikely, Americans living in or visiting Cameroon are encouraged to stay abreast of local political and social developments that could signal additional difficulties for the country.

Embassy employees have been instructed to refrain from travel outside of city limits after dusk, and to monitor their movements in centrally located areas within cities and towns.
Private American citizens are urged to follow the same guidelines and are strongly advised against nighttime travel.
Armed highway bandits (most notably in border areas); poorly lit roads; hazardous, poorly maintained vehicles; and unskilled, aggressive and/or intoxicated drivers pose a threat to motorists.
Attacks and accidents are most common outside major towns, especially in the provinces bordering Chad and the Central African Republic but occur in all areas of the country.

The U.S. Department of State continues to warn U.S. citizens against travel to neighboring Central African Republic (CAR).
On occasion, conflict between insurgents and government security forces in CAR has spilled across the border into Cameroon, affecting outposts in both Adamawa and East Provinces.
Humanitarian and religious workers in eastern Cameroon are strongly encouraged to coordinate their efforts with the Embassy and the Office of the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) in Yaoundé.

In February 2008, an attack by rebel insurgents on Ndjamena, the capital of Chad, forced the evacuation of the Embassy in Chad and sent up to 50,000 refugees across the border into the town of Kousseri in Cameroon.
Although the attack was ultimately repelled, the possibility of further military action by the rebel forces remains.

In late 2006, inter-ethnic clashes were reported in the town of Kye-Ossi near the Cameroonian border with Gabon.
These confrontations were a result of a discord between moto-taxi drivers and the security forces, which resulted in demonstrations and roadblocks.
According to security authorities, tensions in the area are still high, despite the deployment of a large security force to the region.

Following a ruling from the International Court of Justice defining a section of the Cameroon-Nigeria border, Cameroon assumed administrative control of most of the Bakassi Peninsula, in August 2006, with Nigerian military forces withdrawing across the border.
Although the transition has generally gone smoothly, there was an attack on Cameroonian military forces in November 2007, reportedly by criminal elements from the Niger Delta not connected to the Nigerian government.
It is very difficult to reach Bakassi, but travelers thinking of going near there should exercise extreme caution as there is the potential for violence if tensions rise.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Worldwide Caution, Travel Warnings, and Travel Alerts can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
Crime is a serious and growing problem throughout Cameroon and U.S. citizens should exercise caution when traveling in Cameroon.
Internet-based crime is escalating rapidly, and Americans should be extremely skeptical of financial
transactions --
e.g. adoptions, hiring a service worker, such as a nanny, to come to the U.S., or purchasing a pet -- that involve sending money for goods or services not yet delivered (see below).
In February 2008, two European nationals were kidnapped by criminals posing as businessmen seeking to establish a palm oil export business. Although several perpetrators were arrested and the individuals were not harmed, the incident highlights a dangerous new confluence of internet-based and violent crime.
If you have concerns about the legitimacy of a transaction, such as adoption, in Cameroon contact the U.S. Embassy in Cameroon – see Registration/Embassy Location section below.
All foreigners are potential targets for theft with possible attendant violence.
Petty crimes, crimes against persons, thefts from vehicles, and of vehicles are the most common criminal activities.
Armed banditry is a growing problem throughout all ten provinces in Cameroon.
Specifically, incidents of armed highway-robbery have been reported in the North West, West, South West and East provinces.
Armed bandits have erected road barricades on major routes that link rural towns to provincial headquarters, and have taken as many as 100 cars in a single attack.
To curb banditry, security personnel may request persons to show their passport, residence card, driver's license, and/or vehicle registration at random checkpoints.
Certified copies of these important documents should be kept in a secure location separate from the originals.
Security personnel have been known to ask for bribes and may hurt citizens who refuse to pay.
The U.S. Government does not condone bribery or corruption of any kind.

Due to the frequency of criminal incidents involving public transportation, American citizens are advised that use of public taxis can be dangerous.
In April 2007, two American women were assaulted and robbed in a taxi.
Public taxis in Cameroon function more like the U.S. bus system with drivers stopping to pick up additional passengers as long as there is space left in the vehicle.
There have been numerous reports of assaults and robberies committed by "passengers" in shared taxis since crimes – rape and robbery being among the most common – are often a collaborative effort between the driver and "passengers."
If a traveler must use a taxi, the use of a private taxi – or a taxi hired for exclusive use by the individual for that particular trip – where the driver is known to the passenger is a better alternative to the use of shared taxis.
Taxi passengers should be particularly vigilant at night.

The risk of street and residential crime is high, and incidents of violent crime are on the rise throughout the country.
During the last year, the number of carjacking and armed burglary incidents in residences and restaurants, particularly in Yaoundé and Douala, continued to increase.
Carjacking and robbery has also been reported on rural highways, especially in the Northern provinces and regions near Cameroon's border with the Central African Republic.

On March 27, 2006, 11 armed men attacked a group of four U.S. citizens in a private residence (adjacent to a hotel frequented by expatriates) in Kribi, located in the Southern province.
A group of five armed bandits held up and robbed staff and guests of a hotel in Ngaoundere (Adamawa Province) on December 20, 2006.
Similar incidents occurred in the middle of the night at hotels in Bertoua (East Province) on April 22, 2007, and in Yaoundé (Central Province) on May 15, 2007 when assailants broke into hotel rooms and robbed the residents.
Americans were among the victims.
Crimes against property, such as carjacking and burglaries, have often been accompanied by violent acts and have resulted in fatalities.
There were four incidents of armed robberies in the month of April 2007, involving American citizens in or near restaurants in Yaoundé and Bertoua.

In January 2007, a French expatriate was fatally shot in the upscale Bastos neighborhood of Yaoundé.
The woman was dropping off a friend to her residence and interrupted an attempted home invasion.
Upon realizing what was happening, the friend returned to the vehicle and both women attempted to flee the scene.
As they were leaving, an armed bandit shot and fatally wounded the driver of the vehicle.

In September 2007, several expatriates suffered armed attacks.
In one incident, an Israeli citizen giving a ride to a friend was attacked in Bastos by two men with knives.
In the ensuing scuffle, the Israeli was critically wounded.
A Moroccan diplomat was fatally injured while walking near his residence.
Found unconscious by security guards, he was taken to a local hospital where he died the following day.
A Chinese business woman was also robbed and killed outside her home in a neighborhood near Bastos.
All incidents occurred late at night.

In December 2007, a police officer was arrested and jailed in Yaoundé after he and his accomplices surprised a couple returning from Europe and stole a briefcase and jewelry.

In January 2008, three bandits posing as passengers on a bus to Douala – and carrying locally made guns - were intercepted at Bafoussam and apprehended.
In Douala, armed bandits robbed a soap company at gun point, surprising the employees.
They attempted to loot the company’s computers, but were intercepted by a SWAT team and ran off.
Also in January, an Embassy employee using public transportation in the Northwest Province was the victim of highway robbers, who robbed the passengers (including a local mayor) and roughed-up those who did not have enough money.
In February 2008, Cameroon experienced a brief period of civil unrest during a taxi strike that involved road blockages, attacks on public and private vehicles, looting, burning of government and other buildings, and roaming crowds of malcontents.
This period was attended by a sharp increase in reported crimes, including the stabbing death of a night watchman at a residence in Yaoundé, an attack at the Brussels Airline travel agency in the Bonapriso district of Douala, an attack by a group of armed bandits on a motorbike rider who suffered a gunshot wound to the head, and numerous reports of rape and armed attacks with firearms and machetes in Douala.

Recently, many American citizens have become victims of Cameroonian advance-fee fraud and other scams offering antiques, exotic and domesticated animals, and even adoption services through the Internet.
Americans should be very cautious about sending money or traveling to Cameroon to meet someone contacted via the Internet.
Commercial scams targeting foreigners, including many U.S. citizens, continue to be a problem.
The scams generally involve phony offers of lucrative sales and repeated requests for additional funds to pay for unforeseen airport and/or customs fees.
No one should provide personal financial or account information to unknown parties.
The ability of U.S. Embassy officers to extricate U.S. citizens from unlawful business deals and the consequences is limited.
For more information on international financial scams, including those involving Internet dating, a promise of an inheritance windfall, a promise of a work contract overseas, overpayment for goods purchased on-line, or money-laundering, see the Department of State's publication International Financial Scams.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime .

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Medical facilities in Cameroon are extremely limited.
Even in large cities, emergency care and hospitalization for major illnesses and surgery are hampered by the lack of trained specialists, outdated diagnostic equipment, and poor sanitation.
Medical services in outlying areas may be completely nonexistent.
Doctors and hospitals often require immediate payment for health services in cash.
Pharmacies in larger towns are well stocked, but in other areas many medicines are unavailable.
Travelers are advised to carry their own supply of needed prescription and anticipated over-the-counter medicines.

Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease.
Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the type that predominates in Cameroon, is resistant to the antimalarial drug chloroquine.
Because travelers to Cameroon are at high risk for contracting malaria, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advises that travelers should take one of the following antimalarial drugs: mefloquine (Lariam™), doxycycline, or atovaquone/proguanil (Malarone™) as prophylaxis to reduce this risk.
Travelers who become ill with a fever or flu-like illness while traveling in a malaria-risk area, and up to one year after returning home, should seek prompt medical attention and tell the physician their travel history and what antimalarials they have been taking.
For additional information on malaria, including protective measures, see the CDC Travelers’ Health web site at http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/.
There are periodic outbreaks of cholera in Cameroon.
Yellow fever can cause serious medical problems, but the vaccine, required for entry, is very effective in preventing the disease.

In March 2006, avian influenza (H5N1) was confirmed in wild ducks in northern Cameroon.
There have been no reports of avian influenza among humans in Cameroon.
Avian influenza has been reported in both birds and humans in neighboring Nigeria.
For additional information on avian influenza as it affects American citizens residing abroad, please visit the U.S. Department of State’s Avian Influenza Fact Sheet.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s website at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) website at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas .

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Cameroon is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Cameroon's road networks, both paved and unpaved, are poorly maintained and unsafe at all times of the year.
Vehicles are poorly maintained and there is no mechanism or requirement to inspect for roadworthiness.
During the rainy season, many roads are barely passable with four-wheel-drive vehicles.
Livestock and pedestrians create constant road hazards (especially at night) and road safety rules are frequently ignored.
There are few road and traffic signs; speed limits are neither posted nor enforced.
Buses and logging trucks travel at excessive speed and are a constant threat to other road traffic.

Travelers on roads near the borders with CAR and Chad should ensure that their vehicles are fully fueled, and that they have adequate cooking fuel, food, and water for several days as well as a reliable means of communication, such as a satellite or cell phone, or radio.

Visitors who are not in possession of a valid passport and a visa may experience difficulties at police roadblocks or other security checkpoints.
It is not uncommon for a uniformed member of the security forces to stop motorists on the pretext of a minor or non-existent violation of local motor vehicle regulations in order to extort small bribes.
Visitors are advised not to pay bribes and to request that the officer provide a citation to be paid at the local court.

Local law states that vehicles involved in an accident should not be moved until the police arrive and a police report can be made.
If an accident results in injury, drivers should be aware of the possibility that a "village justice" mentality may develop.
If an angry crowd forms, drive directly to the U.S. Embassy or another location where you can receive assistance.
Contact the local police once you are safely away from danger.
Cameroon has no real equivalent to 911-type service or roadside emergency telephone numbers, but you can dial 112 in major cities to contact ambulance services.
American citizens should contact the U.S. Embassy (237) 2220-1500 if emergency assistance is needed.
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Cameroon, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Cameroon’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s internet website at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
While visiting game parks and reserves, tourists should bear in mind that they are ultimately responsible for maintaining their own safety.
Tourists should use common sense when approaching wildlife, maintain a safe distance from animals, and heed all instructions given by guides or trackers.
Even in the most serene settings, the animals in Cameroon's game parks are wild and can pose a threat to life and safety.

Cameroonian Customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from Cameroon of items such as large quantities of medicine or wood products.
Customs regulations also restrict the importation of ivory.
Please see our information on customs regulations.

Cash in local currency, the Central African franc (CFA), is the only form of payment accepted throughout the country.
Larger hotels in Yaoundé and Douala will change U.S. dollars and cash traveler's checks, though at a disadvantageous rate.
Credit card cash advances are not available, and most banks do not cash personal or traveler's checks for non-clients.
While credit cards are accepted at some larger hotels and shops in Yaoundé and Douala, caution is urged, as identity theft is endemic in the region.
Some larger banks in Yaoundé and Douala have ATM facilities, and several banks in Cameroon have wire transfer services through Western Union.
The U.S. Embassy does not provide currency exchange, check cashing or other financial services.
Tourists and business travelers should also note that there is an increasing circulation of counterfeit U.S. and Cameroonian currency in the country.
In recent years, business travelers have experienced difficulty in obtaining adequate services from Cameroon's banking sector.
Business travelers are also advised that using the services of a local agent is strongly recommended in establishing a presence in the Cameroonian market.

While photography is not officially forbidden, security officials are sensitive about photographs taken of government buildings, military installations, and other public facilities, many of which are unmarked.
Photography of these subjects may result in seizure of photographic equipment by Cameroonian authorities.
Due to the threat of harassment and the lack of signs designating sites prohibited for photography, photography should be limited to private homes and among friends.
U.S. citizens are advised to seek proper permission before taking a photograph of a specific subject or location.

The government of Cameroon has recently started enforcing laws against homosexuality.
Charges of homosexuality and/or of corruption are also made and enforced indiscriminately in the course of business or personal disputes.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Cameroonian law does not afford many of the protections to which Americans are accustomed, and legal proceedings tend to be complex, lengthy, and subject to inappropriate influence.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Additionally, the condition of detention centers, while improving, is poor.
Persons violating Cameroonian laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
During the February 2008 civil unrest, there were reports that people were arrested arbitrarily by law enforcement officials quelling the civil disorder that ensued.
Although no expatriates were known to have been arrested, the Department of State cautions Americans against venturing out during such periods of unrest.

Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Cameroon are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Cameroon are encouraged to register with the U.S. Embassy through the State Department’s travel registration website so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Cameroon.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the U.S. Embassy.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy in Yaoundé is located on Avenue Rosa Parks in the Mbankolo Quartier, adjacent to the Mount Febe Golf Club; mailing address P.O. Box 817; embassy tel. (237) 2220-1500, fax: (237) 2220-1572.
The Embassy Branch Office in Douala is located on the corner of Rue Ivy and Rue French in the Ecobank Building in Bonanjo, tel: (237) 3342-5331, fax: (237) 3342-7790.
Further information, including the U.S. Embassy's business hours, is available at the U.S. Embassy's web site: http://yaounde.usembassy.gov.
*

*

*
This replaces the Country Specific Information for Cameroon dated 7 June 2007, to update sections on Country Description, Entry and Exit Requirements, Safety and Security, Crime, Aviation Safety Oversight, Criminal Penalties, Children’s Issues, and Registration/Embassy Location.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Tue, 24 Mar 2020 19:28:57 +0100 (MET)

Douala, March 24, 2020 (AFP) - Cameroon's government on Tuesday announced the country's first death due to coronavirus, saying the victim had returned from Italy and was already infected on his arrival.   "Unfortunately we have registered our first death due to COVID-19," Health Minister Malachie Manaouda said on Twitter.   The official count of coronavirus cases in the Central African nation has risen to 66. But the figures are restricted by the limited laboratory capacity for testing.

Throughout Africa more than 2,000 coronavirus cases had been declared at 1700 GMT Tuesday, according to an AFP tall.   The Cameroon government has already taken measures to stem the spread of the virus, closing schools, restaurants and bars but has not so far sought to confine residents to their homes.   Italy is the worst hit country with over 6,000 deaths attributed to coronavirus.
Date: Mon 13 Jan 2020
Source: Cameroon Ministry of Public Health, secretariat general, Eastern Regional Delegation, Regional Center for Prevention and Control; tweet published by @Dataminr [in French, trans., edited]

Original public tweet
Local authority orders strict health monitoring after minor dies from monkeypox virus in Ayos, Cameroon:

#AlerteSante [health alert] of a case of monkeypox in the town of Ayos, Center region. [There is] a deceased infant. This note indicates how the virus is contracted, not how to prevent it or what to do after the symptoms. I think it is urgent to communicate on it.
===================
[This very brief report provides little information about the case, such as the age and sex of the infant and how the monkeypox (MPX) infection might have been acquired, nor is there information to indicate if the MPX diagnosis was laboratory confirmed and if chickenpox (varicella virus) was excluded, since there can be some similarity of symptoms.

Although Ayos is in the Central region, there is also concern in the East region. The regional delegate of Public Health for the East region, Dr Anicet Desire Mintop, calls for a health watch in all health districts in the East region, notably in Abong Mbang, Nguelmendouka, and Messamena. According to the release, the above-mentioned health centres should be on serious alert because they are closer to the area where the monkeypox case was detected (see  <http://outbreaknewstoday.com/monkeypox-alert-issued-in-eastern-cameroon-media-report-52099/>).

It seems likely that the infection was acquired from an animal source. MPX is endemic in Cameroon. The main reservoirs of monkeypox virus are suspected to be rodents, including rope squirrels (_Funisciurus_ spp, an arboreal rodent) and terrestrial rodents in the genera _Cricetomys_ and _Graphiurus_. A confirmed case of monkeypox in the Ekondo-Titi health district in Southwest region of Cameroon was reported in October 2019 (see Monkeypox - Africa (06): Cameroon http://promedmail.org/post/20191106.6765533), and 16 cases were reported in April-May 2018 from Njikwa, Northwest region (7); Akwaya, Southwest region (6); Biyem-Assi, Central region (1); Bertoua, East region (1); and Fotokol, Far North region (1) (see Monkeypox - Africa (10): Cameroon http://promedmail.org/post/20180605.5838919). - ProMED Mod.TY]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Ayos, Center, Cameroon: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/65281>]
Date: Tue 1 Oct 2019
Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]

Health officials have reported a confirmed case of monkeypox in the Ekondo-Titi health district in South-west region of Cameroon last week. Supportive measures for case management have been put in place, and community-based surveillance has been stepped up in the region.

Monkeypox is a rare disease that occurs throughout remote parts of Central and West Africa, often near tropical rain forests. Fever, headache, muscle aches, swollen lymph nodes, and exhaustion are followed by a rash. Patients are usually ill for 2-4 weeks. Monkeypox is fatal in as many as 10% of people who get it.
===================
[Monkeypox (MPX) cases in Cameroon are not new. MPX cases there were reported last year (2018) (see Monkeypox - Africa (10): Cameroon http://promedmail.org/post/20180605.5838919). The previous ProMED-mail posts on monkeypox cases in Cameroon did not provide numbers of cases (see ProMED-mail. Monkeypox - Africa (09): Cameroon http://promedmail.org/post/20180519.5805270). Monkeypox virus is widespread in central and west Africa, and sporadic human cases occur there.

Monkeypox is a rare viral disease predominantly found in central and west Africa. People get the disease through contact with an infected animal, which can occur in a number of ways. People may be bitten or come into contact with the animal's blood or body fluids. Infection can also occur if a person touches the rash on an infected animal's skin, which sometimes happens during food preparation. Infected people can pass the disease on to other people. Symptoms are similar to smallpox, but milder. They start out flu-like: fever, headache, muscle aches, backache, swollen lymph nodes and a general feeling of discomfort and exhaustion. Within a few days, patients show a rash of raised bumps. The illness lasts 2-4 weeks. There is no specific treatment available for the disease. It is fatal in about 10 percent of all cases [for the central African clade, but seldom fatal for the West Africa clade.

There is no indication of how the above case contracted MPX, but it seems likely to have been from an animal source. The main reservoirs of monkeypox virus are suspected to be rodents, including rope squirrels (_Funisciurus_ spp; an arboreal rodent) and terrestrial rodents in the genera _Cricetomys_ and _Graphiurus_. Halting the bushmeat trade and consumption of wild animals in order to halt MPX virus exposure will be culturally and economically difficult, so continued occasional occurrence of cases can be expected. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Date: Tue, 29 Oct 2019 20:29:08 +0100 (MET)
By Reinnier Kaze

Yaoundé, Oct 29, 2019 (AFP) - More than 30 people were killed after their houses were swept away Tuesday in a landslide caused by torrential rain in the western Cameroon city of Bafoussam, state media reported, showing images of rescuers desperately sifting the rubble for survivors.   "Searches are ongoing. We fear there are further deaths," a senior local official told AFP, on condition of anonymity, as nightfall neared.   the state-run Cameroon Tribune newspaper, on its Facebook page, said "at least 33 bodies" had been found.   Cameroon Radio Television (CRTV) earlier gave a death toll of around 30 after a score of houses collapsed.

A government statement broadcast on CRTV spoke of a "serious" incident causing "much loss of life" without mentioning a toll.   "The houses that collapsed were built on the side of a hill in a risk zone," said the official of the West Region, of which Bafoussam is the capital, some 300 kilometres (185 miles) northwest of the capital Yaoundé.   He said the landslide was caused by the torrential rain that has fallen in the country over the past few days as well as the wider region, with neighbouring Central African Republic and Nigeria also seriously hit.

Pictures of the tragedy at Bafouassam posted to social media showed ramshackle houses having crumbled into the ochre-coloured terrain and men clad in hard hats digging away at piles of mud in the search for survivors.   Landslides are quite exceptional in the area although further south they are less rare in the rainy season, notably in the English-speaking southwest. It was in the southwestern coastal resort town of Limbe that five people died in a landslide following flooding in July last year.

Beyond Cameroon, the Central African Republic, already mired in a brutal civil war, is reeling from ten days of torrential rain which have plunged swathes of the country underwater, creating a new emergency in one of the world's poorest nations.   Tens of thousands of people have been left homeless after the CAR's largest river, the Oubangui, burst its banks at the height of the country's worst floods in decades which have left parts of the capital Bangui submerged, prompting authorities to warn of the risk of cholera.   Several agrarian states in another Cameroon neighbour, Nigeria, have also been hit by flooding. A torrential downpour Monday allowed dozens of inmates to escape from prison in the central state of Kogi.
Date: Tue 9 Jul 2019
Source: Agence Cameroun Presse [in French, trans. Corr.SB, edited]

A highly contagious disease with faecal-oral transmission, cholera is transmitted by dirty hands or by food contamination and water (contaminated water). According to our colleague, [Journal du Cameroun], 48 deaths due to cholera have been recorded in the northern part of Cameroon.

According to figures compiled on Mon 8 Jul 2019 by the Ministry of Public Health (Minsante), the cholera epidemic, which is raging in the northern part of Cameroon, has already killed 48 people. The northern region, which has been particularly affected by this epidemic for almost a year, has a fatality rate of 6.2%.

Outside the North, the neighbouring Far North region is also affected by the disease, which raises fears of a spread of the disease with the onset of rains in this part of the country. Cholera had also been reported in the southern part of the country, particularly in the Central and Littoral regions, where one death had been registered.

According to the Journal du Cameroun, since the reappearance of the disease last February 2019, 775 reported cases have been counted and confirmed, revealing "an alarming epidemiological situation".

It should be noted that cholera 1st appeared in Cameroon in 1971. Since 1990, major epidemics have been recorded, particularly in 1991, 1996, 1998, 2004, 2010 and 2011. The general trend shows an annual increase in the number of cases. Between 2004 and 2016, epidemiological surveillance reported 50 007 cases with 2052 deaths, a high case fatality rate of 4.1%.

The main epidemics were recorded in the north, in the northern regions and the Far North and in the south of the country in the Littoral region, which is home to the economic capital Douala.  [Byline: Danielle Ngono Efondo]
More ...

World Travel News Headlines

Date: Fri, 27 Mar 2020 22:49:49 +0100 (MET)

Dublin, March 27, 2020 (AFP) - Ireland is to impose a lockdown in a bid to stem the spread of the coronavirus, Prime Minister Leo Varadkar said on Friday.   "Everybody must stay at home, in all circumstances," he said of the new measures to come into force at midnight (0000 GMT) on Saturday and last until 12 April.   Exceptions will be made for essential workers, medical appointments and the purchase of food.   Travel for "vital family reasons", for farming and exercise within two kilometres (one mile) of homes will also be allowed.

All public or private gatherings "of any number of people" outside a single household are also prohibited.   "These are radical actions aimed at saving as many people's lives as possible," said Varadkar at a press conference.   "I'm asking us for a time to forego our personal liberties and freedoms for a greater cause."   There have been 22 COVID-19 related deaths and 2,121 confirmed cases of the virus in Ireland, according to department of health figures released earlier Friday.   Earlier this month the Irish government ordered schools, universities and pubs to close nationwide.   Swathes of non-essential businesses were also ordered shut earlier this week as Ireland braced for an uptick of COVID-19 cases within its borders.

Emergency coronavirus legislation passed through the final stages of Irish parliament and was signed into law by president Michael D. Higgins earlier Friday.   The bill enacts a rent freeze and a moratorium on evictions for the duration of the crisis.   It also streamlines the registration of healthcare and defence forces staff returning to the workforce, and enables the Irish government's financial supports to those laid off as a result of COVID-19 business closures.   "The legislation is emergency legislation for a time of crisis," said Higgins in a statement.   "These are difficult times, but our difficulties will come to an end."
Date: Sat, 28 Mar 2020 11:03:02 +0100 (MET)

Johannesburg, March 28, 2020 (AFP) - South African police enforcing a coronavirus lockdown on Saturday fired rubber bullets towards hundreds of shoppers queueing outside a supermarket in Johannesburg, an AFP photographer said.   Between 200 and 300 people gathered outside a popular grocery store, Shoprite, early Saturday in Yeoville, a crime-prone area in Johannesburg's gritty central business district on day two of a nationwide lockdown.

But as they scrambled to secure their spots, many did not observe the recommended safe distance between them.   Police arrived in 10 patrol vehicles and started firing rubber bullets towards the shoppers.   Startled shoppers trampled on each other and a woman with a baby on her back fell to the ground.   Later the police used whips to get the shoppers to observe social distancing rules.

President Cyril Ramaphosa has ordered South Africa's 57 million people to stay at home for 21 days and deployed the police and the military to enforce the lockdown.   But many people, especially from poor neighbourhoods, have defied the order, going out in numbers looking for food.   While jogging and dog-walking are banned, shopping for food and other basics, but not alcohol, is permitted.   South Africa, which has 1,170 confirmed coronavirus cases, recorded its first death from the virus on Friday.
Date: Sat, 28 Mar 2020 09:41:43 +0100 (MET)

Accra, March 28, 2020 (AFP) - Ghana has announced a two-week lockdown in the country's two main regions starting Monday to curb the spread of coronavirus.   The move came as the authorities reported 137 confirmed cases, including four deaths.   President Nana Akufo-Ado said there would be "restrictions on movement of persons in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area and the Greater Kumasi Metropolitan Area and contiguous districts for a period of two weeks."

He said residents would only be allowed to go out to buy food, water and medicines and to use public toilets.   "There shall be, during this period, no inter-city movement of vehicles and aircrafts for private or commercial purposes.. except for vehicles and aircrafts providing essential services and those carrying cargo," he said.   Ghana has already closed schools, suspended public events and banned large gatherings.
Date: Fri, 27 Mar 2020 19:25:31 +0100 (MET)

Brussels, March 27, 2020 (AFP) - Belgium on Friday extended its general lockdown to slow the spread of the coronavirus by two weeks to April 18.   The decision, confirmed by top officials, extended a confinement that began on March 18 until the end of the country's Easter holiday break, with schools, restaurants and most shops to remain closed.   Prime Minister Sophie Wilmes said the period could be extended by another two weeks to May 3 if the spread of the virus demanded it.   "Our efforts are only beginning and to ease up now would have catastrophic consequences," she told a media briefing.   Outdoor sports activities and walks outside are still allowed, but only in small groups, with a friend or with family members living under the same roof.

In theory, travelling for work can only be done with a certificate from the employer.    Supermarkets in Belgium remain open, but shoppers are only admitted if there is enough space for one person per 10 square metres, and they must not stay for more than 30 minutes.   Belgium, a country of 11.4 million people, has recorded 7,284 cases of the novel coronavirus strain, and 289 deaths.    The extension in Belgium follows a similar decision in neighbouring France where the lockdown rules are stricter.   Europe is grappling with the global outbreak that has killed more than 10,000 people on the continent, mostly in Italy and Spain.
Date: Fri, 27 Mar 2020 18:17:31 +0100 (MET)

Bangui, Central African Republic, March 27, 2020 (AFP) - The Central African Republic, a poverty-stricken state that the UN has singled out as highly vulnerable to coronavirus, has stepped up measures over fears that the disease is spreading locally.   President Faustin-Archange Touadera, in a statement received by AFP on Friday, said that after four cases of infection ad been detected, all among people coming from abroad, a fifth had now surfaced.

In this light, "there are grounds for fearing local transmission" of coronavirus, he said.   New measures unveiled by the authorities include a two-week ban on people coming in from countries where the virus is being transmitted locally, except for diplomats and NGO workers.

Schools, childcare facilities and universities are being closed, and restrictions have been placed on movement between the capital Bangui and the rest of the country.   The United Nations on Wednesday said the CAR "is one of the least prepared countries to face a COVID-19 outbreak, with 2.2 million people already in need of health assistance and about 70 percent of health services provided by humanitarian organisations."   The country has been ravaged by three civil wars in 20 years and remains prey to violence from armed groups that control two-thirds of the country.
Date: Fri, 27 Mar 2020 17:45:22 +0100 (MET)

Rome, March 27, 2020 (AFP) - Italy recorded a shocking spike in coronavirus deaths Friday with 969 new victims, the worst daily record for any country since the pandemic began.   The infection rate however continued its downward trend, with the civil protection agency reporting nearly 86,500 confirmed cases in Italy -- a 7.4 percent increase, down from around 8.0 percent in previous days.
Date: Fri, 27 Mar 2020 17:41:36 +0100 (MET)

Brussels, March 27, 2020 (AFP) - A pet cat has been infected with the novel coronavirus in Belgium after being contaminated by its owner, Belgian health authorities said Friday.   Cases of contamination of pets are rare and authorities ruled out any risk of contamination to humans from home animals.   The reports follows similar cases in Hong Kong where two dogs tested positive for COVID-19 during a screening campaign carried out on 17 dogs and eight cats living in contact with people carrying the virus.

In Belgium, the discovery was made by researchers at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Liege.   This is "an isolated case" which can occur after "close contact between animals and infected  humans", said Doctor Emmanuel Andre, a government agency spokesman on the pandemic.    The virus can be transmitted from humans to animals but "there is no reason to think that animals can be vectors of the epidemic in our society", he said.

In Hong Kong, "the dogs showed no symptoms", while in Belgium "the cat was suffering from transitory respiratory and digestive problems", said the Belgian food safety agency AFSCA in a statement.    "So far, there is no evidence that a domestic animal can transmit the virus to humans or other pets", the public authority said.

As a precautionary measure, it is "strongly recommended" to apply standard rules of hygiene when dealing with pets: "avoid close contact with pets... wash your hands after handling any animal, do not let the animal lick your face."   The aim is to prevent the transmission of the virus to the animal and to prevent the animal itself from becoming a carrier of the virus.
Date: Fri, 27 Mar 2020 14:53:24 +0100 (MET)

Beijing, March 27, 2020 (AFP) - China reported more than 50 imported cases of the coronavirus on Friday, hours after announcing a ban on foreigners entering the country.   In recent weeks China's tally of infections has dwindled dramatically, with only a handful of domestic patients each day.

But just as the country appears to be bringing the outbreak under control, nations around the globe are battling to control soaring numbers of infections in new hotspots.   There were another 55 new infections in China on Friday, the National Health Commission said, with one local infection and 54 imported cases from overseas.   Beijing has been racing to control the number of infections being brought into the country -- mostly Chinese nationals returning home from overseas, including large numbers of students abroad.

On Thursday Beijing announced dramatic measures to curb arrivals into the country, including reducing the number of international flights, limiting the capacity on board to 75 percent, and imposing a ban on foreigners entering China.   Non-nationals living in China with valid visas and resident permits will be blocked from returning to the country after midnight on Friday night, the foreign ministry said.    The ministry said it was a "temporary measure that China is compelled to take in light of the outbreak situation."

Diplomats and the crew of international airlines and vessels will still be permitted to enter.   Flights in and out of China will also be capped at just one route a week to each country, including for international airlines.   The tally of cases brought into China from abroad climbed to 595 on Friday, health officials said.   A series of strict measures had already been put in place to try and stem the wave of infections coming in.   All Beijing-bound international flights have been diverted to other urban centres, where passengers will first be screened for the virus.

Many Chinese cities including Beijing and Shanghai have also imposed a compulsory 14-day quarantine for all arrivals from abroad.    There were nearly 1,100 return international passenger flights scheduled to come to China this week.   There were another five deaths on Friday, according to the National Health Commission -- all in the province of Hubei where the virus first emerged late last year.   In total 81,340 people have been infected in China, and the outbreak has claimed 3,292 lives.

- Clashes -
Hubei lifted travel restrictions this week after two months in lockdown, but fears remain of a rebound in cases elsewhere in the country, even though only healthy people are allowed to leave the province.   Traffic police in Jiangxi reportedly blocked people trying to enter the province from neighbouring Hubei on Friday.    Videos posted on China's Twitter-like platform Weibo purportedly showed scores of people clashing with police on a bridge connecting the provinces.   Other footage showed people trying to overturn a vehicle.
Date: Fri, 27 Mar 2020 12:37:54 +0100 (MET)

London, March 27, 2020 (AFP) - British police faced criticism on Friday for using "over-the-top" methods to maintain a coronavirus lockdown, after officers armed with sweeping new powers deployed drones to detect walkers far from home.   Civil liberties group Big Brother Watch said the police must behave within the rule of law after it also emerged that road checkpoints had been set up to quiz drivers about their journeys.   "It's understandable why police are dispersing parties and barbecues but demanding drivers give journey details at road checkpoints is over-the-top," said director Silkie Carlo.     "It's critical we protect public health and critical we protect basic democratic norms too. Arbitrary policing will not help the country to fight this pandemic."

The drone incident happened in the Peak District National Park in Derbyshire, central England, while roadblocks were used in other parts of the country.   Social media users compared their actions to "the Stasi", East Germany's notorious state police.    Another civil liberties group, Liberty, said in a statement: "We need a response in terms of public health rather than a response in terms of criminal justice to this epidemic."   Britons have been told since the beginning of the week that they are only allowed to leave their homes for limited reasons such as going to work, essential food shopping, or for exercise once a day.   But they are not allowed to travel for recreational purposes.

To enforce the new rules, police were officially handed powers which prevents people leaving their home "without reasonable excuse".   Those ignoring the tougher restrictions on movement could be hit with a £60 fine doubled to £120 (133 euros,$147) for any second offence.   The measures will be in place for at least six months, with a review every three weeks.   Derbyshire police defended their actions, claiming in a tweet that "we will not be apologetic for using any legal and appropriate methods to keep people safe".   It added: "Our actions and the government's advice are there to keep you and others safe."   A total of 11,658 coronavirus cases have so far been confirmed in Britain, and 578 deaths.
Date: Fri, 27 Mar 2020 11:59:09 +0100 (MET)

Madrid, March 27, 2020 (AFP) - The death toll in Spain soared over 4,800 Friday after 769 people died in 24 hours, in what was a record one-day figure for fatalities, the government said.    Health ministry figures showed the number of deaths reaching 4,858, while cases jumped to 64,059, although the rate of new infections appeared to be slowing, registering a 14 percent increase compared with 18 percent a day earlier.