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United Arab Emirates

United Arab Emirates US Consular Information Sheet
28th February 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a federation of seven independent emirates, each with its own ruler.
The federal government is a constitutional re
ublic, headed by a president and council of ministers.
Islamic ideals and beliefs provide the conservative foundation of the country's customs, laws and practices. The UAE is a modern, developed country, and tourist facilities are widely available. Read the Department of State Background Notes on the United Arab Emirates for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: A passport is required. For stays of less than 60 days, U.S. citizens holding valid passports may obtain visitor visas at the port of entry for no fee. For a longer stay, a traveler must obtain a visa before arrival in the UAE. In addition, an AIDS test is required for work or residence permits; testing must be performed after arrival. A U.S. AIDS test is not accepted. For further information, travelers can contact the Embassy of the United Arab Emirates, 3522 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20037, telephone (202) 243-2400.
Visit the web site of the UAE's Ministry of Information regarding tourism, business, and residence in the UAE at http://www.uaeinteract.org.

Unlike other countries in the region that accept U.S. military ID cards as valid travel documents, the UAE requires U.S. military personnel to present a valid passport for entry/exit.

UAE authorities will confiscate any weapons, weapon parts, ammunition, body armor, handcuffs, and/or other military/police equipment transported to or through a civilian airport.
Americans have been arrested and jailed for transporting such weapons and equipment without the express written authorization of the UAE government, even though airline and U.S. authorities allowed shipment on a US-originating flight.

U.S. citizens and citizens of other countries that are not members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), who depart the UAE via land are required to pay a departure fee. This fee is 20 UAE dirhams and is payable only in the local UAE dirham currency.

Visit the Embassy of the United Arab Emirates web site at http://uae-embassy.org for the most current visa information.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY: Americans in the United Arab Emirates should exercise a high level of security awareness. The Department of State remains concerned about the possibility of terrorist attacks against U.S. citizens and interests throughout the world. Americans should maintain a low profile, vary routes and times for all required travel, and treat mail and packages from unfamiliar sources with caution. In addition, U.S. citizens are urged to avoid contact with any suspicious, unfamiliar objects, and to report the presence of the objects to local authorities.
U.S. Government personnel overseas have been advised to take the same precautions. In addition, U.S. Government facilities may temporarily close or suspend public services from time to time as necessary to review their security posture and ensure its adequacy.

Taking photographs of potentially-sensitive UAE military and civilian sites, or foreign diplomatic missions, including the U.S. Embassy, may result in arrest, detention and/or prosecution by local authorities.
In addition, engaging in mapping activities, especially mapping which includes the use of GPS equipment, without coordination with UAE authorities, may have the same consequences.

On several occasions in the past three years, small groups of expatriate recreational boaters were detained by the Iranian Coast Guard for alleged violation of Iranian territorial waters while fishing near the island of Abu Musa, approximately 20 miles from Dubai.
The UAE and Iran have had a long-standing dispute concerning jurisdiction of Abu Musa.
Fishing or sailing in these waters may result in seizure of vessels and detention of passengers and crew in Iran.
Obtaining consular assistance in Iran is difficult and can only be done through the Swiss Embassy in Tehran, which acts as a Protecting Power, providing limited U.S. consular services.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves overseas, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME: Crime generally is not a problem for travelers in the UAE. However, the U.S. Embassy advises U.S. citizens to take normal precautions against theft, such as not leaving a wallet, purse, or credit card unattended. Although vehicle break-ins in the UAE are rare, U.S. citizens are encouraged to ensure that unattended vehicles are locked and that valuables are not left out in plain sight.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Basic modern medical care and medicines are available in the principal cities of the UAE, but not necessarily in outlying areas.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747); fax 1-888-CDC-FAXX (1-888-232-3299), or via the CDC's web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.
TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning the United Arab Emirates is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

The police emergency number and ambulance number is 999. Mobile phones are widely used throughout the UAE, so passers-by usually request emergency police and medical services quickly. Response time by emergency services is adequate. However, medical personnel emphasize transport of the injured to the hospital rather than treatment on site. Traffic accidents are a leading cause of death in the UAE because drivers often drive at high speeds. Unsafe driving practices are common, especially on inter-city highways. On highways, unmarked speed bumps and drifting sand create additional hazards.

Country-wide traffic laws impose stringent penalties for certain violations, particularly driving under the influence of alcohol.
In the UAE, there is zero tolerance for driving after consumption of alcohol.
Penalties may include hefty jail sentences and fines over $6,000 and, for Muslims (even those holding U.S. citizenship), lashings. Persons involved in an accident in which another party is injured automatically go to jail, until the injured person is released from the hospital. Should a person die in a traffic accident, the driver of the other vehicle is liable for payment of compensation for the death (known as "dhiyya"), usually the equivalent of 55,000 U.S. dollars. Even relatively minor accidents may result in lengthy proceedings, during which both drivers may be prohibited from leaving the country.

In order to drive, UAE residents must obtain a UAE driver's license. Foreign driver's licenses are not recognized. However, a non-resident visitor to the UAE can drive if he/she obtains a valid international driver's license issued by the motor vehicle authority of the country whose passport the traveler holds. The UAE recognizes driver's licenses issued by other Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states only if the bearer is driving a vehicle registered to the same GCC state. Under no circumstances should anyone drive without a valid license.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
You may also visit the web site of the UAE’s national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at http://www.uaeinteract.org.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of the United Arab Emirates’ Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of the United Arab Emirates' air carrier operations. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA's web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: The UAE government does not recognize dual nationality.
Children of UAE fathers automatically acquire UAE citizenship at birth and must enter the UAE on UAE passports. UAE authorities have confiscated U.S. passports of UAE/U.S. dual nationals in the past. This act does not constitute loss of U.S. citizenship, but should be reported to the U.S. Embassy in Abu Dhabi or the U.S. Consulate General in Dubai. In addition to being subject to all UAE laws, U.S. citizens who also hold UAE citizenship may also be subject to other laws that impose special obligations on citizens of the UAE.
For additional information, please refer to our Dual Nationality flyer.

U.S. citizens have at times become involved in disputes of a commercial nature that have prompted local firms or courts to take possession of the U.S. citizen's passport. Travel bans may also be enforced against U.S. citizens involved in financial disputes with a local sponsor or firm. Such travel bans, which are rigidly enforced, effectively prevent the individual from leaving the UAE for any reason until the dispute is resolved. Although it is customary for a local sponsor to hold an employee's passport, it is illegal to do so under UAE law. Most contractual/labor disputes can be avoided by clearly establishing all terms and conditions of employment or sponsorship in the labor contract at the beginning of any employment. Should a dispute arise, the UAE Ministry of Labor has established a special department to review and arbitrate labor claims. A list of local attorneys capable of representing Americans in such matters is available from the Consular and Commercial sections of the U.S. Embassy in Abu Dhabi and the U.S. Consulate General in Dubai.

Codes of behavior and dress in the UAE reflect the country's Islamic traditions and are more conservative than those of the United States. Visitors to the UAE should be respectful of this conservative heritage, especially in the Emirate of Sharjah where rules of decency and public conduct are strictly enforced. Female travelers should keep in mind the cultural differences among the many people who coexist in the UAE and should be cognizant that unwitting actions may invite unwanted attention to them. Isolated incidents of verbal and physical harassment of Western women have occurred. Victims of harassment are encouraged to report such incidents to the U.S. Embassy in Abu Dhabi or the Consulate General in Dubai.

American citizens intending to reside and work in the UAE may have to present personal documents authenticated by the Department of State's Office of Authentications in Washington, D.C. before traveling to the UAE. This can be a complex process involving local, state and federal offices and requiring several weeks to complete.
For procedural information, the Office of Authentications may be contacted by telephone from within the United States at 800-688-9889 or 202-647-5002, by fax at 202-663-3636, or by e-mail at aoprgsmauth@state.gov.
In order to meet UAE government requirements for school registrations and residency sponsorship for family members, Americans intending to bring their families to reside with them in the UAE will need to have their marriage certificate and children's birth certificates, or custody/adoption decrees, if appropriate, authenticated by the Department of State in Washington, DC.
The U.S. Embassy and Consulate General cannot authenticate U.S. local- and state-issued personal, academic or professional documents; they will only be able to authenticate the final authentication document from the Department of State.
Additional information on authentication of documents can be found at http://www.state.gov/m/a/auth/.
In terms of employment, a recent change to UAE labor law requires local sponsors to have employees' diplomas, academic and/or occupational/professional certificates validated through a “Degree Verification” process established in the UAE.
Prospective employees will be required to submit photocopies of such documents for verification to a firm under contract to the Ministry of Labor.

In addition, persons in the education and health professions reportedly have to meet two requirements for validation of their educational credentials at this time – the formal “chain” authentication of academic/professional credentials in the U.S. and the “Degree Verification” process in the UAE.
Different UAE Ministries have different requirements in this regard.
Determining these requirements with one’s prospective employer is strongly recommended before arrival in the UAE.

Please see our Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating UAE laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in the UAE are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

Legislation enacted in January 1996 imposes the death sentence for convicted drug traffickers. Since January 2006, possession of even trace amounts of illegal drugs has resulted in sentences of four years imprisonment for foreign citizens transiting the UAE. American citizens transiting and entering the UAE’s airports and in possession of illegal drugs have been discovered, arrested and prosecuted by UAE authorities.
As mentioned, in such cases the minimum penalty is four years imprisonment.

Some drugs normally taken under a doctor's supervision in the United States, and even some over-the-counter U.S. drugs and medications, are classified as narcotics in the UAE and are illegal to possess.
A doctor's prescription should be carried along with any medication that is brought into the country.
A person may be subject to arrest and prosecution if possession of prescribed medicines (especially those containing codeine and similar narcotic-like ingredients) comes to the attention of local authorities.
The U.S. Embassy’s web site includes an unofficial list of such medicines, obtained from the UAE Ministry of Health.
Most medications available in the U.S. are also available by doctors’ prescription through hospitals and pharmacies in the UAE.

In addition, the UAE's tough anti-narcotics program also includes poppy seeds, widely used in other cultures, including the U.S., for culinary purposes, on its list of controlled substances. The importation and possession of poppy seeds in any and all forms is strictly prohibited. Persons found to possess even very small quantities of controlled substances listed by the UAE are subject to prosecution by the authorities and may be given lengthy prison terms of up to 15 years. Travelers with questions regarding the items on the list of controlled substances should contact the U.S. Embassy in Abu Dhabi or the U.S. Consulate General in Dubai. If suspected of being under the influence of drugs or alcohol, individuals may be required to submit to blood and/or urine tests and may be subject to prosecution.

Crimes of fraud, including passing bad checks and non-payment of bills (including hotel bills), are regarded seriously in the UAE and can result in imprisonment and/or fines. Bail generally is not available to non-residents of the UAE who are arrested for crimes involving fraud.

Drinking or possession of alcohol without a Ministry of Interior liquor permit is illegal and could result in arrest and/or fines and imprisonment. Alcohol is served at bars in most major hotels but is intended for guests of the hotel. Persons who are not guests of the hotel, and who consume alcohol in the restaurants and bars, technically are required to have their own personal liquor licenses. Liquor licenses are issued only to non-Muslim persons who possess UAE residency permits. Drinking and driving is considered a serious offense. Penalties generally are assessed according to religious law.

While individuals are free to worship as they choose, and facilities are available for that purpose, religious proselytizing is not permitted in the UAE.
Persons violating this law, even unknowingly, may be imprisoned or deported.

If arrested, U.S. citizens should contact the U.S. Embassy or Consulate General for assistance. The U.S. Consul will provide information on the local judicial system and a list of local attorneys. In Dubai, the U.S. Consul can also arrange for U.S. citizen detainees to meet with an ombudsman from the Human Rights Department of the Dubai police headquarters, if the detainee believes he or she is not being treated fairly.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION/EMBASSY AND CONSULATE LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in the United Arab Emirates are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site and to obtain updated information on travel and security within the United Arab Emirates. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.

The U.S. Embassy in Abu Dhabi is located at Embassies District, Plot 38, Sector W59-02, Street No. 4, P.O. Box 4009. The telephone number is (971) (2) 414-2200, and the Consular Section fax number is (971) (2) 414-2241. The email address for American Citizens Services inquiries, including passport questions, is abudhabiacs@state.gov. The after-hours telephone number is (971) (2) 414-2500. The Embassy Internet web site is http://uae.usembassy.gov.

The U.S. Consulate General in Dubai is located on the 21st floor of the Dubai World Trade Center, P.O. Box 9343. The telephone number is (971) (4) 311-6000 (for after-hours emergencies, contact the Embassy at (971)(2) 414-2200 for the Dubai Duty Officer, and the Consular Section fax number is (971) (4) 311-6213. The email address for American Citizens Services inquiries, including passport questions, is dubaiwarden@state.gov. The web site for the U.S. Consulate General in Dubai is http://dubai.usconsulate.gov.

The workweek for both the Embassy in Abu Dhabi and the Consulate General in Dubai is Sunday through Thursday.
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information for the UAE dated July 06, 2007, to update the sections on Traffic Safety and Road Conditions and Criminal Penalties.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Fri, 8 Mar 2019 11:58:53 +0100
By Shatha Yaish

Hatta, United Arab Emirates, March 8, 2019 (AFP) - Just over 100 kilometres (62 miles) from Dubai's skyscrapers, Mohammed al-Kaabi strolls through the tranquil desert with his friends as the sun sets.   Kaabi, 27, hails from a long line of Emiratis, a people with a centuries-old bedouin history tied inextricably to the local desert.    Today, he is among a fast-growing group drawn to a new wave of a tradition of desert camping but with all the trappings of comfort, style and modernity.   With "glamping", short for "glamorous camping", Dubai aims to expand on its renown for luxurious city living and its tradition of camping.

Betting on tourism at a time of low oil prices, Dubai is now offering stays in chic desert trailers, in plush mountainside lodgings and beach camps, as it seeks to put its own mark on the glamping trend that has swept world tourism destinations.   "This place is far from the cities and the high-rises," said Kaabi, sporting the traditional full-length white Emirati robe worn by men.   "Camping is very popular in the UAE, but when you want to bring the family it becomes more complicated," he added, at a campsite in Hatta, near the Omani border.   "But here, safety and comfort are provided for."

- A room with... a bed -
Camping is still a beloved way of life for many Emiratis, who take their equipment and head for the desert from the fall months onwards, when the scorching summer heat has faded.    Tourists and expat residents also increasingly opt to escape the hustle and bustle of the city.

Dubai welcomed a record 15.9 million visitors in 2018, many of whom were drawn to its mega malls, luxurious hotels and pristine beaches.   It hopes to push the figure up to 20 million visitors annually by next year, when it hosts the six-month global trade fair, Expo 2020.    The mountainous eastern Hatta desert has lots to offer "glampers" with a taste for adventure but also for their home comforts.   Near the Hatta dam, campers have a choice between a trailer, caravan or five-star lodge fully equipped with TVs and power points for charging a smartphone.

Seated outside a trailer, Jamil Fahmy, a Dubai resident from Saudi Arabia, said glamping was the perfect way to escape the city without compromising on hygiene.    "It's fun, with the fire and hanging with friends and all that, but I personally prefer to sleep in a room with a bed and a private bathroom, and that's what we get here," he told AFP.    "It's great to be an adventurer and explore and cook fireside, and that's what we did.   "But when the time came, we retreated into the beautiful room and slept on a bed."

- 'Five-star camping' -
Rooms with modern amenities, including bathrooms and beds, start from 400 dirhams (about $110, 100 euros) per night at the Hatta site, which opened in October.    The Hatta camping project, part of Dubai's plan to use tourism to diversify revenues, is also home to a 350-metre zip wire.   Last year, Dubai faced a downturn in the real-estate market due to a supply glut, while oil prices also dropped, affecting the UAE as a whole.    Several glamping sites, some on the beach, have popped up across the UAE in recent years, with options to participate in yoga classes, star gazing or kayaking.

For Jay, a 37-year-old Briton, glamping offers a new experience after a decade in the UAE.    "We're fairly outdoorsy, we came here kayaking before, we did the big zip line," he told AFP, referring to the Hatta zip wire.    But, he added with a laugh that with the usual no-frills style of camping "you haven't got a shower or all the facilities" so glamping is a welcome step-up.   "You get the outdoors and all of that, and nature, and you can barbeque -- but you can also have a shower and get clean!   "It's not five-star hoteling, but five-star camping."
Date: 30 Jan 2019
From: Taiichiro Kobayashi <tkobayashi@cick.jp> [edited]

Two women who returned to Japan from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) were diagnosed with dengue fever (DF). They could be the 1st reported cases of DF infected in the UAE. They live in Japan and travelled together to the UAE from 29 Dec 2018 to 4 Jan 2019. During their stay in the UAE, they mostly stayed in Dubai and were bitten by mosquitoes several times.

They came to Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital on 16 Jan 2019. A 32-year-old woman and a 29-year-old woman complained of high fever for 6 and 4 days, respectively. One revealed an erythematous rash on her trunk, face and extremities, and their tourniquet test results were positive. Their blood examinations revealed leukocytopenia, thrombocytopenia and mild liver dysfunction.

Although the UAE is not known as an endemic country of DF, we suspected the women of having DF because of their history, physical examination and laboratory test results. We performed a rapid diagnostic test of DF (SD BIOLINE Dengue DUO), and their results of non-structural protein 1 (NS1) antigen were positive. Furthermore, dengue virus serotype 3 (DENV-3) genotype III genome was detected from both of their sera with real-time RT-PCR and following viral genome sequence analysis at the Laboratory of Arboviruses, National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID), Japan.

These 2 cases may be a signal of the emergence of DF in the UAE, where urbanization progresses and many travellers and immigrants from DF-endemic countries are being accepted.
===============================
Taiichiro Kobayashi
Department of Infectious Diseases
Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome
Hospital
Tokyo, Japan
<tkobayashi@cick.jp>

Yuya Atsuta, Masaru Tanaka, Kazuaki Fukushima, Keishiro Yajima and Akifumi Imamura
Department of Infectious Diseases
Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital Tokyo, Japan

Takahiro Maeki, Shigeru Tajima, Satoshi Taniguchi, Masayuki Saijo and Chang-Kweng Lim
Department of Virology I, National Institute of Infectious Diseases Tokyo, Japan

[ProMED thanks the colleagues from Japan for sharing this important update on imported dengue fever cases, which were serotyped as DENV-3, from the UAE into Japan.

The worldwide distribution of dengue is expanding, in part due to globalized traffic and trade. _Aedes albopictus_ is a competent vector for dengue viruses (DENV) and is now established in numerous regions of the world. Travellers with viraemia arriving in any country from dengue-affected areas of the world can become proponents of local outbreaks. The above report also highlights the importance of considering dengue in differential diagnosis of fever with suggestive blood picture even in cases presenting in nonendemic areas. - ProMED Mod.UBA]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail maps:
United Arab Emirates: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/132]
Date: Wed 5 Sep 2018
Source: BBC [edited]

A total of 19 people have been taken ill after an Emirates airline plane landed in New York, officials say. The plane was quarantined at JFK airport as those on board were checked by health officials. As many as 10 were taken to hospital but others refused treatment.

The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) said that initially about 100 people including some crew had complained of illness. Flight 203 from Dubai landed at 09:10 (13.10 GMT) with 521 passengers.

Emergency vehicles were seen on the runway as it landed. Soon afterwards, Emirates airline tweeted that the sick passengers were being attended to and those who were unaffected would be allowed to leave the plane.

The CDC said in a statement that is was "aware of an Emirates flight from Dubai that arrived this morning at JFK".

"Approximately 100 passengers, including some crew on the flight, complained of illness including cough and some with fever.

"CDC public health officers are working with... officials to evaluate passengers including taking temperatures and making arrangements for transport to local hospitals those that need care."

Later Eric Phillips, spokesman for New York Mayor Bill de Blasio, confirmed that all the passengers were off the plane and the sick people had been taken to hospital.

He said that some of the passengers had originally come from the Saudi Arabian city of Mecca, which was currently experiencing a flu outbreak, and that the passengers' symptoms were "pointing to the flu".
Date: Mon 28 May 2018
Source: EMPRES-I (Global Animal Disease Information System) [edited]

According to an EMPRESS report issued today [Mon 28 May 2018], there was a human case of MERS-CoV infection confirmed by PCR testing in Gayathi, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. This report was based on an OIE report.

No further information was provided.
=====================
[The most recent confirmed human MERS-CoV infection in the UAE was reported in December 2017 and involved an Omani camel herder who was identified as an asymptomatic infection. This was detected as part of border screening of camels on entry to the UAE following the detection of positive MERS-CoV infection in the camels (see MERS-CoV (01): Malaysia (ex KSA), Saudi Arabia, UAE (ex Oman) http://promedmail.org/post/20180102.5532148).

I was unable to find more information on the case mentioned in the EMPRES report above, from either the HAAD (Health Authority of Abu Dhabi) website, or the OIE or EMPRES websites. Questions that come to mind include: demographics (age, sex); clinical picture (was this based on clinical illness in the human or was this part of screening after identification of MERS-CoV infected camels entering the UAE (where screening is typically done); possible high risk exposures (either contact with camels, contact with other known cases, contact with the health sector before onset of illness, or history of travel to other geographic areas where MERS-CoV circulation is known).

More information from knowledgeable sources would be greatly appreciated.

The HealthMap/ProMED map of the UAE can be found at:
Date: Thu 21 Sep 2017
Source: Eurosurveillance Edition 2017, 22(38) [edited]

ref: Dabrera G, Brandsema P, Lofdahl M, et al. Increase in legionnaires' disease cases associated with travel to Dubai among travellers from the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Netherlands, October 2016 to end August 2017. Euro Surveill. 2017; 22(38): pii=30618.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Abstract
--------
Between 1 Oct 2016 and 31 Aug 2017, 51 legionnaires' disease (LD) cases from the United Kingdom (UK), Sweden, and the Netherlands were identified with associated travel to Dubai. Cases did not all stay in the same accommodation, indicating that no single accommodation could be the source for all these infections. While local investigations continue into other potential sources, clinicians should remain alert to the possibility of LD among travellers returning from Dubai with respiratory illness.

Introduction
------------
In December 2016, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) reported an increase in legionnaires' disease (LD) cases associated with travel to Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE) [1] based on cases reported to ELDSNet (European legionnaires' disease surveillance network), an ECDC-operated surveillance system among European Union (EU) countries, Iceland, and Norway [2] for laboratory-confirmed, travel-associated LD (TALD) cases who stayed in commercial accommodation site(s) (such as hotels) during the 2-10-day incubation period.

As this increase in Dubai-associated TALD cases continues, we describe cases reported with symptom onset between 1 Oct 2016 and 31 Aug 2017 among residents from the UK, Sweden, and the Netherlands (the 3 countries that were initially reporting the largest numbers of cases). We describe the ongoing situation as at 18 Sep 2017 to provide further insight into the observed increase and create awareness among physicians and travellers returning with compatible symptoms to consider legionella as a differential diagnosis [1].

[The full Eurosurveillance article can be accessed at the source URL above. - ProMED Mod.ML]
====================
[Dubai is one of the 7 emirates and the most populous city of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) (<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dubai>). Dubai has become a popular tourist destination. It is said to be the 4th most visited city in world, with over 15 million visitors in 2016, after London, Paris, and Bangkok (<https://www.khaleejtimes.com/listicles/dubai-worlds-fourth-most-popular-destination-in-2016>).

Overnight visitors in Dubai spent almost USD 11 billion in 2014

Dubai can be located on the HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map at

In 2009, ProMED-mail first reported legionnaires' disease in 3 travellers to Dubai, one of whom from the UK died (Legionellosis, fatal, hotel - United Arab Emirates: (Dubai) http://promedmail.org/post/20090205.0509). In December 2016, ProMED-mail reported an increase in the number of cases of legionnaires' disease in 2016, compared with previous years, in European travelers returning from Dubai, with 26 cases having their onset of illness since 1 Oct 2016 (Legionellosis - EU: EU travellers, ex United Arab Emirates (Dubai) susp http://promedmail.org/post/20161230.4733569). In June 2017, ProMED-mail reported that an additional 34 cases among European travelers to Dubai, with the most recent case becoming ill in May 2017, suggesting an ongoing exposure risk (Legionellosis - Europe (03): ex United Arab Emirates (Dubai) http://promedmail.org/post/20170602.5079438).

According to the Eurosurveillance report above on 51 legionnaires' disease cases with symptom onset between 1 Oct 2016 and 31 Aug 2017, from the UK, Sweden, and the Netherlands associated with travel to Dubai, of 43 cases staying in commercial accommodation only 15 stayed in sites where there were 2 or more cases, whereas 27 stayed in sites where there were no other cases. In addition, 3 of the 51 cases were associated with a foreign-travel related cluster in other countries.

Of the 51 cases of legionnaires' disease, 50 were infected by organisms speciated as _Legionella pneumophila_. However, the serogroup was known for only 16 cases: 13 of the 16 were serogroup 1, 2 were serogroup 13 and 1 was serogroup 2-14. Sequence-based typing (ST) was available for only 9 cases: 6 cases were ST616, and 3 cases were ST1327. ST616 was only observed in cases associated with travel to Dubai and ST1327 was associated with travel to Dubai for all but one case. Furthermore, 11 cases spent their entire incubation period in Dubai. These findings supported the assertion that at least some of these infections occurred within Dubai. However, the cases for whom sequence-based typing was available were all linked to different accommodations sites.

No increase in pneumonia notifications occurred locally in Dubai between October and December 2016, which suggested an environmental _Legionella_ source in Dubai that might have been frequented more often by foreign travelers than by local residents. Another explanation was that the local Dubai population is predominantly young, with only 8.7 percent in the 50 years or older age group in 2016, and therefore potentially at lower risk for legionnaires' disease than foreign travelers. Also, the investigators noted that the increase in cases of legionnaires' disease among European travelers to Dubai could not be fully explained by an increase in the number of European travelers to Dubai, but so far no environmental sources have been identified in Dubai. - ProMED Mod.ML]
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Botswana

Botswana - US Consular Information Sheet
August 29, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Botswana is a country in southern Africa with a stable democratic government and a growing economy. Facilities for tourism are widely available. Read the Departm
nt of State Background Notes on Botswana for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: A passport with at least six months of validity remaining is required. U.S. citizens are permitted stays up to 90 days without a visa. For additional information on entry requirements, travelers may contact the Embassy of the Republic of Botswana, 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036, telephone (202) 244-4990/1, fax (202) 244-4164 or the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Botswana to the United Nations, 103 E. 37th St., New York, NY, 10016, telephone (212) 889-2277, fax (212) 725-5061. There are also honorary consuls in Los Angeles, San Francisco and Houston. Visit the Embassy of Botswana’s web site at http://www.botswanaembassy.org/ for the most current visa information. As a general precaution, all travelers are advised to carry a photocopy of the photo/bio information page of their passport and keep it in a location separate from the passport.

Visitors to Botswana who also intend to visit South Africa should be advised that the passports of all travelers to South Africa must contain at least two blank (unstamped) visa pages each time entry to South Africa is sought; these pages are in addition to the endorsement/amendment pages at the back of the passport. Otherwise, the traveler, even when in possession of a valid South African visa, may be refused entry into South Africa, fined, and returned to their point of origin at the traveler’s expense.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site. For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.
SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Civil unrest and disorder are rare. U.S. citizens should avoid crowds, political rallies, and street demonstrations and maintain security awareness at all times.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphletA Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME: Crime is a serious concern in Botswana. Visitors must be vigilant and take common-sense security precautions. The criminal threat is very similar to that of any large urban area. Petty street crime and crimes of opportunity, primarily the theft of money and personal property, are not uncommon. Home invasions ‘smash and grabs’ from vehicles, and cell phone thefts, often at knife point, are routinely reported to the police. Visitors should use care when talking on a cell phone while walking. Urban areas are particularly dangerous at night; pedestrians are advised to avoid walking in Gaborone and other urban areas in Botswana at night. Except for visits to the Gaborone Yacht Club during daylight hours, U.S. Embassy personnel are prohibited from traveling to the area surrounding the Gaborone Dam and to the Kgale Hill area, a popular Gaborone hiking venue, because of multiple incidents of violent crime. American citizens are urged to avoid these areas.

Travelers arriving in Botswana via South Africa should be aware that there is a serious baggage pilferage problem at OR Tambo (Johannesburg) and Cape Town International Airports. Travelers are encouraged to use an airport plastic wrapping service and to avoid placing electronics, jewelry, cameras, designer athletic gear, or other valuables in checked luggage. Also, make an inventory of items in checked baggage to aid in claims processing if theft does occur.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

Botswana has three numbers equivalent to the “911” emergency line. For police assistance, dial “999.” For an ambulance, dial “997.” In the event of a fire, dial “998.”

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Medical facilities in Gaborone are adequate for simple medical problems, but facilities outside of Gaborone are limited. Adequately equipped emergency rooms and trained physicians are available in the capital but services are rudimentary elsewhere. Professional private emergency rescue services operate air and ground ambulances throughout the country, but care is rendered only after a patient’s ability to pay is established. Response times are often slow in less populated areas. Outside of Gaborone, most airports are either not equipped or have frequently malfunctioning night lighting capability, so airborne medical evacuations can usually only be conducted during daylight hours. Malaria is prevalent only in the north of the country, particularly around the Chobe and Okavango National Parks. Malaria prophylaxis is not required in Gaborone but is suggested for travel to the north. For advanced care Americans often choose to travel to South Africa. Many South African manufactured prescription drugs are available in Gaborone.

Approximately one-quarter of the population of Botswana is infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Travelers are advised to exercise appropriate precautions if engaging in sexual activity, or if exposed to blood products through injuries or rendering assistance to accident victims. Tuberculosis is also endemic to Botswana. Two cases of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) have been identified in Botswana since January 2008 when Botswana first obtained the ability to test for this form of TB. Individuals who plan to reside or stay in Botswana for extended periods are advised to obtain a tuberculosis skin test (PPD test) prior to arrival and again upon departure from Botswana.

There are occasional diarrhea outbreaks in areas affected by heavy rains. Travelers are encouraged to take necessary precautions when handling food and drinking water.

The Department of Immigration of Botswana does not impose any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Botswana.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Botswana is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Driving in Botswana is challenging and motorists must drive defensively. Traffic circulates on the left in Botswana, as elsewhere in the region. While the roads in major population centers in Botswana are generally good, many roads have been damaged by heavy rains in December and January. Travel by automobile outside of large towns may be dangerous. The combination of long, tedious stretches of two-lane highways without shoulders, high speed limits, and poor lighting make driving at night on rural highways particularly hazardous. Recent rolling power outages mean that many traffic lights and street lamps do not work properly. Free-range domestic animals, even in urban centers, and large numbers of pedestrians and hitchhikers in the roadways make fatal accidents a frequent occurrence.

‘Smash and grab’ robberies from vehicles are not uncommon in Botswana, particularly in urban areas at traffic lights. Motorists should avoid carrying anything of value (hand bags, briefcases, purses, cell phones, etc.) in the passenger compartment that could attract potential assailants.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. Visit the web site of Botswana’s national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at http://www.botswana-tourism.gov.bw.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Botswana, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Botswana’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Since February 2008, rolling electric power outages have left many areas without power for several hours each week. This situation is likely to continue. Visitors are urged to carry flashlights. American citizens are also urged to be aware of how power outages might affect home security systems, garage doors and gates, and kitchen equipment, such as stoves and refrigerators. The power fluctuations could cause power surges that might harm computers, televisions, or other electrical appliances.

Botswana strictly enforces its laws controlling the trade in animal products. The hunting of lions is explicitly prohibited and leopards and elephants are covered under a strict quota regime. Botswana's Wildlife Conservation and National Parks Act makes it illegal to possess or remove from Botswana without a government permit any living or dead animal or animal trophy. A trophy is any horn, ivory, tooth, tusk, bone, claw, hoof, hide, skin, hair, feather, egg, or other durable portion of an animal, whether the item has been processed or not. Curio shops and vendors throughout the country sell items such as animal skins, plain and decorated ostrich eggs and eggshells, and carved bones or teeth of animals protected by this law. All of the souvenirs, although widely sold, are subject to this act. Travelers departing the country with a trophy must have a receipt from a store licensed to sell such items. Ivory and endangered rhinoceros horn products obtained in Botswana may not be removed from the country under any circumstances; elephant hair jewelry may be removed only with the appropriate license from the Department of Wildlife and National Parks. Trophies may not be taken from the wild without a permit. Violators are subject to arrest and may face a penalty of up to five years imprisonment and a substantial fine.

Wild animals may pose a danger to tourists. Tourists should bear in mind that, even in the most serene settings, the animals are wild and can pose a threat to life and safety. Tourists should use common sense when approaching wildlife, observe all local or park regulations, and heed all instructions given by tour guides. In addition, tourists are advised that potentially dangerous areas sometimes lack fences and warning signs. Exercise appropriate caution in all unfamiliar surroundings. Please see our Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Botswana’s laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Botswana are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Botswana are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Botswana. Americans withoutInternet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located in Gaborone on Embassy Drive in the Government Enclave. The mailing address is P.O. Box 90, Gaborone, telephone +267 395-3982; fax +267 318-0232; email consulargaborone@state.gov, and the after-hours emergency telephone is +267 395-7111.
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information for Botswana dated March 5, 2008, to update the sections on Information for Victims of Crime and Medical Facilities and Health Information.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Wed 15 Nov 2017 20:00 pm (GMT +2)
Source: MMEGI online [edited]

Dozens of Nthompe Koma Primary School pupils on Monday night [13 Nov 2017] thronged Mahalapye health facilities following a food poisoning incident allegedly caused by rape they ate at school.

Classes came to a halt yesterday [14 Nov 2017] as more students showed signs of food poisoning while health workers were present at the school and hospital to establish what could have caused the incident that led to at least 26 pupils being admitted at Mahalapye Hospital. According to a source, it is suspected that the students were fed rape, which was recently sprayed with pesticides.

"The students started vomiting and having diarrhoea at their homes after school. A huge number of them were rushed to the hospital and it was said that the newly treated vegetable was given to them," the source said.

Mahalapye Hospital Superintendent, Dr Kumal Bose said they are yet to establish the cause of diarrhoea and vomiting, whether it is the food they ate or not. "We attended to a total of 82 students of whom 26 were admitted and others discharged. More students were coming in this morning [15 Nov 2017].

We have sent our public health team to the school to investigate all possible causes," he said. Mahalapye chief education officer,

Maria Dikeme [Principal Education Officer] confirmed the incident. "It is true that a lot of students from the school were taken to various health facilities yesterday [14 Nov 2017].

The students were fed sorghum and rape at break time and the sorghum has been taken for tests by the public health team. All of the rape was cooked yesterday. We will, however, go to the source if there is still any left so that it can be tested," she said.

Dikeme said more students were taken to the hospital the following day as some developed signs late.

"We do not have a certain number currently, but we have recorded over 100 cases with 11 pupils still admitted at the hospital," she said.

She said they kept the pupils within the school so they could monitor them rather than sending them home while parents are at work.

Dikeme said there were some pupils who were in school yesterday [14 Nov 2017] who were not affected and that there was no report of any adult person having been diagnosed with the same problem.  [Byline: Innocent Selatlhwa]
===================
[Rape seed and soybeans are both grains. This article says a possible pesticide. The class of chemicals causing these clinical signs would be organophosphates. Grains are often treated with chemicals to prevent insect infestation and ruination of the crop. Therefore it is possible an organophosphate was used on the grain, and not washed or cleaned before being put into human consumption, could produce vomiting and diarrhoea. These could be signs associated with organophosphates. There are likely other crop chemicals capable of producing this, but the organophosphate class is large with numerous chemicals.

The article does not tell us if the pupils are being treated or if they are, what they are being treated with.

Consequently, the results of the testing is very important. Hopefully the testing will reveal the cause of this situation. - ProMED Mod.TG]

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
Date: Tue 10 Oct 2017 15:55 pm (GMT + 2)
Source: MmegiOnline [edited]

The Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP) has noted a high number of dead hippopotamuses along the Okavango River near Mohembo.

A statement from the from DWNP says the carcases are floating in the river from Namibia into Botswana. "The cause of death is not known at the moment. The veterinarians are working hard to establish it," says the statement.

The public is therefore warned not to touch any carcass found along the river or anywhere else. "Eating meat of these animals will be very dangerous as Anthrax is suspected to be causing the mortalities. Any sightings are to be reported to the nearest DWNP office, police station or kgotla".
=====================
[Mohembo is on the Botswana/Namibian border, and the Okavango river comes straight from the Bwabwata NP; see:

According to Wikipedia: "Before it enters Botswana, the river drops 4 metres in a series of rapids known as Popa Falls, visible when the river is low, as during the dry season." [<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Okavango_River>] So these carcasses may be poor condition. But either way, the warning to the locals not to butcher them is very wise. - ProMED Mod.MHJ]

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
Date: Mon 10 Apr 2017
Source: The Southern Times [edited]

The recent heavy rains which pounded most parts of Botswana resulting in the outbreak of malaria are likely to reverse the gains that the southern African nation had achieved in the fight against the scourge.

Recently, a release from the African Leaders Malaria Alliance (ALMA) stated that Botswana was among 8 other African countries that have shown commitment and innovation in the fight against the disease and were honoured by ALMA. "The progress in Botswana shows what is possible when a country and its leaders make malaria a priority," the release quoted Joy Phumaphi, executive secretary of ALMA as saying.

However, assistant minister of health and wellness, Phillip Makgalemele, told the parliament last week [3 to 9 Apr 2017] that due to the heavy rains, Botswana is experiencing an increase in the number of reported malaria cases. In February this year [2017], Botswana had recorded 5 cases of malaria deaths. But Makgalemele stated that the number has risen to 7. "By the beginning of this month [March 2017], we had recorded 627 cases and 7 deaths. About 60 per cent of these cases are from Okavango District," he said, adding that the country has also recorded sporadic cases from non-endemic malaria districts in southern Botswana.

According to Makgalemele, malaria transmission period runs from around October to early May. "Annually, in preparation for this season, my ministry conducts integrated vector control interventions, public education, community mobilisation and capacity building. Drug and commodity availability are also ensured," he said. He explained that, based on the early warning of normal to above normal rainfall this year [2017] by the Meteorological Services, his ministry intensified its efforts to prepare for the eventuality of a possible outbreak.

"We have been monitoring stock levels of our anti-malarials at both Central Medical Stores (CMS) and our health facilities. Most of our health facilities have adequate stock levels of 1st line anti-malarials," said the assistant minister. However, Makgalemele said a few District Health Management Teams (DHMTs) have recently reported shortage of quinine injection, which is used for severe cases. He further added that they are expecting a 2nd consignment and additional stocks of this drug and other anti-malarials were expected in the coming weeks to cater for the increase in cases.

"Central Medical Stores is monitoring the situation by contacting DHMTs on a daily basis to monitor anti-malarials and anti-diarrhoeal. There has been no staff redistribution based on the outbreak. The National Malaria Control Programme has trained trainers of trainers from all our health districts on malaria case management to train the rest of the staff in their respective districts," he said. Makgalemele said the country-wide training was to strengthen case management of health care workers in both Malaria and non-malaria endemic areas.

"Specifically for this particular outbreak, national teams have been dispatched to monitor the situation in the affected districts. Our entomologists are also on the ground supporting the case investigations," he said. He highlighted that all DHMTs have malaria epidemic response teams. "During outbreaks, as is the case, these teams have been reactivated and are meeting on a weekly basis to assess the situation," he said.

He said due to high population mobility and standing water pools, sporadic cases of malaria can occur in non-endemic areas. My ministry has bought 2325 long lasting insecticidal mosquito nets (LLINS) which continue to be distributed in malaria endemic districts," he said. In addition he commented that all these nets have and were being distributed in the endemic areas adding that for the quarter ending December 2016, the average drug availability was 86.5 per cent.  [byline: Mpho Tebele]
================
[There has been an increase in malaria cases in South Africa, Botswana and Namibia in recent months following heavy rains (see ProMED-mail reports). These do strain drug supplies where artemisinin-combination therapy is the key treatment, acting rapidly and administered orally. Insecticide treated nets (ITNs) have been a huge success throughout Africa and their introduction is believed to be the main intervention responsible for the decrease in malaria mortality observed over the past 2 decades. - ProMED Mod.EP]

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
Date: Mon, 3 Apr 2017 22:44:47 +0200

Gaborone, Botswana, April 3, 2017 (AFP) - A strong earthquake with a magnitude of 6.5 struck the southern African nation of Botswana on Monday, US seismologists said, with the tremor felt in several neighbouring countries.    The epicentre of the quake, which hit at 7:40 pm (1740 GMT), was in a sparsely populated area 238 kilometres (about 150 miles) northwest of Botswana's capital Gaborone, the US Geological Survey said.

It struck at a depth of 29 kilometres, and rumbled throughout the capital for about 30 seconds, an AFP correspondent said.   In a statement published on social media late Monday, the government of Botswana said no deaths had been reported.   "We felt the house was vibrating, all the window and door panels shaking heavily. We went outside and felt the same," a resident of Letlhakane, a village in Botswana near the epicentre, told the Earthquake Report website.   The quake was also felt in several cities in South Africa as well as in Swaziland and Zimbabwe, several hundreds of kilometres from the epicentre,
witnesses said.

In central Johannesburg, two buildings were evacuated as a precaution, according to media reports.   "My whole bed was shaking. It was so scary. I didn't know what was happening," a resident of Durban, on the southeast coast of South Africa, told the News24 agency.   Earlier Monday, a smaller quake with a magnitude of 4.6 was recorded in north-western South Africa.   Strong earthquakes are rare in southern Africa, though in 2006 Mozambique was hit by a 7.5-magnitude quake that killed four people and injured 29.
Date: Mon 20 Mar 2017, 10:45 AM
Source: News24, a Traveller24 report [edited]

Travellers heading to Botswana or those who find themselves in Limpopo need to ensure they take the correct preventative measures as a warning have been issued for high levels of malaria in both of these regions.

The Ministry of Health and Wellness for Botswana has issued a warning that the country is experiencing high levels of malaria, following the recent heavy rains. "There have been increases in the number of cases in Okavango, Ngami, Chobe, Boteti, Tutume and Bobirwa. Travel agents are advised to warn their clients to seek medical advice 2 weeks before travelling to malarial areas."

The Limpopo Health Department [South Africa] has also announced an increase in the number or reported malaria cases in the province, particularly around Lephalale and Thabazimbi [both in Limpopo District, South Africa].

News24 reports the Limpopo health department on [Tue 14 Mar 2017] confirmed at least 46 cases of malaria had been reported in the western Waterberg district around Lephalale and Thabazimbi. The department's spokesperson Thabiso Teffo stated no fatalities had been reported. "It is an area that does not normally have malaria mosquitoes. We also worried that 70 percent of the cases reported were people who had not travelled. It means they had contracted malaria in the area they stay." Teffo said the department started spraying insecticide and informed residents and doctors.

However it is important to note that the department says it is "not an outbreak. It's malaria season". The concern is that the cases are uncommon because it's an area where we don't expect malaria.  [Byline: Selene Brophy]
======================
[The report mentions districts in both Botswana and South Africa. The main increase in the number of cases is in the Limpopo District, South Africa. The Limpopo District is bordering Botswana explaining the alert from the Botswana health authorities. The report also mentions the recent heavy rains in the region and ProMED has recently reported increased number of cases in northern Namibia as well as 3 fatal cases of malaria in Gauteng Province, South Africa. - ProMED Mod.EP]

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
More ...

World Travel News Headlines

Date: Wed, 22 May 2019 16:52:39 +0200
By Nazeer al-Khatib with Hashem Osseiran in Beirut

Maaret al-Numan, Syria, May 22, 2019 (AFP) - Syrian government air strikes killed 18 civilians, including a dozen people at a busy market, as fierce fighting raged for the jihadist-held northwest, a war monitor said on Wednesday.   Regime forces battled to repel a jihadist counteroffensive around the town of Kafr Nabuda that has left 70 combatants dead in 24 hours, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said.   The Hayat Tahrir al-Sham alliance, led by Syria's former Al-Qaeda affiliate, controls a large part of Idlib province as well as adjacent slivers of Aleppo, Hama and Latakia provinces.   The jihadist-dominated region is nominally protected by a buffer zone deal, but the government and its ally Russia have escalated their bombardment in recent weeks, seizing several towns on its southern flank.   At least 12 people were killed and another 18 wounded when regime warplanes hit the jihadist-held Idlib province town of Maarat al-Numan around midnight (2100 GMT) on Tuesday, the Observatory said.

The market was crowded with people out and about after breaking the daytime fast observed by Muslims during the holy month of Ramadan.   The bombardment blew in the facades of surrounding buildings, and ripped through the flimsy frames and canvas of stalls in the market square, an AFP photographer reported.    The bodies of market-goers were torn apart.   "Residents are still scared," stallholder Khaled Ahmad told AFP.   Three more civilians were killed on Wednesday by air strikes in the nearby town of Saraqib, the Observatory said.    Two others were killed in strikes on the town of Maaret Hermeh, it added.    Another civilian was killed in air raids on the town of Jisr al-Shughur, the monitor said.   The Britain-based Observatory relies on a network of sources inside Syria and says it determines whose planes carried out strikes according to type, location, flight patterns and munitions.

- 'Worst fears'-
The strikes came as heavy clashes raged in neighbouring Hama province after the jihadists launched a counterattack on Tuesday.   Fresh fighting on Wednesday took the death toll to 70 -- 36 regime forces and militia and 34 jihadists, the Observatory said.   It said the jihadists had recaptured most of Kafr Nabuda from government forces, who had taken control of the town on May 8.   State news agency SANA on Wednesday however said the army repelled a jihadist attack in the area, killing dozens of insurgents.

Russia and rebel ally Turkey inked the buffer zone deal in September to avert a government offensive on the region and protect its three million residents.   But President Bashar al-Assad's government upped its bombardment of the region after HTS took control in January.   Russia too has stepped up its air strikes in recent weeks.   The Observatory says nearly 200 civilians have been killed in the flare-up since April 30.   The United Nations said Wednesday that Idlib's civilian population once again faced the threat of an all-out offensive.   "A full military incursion threatens to trigger a humanitarian catastrophe for over 3 million civilians caught in the crossfire, as well as overwhelm our ability to respond," said David Swanson, a spokesman for the UN humanitarian office.   Swanson said more than 200,000 people have been displaced by the upsurge of violence since April 28.   A total of 20 health facilities have been hit by the escalation -- 19 of which remain out of service, Swanson said.   Collectively they served at least 200,000 people, he added.

- 'Break the status quo' -
The September deal was never fully implemented as jihadists refused to withdraw from a planned buffer zone around the Idlib region.   But it ushered in a relative drop in violence until earlier this year, with Turkish troops deploying to observation points around the region.   The Syrian government has accused Turkey of failing to secure implementation of the truce deal by the jihadists.   But Turkish Defence Minister Hulusi Akar accused the Syrian regime late Tuesday of threatening the ceasefire deal.   "The regime is doing all that it can to break the status quo including using barrel bombs, land and air offensives," Akar told reporters.   "Turkish armed forces will not take a step back from wherever they may be", he however added.   Earlier, the US State Department said it was assessing indications that the government had used chemical weapons on Sunday during its offensive in Idlib.   HTS accused government forces of launching a chlorine gas attack on its fighters in the northern mountains of Latakia.   But the Observatory said Wednesday it had "no proof at all of the attack".
Date: Wed, 22 May 2019 02:06:35 +0200
By Amelie BARON

Port-au-Prince, May 22, 2019 (AFP) - With no oxygen in intensive care or gloves in the emergency room, residents at Haiti's largest hospital have gone on strike to protest the filthy environment and demand six months of back pay.   "We have almost nothing when we talk about emergency services," said Emmanuel Desrosiers, 24, one of the doctors-in-training at the State University of Haiti Hospital (HUEH) that began the work stoppage Monday.    "When a patient arrives, when we should immediately take charge, we start by listing the things they or their family need to go buy."   The HUEH, known as the "general hospital," is where the most disadvantaged families in this impoverished Caribbean country crowd. Buying the medical supplies themselves is a financial headache, but private clinics are far too expensive.   In crumbling buildings in the center of Port-au-Prince, male and female patients are crowded together in tiny rooms, while trash cans overflow.   "We feel ridiculous when we give hygienic advice to patients," one resident said of the situation.

The residents' selflessness as they work in an unsanitary environment is compounded by the fact that they have not been paid since the start of their residency, nearly six months ago.   After five years of medical studies, the state is required to pay them 9,000 Haitian gourdes (HTG) per month -- only about $100, due to the devaluation of the national currency.   Nothing is being done about the hospital's disrepair, with those in charge waiting for a new building to be completed, according to resident Yveline Michel.   The new HUEH will have two floors and more than 530 beds once it's finished -- but it's unclear when that will be.   The project began after the January 2010 earthquake, which destroyed more than half the hospital. The United States, France and Haiti invested $83 million in a new hospital, which should have been completed by 2016.   Instead, there is little visible activity on the construction site, which can be seen through the windows of the current building.

Due to the heat, the windows are always open, letting in noise and dust from the street. There are only a few fans in the hospital rooms, which do little to combat the humidity or the flies.   "At any moment we could lose patients, but the state isn't doing anything to save their lives," said Michel, 25.   "We're striking for the population, since it should make these demands."   But some locals question the residents' position because the strike prevents the already struggling hospital from functioning.   Since the strike began, the poorest families in the area no longer know where to go for medical emergencies, as the residents are in charge of admitting patients.   "Due to the lack of resources and the unsanitary environment, there are always people dying in the hospital, so it's not the strike causing that," said Michel in response.
Date: Tue 21 May 2019
Source: Le Dauphin [in French, trans., edited]

Lovers of sushi, maki, sashimi, and other raw fish, beware of your stomach! 7 cases of fish tapeworm, better known as tapeworm [ProMED presumes it is Diphyllobothrium latum], have been reported in 2 years by the Rennes hospital in Ille-et-Vilaine [Brittany].

An exceptional number of cases was counted between July 2016 and September 2018, especially since no case had been detected for at least 20 years.

The infection is acquired by "eating raw or marinated fish which contains larvae of this parasite. The larvae will undergo several moults and develop in our digestive tract," explained Professor Florence Robert-Gangneux to our colleagues in France Bleu Armorique.

The parasite can measure up to 20 meters [66 ft] long and live 10 years in the body. The fish tapeworm can cause digestive disorders, deficiencies, although some patients do not notice.

The only solution to eliminate these parasites of the fish is freezing. This is what a 2004 European regulation imposes on restaurant owners serving raw fish. Freezing should be from -20 deg C [-4 deg F] during 24 hours or -35 deg C [-31 deg F] during 15 hours. And to get rid of the worm once ingested, it is necessary to undergo an unpleasant antiparasitic treatment, often on several occasions.
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[We presume it is the fish tapeworm _Diphyllobothrium latum_, which is a tapeworm found in freshwater fish (<https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/diphyllobothrium/index.html>). In saltwater fish the most common parasite is _Anisakis_, but this is not a tapeworm. - ProMED Mod.EP]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of France:
Date: Mon 20 May 2019
Source: El Pais [in Spanish, trans. Mod.TY, edited]

Tarija Departmental Health Services (SEDES) reported a new case of hantavirus [infection] in Padcaya municipality. The number of patients with this illness is within what is expected, because this season is when more people acquire the disease. Epidemiological surveillance is continuing in Arce province. The person who acquired this illness is male and is under medical care until his recuperation.

The head of the Epidemiological Unit of SEDES, Claudia Montenegro, stated that the patient is hospitalized in the San Juan de Dios Regional Hospital in Tarija awaiting his recuperation. The physician said that in Bermejo and Padcaya municipalities, the harvest of citrus fruit and sugar cane for production of sugar has begun, so there is a trend for the cases of this illness to increase. This is due to the large number of families that move to the countryside where the rodent (long tail) is present that transmits this disease [virus].

"In contrast to previous seasons, this year [2019], there were positives for this disease in Gran Chaco province, including fatalities," Montenegro commented. "Epidemiological surveillance there is being implemented, as well as in areas such as Padcaya and Bermejo."

The official explained that in these localities, the rodent that transmits the disease [virus] to families is present, and with agricultural activities, [people] move into places where this animal lives, and so new cases of patients with hantavirus [infections] are registered every year.

In order to prevent this illness, it is recommended that rodent control campaigns be done to reduce their populations, openings in houses be sealed, and that residents reduce the possibility for rodents to make nests within a radius of 30 meters [100 ft] around the house, and eliminate items that could attract these animals near the house (food, grain, garbage). Workers should employ protective measures during agricultural tasks and cleaning work.

Initial symptoms include fatigue, fever and muscle pain, especially in the thighs, hips and back. Also, patients may present with headache, dizziness, chills, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. [These symptoms may progress rapidly to respiratory difficulty requiring mechanical ventilation (hantavirus cardio pulmonary syndrome). Death can occur. - ProMED Mod.TY]
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[The hantavirus involved in the above cases is not mentioned. Cases of hantavirus infections in Tarija department are not new. Tarija department is endemic for hantaviruses, and cases occur there sporadically. Last year (2018), there were 11 cases. The previouslyreported 2015 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) that occurred in Tarija department were confirmed. As noted in the previous comments, earlier cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome have been reported from tropical, lowland areas of Bolivia, including 7 cases in Tarija during 2014. The specific hantaviruses involved in these or previous cases in Bolivia were not given.

In the lowland Amazon Basin of Bolivia, the rodent hosts of the hantavirus that might be involved in these hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases, with their images, include the following: - Laguna Negra virus (_Calomys laucha_ <http://www.faunaparaguay.com/images/Calomys%20laucha%20enciso%2031aug2011.jpg> and _C. callosus_ <https://eee.uci.edu/clients/bjbecker/PlaguesandPeople/Calomyscallosusb.jpg>); - Bermejo (Chaco rice rat _Oligoryzomys chacoensis_ <http://www.faunaparaguay.com/oligorizomyschacoensis.html>); and - Oran (_O. longicaudatus_ <http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/imgs/512x768/0000_0000/0711/1203.jpeg>).

Since previous cases in Tarija department have occurred in Bermejo, perhaps Bermejo hantavirus was involved.

Dr. Jan Clement commented that there is a need to be able to differentiate Seoul (SEOV) as a causative agent, but that is hampered by the fact that most current commercial ELISA or WB formats do not contain (anymore) a SEOV antigen, so that a preliminary presumption of a hantavirus infection can even be missed in non-research laboratories (ibidem, and: Reynes J-M, Carli D, Bour J-B, Boudjeltia S, Dewilde A, Gerbier G, et al. Seoul virus infection in humans, France, 2014-2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23:973-7;  <https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/23/6/16-0927_article>.

SEOV is widely distributed around the world in the brown rat and is likely found in Tarija department. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Tarija, Tarija, Bolivia: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/12643>]
Date: Tue 21 May 2019
Source: ZBC (Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation) [edited]

The Zambezi Parks & Wildlife Management Authority (Zimparks) says it has managed to contain the anthrax outbreak in the Zambezi Valley which claimed 6 elephants, 3 buffalo, a lion and an impala. Zimparks, which has been working together with other stakeholders following the outbreak of anthrax in Zambezi Valley, confirmed that the infectious disease has now been brought under control.

Zimparks Public Relations Manager, Mr. Tinashe Farawo said the authority is pleased to have contained the disease, adding that measures are being put in place to strengthen surveillance mechanisms. "We can confirm that we have managed to contain the anthrax diseases in the Zambezi Valley thanks to efforts by our officers and support from private stakeholders," said Mr. Tinashe Farawo.

The disease killed a number of hippos in Binga last year [2018]. Anthrax is usually transmitted by feed and water contaminated with spores, which can lie dormant in the soil for many years. The primary sign of anthrax in grazing animals is sudden death, often with bloody discharges.
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[So far so good, but I must point out that nature is illiterate and does not read the announcements of senior bureaucrats. She does what she does. Hopefully Mr. Farawo is correct but we should wait a couple of weeks at full alert.

Maps of Zimbabwe can be seen at

For a description of Hwange national park, go to
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hwange_National_Park>.

Hwange is in the western part of the country bordering Botswana and Zambia
(<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hwange>). - ProMED Mod.MHJ]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Matabeleland North Province, Zimbabwe:
Date: Mon 20 May 2019, 2:49 PM
Source: KDKA [edited]

Pennsylvania's Secretary of Health, Dr. Rachel Levine has announced that the state has declared a hepatitis A outbreak with 171 cases in 36 counties. According to the map provided by the Department of Health, Allegheny and Philadelphia counties are hit the hardest with anywhere between 31-50 cases.

The counties hit hardest by this outbreak are Philadelphia and Allegheny, but we have seen an increase of cases throughout much of the state," Dr. Levine said. "We are taking this action now to be proactive in our response to treating Pennsylvanians suffering from this illnesses and prevent it from spreading. The best way to prevent hepatitis A is through vaccination."
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[Pennsylvania is the latest (now almost half of the states in the USA) to declare a hepatitis A outbreak. As the numbers of cases continue to rise in a number of states, and news of smaller (so far) outbreaks occur in others, the question at the end of ProMED post http://promedmail.org/post/20190104.6241686 by a Kentucky official, "This is a disease of developing countries.

One has to ask: Why are we seeing it in the USA?" is more and more relevant. We are seeing these outbreaks because of the inability to deal with marginalized populations among their midst. The dramatic cutbacks in public health infrastructure in some of these states clearly feed the fire of these outbreaks. They must be addressed by bolstering public health resources and education and directly addressing the needs of these marginalized populations. - ProMED Mod.LL]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Pennsylvania, United States: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/240>]
Date: Thu 16 May 2019
Source: AllAfrica, The Guardian report edited

A serving medical doctor has been infected with Lassa fever while 2 persons were confirmed dead in Kebbi state. Another medical doctor disclosed this yesterday [15 May 2019] when The Guardian visited the Federal Medical Centre (FMC), Birnin Kebbi. He said that 2 children died last week [week of 6 May 2019] as a result of the Lassa fever while a medical doctor, who was doing his primary assignment treating the patients, was also infected.

"You see, the management of the FMC has opened a special unit called isolated unit for the Lassa fever patients. We still have some patients inside. Also, a medical doctor, who was managing some patients last month [April 2019], has also been infected and he is presently on admission," he said.

Meanwhile, the state's Commissioner for Health, Alhaji Umar Kambaza, who confirmed the incident, said they were aware of the cases in the state but the government is working towards them.  [Byline: Michael Egbejule, Ahmadu Baba Idris]
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[The dates of occurrence of these cases is not given. Presumably, they were hospitalized after 12 May 2019 when the Nigeria CDC update was issued. It is indeed unfortunate that an attending physician became infected in the hospital. Nosocomial infections are not unusual when personal protective equipment and barrier nursing measures are not employed. - ProMED Mod.TY]
Date: Sun 19 May 2019
Source: Vax Before Travel [abridged, edited]

The eastern African country of Ethiopia has been reporting measles outbreaks for many years, however, in 2019, new information indicates children are the ones most vulnerable for this infectious disease.

According to reporting by the European Commission, approximately 54% of the 4000 measles cases in Ethiopia reported during 2019 affected children under 5 years of age.

Moreover, over 60% of the children had never received their 1st measles vaccine dose.

This new data estimates that by the end of 2019, about 3.5 million children will be susceptible to the measles virus, mainly because of the failure to achieve the 'herd-immunity' necessary to interrupt transmission.

Moreover, these Ethiopian children are not the only under-vaccinated population.

An estimated 169 million children missed out on the 1st dose of the measles vaccine between 2010 and 2017, or 21.1 million children a year on average, said UNICEF on 25 Apr 2019.

And, the measles virus is one of the leading causes of death among children, particularly in developing countries. An estimated 100,000 measles deaths occurred globally in 2017.

Ethiopia announced it would aggressively confront this under-vaccination issue by integrating the measles vaccine 2nd dose (MCV2) vaccination into the routine immunization program in the 2nd year of life.

The Ethiopian Ministry of Health said about 3 348 363 children will receive measles vaccine 2nd doses.

Dr Chatora Rufaro, World Health Organization (WHO) Ethiopia representative said in a press release, "The introduction of the 2nd dose of measles vaccination in Ethiopia will significantly contribute to a reduction of measles morbidity and mortality as well as the overall child mortality by preventing measles outbreaks."

To notify visitors about Ethiopia's ongoing measles risks, the CDC issued an initial Level 1 Travel Alert in 2015. Since then, the CDC advises all visitors to Ethiopia to ensure they are immunized against the measles virus.  [Byline: Don Ward Hackett]
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[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Ethiopia:
Date: Mon 20 May 2019 08:47 IST
Source: The Hindu [abridged, edited]

The current global resurgence in measles is having its resonance in Kerala too, which has been witnessing a serious surge in the disease since January [2019].

Across the globe, huge local outbreaks have been caused by travel as well as the increase in unvaccinated populations.

In Kerala, however, the majority of the cases are reported from Thiruvananthapuram, which has good vaccination coverage and amongst people who are well-nourished and have received at least one dose of vaccine in their lifetime.

Kerala reports around 600 plus cases of measles every year. This year [2019], as many cases have been reported in the first 4 months itself, with over 50% cases in the 19-40 year age group. There are also cases in the less than 9 months age group, but fewer cases than before in the 1-5 years group.

Immunisation
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"When universal routine immunisation in childhood improves and the virus is still in circulation, the disease will naturally move to the older age group who may be unimmunised or whose vaccine-derived immunity has begun to wane. At a time when the state is moving towards measles elimination, adult measles is a major concern," a senior health official said.

Historically, measles has been a childhood disease. The epidemiological shift to older population presents new public health challenges because of the increased severity of the disease, especially in vulnerable populations like pregnant women and immunocompromised patients (HIV, organ transplant recipients on immunosuppressants, cancer patients), who cannot be vaccinated with the live attenuated measles vaccine.

"Earlier, nearly 90% of measles cases could be managed on out-patient basis. This year [2019], most cases are in the 19-35 age group and over 60% of the cases had to be admitted as in-patients, with a good percentage requiring ICU management," said R Aravind, head of infectious diseases at Thiruvananthapuram Medical College.

The changing epidemiology of measles has not just brought forth the several unknowns but also raised important questions on whether adult immunisation should be a policy, on vaccine potency and the adequacy of vaccine immune response.

Though measles vaccine is highly immunogenic, as part of the national measles elimination strategy, a mandatory 2nd dose at 15-18 months was introduced in 2010, so that there is better immune protection. It is fairly certain that those currently in the 18-40 years age group have not had the protection of the 2nd dose and may be one reason for the increase in cases in this age group.

The 1st vaccination age for measles has been fixed at 9 months because till then, the maternal antibodies transferred in utero are supposed to afford protection to the child. If vaccinated earlier, the maternal antibodies might interfere with the immune response to vaccine.

Susceptible
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However, at Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, the director, M Radhakrishna Pillai and team, who are currently studying the efficacy of measles vaccination in South India, have reported that children under the recommended vaccination age of 9 months are highly susceptible to measles.

SAT Hospital too has recently reported the death of an infant younger than 9 months due to measles.

"If the young mothers of the day do not have sufficient antibody protection, how do we protect infants younger than 9 months against measles? Given measles' age shift to older age group, should we move the vaccination age to 12 months for better vaccine response?

"Is a 3rd dose of MMR (mumps-measles-rubella) necessary? And should we recommend that all adults be given a dose of MMR as the virus is still in circulation? These questions need to be looked at from a research perspective by the State/National Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation," a public health expert said.  [Byline: C Maya]
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[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Kerala State, India:
Date: Fri 17 May 2019
Source: The Government of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, press release [abridged, edited]

The Centre for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health (DH) said today (17 May 20-19) that no additional case of measles infection had been recorded as at 4pm today and announced that the outbreak of measles infection at Hong Kong International Airport earlier has concluded.

A spokesman for the CHP said, "A total of 73 cases of measles infection were recorded so far this year [2019], among them 29 cases were associated with the outbreak among airport workers.

Regarding measles control measures implemented at the airport, a total of 23 persons had received measles vaccination at the airport vaccination station as at 6pm today [17 May 2019], bringing the cumulative number of vaccinations given to 8501 since 22 Mar 2019. The airport vaccination station will cease operation from [18 May 2019].

As for the blood test service, the DH earlier provided the measles serology test service to airport staff. A cumulative total of 777 blood samples have been collected. For the pilot service to provide measles serology testing for Filipino foreign domestic helpers working in Hong Kong, a total of 146 blood samples have been collected to date. Participants are notified individually of the serology results.
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[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Hong Kong: