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United Arab Emirates

United Arab Emirates US Consular Information Sheet
28th February 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a federation of seven independent emirates, each with its own ruler.
The federal government is a constitutional re
ublic, headed by a president and council of ministers.
Islamic ideals and beliefs provide the conservative foundation of the country's customs, laws and practices. The UAE is a modern, developed country, and tourist facilities are widely available. Read the Department of State Background Notes on the United Arab Emirates for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: A passport is required. For stays of less than 60 days, U.S. citizens holding valid passports may obtain visitor visas at the port of entry for no fee. For a longer stay, a traveler must obtain a visa before arrival in the UAE. In addition, an AIDS test is required for work or residence permits; testing must be performed after arrival. A U.S. AIDS test is not accepted. For further information, travelers can contact the Embassy of the United Arab Emirates, 3522 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20037, telephone (202) 243-2400.
Visit the web site of the UAE's Ministry of Information regarding tourism, business, and residence in the UAE at http://www.uaeinteract.org.

Unlike other countries in the region that accept U.S. military ID cards as valid travel documents, the UAE requires U.S. military personnel to present a valid passport for entry/exit.

UAE authorities will confiscate any weapons, weapon parts, ammunition, body armor, handcuffs, and/or other military/police equipment transported to or through a civilian airport.
Americans have been arrested and jailed for transporting such weapons and equipment without the express written authorization of the UAE government, even though airline and U.S. authorities allowed shipment on a US-originating flight.

U.S. citizens and citizens of other countries that are not members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), who depart the UAE via land are required to pay a departure fee. This fee is 20 UAE dirhams and is payable only in the local UAE dirham currency.

Visit the Embassy of the United Arab Emirates web site at http://uae-embassy.org for the most current visa information.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY: Americans in the United Arab Emirates should exercise a high level of security awareness. The Department of State remains concerned about the possibility of terrorist attacks against U.S. citizens and interests throughout the world. Americans should maintain a low profile, vary routes and times for all required travel, and treat mail and packages from unfamiliar sources with caution. In addition, U.S. citizens are urged to avoid contact with any suspicious, unfamiliar objects, and to report the presence of the objects to local authorities.
U.S. Government personnel overseas have been advised to take the same precautions. In addition, U.S. Government facilities may temporarily close or suspend public services from time to time as necessary to review their security posture and ensure its adequacy.

Taking photographs of potentially-sensitive UAE military and civilian sites, or foreign diplomatic missions, including the U.S. Embassy, may result in arrest, detention and/or prosecution by local authorities.
In addition, engaging in mapping activities, especially mapping which includes the use of GPS equipment, without coordination with UAE authorities, may have the same consequences.

On several occasions in the past three years, small groups of expatriate recreational boaters were detained by the Iranian Coast Guard for alleged violation of Iranian territorial waters while fishing near the island of Abu Musa, approximately 20 miles from Dubai.
The UAE and Iran have had a long-standing dispute concerning jurisdiction of Abu Musa.
Fishing or sailing in these waters may result in seizure of vessels and detention of passengers and crew in Iran.
Obtaining consular assistance in Iran is difficult and can only be done through the Swiss Embassy in Tehran, which acts as a Protecting Power, providing limited U.S. consular services.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves overseas, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME: Crime generally is not a problem for travelers in the UAE. However, the U.S. Embassy advises U.S. citizens to take normal precautions against theft, such as not leaving a wallet, purse, or credit card unattended. Although vehicle break-ins in the UAE are rare, U.S. citizens are encouraged to ensure that unattended vehicles are locked and that valuables are not left out in plain sight.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Basic modern medical care and medicines are available in the principal cities of the UAE, but not necessarily in outlying areas.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747); fax 1-888-CDC-FAXX (1-888-232-3299), or via the CDC's web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.
TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning the United Arab Emirates is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

The police emergency number and ambulance number is 999. Mobile phones are widely used throughout the UAE, so passers-by usually request emergency police and medical services quickly. Response time by emergency services is adequate. However, medical personnel emphasize transport of the injured to the hospital rather than treatment on site. Traffic accidents are a leading cause of death in the UAE because drivers often drive at high speeds. Unsafe driving practices are common, especially on inter-city highways. On highways, unmarked speed bumps and drifting sand create additional hazards.

Country-wide traffic laws impose stringent penalties for certain violations, particularly driving under the influence of alcohol.
In the UAE, there is zero tolerance for driving after consumption of alcohol.
Penalties may include hefty jail sentences and fines over $6,000 and, for Muslims (even those holding U.S. citizenship), lashings. Persons involved in an accident in which another party is injured automatically go to jail, until the injured person is released from the hospital. Should a person die in a traffic accident, the driver of the other vehicle is liable for payment of compensation for the death (known as "dhiyya"), usually the equivalent of 55,000 U.S. dollars. Even relatively minor accidents may result in lengthy proceedings, during which both drivers may be prohibited from leaving the country.

In order to drive, UAE residents must obtain a UAE driver's license. Foreign driver's licenses are not recognized. However, a non-resident visitor to the UAE can drive if he/she obtains a valid international driver's license issued by the motor vehicle authority of the country whose passport the traveler holds. The UAE recognizes driver's licenses issued by other Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states only if the bearer is driving a vehicle registered to the same GCC state. Under no circumstances should anyone drive without a valid license.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
You may also visit the web site of the UAE’s national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at http://www.uaeinteract.org.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of the United Arab Emirates’ Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of the United Arab Emirates' air carrier operations. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA's web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: The UAE government does not recognize dual nationality.
Children of UAE fathers automatically acquire UAE citizenship at birth and must enter the UAE on UAE passports. UAE authorities have confiscated U.S. passports of UAE/U.S. dual nationals in the past. This act does not constitute loss of U.S. citizenship, but should be reported to the U.S. Embassy in Abu Dhabi or the U.S. Consulate General in Dubai. In addition to being subject to all UAE laws, U.S. citizens who also hold UAE citizenship may also be subject to other laws that impose special obligations on citizens of the UAE.
For additional information, please refer to our Dual Nationality flyer.

U.S. citizens have at times become involved in disputes of a commercial nature that have prompted local firms or courts to take possession of the U.S. citizen's passport. Travel bans may also be enforced against U.S. citizens involved in financial disputes with a local sponsor or firm. Such travel bans, which are rigidly enforced, effectively prevent the individual from leaving the UAE for any reason until the dispute is resolved. Although it is customary for a local sponsor to hold an employee's passport, it is illegal to do so under UAE law. Most contractual/labor disputes can be avoided by clearly establishing all terms and conditions of employment or sponsorship in the labor contract at the beginning of any employment. Should a dispute arise, the UAE Ministry of Labor has established a special department to review and arbitrate labor claims. A list of local attorneys capable of representing Americans in such matters is available from the Consular and Commercial sections of the U.S. Embassy in Abu Dhabi and the U.S. Consulate General in Dubai.

Codes of behavior and dress in the UAE reflect the country's Islamic traditions and are more conservative than those of the United States. Visitors to the UAE should be respectful of this conservative heritage, especially in the Emirate of Sharjah where rules of decency and public conduct are strictly enforced. Female travelers should keep in mind the cultural differences among the many people who coexist in the UAE and should be cognizant that unwitting actions may invite unwanted attention to them. Isolated incidents of verbal and physical harassment of Western women have occurred. Victims of harassment are encouraged to report such incidents to the U.S. Embassy in Abu Dhabi or the Consulate General in Dubai.

American citizens intending to reside and work in the UAE may have to present personal documents authenticated by the Department of State's Office of Authentications in Washington, D.C. before traveling to the UAE. This can be a complex process involving local, state and federal offices and requiring several weeks to complete.
For procedural information, the Office of Authentications may be contacted by telephone from within the United States at 800-688-9889 or 202-647-5002, by fax at 202-663-3636, or by e-mail at aoprgsmauth@state.gov.
In order to meet UAE government requirements for school registrations and residency sponsorship for family members, Americans intending to bring their families to reside with them in the UAE will need to have their marriage certificate and children's birth certificates, or custody/adoption decrees, if appropriate, authenticated by the Department of State in Washington, DC.
The U.S. Embassy and Consulate General cannot authenticate U.S. local- and state-issued personal, academic or professional documents; they will only be able to authenticate the final authentication document from the Department of State.
Additional information on authentication of documents can be found at http://www.state.gov/m/a/auth/.
In terms of employment, a recent change to UAE labor law requires local sponsors to have employees' diplomas, academic and/or occupational/professional certificates validated through a “Degree Verification” process established in the UAE.
Prospective employees will be required to submit photocopies of such documents for verification to a firm under contract to the Ministry of Labor.

In addition, persons in the education and health professions reportedly have to meet two requirements for validation of their educational credentials at this time – the formal “chain” authentication of academic/professional credentials in the U.S. and the “Degree Verification” process in the UAE.
Different UAE Ministries have different requirements in this regard.
Determining these requirements with one’s prospective employer is strongly recommended before arrival in the UAE.

Please see our Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating UAE laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in the UAE are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

Legislation enacted in January 1996 imposes the death sentence for convicted drug traffickers. Since January 2006, possession of even trace amounts of illegal drugs has resulted in sentences of four years imprisonment for foreign citizens transiting the UAE. American citizens transiting and entering the UAE’s airports and in possession of illegal drugs have been discovered, arrested and prosecuted by UAE authorities.
As mentioned, in such cases the minimum penalty is four years imprisonment.

Some drugs normally taken under a doctor's supervision in the United States, and even some over-the-counter U.S. drugs and medications, are classified as narcotics in the UAE and are illegal to possess.
A doctor's prescription should be carried along with any medication that is brought into the country.
A person may be subject to arrest and prosecution if possession of prescribed medicines (especially those containing codeine and similar narcotic-like ingredients) comes to the attention of local authorities.
The U.S. Embassy’s web site includes an unofficial list of such medicines, obtained from the UAE Ministry of Health.
Most medications available in the U.S. are also available by doctors’ prescription through hospitals and pharmacies in the UAE.

In addition, the UAE's tough anti-narcotics program also includes poppy seeds, widely used in other cultures, including the U.S., for culinary purposes, on its list of controlled substances. The importation and possession of poppy seeds in any and all forms is strictly prohibited. Persons found to possess even very small quantities of controlled substances listed by the UAE are subject to prosecution by the authorities and may be given lengthy prison terms of up to 15 years. Travelers with questions regarding the items on the list of controlled substances should contact the U.S. Embassy in Abu Dhabi or the U.S. Consulate General in Dubai. If suspected of being under the influence of drugs or alcohol, individuals may be required to submit to blood and/or urine tests and may be subject to prosecution.

Crimes of fraud, including passing bad checks and non-payment of bills (including hotel bills), are regarded seriously in the UAE and can result in imprisonment and/or fines. Bail generally is not available to non-residents of the UAE who are arrested for crimes involving fraud.

Drinking or possession of alcohol without a Ministry of Interior liquor permit is illegal and could result in arrest and/or fines and imprisonment. Alcohol is served at bars in most major hotels but is intended for guests of the hotel. Persons who are not guests of the hotel, and who consume alcohol in the restaurants and bars, technically are required to have their own personal liquor licenses. Liquor licenses are issued only to non-Muslim persons who possess UAE residency permits. Drinking and driving is considered a serious offense. Penalties generally are assessed according to religious law.

While individuals are free to worship as they choose, and facilities are available for that purpose, religious proselytizing is not permitted in the UAE.
Persons violating this law, even unknowingly, may be imprisoned or deported.

If arrested, U.S. citizens should contact the U.S. Embassy or Consulate General for assistance. The U.S. Consul will provide information on the local judicial system and a list of local attorneys. In Dubai, the U.S. Consul can also arrange for U.S. citizen detainees to meet with an ombudsman from the Human Rights Department of the Dubai police headquarters, if the detainee believes he or she is not being treated fairly.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION/EMBASSY AND CONSULATE LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in the United Arab Emirates are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site and to obtain updated information on travel and security within the United Arab Emirates. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.

The U.S. Embassy in Abu Dhabi is located at Embassies District, Plot 38, Sector W59-02, Street No. 4, P.O. Box 4009. The telephone number is (971) (2) 414-2200, and the Consular Section fax number is (971) (2) 414-2241. The email address for American Citizens Services inquiries, including passport questions, is abudhabiacs@state.gov. The after-hours telephone number is (971) (2) 414-2500. The Embassy Internet web site is http://uae.usembassy.gov.

The U.S. Consulate General in Dubai is located on the 21st floor of the Dubai World Trade Center, P.O. Box 9343. The telephone number is (971) (4) 311-6000 (for after-hours emergencies, contact the Embassy at (971)(2) 414-2200 for the Dubai Duty Officer, and the Consular Section fax number is (971) (4) 311-6213. The email address for American Citizens Services inquiries, including passport questions, is dubaiwarden@state.gov. The web site for the U.S. Consulate General in Dubai is http://dubai.usconsulate.gov.

The workweek for both the Embassy in Abu Dhabi and the Consulate General in Dubai is Sunday through Thursday.
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information for the UAE dated July 06, 2007, to update the sections on Traffic Safety and Road Conditions and Criminal Penalties.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu, 2 Apr 2020 12:24:14 +0200 (METDST)

Dubai, April 2, 2020 (AFP) - Emirates Airline said Thursday it is to resume a limited number of outbound passenger flights from April 6, less than two weeks after its coronavirus-enforced stoppage.   "Emirates has received approval from UAE authorities to restart flying a limited number of passenger flights," its chairman, Sheikh Ahmed bin Saeed Al-Maktoum, said on Twitter.   "From April 6, these flights will initially carry travellers outbound from UAE," he said, adding that details would be announced soon.      Dubai-owned carrier Emirates, the largest in the Middle East with 271 wide-body aircraft, grounded passenger operations last week as the UAE halted all passenger flights to fight the spread of coronavirus.

The UAE, which groups seven emirates including Dubai, has declared 814 coronavirus cases along with eight deaths.   It has imposed a sweeping crackdown, including the flight ban and closure of borders.   Sheikh Ahmed said Emirates, which owns the world's largest fleet of Airbus A-380 superjumbos with 113 in its ranks, was looking to gradually resume passenger services.   "Over the time, Emirates looks forward to the gradual resumption of passenger services in line with lifting of travel and operational restrictions, including assurance of health measures to safeguard our people and customers," he said.

When Emirates suspended flights, it cut between 25 percent and 50 percent of the basic salary of its 100,000-strong staff for three months, saying it wanted to avert layoffs.   Dubai's crown prince, Sheikh Hamdan bin Mohammed bin Rashid Al-Maktoum said Tuesday that Dubai will support the airline by injecting new capital.   Tourism, aviation, hotels and entertainment are key contributors to Dubai's mostly non-oil economy.
Date: Mon, 23 Mar 2020 00:45:56 +0100 (MET)

Dubai, March 22, 2020 (AFP) - The United Arab Emirates announced on Monday it will temporarily suspend all passenger and transit flights amid the novel coronavirus outbreak.    The Emirati authorities "have decided to suspend all inbound and outbound passenger flights and the transit of airline passengers in the UAE for two weeks as part of the precautionary measures taken to curb the spread of the COVID-19", reported the official state news agency, WAM.   It said the decision -- which is subject to review in two weeks -- will take effect in 48 hours, adding: "Cargo and emergency evacuation flights would be exempt."

The UAE, whose international airports in Abu Dhabi and Dubai are major hubs, announced on Friday its first two deaths from the COVID-19 disease, having reported more than 150 cases so far.   Monday's announcement came hours after Dubai carrier Emirates announced it would suspend all passenger flights by March 25.    But the aviation giant then reversed its decision, saying it "received requests from governments and customers to support the repatriation of travellers" and will continue to operate passenger flights to 13 destinations.

Emirates had said it will continue to fly to the United Kingdom, Switzerland, Hong Kong, Thailand, Malaysia, the Philippines, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Australia, South Africa, the United States and Canada.   "We continue to watch the situation closely, and as soon as things allow, we will reinstate our services," said the airline's chairman and CEO, Sheikh Ahmed bin Saeed Al-Maktoum.   Gulf countries have imposed various restrictions to combat the spread of the novel coronavirus pandemic, particularly in the air transport sector.   The UAE has stopped granting visas on arrival and forbidden foreigners who are legal residents but are outside the country from returning.
Date: Mon, 6 Jan 2020 17:38:26 +0100 (MET)

Dubai, Jan 6, 2020 (AFP) - The United Arab Emirates on Monday introduced a multiple-entry visa scheme valid for five years for all nationalities, with the aim of turning the Gulf state into a tourism hub.   "#UAE Cabinet chaired by @HHShkMohd, approves new amendment for tourist visas in #UAE," the government of Dubai Media Office tweeted, referring to Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, the UAE prime minister and ruler of Dubai.   "The new tourist visa will be valid for 5 years and can be used for multiple entries and is open for all nationalities," the Dubai Media Office wrote.

Sheikh Maktoum said on Twitter that the UAE currently attracts 21 million tourists a year.   Travellers from Africa, some South American countries, Arab states outside the Gulf, and European states from outside the European Union and former Soviet Union previously needed visas.   In October, Dubai is to host Expo 2020, a big-budget global trade fair.
Date: Thu 26 Sep 2019
Source: Gulf Business [edited]

Dubai Municipality has shut down a restaurant in Jumeirah after 15 people fell ill following an outbreak of _Salmonella_ infection, local media reported. An initial investigation revealed that the outbreak was likely caused by raw eggs served in a hollandaise sauce.

Officials received a report that several people, including a child, fell sick with symptoms such as diarrhoea, fever, and vomiting after eating at the restaurant. They collected samples and conducted tests, following which they found that the chef had used raw eggs in violation of the food safety rules.

The chef and person-in-charge (PIC) of food safety have been held, the municipality said. The food safety department has also downgraded the rating of the outlet and revoked its PIC certificate, Gulf News reported. The unnamed American outlet will be under "strict monitoring" for the next 6 months once it is allowed to reopen.

The municipality banned the use of raw eggs in ready-to-eat products in 2012 after authorities found them to be a cause for _Salmonella_ infections. Following the recent incident, the department has issued a fresh alert to restaurants reminding them about the ban.
=======================
[Salmonellosis is often thought to be associated with cracked eggs or eggs dirty with fecal matter, a problem controlled by cleaning procedures implemented in the egg industry. It is clearly the case, however, that most of the salmonellosis outbreaks linked to eggs were associated with uncracked, disinfected grade A eggs, or foods containing such eggs. The undamaged eggs become contaminated during ovulation, and thus were contaminated with the bacteria before the eggshell was formed. To avoid this, uncooked eggs should only be used as an ingredient if pasteurized. - ProMED Mod.LL]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Dubai, United Arab Emirates: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/3442>]
Date: Sat 24 Aug 2019 3:39:38 PM PKT
Source: Mena FN[edited]

A resident of Swabi district has succumbed to Congo fever in Sharjah hospital and was laid to rest there on [Sat 24 Aug 2019].

According to details, the man was cutting meat on Eid day, when he accidentally cut one of his fingers. He didn't take it seriously, but after few days, he felt unwell and was taken to the hospital in Sharjah where he was told that he is suffering from a lethal infection known as Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever.

Doctors have told him that while he was cutting meat, the deadly Congo virus entered into his body. He was unaware of it while the virus was gradually spreading in his veins, killing him a slow death.

And finally, the virus shattered his body to an extent that he was unable to recover. He was admitted to a hospital in Sharjah in an isolated ward and was kept away from his relatives so that they may not contract the virus. His dead body was laid to rest in Sharjah and was not allowed to be taken to his home town in Swabi due to the fear of virus spread. The man was a resident of Cham village in Daghai, in District Swabi and was living with his family in Sharjah.
=======================
[The report above does not signify how the case was confirmed, and whether any contact follow up was done post confirmation, since there is an incubation period between possible exposure and appearance of symptoms.

CCHF virus has the greatest geographic range of any tick-borne virus and there are reports of viral isolation and/or disease from more than 30 countries in Africa, Asia, Eastern and Southern Europe, and the Middle East. Numerous domestic and wild animals, such as cattle, goats, and sheep, and small mammals, such as hares and rodents, serve as asymptomatic hosts for amplification of the virus, which is transmitted through _Ixodid_ ticks, especially _Hyalomma_ spp that act as both reservoirs and vectors  (<https://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2018/12/20/502641.full.pdf>).

CCHF was first reported in the United Arab Emirates (UAE; Sharjah is one Emirate) in 1979, when 6 cases were reported among the staff of a hospital in Dubai. An outbreak of CCHF occurred during 1994-1995 with 35 human infections. In 1994, 35 clinical CCHF cases were reported in 1994,and between January 1998 and October 2013, 5 more cases and 2 deaths were reported from the UAE (Ince Y, Yasa C, Metin M, et al. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever infections reported by ProMED. Int J Infect Dis 2014; 26: 44-6;  <https://www.ijidonline.com/article/S1201-9712(14)01499-4/fulltext>).

As the vector is widely distributed and impending climatic changes are likely to widen this spectrum, there is need for the development and implementation of a strategic framework for the prevention and control of CCHF through a coordinated 'One Health' approach. - ProMED Mod.UBA]

[Maps of United Arab Emirates:
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Paraguay

Paraguay - US Consular Information Sheet
September 15, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Paraguay is a constitutional democracy with a developing economy.
Tourist facilities are adequate in the capital city of Asuncion, but they vary greatly
n quality and prices.
Travelers outside Asuncion should consider seeking travel agency assistance, as satisfactory or adequate tourist facilities are very limited in other major cities and almost nonexistent in remote areas.
Read the Department of State Background Notes on Paraguay for additional information.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport and visa are required.
U.S. citizens traveling to Paraguay must submit completed visa applications in person or by secure messenger to the Paraguayan Embassy or one of the consulates and pay a fee.
Paraguay issues visas for one-entry or multiple entries up to the validity of the U.S. passport.
Applicants under 18 years of age traveling alone must appear with both of their parents or a legal guardian.
In case of a guardian, an original and one copy of proof of legal guardianship are required.
A document of authorization from parents/guardian will be accepted only if it is notarized and certified by the county clerk.
Travelers entering or departing Paraguay with regular U.S. passports will be fingerprinted.
Some airlines include the Paraguayan airport departure tax in the price of the airline ticket.
It is recommended that you check with the airline in order to determine whether or not the departure tax has been included.
If the tax is not included in the airline ticket then payment would be required upon departure in either U.S. or local currency (no credit cards or checks accepted). Visit the Embassy of Paraguay web site at http://www.embaparusa.gov.py for the most current visa information.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
As stated in the Department of State's latest Worldwide Caution, U.S. citizens overseas may be targeted by extremist groups and should maintain a high level of vigilance.
The U.S. Embassy is not aware of any specific terrorist threat to Americans in Paraguay.
Individuals and organizations providing financial support to extremist groups operate in Ciudad del Este and along the tri-border area between Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina.
Small armed groups have also been reported to be operating in the San Pedro and Concepcion Departments.
Drug trafficking remains a serious concern in the Department of Amambay.
Because of concerns about the lack of security in border areas, the U.S. Embassy in Asuncion requires U.S. Government personnel and their family members to provide advance notice and a travel itinerary when traveling to Ciudad del Este or Pedro Juan Caballero.
As a general precaution, the Embassy also counsels its employees traveling outside the capital to provide an itinerary including dates, contact names, and telephone numbers where the employee may be reached.

Since January 2007, there have been numerous kidnapping incidents mainly in the Alto Parana department.
Targets have been members of the Paraguayan business community or their family members.
It is believed that the individuals responsible for the kidnappings are financially motivated and have pre-selected their targets based on the victims’ wealth.

U.S. citizens should avoid large gatherings or any other event where crowds have congregated to demonstrate or protest.
Such activities have resulted in intermittent road closures including major routes traveled by tourists and residents.
While generally nonviolent, demonstrations and/or roadblocks have turned violent in the past.
Areas where such closures and barricades exist should be avoided.
U.S. citizens who encounter demonstrations and/or roadblocks should not attempt to continue the planned travel or to confront those at the roadblock.
Instead, they should avoid areas where individuals are demonstrating and in case of roadblock, wait for the road to reopen or return to the origin of their trip.
Uniformed police often conduct roving checks of vehicles and passengers.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ website at http://travel.state.gov where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the United States and Canada, or for callers outside the United States and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).
The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
Crime has increased in recent years with criminals often targeting those thought to be wealthy.
Although most crime is nonviolent, there has been an increase in the use of weapons and there have been incidents where extreme violence has been used.
U.S. citizens have on occasion been the victims of assaults, kidnappings, robberies, and rapes.
Local authorities frequently lack the training and resources to solve these cases.
Under these circumstances, U.S. citizens traveling to or residing in Paraguay should be aware of their surroundings and security at all times.
They should take common sense precautions including refraining from displaying expensive-looking cameras and jewelry, large amounts of money, or other valuable items.
Resistance to armed assailants has often aggravated the situation and therefore is not advised.

Armed robbery, carjackings, car theft, and home invasions are a problem in both urban and rural areas.
Street crime, including pick pocketing and mugging, is prevalent in cities.
The number of pick pocketing incidents and armed assaults is also increasing on public buses and in the downtown area of Asunción.
As many incidents on public buses involve individuals snatching valuables, passengers should not wear expensive-looking jewelry or display other flashy items.
There have been incidents of pilferage from checked baggage at both airports and bus terminals.
Travelers have found it prudent to hide valuables on their person or in carry-on luggage.
Unauthorized ticket vendors also reportedly operate at the Asuncion bus terminal, badgering travelers into buying tickets for substandard or non-existent services.

In many countries around the world, counterfeit and pirated goods are widely available.
Transactions involving such products may be illegal under local law.
In addition, bringing them back to the United States may result in forfeitures and/or fines.
More information on this serious problem is available at http://www.cybercrime.gov/18usc2320.htm
INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime are solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

Below are the local equivalent phone numbers to the “911” emergency line in Paraguay.
In Asuncion, the following phone numbers exist for roadside/ambulance assistance:
Emergency Services, including police and ambulances:
911.
Fire Department, including rescue of accident victims: 131, 132.
See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Adequate medical facilities, prescription and over-the-counter medicine, supplies, and services are available only in Asuncion.
Elsewhere, these are limited and may not exist.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.
The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to Paraguay or foreign residents of the country.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Paraguay is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

U.S. citizens have been injured and killed in traffic accidents.
Only minimal standards must be met to obtain a Paraguayan driver's license, and driver education prior to licensing is not common.
Drivers throughout Paraguay routinely ignore traffic regulations.
No vehicle insurance is required, and many Paraguayans drive without any insurance coverage.
Persons who drive in Paraguay should be prepared to drive defensively and with their own insurance in both urban and rural areas.

Public transportation is readily available for urban and inter-city travel.
Buses vary in maintenance conditions and may not meet U.S. safety standards.
Armed robberies and pick pocketing occur on buses in cities and rural areas, sometimes with the apparent collusion of the bus driver.
Taxis are available and may be called using telephone numbers listed in the newspapers.
No passenger train service exists.
Bicycle travel may not be safe due to traffic and other road hazards.
Most urban streets consist of cobblestones over dirt.
Some roads in Asuncion and other large cities are paved.
However, these roads frequently develop potholes that often remain unrepaired.
Nearly all rural roads are unpaved, and during rainy periods and the rainy season (November-March/April), they may be impassable.
Road signs indicating hazards, such as sharp curves or major intersections, are lacking in many areas.

Driving or traveling at night is not advisable outside Asuncion because pedestrians, animals, or vehicles without proper lights are often on the roads.
In addition, assaults and other crimes against motorists traveling at night have occurred.
Extra precautions should be exercised along infrequently traveled portions of the rural roads.

Intercity highway maintenance is not equal to U.S. standards.
The privately maintained toll road between Caaguazu and Ciudad del Este and the routes between Asuncion and Encarnacion and Asuncion and Pedro Juan Caballero are in good condition.
Most other intercity routes are in good to fair condition, with brief stretches in poor condition.
The Trans-Chaco route is in fair condition except for the portion between Mariscal Estigarribia and the Bolivian border, which is unpaved and at times impassable.

The Touring and Automobile Club provides some roadside assistance to its members.
The Club may be contacted in Asuncion by visiting its offices at 25 de Mayo near Brazil, First Floor, or telephoning 210-550, 210-551, 210-552, 210-553, Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., or Saturday from 8:00 a.m. to noon, except for Paraguayan holidays.
The Touring Club also has offices in Ciudad del Este (tel. 061-512-340), Coronel Oviedo (tel. 0521-203-350), Encarnación (tel. 071-202-203), San Ignacio Misiones (tel. 082-232-080), Caaguazu Campo 9 ( tel. 0528-222-211), Santani (tel. 043-20-314), Pozo Colorado (cell phone. 0981-939-611, Villa Florida (tel. 083-240-205) and Ybyyau (tel. 039-210-206).
Towing services are scarce outside urban areas.
Twenty-four-hour tow truck services from Asuncion may be contacted by telephoning (021) 224-366, (021) 208-400, (cellular service provider) Tigo by dialing *822 or 0971-951-930.
For an extra fee, these companies may provide service outside Asuncion, but they typically demand immediate payment and may not accept credit cards.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
Visit the website of Paraguay’s national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at http://www.senatur.gov.py and http://www.mopc.gov.py/
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Paraguay’s Civil Aviation Authority as not being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for the oversight of Paraguay’s air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs%5Finitiatives/oversight/iasa/
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: Paraguay’s customs authority may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from Paraguay of items such as firearms, medications, toys resembling weapons, or protected species.
It is advisable to contact the Paraguayan Embassy in Washington, D.C., or one of Paraguay's consulates in the United States for specific information regarding customs requirements.

Paraguay does not recognize dual Paraguayan nationality for American citizens.
Under Article 150 of the Paraguayan Constitution, naturalized Paraguayans lose their nationality by virtue of a court ruling based on unjustified absence from the Republic for more than three years, or by voluntary adoption of another nationality.
Please see our Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Paraguay’s laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Paraguay are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.

Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information, see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION: Americans residing or traveling in Paraguay are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Paraguay.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy is located at 1776 Mariscal Lopez Avenue, Asuncion; telephone (011-595-21) 213-715, fax (011-595-21) 213-728; Internet: http://paraguay.usembassy.gov, email: paraguayconsular@state.gov.
The Consular Section is open for U.S. citizen services, including registration, Monday through Thursday from 1:00 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. and Fridays from 7:30 a.m. to 10:30 a.m., except for U.S. and Paraguayan holidays; telephone (011-595-21) 213-715, fax (011-595-21) 228-603.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Tue, 28 May 2019 03:40:13 +0200
By Hugo OLAZAR

Nanawa, Paraguay, May 28, 2019 (AFP) - Like 70,000 people living close to the broken banks of the Paraguay River, where the water level has risen seven meters (23 feet) in some places, Graciela Acosta has had to pack up her belongings and evacuate.   Piled up on a canoe are the 39-year-old housewife's bed, wardrobe, bedside table and her dog Pirulin.

Acosta is getting ready to cross the border into Argentina with her daughter to seek refuge in a reception center in the neighboring town of Clorinda.   "I've had enough! It's the third time that I've had to move everything because of the floods," said Acosta.   "I pray to God that it ends. Every time. it costs a lot of money."   However, there's no chance of Acosta leaving her home in Nanawa, a town of just 6,000 people that borders Argentina to the west and faces the capital Asuncion to the east across the Paraguay River, for good.   "As soon as the water level drops, I'll go home," she said.

- 'Greater impact' -
In Nanawa, only around 500 people were able to avoid evacuation, due to living in homes with upper floors above the flood levels.   They're used to this as the Paraguay River, one of the largest in the Americas, breaks its banks and causes havoc in the poorest Nanawa neighborhoods built on the flood plain.   The river's brown waters rise almost to the height of street signs: in some areas, there is up to one or two meters of water covering roads.

Paraguayans have seen worse, though, back in 1983, according to the assistant director of the country's meteorology and hydrology service, Nelson Perez.   "It's not the Paraguay River's worst flood, but the impact is greater because more people live close to the river," said Perez.   "These are the worst floods I've seen," said Ruben Acosta, 55, who peddles his moving services by canoe.   It's a far cry from January and February, when the river's level was so low that navigating it became difficult.   "It rained a lot in March, three times more than usual, and it also rained a lot in April and May," said Perez, who pointed to deforestation as an added problem.

- 'It's like being in Venice' -
Wading through water up to his chest, Rigoberto Nunez leaves a cemetery carrying a chandelier, a vase, some crucifixes and family portraits, all plucked from the family vault.   "I prefer to take them away to be safe," says the 47-year-old traveling salesman.    The town is without electricity or police and inhabitants are afraid of looters.   Nunez is heading to a reception center provided by Argentine authorities in a Clorinda slum where he's already stashed his furniture.   Enrique Cardozo's workshop has already been ravaged by the floods.   "I've lost my sofa, the cupboard, I had nowhere to put them," said the 51-year-old father of four.

The family has moved into the first floor of their house, which is just 15 meters from the river.   "It rained non-stop for a week. One day, the water rose one meter. It was impressive, we couldn't save everything," said Cardozo.   "There's nowhere you can put your feet on the ground. It's like being in Venice, we move about by Gondola!"

On the other side of the river, Asuncion has not been spared as several areas have also had to be evacuated.   In the Sajonia residential zone, inhabitants and shopkeepers have seen their sidewalks lined with sandbags, to keep back the floodwaters.   According to Perez, though, the problems -- and waters -- will soon subside.   The water level rose only slightly on Monday, and will continue to do so for a few more days before it drains away during the first half of June, he said.
Date: Mon, 27 May 2019 12:07:58 +0200

Asuncion, May 27, 2019 (AFP) - Heavy flooding in Paraguay has displaced 70,000 families and is threatening to further inundate the capital Asuncion in the coming weeks, the country's weather bureau said.   Water levels on the Paraguay River are rising at a rate of 4-5 centimetres (1.5-2 inches) every day and is only 46 cm (18 in) below a "disaster" level, according to official data from the Department of Meteorology and Hydrology (DMH).

Crossing that threshold would "have a very strong impact" because of the number of Asuncion residents who have moved into the city's floodplain, said DMH deputy director Nelson Perez on Sunday.   The city's water service infrastructure was clogged with garbage which was exacerbating the floods, Perez added. 

Unusually heavy downpours over May, including two days which together exceeded Asuncion's average monthly rainfall, have exacerbated the flooding, said DMH meteorologist Eduardo Mingo.    Some 40,000 people in Asuncion have already been affected by the floods, official data reported.   A further 10,000 people have been displaced in the southern town of Pilar on the Argentinian border.   The government has mobilized armed forces to help displaced residents relocate to shelters, but hundreds of families have opted to stay behind in their inundated homes.
Date: Thu, 4 Apr 2019 03:06:45 +0200

Asuncion, April 4, 2019 (AFP) - More than 20,000 families across Paraguay have been affected by severe flooding from two weeks of heavy rain that caused the country's main river to burst its banks, a senior official said Wednesday as an emergency was declared in the capital.   National Emergency Minister Joaquin Roa made the announcement as forecasters said the precipitation would continue for the rest of the week.   The Paraguay River, which runs some 1,000 kilometres north to south and splits the country in two, is expected to continue overflowing.

A 90-day emergency was declared in Asuncion on Wednesday due to the flooding. Hardest-hit are some 5,000 families living in the Banado Sur working-class neighbourhood on the city outskirts.   The people affected by flooding "need sheet metal roofing, wood, and all types of help," a municipal official told AFP.   The Paraguay River flows past Asuncion and eventually merges into the Parana River in Argentina.   "We did not expect it to swell so quickly," said Pablo Ramirez, a resident of Banado Sur, a neighbourhood in the capital, dismayed after returning to his home after he left it one month ago due to flooding.

Ramirez, who relies on crutches to get around following a car accident, said that he will not leave home this time. The flooding "will go by quickly," he said optimistically.   Pedro Velasco, the leading neighbourhood Catholic priest, said that one week ago they warned emergency officials that the river was about to overflow and asked for trucks to deliver aid and help evacuate people.   "They didn't move until Monday, but by then it was already too late and they couldn't come in" because of the flooding, Velasco said.   Roa said that his office will deliver 400,000 of food in the next days in coordination with the Paraguayan military.
Date: Thu 28 Feb 2019
Source: Hoy [in Spanish trans. Mod.TY, edited]

Patients who present with febrile symptoms and who reside in the area where the 1st positive case was reported positive request tests for hantavirus [infection]. Until now there are 5 cases, 3 were positive in initial laboratory tests and 2 are suspect cases that will be tested outside [the country] because the Central Laboratory does not do confirmatory tests.

The febrile cases of residents in Capiata [Central department], the area where the 1st cases of hantavirus occurred, are adding up and now Health Surveillance has reported 2 more suspected cases, all children between 2 and 7 years old living in the same city; community intervention continues in search of possible cases.

The 1st cases confirmed in a private laboratory remain hospitalized in intensive care and the others who have improved are now receiving ambulatory treatment, stated Dr Sandra Irala of Health Surveillance.

"The clinical picture of hantavirus [infection] is that of a patient with a temperature above 38 deg C [100.4 deg F] and respiratory difficulty is another characteristic in the endemic area such as that of Chaco. In the non-endemic area [hantavirus infection] is suspected if the patient presents with fever and other possible causes are eliminated," the doctor indicated in a press conference.

The rodents that transmit the hantavirus do not inhabit urban areas and the way in which the disease [virus] is acquired is through contact with excreta and other secretions such as saliva and urine of these [infected] rodents.

Irala pointed out that the cases that are initially positive should have a cross-section of studies for final confirmation, so the samples were sent to Argentina, where there is a reference laboratory for the detection of this type of virus.

The person acquires the virus by inhaling air contaminated with the virus that is transported through dust particles, which is why it is recommended before cleaning, especially of storage buildings, to open doors and windows to ventilate the environment and moisten the soil to before proceeding with the sweeping.

The possibility of acquiring a hantavirus [infection] is if you have a history of having visited the Chaco area or if you were in a country that registers outbreaks of hantavirus, such as southern Argentina.

The disease has a 30% mortality rate and in Paraguay every year about 20 cases are registered, all in the Chaco region.

Alerting symptoms
-----------------
The symptoms of hantavirus [infection] are similar to other infectious diseases and include fever, headache, and gastrointestinal problems and, according to the development and the seriousness of the case, the patient may present with respiratory manifestations.

Before the appearance of any of these or other symptoms [the Ministry of Health] urges the public to go to the nearest health service to make the appropriate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Under no circumstances should self-medication be used as this could aggravate the picture and obstruct the actual diagnosis of the disease.
=====================
[The active surveillance efforts in the neighborhood of the initial case has detected more patients now with a total 3 confirmed and 2 suspected. The tests used in the private laboratory to determine that 3 cases as confirmed are not indicated, nor if samples of these 3 cases were sent to the reference laboratory in Argentina for confirmation.

Most of the previous cases of hantavirus infection in Paraguay have been diagnosed in Boqueron department in the north western part of the country. This is the 1st report of hantavirus infections in the Central department of Paraguay. The possible hantavirus involved in this suspected case is not stated. A 2011 report indicated that Leguna Negra hantavirus was responsible for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases in Presidente Hayes department. In addition to Laguna Negra virus (rodent host _Calomys laucha_), other hantaviruses that can cause HPS and are found in Paraguay (and their rodent hosts) include Juquitiba (_Akodon cursor_), Ape Aime-Itapua (_Akodon montensis_), Araucaria (_A. montensis_, _Oligoryzomys nigripes_), Jabora and Jabora-like (_A. montensis_), Alto Paraguay (_Holochilus chararius_), and Lechiguanas (_Oligoryzomys nigripes_). - ProMED Mod.TY]

[Maps of Paraguay:
Date: Tue 12 Jun 2018
Source: WHO, Malaria [edited]

- What were the key elements to Paraguay's malaria elimination success that helped the country reach zero indigenous cases of the disease?
Paraguay is the 1st country in the Americas since Cuba in 1973 to be certified malaria-free, representing a significant public health achievement not only for Paraguay but for the Americas as a whole. Achieving elimination in Paraguay required substantial levels of political commitment and leadership, as well as sustained investments in its national malaria programme over a period spanning more than 50 years. Notable aspects of its approach include:

Rapid and targeted response
---------------------------
With free universal health services in Paraguay and a strong malaria surveillance system, malaria cases were detected early, investigated promptly, and classified correctly.

Dedicated elimination strategy
------------------------------
After reporting its last case of malaria in 2011, Paraguay launched a 5-year plan to consolidate the gains, prevent re-establishment of transmission, and prepare for elimination certification. Activities centred on strengthening epidemiological surveillance, robust case management, and a public information campaign on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of malaria to promote behaviour change among populations in at-risk areas.

Integration
-----------
During 2015 and 2016, as part of a broader health reform, malaria surveillance, diagnosis, and treatment activities were integrated within Paraguay's general health services, with the aim of expanding health coverage to at-risk populations and preventing re-establishment.

Strengthening surveillance skills
---------------------------------
A 3-year initiative to hone the skills of front-line health workers in the country's 18 health regions was launched in 2016 to keep the malaria surveillance system sustainable over the long term. Supported by The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the project addresses disease prevention, identification of suspected cases, accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment to respond to the on-going threat of malaria importation from endemic countries in the region and Africa.

- How has Paraguay managed to stay malaria-free since 2012? What are the systems in place that made this possible and how long will the country keep those systems operational?
As part of the WHO elimination certification process, countries must demonstrate that they have the capacity to prevent the re-establishment of malaria transmission. The availability of free universal health services in Paraguay and a strong malaria surveillance system ensure imported cases of malaria are detected and responded to in a timely manner to prevent local transmission.

The inclusion of the national malaria programme within the National Malaria Eradication Service (SENEPA, in the Spanish acronym), the institution within the ministry of health responsible for the control of vector-borne diseases, helps guarantee the programme's future existence.

Further, congressional legislation provides predictable and long-term financing for the national malaria programme: by law, 1.5 percent of annual income from Paraguay's social security programme is allocated to SENEPA. Together, these elements ensure that efforts to prevent the re-establishment of malaria transmission can be sustained in the decades to come.

- What are the benefits of malaria elimination for Paraguay?
Eliminating malaria in Paraguay means that no one will fall ill or die from local transmission of the disease, bringing about tangible health benefits at the individual and community levels, as well as broader socio-economic outcomes.

- What role did national leadership, political will, civil society and international partners play in Paraguay's success?
Eliminating malaria is a collective effort, requiring the sustained engagement of many partners at the national, regional and global levels. However, achieving elimination is a country-driven process. For elimination efforts to succeed, government stewardship is essential, together with the engagement and participation of affected communities.

- Does Paraguay coordinate cross-border surveillance activities to prevent importation of malaria cases and do they provide antimalarial treatment to visitors and migrants?
Paraguay provides free treatment to all citizens, visitors, and migrants, regardless of their nationality or residency status. The national malaria programme has identified 3 populations at greatest risk: the military, Brazilian students attending universities in Paraguay, and Paraguayans travelling to Africa. Targeted interventions include strengthening passive detection systems, promotion of health education, and providing prophylaxis to travellers heading to and returning from malaria-endemic regions in Africa.

To step up cross-border collaboration, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) funded a project focused on strengthening entomological surveillance and control of vector-borne diseases in the 'triple border' area of Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay. A key outcome of the project, which ran from 2010 to 2012, was the development of an _Anopheles_ mosquito range map, a tool that shows the geographic distribution of malaria-carrying mosquitoes.

- What are the lessons learned from Paraguay's experience that can be applied in other countries looking to eliminate malaria?
Paraguay provides universal free health services to all, one of the critical elements that helps drive a country towards malaria elimination. Sustained political commitment and robust financial support are further keys to success. Continued surveillance of suspected cases, targeted community engagement and education, as well as strengthening skills of front-line health workers, are recommended strategies that WHO encourages countries to adopt as part of their national malaria elimination programmes.
 
- Is Paraguay replicating its elimination strategy with other infectious and mosquito-borne diseases?
Paraguay has an integrated approach to entomological surveillance activities, taking into account several vector-borne diseases including dengue, leishmaniasis, and Zika virus. Integration of malaria surveillance into the general health system had been a challenging task in Paraguay, but the lessons and experiences learned from other vector-borne diseases have contributed to the smooth integration and transition of the malaria programme. At the same time, the approach used to eliminate malaria is now being applied to eliminate Chagas disease and schistosomiasis.
======================
[ProMED congratulates Paraguay for this important public health achievement. It is important to demonstrate that malaria eradication is possible, and the achievement could be an inspiration for the countries in southeast Asia experiencing a decline in artemisinin susceptibility. - ProMED Mod.EP]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Paraguay:
More ...

Cyprus

Cyprus US Consular Information Sheet
December 30, 2009

Since 1974, Cyprus, a Mediterranean island nation, has been divided de facto into a government-controlled area comprising the southern two-thirds of the island, and a northern third (t
e self-declared “Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus"), administered by Turkish Cypriots. The United States does not recognize the “Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus” nor does any country other than Turkey. Facilities for tourism in Cyprus are highly developed. Cyprus joined the European Union in 2004. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Cyprus for additional information.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: A passport is required for travel to Cyprus. A visa is not required for a stay of up to 90 days. For longer stays, a visa or residence permit is required. U.S. citizens should be mindful that the Government of Cyprus does not recognize the residence permits issued by Turkish Cypriot authorities for the portions of the island under Turkish Cypriot administration. The Government of Cyprus does not issue residency permits to individuals who live in the areas outside government control.
On occasion, Americans who resided in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots for more than 90 days without a Republic of Cyprus residence permit have been detained by officials at Larnaca airport and denied entry into the government-controlled area. They also may be subject to prosecution.

The U.S. Embassy encourages travelers to read the “Special Circumstances” section of this fact sheet for important additional information about entry requirements into the Turkish Cypriot-administered areas.
For further information on entry requirements for Cyprus, travelers can contact the Embassy of the Republic of Cyprus at 2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008-4082, tel. (202) 462-5772, or the Cypriot Consulate in New York at 13 East 40th St., 5th Floor, New York, NY 10016, tel. (212) 686-6016/17. Visit the Embassy of Cyprus’ web site at http://www.cyprusembassy.net for the most current visa information.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site. For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.
SAFETY AND SECURITY: Do not, under any circumstances, attempt to enter the U.N. buffer zone at any place other than a designated crossing point. This area is mined and militarized.
Never photograph military installations or anything that could be perceived as being of security interest (especially in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots). Pay particular attention to areas marked with “no photography” signs. Police on both sides strictly enforce these restrictions.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State’s Bureau of Consular Affairs web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.
Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME: The crime rate in Cyprus is low. Visitors in urban areas should take the normal precautions they would take in any large city. Americans frequenting bars should avoid so-called “cabarets,” which sometimes employ women brought to Cyprus for sexual exploitation. These establishments can also present foreign patrons with grossly inflated bar tabs, threatening those customers who refuse to pay.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you in finding appropriate medical care, contacting family members or friends, and explaining how funds can be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of a crime in Cyprus is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

The local equivalent to the “911” emergency line in the Republic of Cyprus is 199 or 112.

Emergency assistance is available in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots by calling 155.
Also see our information on Victims of Crime.
MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Medical care is available at both government hospitals and private clinics. Emergency rooms offer adequate care to stabilize patients, most of whom are then transferred to private hospitals. Many of the private-sector doctors have been trained in the United Kingdom or the United States. While fees are generally lower than those in the United States, medical supplies are often more expensive. Paramedics do not staff ambulances. The standard of medical care in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots is improving but still falls below that found in the government-controlled area. The World Health Organization considers Cyprus to be one of the healthiest areas of the Mediterranean. Water supplies are potable, and the refuse collection/sewage disposal system is adequate. Communicable diseases such as typhoid are rare. Respiratory ailments and allergies are sometimes exacerbated by the dry and dusty climate.

Some HIV/AIDS entry restrictions exist for visitors to and foreign residents of Cyprus.
Legislation mandates that aliens known to have certain communicable diseases and HIV be denied entry into the country.
American citizens who think they may be included in this restriction are encouraged to check with the Embassy of Cyprus at http://www.cyprusembassy.net before they travel.
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.
MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Cyprus is provided for general reference only, and it may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
In recent years, Cyprus ranked among the top three countries in Europe, on a per capita basis, in traffic fatalities. Speeding, tailgating, overtaking, and the running of caution lights are commonplace and major causes of accidents. Emergency assistance is available in the Republic of Cyprus by calling 112 or 199.
Emergency assistance is available in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots by calling 155.
There are few public buses and no rail lines. Taxis are widely available. Traffic moves on the left side of the road, British style, and modern motorways link the major cities. Secondary roads, especially in mountainous areas, tend to be narrow and winding, and they are not as well maintained as major highways. Traffic laws, signs and speed limits are consistent with the standards used throughout Europe. Traffic circles (roundabouts) are often utilized at major intersections.

The use of seat belts (in front seats) and child car seats is required. Motorcyclists are required to wear helmets and the use of cellular phones while driving is prohibited unless used with some form of hands-free kit. Liability insurance is mandatory.

Road safety conditions in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots are similar to conditions in the south, except that the road network is less developed. Insurance purchased in the government-controlled area is not valid in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots, but insurance for that area may be purchased near the U.N. "buffer zone" checkpoints.
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. For specific information concerning driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance in Cyprus, contact the Cyprus Tourism Organization at 13 East 40th Street, New York, NY 10016, tel. (212) 683-5280, email: gocyprus@aol.com, web site: http://www.visitcyprus.com/wps/portal.
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Cyprus, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Cyprus’ Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: Since 1974, the Republic of Cyprus has designated Larnaca and Paphos international airports, and the seaports of Limassol, Larnaca, and Paphos, as the only legal points of entry into and exit from Cyprus. These ports are all in the government-controlled southern part of the island. Entry or exit via any other air or seaport is considered an illegal act by the Republic of Cyprus. Formerly, visitors choosing to arrive at non-designated airports and seaports in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots were not allowed to cross the U.N.-patrolled “buffer zone” to the government-controlled area in the south. Since 2004, when the Republic of Cyprus implemented new EU-related crossing regulations, Americans (and citizens of other non-EU countries not requiring visas) have been able to cross regardless of their port of entry into Cyprus.

Most American visitors to Cyprus are able to cross the “buffer zone” without hindrance, although on occasion difficulties are encountered at both the government and Turkish Cypriot checkpoints. Cypriot officials at the “buffer zone” checkpoints or at airports and seaports in the government-controlled area may detain and prosecute Americans who have been present for more than 90 days in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots if they do not possess a residency permit issued by the Government of Cyprus.

For visits of less than 90 days, American citizens may enter the Turkish Cypriot-administered area by displaying a valid U.S. passport.
Stays for 90 days or longer require a “temporary residency visa” issued by Turkish Cypriot authorities.
Turkish Cypriot authorities have deported foreigners who violate this law.
Turkish Cypriot authorities emphasize that the requirement to obtain a temporary residency visa within 90 days of arriving in the Turkish Cypriot-administered area cannot be avoided by periodically visiting the southern part of the island controlled by the Republic of Cyprus.
Policy and procedures regarding travel across the “buffer zone” are subject to change. More information on current procedures may be obtained at the U.N. “buffer zone” Ledra Palace checkpoint in Nicosia.
In an effort to prevent international child abduction, many governments have initiated strict identification procedures at entry/exit points. These often include requiring documentary evidence of relationship and permission for the child's travel from the parent(s) or legal guardian, if not present. Having such documentation on hand, even if not required, may facilitate entry and departure. Although Cyprus is party to the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, the Convention cannot be used effectively to recover a child abducted to the area administered by Turkish Cypriots.

Cyprus customs authorities enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from Cyprus of items such as firearms. There are no restrictions on contemporary religious materials and medication for personal use; however, Cyprus does restrict the export of Byzantine era ecclesiastical material.
It is advisable to contact the Embassy of the Republic of Cyprus in Washington, DC for specific information regarding customs requirements or visit http://www.mof.gov.cy/mof/customs/ced.nsf/DMLindex_en/DMLindex_en?OpenDocument.
In many countries around the world, counterfeit and pirated goods are widely available. Transactions involving such products are illegal and bringing them back to the United States may result in forfeitures and/or fines. Cyprus restricts the export of Byzantine period ecclesiastical material and all archaeological material, including ancient coins. The U.S. Customs Service may impose corresponding import restrictions in accordance with the Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act. Also see our Customs Information.

In addition to being subject to all Cypriot laws affecting American citizens, individuals who also possess Cypriot nationality may be subject to laws that impose special obligations on citizens of Cyprus. For example, American citizens whom the Republic of Cyprus considers to be Cypriot citizens may be subject to compulsory military service and other aspects of Cypriot law while in Cyprus. American citizen males between the ages of 16 and 26 years who reside in the United States and whose parents or grandfather were Greek Cypriots or have Greek Cypriot names are advised to obtain a written confirmation that they reside permanently outside of Cyprus from the Cypriot Embassy in Washington, D.C. before they travel to Cyprus.
After their arrival in Cyprus, the young men should present their foreign residency confirmation statement to the Cypriot National Guard Registration office to obtain an exit permit. Those who believe they may be affected should inquire at the Embassy of the Republic of Cyprus regarding their status. American citizens whom the Turkish Cypriot authorities consider to be "citizens" may also be subject to compulsory military service in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots. The U.S. Embassy is unable to exempt dual nationals from such service.
For additional information, please see our dual nationality flyer.

American Citizens who buy or lease property, particularly in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots, may find their ownership challenged by people displaced as a result of the 1974 conflict. Prospective property buyers should always seek legal advice before buying. On October 20, 2006, the government of the Republic of Cyprus passed Article 303A of the Criminal Code which makes it a felony to buy, rent or sell property in Cyprus without the consent of the registered owner. Cypriot courts have used the law to prosecute people involved in the sale or purchase of property in the area administered by the Turkish Cypriots. The government of Cyprus has also attempted to enforce Cypriot legal judgments in property matters in other EU countries. Cypriot customs authorities routinely detain anyone arriving in Cyprus or crossing the buffer zone found to be in possession of documents relating to property purchases in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots.

In June 2006 the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" amended the laws governing its "Immovable Property Commission" to enable the Commission to accept claims for compensation or restitution from Greek Cypriots for property in the north.
The Government of the Republic of Cyprus does not recognize the legitimacy of the "Immovable Property Commission."
Some Greek Cypriots who have filed claims with the Commission have been subjected to intensive governmental and public pressure to withdraw their claims.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, American citizens are subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Cypriot laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Cyprus are strict, and convicted offenders can expect jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION: Americans living or traveling in Cyprus are encouraged to register with the U.S. Embassy through the State Department's travel registration web site
in order to obtain updated information on travel and security within Cyprus. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.

The U.S. Embassy is located at Metochiou and Ploutarchou Streets, Engomi, Nicosia, tel. 357-22-39-3939; fax 357-22-39-3344; e-mail consularnicosia@state.gov; web site http://cyprus.usembassy.gov/
The U.S. Government also maintains an office in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots. The office is located at 6 Serif Arzik Street, Koskluciftlik, Nicosia.
The telephone number when calling from the United States or the Republic of Cyprus is 0090-392-227-3930. When calling within the area administered by Turkish Cypriots, please dial 227-3930.
* * * * * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information dated June 27, 2008
to update sections on Entry and Exit Requirements, Information for Victims of Crime,
Special Circumstances, and Registration/Embassy Location.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Wed, 27 May 2020 16:38:21 +0200 (METDST)

Nicosia, May 27, 2020 (AFP) - Cyprus hopes to attract tourists after its coronavirus lockdown by paying the medical costs of anyone who tests positive for COVID-19 while holidaying on the island, officials said Wednesday.   The plan was outlined in a letter to tour operators and airlines detailing the measures Cyprus is taking to ensure the safety of its tourism sector.   The letter was made public Wednesday and signed by the ministers of foreign affairs, transport, and tourism.

The Mediterranean island is marketing itself as a safe holiday destination during the global pandemic.   The Republic of Cyprus has reported 939 novel coronavirus cases and only 17 deaths.   The government said it is "committed to taking care of all travellers who test positive during their stay, as well as their families and close contacts".   It pledged to cover accommodation, dining and medical care if a tourist falls ill with the virus.   The "traveller will only need to bear the cost of their airport transfer and repatriation flight," it said.

- 'Quarantine hotels' -
A 100-bed hospital will be available exclusively for tourists who test positive, with more beds available "at very short notice if required".   An additional 112 beds in intensive care units with 200 respirators will be reserved for critically ill patients.   Designated "quarantine hotels" will have 500 rooms available for family members and close contacts of patients.

Other hotels on the island will be allowed to remain open if a guest tests positive, but their room will "undergo a deep clean".   Authorities have forecast a 70 percent decline in tourist arrivals in 2020.    Tourism earned Cyprus EUR2.68 billion ($2.94 bn) in 2019 -- about 15 percent of gross domestic product -- down one percent from the previous year, which was bolstered by a record 3.97 million arrivals.   Cyprus plans to reopen its airports on June 9 to arrivals from 13 countries considered low risk.   These include Israel, Greece, Germany, Austria and Malta but the island's two biggest markets Britain and Russia are not on the approved list.

hose arriving between June 9-19 will need to provide a health certificate proving they do not have the virus.   That requirement will be dropped from June 20, when another six countries will be added to the approved list, including Switzerland and Poland.   Cyprus says it will update the list of approved countries on a weekly basis based on scientific advice.

Officials will administer temperature checks and free random testing of arrivals.   Having tested over 10 percent of its population, Cyprus says it has one of the lowest coronavirus infection rates in Europe.   "Very few countries worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean, can boast about such statistics," the letter said.
Date: Thu, 21 May 2020 12:46:52 +0200 (METDST)
By Charlie Charalambous

Nicosia, May 21, 2020 (AFP) - The Cypriot government ended a strict coronavirus lockdown Thursday, reopening outdoor restaurants, barber shops and beaches, but keeping the Mediterranean resort island's vital airports and hotels closed for now.   After two months of living in self-isolation, Cypriots are allowed to move around freely again.

Some 32,000 more people went back to work as part of the government's second stage out of lockdown.   Thousands of children returned to the classroom as state-run schools resumed most classes.   Since mid-March people could only go outside for exercise and essential trips which needed to be approved by text message while a curfew was enforced every night.   Cyprus activated the second stage of its draft timetable for ending the lockdown after the the daily number of new infections remained in single figures throughout the first three weeks of May.

Virologist Dr Leontios Kostrikis, who is a member of the health ministry's epidemiological monitoring unit, said he was "very satisfied" with the figures so far.   Announcing four new infections in the previous 24 hours on Wednesday evening, Kostrikis said Cyprus was entering a watershed moment in its fight against the coronavirus.   "The second stage is a make or break point for a full return to normalcy and for this reason we kindly ask you to keep up the good work with the same determination so that we are not forced to take backward steps," Kostrikis told reporters.

Due to the better than expected figures, the government has also decided to allow Cypriots access to organised beaches from 23 May, rather than June 1 as planned.   At present only swimming is allowed not sunbathing or any other leisure activity.   Parks and public spaces have also reopened but not children's playgrounds.   Church services and other forms of religious worship will also be allowed to resume from May 23 instead of June.

- Still no flights -
But the island's two international airports in Larnaca and Paphos remain firmly shut for now, as do the crossing points to the breakaway Turkish-Cypriot north of the island.   The tourism sector makes up a key part of the Cyprus economy and the government has been under heavy pressure to reopen airports and hotels before the peak summer season.   The government has said it hopes to reopen airports gradually from mid-June with hotels to reopen two weeks after that.

But it has yet to issue any health protocols on how they will operate.   Gyms and indoor bars and restaurants will also remain shut until the third phase out of lockdown scheduled to start from June 9.   The government has said crossing points through the UN-patrolled buffer zone that divides the government-controlled south from the breakaway north will not reopen before next month.

Their closure has prevented thousands of Turkish Cypriots from reaching work in the south and sparked Turkish Cypriot demonstrations.   Since the first case on March 9, the Cyprus government has confirmed 922 coronavirus infections and 17 deaths, including in the island's British sovereign base areas.   Turkish Cypriot authorities have confirmed 108 cases and four deaths.
Date: Wed, 29 Apr 2020 21:55:29 +0200 (METDST)

Nicosia, April 29, 2020 (AFP) - Cyprus revealed a plan Wednesday to gradually ease coronavirus lockdown measures  and reboot the Mediterranean holiday island's economy.   The Republic of Cyprus, which controls the southern two-thirds of the divided island, had imposed strict measures soon after its first COVID-19 cases were confirmed on March 9.

President Nicos Anastasiades announced that some of the emergency regulations would be eased from May 4 and further lifted in stages, on the advice of health experts wary of a new spike in COVID-19 cases.   "The distance we have to travel, unfortunately, remains great," Anastasiades said in a televised address after a cabinet meeting.   "Nevertheless, the progress that continues to be made allows us to implement the first phases for a gradual easing of restrictive measures," he added.

The first phase will see the reopening of the key construction sector, as well as retailers and markets, though shopping malls will remain closed.   The public sector will go back to work, but under strict social distancing rules. Parks, marinas and playgrounds will remain closed until the second phase.   Under the lockdown measures, Cyprus residents were only permitted to leave the house once a day for limited purposes, and needed to obtain government permission via SMS for each trip.    From Monday they will be allowed three outings per day, Anastasiades said.   A night-time curfew will remain in place, but the start time will be pushed an hour later to 10:00 pm (1900 GMT).

From May 21, all movement restrictions will be lifted, Anastasiades added.   Open-air restaurants, cafes and bars will also reopen from May 21, as will barber shops, hair salons and beauty parlours.   Students in their final year of secondary school at state-run and private schools are set to return to class from May 11.

Cypriots will again be allowed to visit the island's many beaches from June 1.   A ban on gathering at places of worship, which had been in place during Greek Orthodox Easter in mid-April, will also be eased.   Groups of fewer than ten people will be permitted in places of worship from Monday and religious services opened to the public from June 1.

The plan did not mention the reopening of airports and hotels.    A commercial flight ban has been imposed until mid-May, with only Cypriot citizens and residents allowed to enter the country and facing quarantine on arrival.   Seaports will operate again from June 1, but passengers will not be able to disembark from cruise ships.   The Republic of Cyprus has recorded 843 cases of the novel coronavirus, including 15 deaths, since early March.    The breakaway Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, recognised only by Ankara, has reported 108 cases, including four deaths.
Date: Fri, 24 Apr 2020 12:00:12 +0200 (METDST)

Nicosia, April 24, 2020 (AFP) - Cyprus has extended a ban on all commercial flights until May 17 to curb the spread of the novel coronavirus, the transport minister said Friday.  "We have decided to extend the decree on a total ban on flights at Larnaca and Paphos airports until Sunday 17 May," Yiannis Karousos wrote on Twitter.   The transport ministry said the decree continued to apply to all countries.   Cargo and humanitarian flights, as well as repatriation flights to and from the Mediterranean island, are exempt.

The extension is the third since authorities first introduced a two-week ban on March 21. The current period had been scheduled to end on April 30.   Cyprus has imposed tough restrictions to confront the coronavirus pandemic.   Most people are allowed to leave their homes only once a day and a night-time curfew is in place, while those returning on repatriation flights are subject to a 14-day quarantine period at a designated facility.

Authorities are assessing whether to start gradually easing the lockdown in early May, with new cases of the COVID-19 illness appearing to slow and low transmission rates.   As of Thursday evening, the Republic of Cyprus had officially declared 795 coronavirus cases, including 10 on sovereign British military bases on the island, and 13 deaths.   The breakaway Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus has registered 108 cases and four deaths.
Date: Wed, 8 Apr 2020 22:17:15 +0200 (METDST)

Nicosia, April 8, 2020 (AFP) - Cypriot President Nicos Anastasiades on Wednesday extended a lockdown designed to combat the spread of coronavirus until the end of April, taking in Greek Easter.   "The cabinet has agreed to extend all measures and decrees until April 30," Anastasiades announced in a televised address.

Cyprus has closed schools, banned gatherings and imposed a nigh time curfew, allowing residents to leave their homes only once a day.   The shutdown had originally been due to run until April 13.   "We must not succumb to the difficulties caused by the measures. The duration of the measures depends on how faithfully we follow them," Anastasiades said.   The Republic of Cyprus on Wednesday announced 32 new coronavirus cases, taking the confirmed total in the EU member state to 526, among whom nine have died.

Two other people, both German tourists, have died of COVID-19 in the breakaway Turkish Cypriot statelet in the north of the divided island.   "Without wanting to cultivate optimism, it seems that our measures allow us to see a ray of light," the president said.   "It is not our way of life which is at stake but our lives," he said.

The president was referring to Greek Easter, the most important date in the Orthodox calendar that this year falls on April 19.   He said there will be 20,000 more coronavirus tests for people still working, including the army, and further repatriations of students and other Cypriot nationals stranded abroad.
More ...

Switzerland

Switzerland US Consular Information Sheet
December 01, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Switzerland is a highly developed democracy.
Liechtenstein is a democratically run constitutional monarchy.
Read the Department of State Background
otes on Switzerland for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport is required for travel to both Switzerland and Liechtenstein.
A visa is not required for stays up to 90 days in either country.
For more information on entry requirements for both countries, travelers may contact the Embassy of Switzerland at 2900 Cathedral Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20008, telephone (202) 745-7900, or the nearest Swiss Consulate General in Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, or San Francisco.
Visit the Embassy of Switzerland’s web site at http://www.swissemb.org for the most current visa information.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Although there have been no recent terrorist attacks in Switzerland, violence by anti-globalization, anti-Semitic, and anti-establishment (anarchist) groups does occur from time to time.
This violence is typically in the form of property damage and clashes between these groups and the police.
The potential for specific threats of violence involving American citizens in Switzerland is remote.
Nevertheless, the Consular Agencies in Zurich and Geneva may close periodically to assess their security situation.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.
Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll-free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
Switzerland has a low rate of violent crime.
However, pick-pocketing and purse snatching do occur in the vicinity of train and bus stations, airports, and some public parks, especially during peak tourist periods (such as summer and Christmas) and when conferences, shows, or exhibits are scheduled in major cities.
Liechtenstein has a low crime rate.
Travelers may wish to exercise caution on trains, especially on overnight trains to neighboring countries.
Thieves, who steal from passengers while they sleep, can enter even locked sleeping compartments.
Thieves have been known to work in pairs to target train passengers; while one member of the pair creates a diversion at a train window or on a platform, the other steals items left briefly unattended.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends, and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

Switzerland, through its 26 cantons (states), has programs to assist victims of crime and their immediate relatives.
Medical, psychological, social, financial, and legal assistance are available throughout the country.
These programs also protect the rights of the victim during criminal proceedings.
The victim may receive compensation for some damages, if requested during the criminal procedure.
Information is available at the Swiss Department of Justice located on Bundesrain 20, 3003 Bern, telephone: 41-31-322-4750, as well as on the Internet at http://www.bj.admin.ch/bj/en/home.html
The local equivalent to the “911” emergency line in Switzerland is fire 118; police 117; medical 144.
For additional assistance, including possible U.S. compensation, see our information for Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Good medical care is widely available.
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en .

The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Switzerland.
MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Switzerland is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
Although many roads are mountainous and winding, road safety standards are high.
In some mountain areas, vehicle snow chains are required in winter.
Road travel can be more dangerous during summer, winter holidays, the Easter break, and Whitsunday weekend (late spring) because of increased traffic.
Travel on expressways (indicated by green signs with a white expressway symbol) requires purchase of a sticker or “vignette,” which must be affixed to the car’s windshield.
Vignettes can be purchased at most border crossings points, gas stations and at Swiss post offices.
Drivers using the highway system without a vignette are subject to hefty fines levied on the spot.
Public transportation in Switzerland and Liechtenstein is excellent.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
Visit the website of Switzerland’s national tourist office at http://www.myswitzerland.com/en.cfm/home.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Switzerland’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Switzerland’s air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa .

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Travelers who plan to participate in mountain activities (summer and winter) are strongly encouraged to buy mountain search and rescue insurance. Costs of search and rescue operations are the responsibility of the victim. Search and rescue insurance is available inexpensively in Switzerland and may be purchased at many Swiss post offices.
Information can be obtained from the Swiss National Tourist Office, at http://www.myswitzerland.com, at most tourist information offices or with the Swiss Air Rescue Organization at http://www.rega.ch/en/start_en.aspx .
Such insurance has proved useful as uninsured rescues can easily cost $25,000.

Switzerland’s customs authorities encourage the use of an ATA (Admission Temporaire/Admission) Carnet for the temporary admission of professional equipment, commercial samples, and/or goods for exhibitions and fair purposes.
ATA Carnet Headquarters located at the U.S. Council for International Business, 1212 Avenue of the Americas, New York, N.Y. 10036, and issues and guarantees the ATA Carnet in the United States.
For additional information call (212) 354-4480, send an email to atacarnet@uscib.org, or visit http://www.uscib.org for details.
Please see our information on Customs Information.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Switzerland’s laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Switzerland are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Switzerland are encouraged to register with the U.S. Embassy in Bern, with the Consular Agencies in Geneva or Zurich, or through the State Department’s travel registration web site, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Switzerland and Liechtenstein.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy, Consulate, or Consular Agent to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy is located at Sulgeneckstrasse 19, 3007 Bern; Tel. (41)(31) 357-7011 (2 p.m. – 5 p.m.); fax (41)(31) 357-7280.
The Embassy’s email address is bernacs@state.gov.
The U.S. Embassy website at http://bern.usembassy.gov answers many questions of interest to Americans visiting and residing in Switzerland.

The U.S. Consular Agency in Zurich is located at the American Center of Zurich, Dufourstrasse 101, 8008 Zurich; Tel: (41)(43) 499-2960 (10 a.m. – 1 p.m.), fax (41)(43) 499-2961.
The U.S. Consular Agency in Geneva is located at rue Versonnex 7, CH-1207 Geneva, Tel: 022-840-51 60 (10 a.m. – 1 p.m.); fax 022-840-51 62.
There is no U.S. Embassy or Consulate in Liechtenstein.
For assistance and information on travel and security in Liechtenstein, U.S. citizens may contact or register at the U.S. Embassy in Bern at the address above.
*
*
*
This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated March 3, 2008 with changes to the sections on Crime and Registration/Embassy Location.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Sat, 4 Apr 2020 15:22:33 +0200 (METDST)

Geneva, April 4, 2020 (AFP) - Switzerland on Saturday saw the number of cases of the new coronavirus in the country pass 20,000, as its death toll in the pandemic swelled past 500.   The health ministry said 20,201 people in Switzerland had tested positive for COVID-19 as of Saturday morning -- nearly 1,000 more than a day earlier.   The small Alpine country of some 8.5 million people is thus one of the worst hit compared to population size, now counting 236 registered infections per 100,000 people.    At the same time, an additional 76 people died over the past 24 hours, bringing Switzerland's death toll in the pandemic to 540, the health ministry said.   "We have not yet reached the peak," health ministry official Daniel Koch told reporters.

Worldwide, well over 1.1 million cases have been registered across 188 countries, while close to 60,000 people have died, according to a tally compiled by AFP Saturday from official sources.   The high incidence in Switzerland could in part be linked to the fact that it is among the countries that have administered most tests per capita.   Since the first case surfaced in the country on February 24, more than 150,000 tests have been administered with around 15 percent coming up positive.   Drive-in testing stations have been set up in several places, including in the capital Bern, to help simplify safe testing for COVID-19.   In the past 24 hours, the country has conducted nearly 7,000 tests, including 975 that were positive, the health ministry said.

Switzerland's southern canton of Ticino, which borders hard-hit Italy, has registered most cases, followed by Geneva.   As in other countries, men seemed to suffer more from the virus. Slightly more women had tested positive for the virus, but men accounted for 64 percent of the deaths, the ministry found.   Switzerland has unblocked some $60 billion to buffer the harsh blow to its economy from the pandemic and the measures taken to halt the spread of the virus.   The economic affairs ministry said Saturday some 1.3 million people, or a quarter of the country's workforce, have applied for temporary unemployment benefits since the start of the crisis.
Date: Thu, 26 Mar 2020 17:03:20 +0100 (MET)
By Robin MILLARD

Geneva, March 26, 2020 (AFP) - Switzerland on Thursday joined the small group of countries to declare more than 10,000 officially-recorded cases of COVID-19, as it launched plans to start tracking crowd build-ups through mobile phone data.   The health ministry said 10,661 people in the Alpine country have tested positive for the new coronavirus -- nearly 1,000 more than a day earlier -- while 161 people have died.

Switzerland, which is among the countries that have conducted most COVID-19 tests per capita, is the fifth country in Europe to pass 10,000 officially-recorded cases.   It follows neighbours Italy, Germany and France, and Spain -- all of which have far bigger populations.   Elsewhere, China, Iran and the United States have also passed the five-figure mark, according to the latest World Health Organization situation report on the global pandemic.

Switzerland's Italian-speaking southern region of Ticino, which borders hard-hit northern Italy, is the worst-affected of its 26 cantons, with 393 cases per 100,000 people.   Around two-fifths of Switzerland's COVID-19 deaths have occurred in Ticino.   The first case of the new coronavirus was confirmed in Switzerland on February 24.   Since then, "91,400 tests have been carried out for COVID-19, of which 14 percent were positive," the Federal Office of Public Health said.   Those testing positive have ranged in age from under one to 102, with a median age of 52 years old, and a near-even split of men and women.

- 'Too early' to ease restrictions -
The Swiss government has ordered the closure of schools and all places of leisure, including restaurants, bars and non-food shops.   Last Friday it went further, banning all gatherings of more than five people, while anyone standing closer than two metres to others risks a fine.   "At the moment it would definitely be too early to talk about easing" the restrictions, health ministry official Daniel Koch, who is heading the Swiss response, told a press conference in Bern.   "We must first have proof that we have reached the peak of this epidemic -- which unfortunately is not yet the case."

Revelations this week that majority state-owned telecoms operator Swisscom would provide authorities with mobile phone data to monitor if people were adhering to the restrictions on public gatherings sparked an outcry.   But Koch said it was not a question of monitoring population movements in real time, but instead doing "retrospective analysis".   Meanwhile some 3,800 to 4,000 troops -- "the totality of the medical forces of the Swiss army" -- have been mobilised, said Brigadier General Raynald Droz, chief of staff of the military's joint operations command.   The global number of officially-recorded infections has topped 480,000, with more than 21,800 deaths.
Date: Mon 11 Nov 2019 14:31 CET
Source: SWI (swissinfo.ch) [edited]

Over 250 cases of the tick-borne early summer meningoencephalitis (ESME) disease have been recorded in Switzerland so far in 2019, the 2nd-highest number since the year 2000.

In its weekly bulletin published [Mon 11 Nov 2019], the Federal Office for Public Health (FOPH) wrote that 251 cases of the disease had been reported up to the end of October [2019]. The government urged a nationwide vaccination against the disease at the start of the year.

The figure is 2nd-only to the record 353 of last year [2018]. The 3rd-most cases reported in a single year came in 2017, with 250. Overall, since the year 2000, annual cases have fluctuated, with some years seeing less than 100 incidences, but with a steady rise in the past 5 years.

ESME, which attacks the nervous system and may result in paralysis, permanent sequelae or death, according to the World Health Organisation (WHO), is transmitted by tick bites, and most cases are reported in the summer months. In 2019, the peak came in July.

However, the FOPH also noted that general consultations by patients suffering from tick bites, as well as patients showing signs of Lyme disease -- another tick-borne disease -- were both within the normal range in 2019, at 18 000 and 9300 respectively.

The WHO says that the risk of contracting ESME is highest when hiking or camping in forested areas up to an altitude of about 1500 metres [about 4920 ft].

Advice for avoiding tick-borne diseases are mainly practical precautions such as wearing long trousers and closed footwear when hiking or camping in nature. The WHO also says that "the whole body should be inspected daily and attached ticks removed as soon as possible."

Ticks have to be properly removed with tweezers. If mouth parts of the tick remain under the skin for longer than around 36-48 hours, there is a risk of becoming ill.
=====================
[This has, indeed, been an active year for tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) cases in Switzerland. The Swiss government has had a proactive tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) vaccination program this year (2019), beginning early in the year. In a press release (<https://www.admin.ch/gov/fr/accueil/documentation/communiques.msg-id-73873.html> in German, French, Italian), the office repeated the call for anybody who may be exposed to ticks -- for example walkers, especially in forests -- to be vaccinated. Residents of Geneva or Ticino travelling outside their canton for such activities should also get the jab, it said. The optimum time for vaccination is in winter, the office wrote, so that walkers and hikers are protected once the good weather and riskiest period (from April to October) rolls around.

As cited earlier, according to government information, the most widespread TBE vector tick species in Switzerland is the wood tick (_Ixodes ricinus_, commonly known as the castor bean tick or sheep tick). It prefers deciduous woods with abundant undergrowth, the edge of the forest, and forest paths and waits on low-growing plants until a warm-blooded host (a person or animal) brushes against the plant.

In a previous comment in 2017 concerning TBE in Switzerland, Dr Ivo M Foppa indicated that the incidence of TBE in Switzerland has increased markedly, roughly about 50%, since 2000. The reason for the increase in TBE incidence in Central/Western/Northern Europe is unknown.

TBE is a virus infection caused by one of 3 TBE virus subtypes belonging to the Flaviviridae family: Central European, Siberian, and Far Eastern (formerly known as Russian spring-summer encephalitis). It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected _Ixodes_ ticks. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[Maps of Switzerland:
<https://www.mapsofworld.com/switzerland/switzerland-political-map.html>
and <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/105>]
Date: Mon 21 Oct 2019
Source: Swiss Info [in French, trans. Corr.SB, abridged, edited]

Measles can still be deadly, even in Europe, says the FOPH [Federal Office of Public Health]. Thus 2 deaths related to the virus have been recorded so far in 2019.

A total of 214 cases of measles have been reported in Switzerland since January [2019], 6 times more than in 2018 (34 cases), and 2 deaths. The outbreaks of the disease could nevertheless be controlled.

The incidence of measles during the 1st 9 months of the year increased from 4 cases per million inhabitants in 2018 to 25.1 cases in 2019, says the Bulletin of the FOPH broadcast Monday [21 Oct 2019]; 19% were isolated cases spread over 13 cantons, of which 83 were in the canton of Bern alone.

Of these 214 cases, 58% were endemic, with no known foreign link; 17% were imported; and 9% were related to an imported case. In 16% of cases, the origin of the infection could not be established. Of the cases, 9% were fully vaccinated.

According to the FOPH, 20% of those infected were under 10 years of age, 23% were aged 10-19, and 57% were 20 or older; 91% of the 172 people with known vaccination status were not vaccinated or were incompletely vaccinated, while 9% were fully vaccinated.

The majority of cases in 2019 in Switzerland belonged to one of the 30 outbreaks recorded from January to May, which could be stopped at the end of May [2019]. These outbreaks occurred in total in 12 cantons. The most affected were Geneva, St. Gallen, Zurich, Neuchatel, and Bern.

One of the [deaths] was a young adult who was previously healthy and unvaccinated. Post-exposure vaccination took place too late to save him.

The other case was an elderly man, immunosuppressed due to cancer. He died of measles pneumonia, despite intensive care in the hospital. A total of 45 people (21% of the reported cases) had to be hospitalized.

In 2010, Switzerland set itself the goal of eradicating this disease. At the end of July 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared for the 1st time that endemic measles had been eliminated from Switzerland between 2016 and 2018. Like Austria, it is one of 35 countries (out of 53 WHO European Region countries) in which this disease was eliminated between 2016 and 2018.

According to WHO indicators, the virus is considered eliminated when no transmission chain of more than 12 months is observed for 3 consecutive years. Cases imported from abroad are not taken into account.

Despite the outbreaks of early 2019, Switzerland still fulfils WHO's elimination criteria, as no chain of transmission has been observed since June [2019].

For the FOPH, this success is mainly due to vaccination coverage, particularly for infants, which has been steadily increasing in recent years. But efforts must be kept up.
Date: Mon 22 Jul 2019
Source: Swissinfo [edited]

Cases of tick-borne diseases, including encephalitis and Lyme disease, almost halved in Switzerland in the 1st 6 months of 2019 compared with the same period last year [2018].

Figures for 2019 so far show 127 cases of meningoencephalitis [the graph shows approximately 75 cases - ProMED Mod.TY], compared with 218 for the 1st half of 2018. Those showing symptoms of Lyme disease fell from 10 000 to 3600.

But Daniel Koch, head of communicable diseases at the Federal Office for Public Health (FOPH), told the Keystone-SDA news agency that while the numbers mark a big fall from 2018, they are closer to the average over a longer time period. Indeed, since 2000, numbers of tick-borne encephalitis declared in the 1st 6 months of the year varied between 24 and 120, FOPH figures show. In 2018, the number was 206.

If the cause of last year's [2018's] peak remains unclear, the subsequent drop in 2019 is also difficult to explain, though it has coincided with a concerted campaign by authorities to encourage vaccination among the population. Tick-borne encephalitis, a debilitating and potentially fatal disease that attacks the nervous system, is preventable through a jab.

To reduce the risk of picking up tick-borne diseases, authorities recommend avoiding particularly at-risk areas -- for example, bushes and tall grass -- as well as using an insect repellent and wearing clothing that covers the arms, legs, and feet.  [Byline: Laurent Gillieron]
===================
[The Swiss government has had a proactive tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) vaccination program this year (2019), beginning early in the year. In a press release [<https://www.admin.ch/gov/fr/accueil/documentation/communiques.msg-id-73873.html>], the office repeated the call for anybody who may be exposed to ticks -- for example walkers, especially in forests -- to be vaccinated. Residents of Geneva or Ticino travelling outside their canton for such activities should also get the jab, it said. The optimum time for vaccination is in winter, the office wrote, so that walkers and hikers are protected once the good weather and riskiest period (from April to October) rolls around.

As cited earlier, according to government information, the most widespread TBE vector tick species in Switzerland is the wood tick (_Ixodes ricinus_, commonly known as the castor bean tick or sheep tick). It prefers deciduous woods with abundant undergrowth, the edge of the forest, and forest paths and waits on low-growing plants until a warm-blooded host (a person or animal) brushes against the plant.

In a previous comment in 2017 concerning TBE in Switzerland, Dr Ivo M Foppa indicated that the incidence of TBE in Switzerland has increased markedly, roughly about 50%, since 2000. The reason for the increase of TBE incidence in Central/Western/Northern Europe is unknown.

TBE is a virus infection caused by one of 3 TBE virus subtypes belonging to the Flaviviridae family: Central European, Siberian, and Far Eastern (formerly known as Russian spring-summer encephalitis). It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected _Ixodes_ ticks. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[Maps of Switzerland:
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Greece

Background
Greece offers a great variety of attractions for the international traveller. A beautiful climate linked with great beaches, a vibrant nightlife and historical monuments to rival any other location throughout the world. All of this located
within western Europe and a short flight away from many of the cooler northern destinations - like Ireland. Travellers from these regions descent on Greece in very significant numbers each year and for the vast majority of them they will have a splendid and healthy time. However for some this may not be the case and serious illness and accidents are regularly reported. Following some commonsense rules would go a long way to avoiding disaster and ensuring that this trip is truly one to be remembered for all the right reasons.
Climate
Situated in southern Europe the country enjoys mild winters but very hot summers. There may be occasional cool breezes (meltemia) but these can serve only to fool the traveller into thinking that they are unlikely to burn. Rain is very uncommon during the height of summer (July and August) and all travellers should be advised to use very adequate sun-block lotion at all times.
Slip, Slop, Slap
Following the Australian mantra of Slip, Slop and Slap makes perfect sense. Slip on a shirt, slop on sunscreen and slap on a hat when out and about during the day and this should help protect against the intense suns rays. Nevertheless, despite all their best intentions, travellers get burnt. This is particularly a problem in the first few days after their arrival when they do not realise the intensity of the suns rays and how easily they can be exposed. Falling asleep beside the hotel's swimming pool or on the beach is a very common problem and must be avoided against. The tips of the ears, shoulders (especially along the bra-strap line, ankles and behind the knees are commonly exposed and forgotten areas.
After Sun care
To treat significant sunburn it is important to increase fluid intake but also to take extra salt on your food (unless medically contraindicated for some specific condition like high blood pressure etc). Soothing water soluble lotions (especially ones containing a mild anaesthetic and/or steroid cream) are probably best but certainly avoid any of the ones which paste the skin with a thick layer - which is almost impossible to remove without causing serious pain! The more severe sunburn cases may need medical care and even hospitalisation which really ruins a holiday.
Food & Water
As a European destination Greece has a good level of food and water hygiene. Unfortunately this can vary - especially as you move away from the main tourist destinations and also as the summer temperatures rise and food goes 'off' more quickly. Eating hot food, avoiding cold foods (side-salads, lettuce etc) and never eating undercooked bivalve shellfish (mussels, oysters, clams etc) makes perfect sense. Eating food or taking fruit juice drinks from street vendors is a risk just not worth taking.
Insect bites
There may be both mosquitoes and sandflys about so having good repellents (DEET based ones) is worthwhile. The biggest problem will be early in the morning and towards the end of the daylight hours. However sitting in the shade while having lunch may be nice and cool but it is also often a place where these insects tend to hover looking for their next meal. Just don't allow that meal to be the blood in your unguarded ankle!
Seeing the Monuments
As mentioned previously Greece is covered with ancient monuments and these attract many thousands of tourists each year. The ruins are often not the most hospitable places for sun-sensitive tourists so taking care against the suns rays is essential - especially while standing carefully listening to the tour guide explain some complicated piece of history while the back of your legs get roasted! The other issue, for those trekking through the ruins, is the distinct possibility of a nasty twisted ankle.
Laser Night shows
Many of the ancient sites have beautiful night shows which depict something of the past splendour and are definitely worth seeing. However it is wise to wear good shoes as stumbling across loose stones is a particular problem at night and also bring a small torch, if possible, to guide your way. Getting separated from your travelling companions, or not being able to find your return bus, can lead to some understandable panic so listen carefully to any instructions and look out for some land marks before you get too far away into the night time crowd.
Animal bites
Some tourists may forget that rabies is a problem in many countries throughout the world and, even though Greece is regarded as rabies-free', there is always a problem if someone should get bitten. The possibility that this animal could have been recently smuggled into the country cannot be out ruled and so many would advise full post exposure treatment should this contact occur. Children may be at particular risk due to their inquisitive nature.
Swimming
Sunburn and swimming go hand in hand but drowning can also occur all too frequently within this region. Strong currents, swimming after meals (or alcohol) and the ever popular romantic midnight swim are all serious risk factors. Also children running around the deep end of the pool may lose their footing and topple in without warning. Unfortunately a very small child sinks instantly with very little sign of the emergency to those close by. Parents need to keep aware of this risk at all times.
The summer working holiday
Many of our students head towards Greece for 2 to 3 months during the summer to work. The attractions are obvious but commonsense and sensible life-style choices are needed throughout their stay to lessen the risk of illness or them returning home with an infection they had not bargained for. Unfortunately many return home with life-long illnesses which have been contracted from a single unprotected sexual contact.
Vaccinations for Greece
As a general rule the usual travel vaccines are not recommended for most short-term travellers to this region. However for the student planning to spend a more prolonged period it would be sensible to consider cover against both Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B and also to check that their Tetanus cover is up-to-date.
Summary
This is still one of the most popular destinations for northern European travellers and, in the vast majority of cases, they will have a fantastic time with only good memories. Unfortunately some less prepared folks will end up with serious sunburn and other illnesses or diseases which perhaps are frequently associated with their own lack of care and protection rather than anything specific to this beautiful country.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Sat, 2 May 2020 17:14:39 +0200 (METDST)

Athens, May 2, 2020 (AFP) - A 6.0 magnitude quake struck off the Greek island of Crete on Saturday but there were no immediate reports of casualties or damage.   The Athens Geodynamic Institute said the epicentre was about 55 kilometres (35 miles) south of the city of Ierapetra. It hit at 1251 GMT (15:51 pm).   "No victims or serious damage has been reported so far," a local police officer told AFP by telephone.

Tremors were felt across the island and landslides were reported on some roads in Lasithi, where Ierapetra is located, the fire service said.    "Luckily the quake happened at a depth of 19 kilometres in the sea and there has not been any serious damage so far," said Giorgos Aspadrakis, the head of the fire brigade in Lasithi.   "The quake went on for a long time," said Georgia Santamouri, 29, who lives at Heraklion -- almost 100 km from Ierapetra.   "I was in bed. I was really scared in the beginning and I couldn't move initially but then I ran out," she said.

Greece is prone to earthquakes, with many occurring offshore.   The last deadly quake occurred on the island of Kos in the Aegean Sea in July 2017. The 6.7-magnitude quake killed two people.   The deadliest temblor in recent years struck the Athens region in 1999, killing 143 people.
Date: Thu, 23 Apr 2020 12:20:54 +0200 (METDST)

Athens, April 23, 2020 (AFP) - Greece is extending coronavirus lockdown measures by a week to May 4, the government said Thursday.   The country has managed to keep fatalities at a low level after registering its first virus death on March 12, despite a decade of cuts imposed on its public health system during the post-2010 debt crisis.

Supermarkets, banks and food delivery restaurants are among the few businesses still operating, and Greeks must inform authorities when leaving their homes for necessities, or risk fines.   "Restrictive measures that apply until April 27 are extended by a week to May 4," government spokesman Stelios Petsas told reporters.

Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis next week will be announcing steps to remove some of the nationwide lockdown measures imposed on March 22, Petsas added.   The relaxation of the restrictions is set to begin with a partial reopening of courts and land registers on April 27.   The education ministry has also announced plans for final-year school pupils to hold university entry exams in June.   Greece has so far officially announced 121 deaths, with 55 people still in intensive care.
Date: Tue, 7 Apr 2020 12:55:32 +0200 (METDST)

Athens, April 7, 2020 (AFP) - Hundreds of Greek healthcare workers demonstrated on Tuesday to protest at working conditions and lack of manpower and equipment in public hospitals during the coronavirus pandemic.   The demonstrations were staged to coincide with World Health Day, according to the federation of hospital personnel.   "You only saw us when we covered our faces," proclaimed a poster printed by hospital trade unions, bearing a picture of doctors wearing anti-coronavirus masks.    Demonstrators at the large Evangelismos hospital in central Athens held up signs demanding job hiring, virus testing and hospital equipment.

Police tried to enter the hospital courtyard where the rally was taking place before being forced back by demonstrators, an AFP photographer said.   A similar protest was held at the main hospital in Larissa in central Greece, according to images from public television ERT.    Despina Tossonidou, president of the doctors' union at Voula hospital in southern Athens, said that in addition to the hiring of medical staff, intensive care units in private clinics should be requisitioned "to overcome the shortcomings of the public sector" during the virus crisis.   Health care in Greece was drastically affected by the country's 2010-2018 financial crisis and tough austerity required by creditors in exchange for bailouts.

As part of its measures to deal with the pandemic, the government has offered clinics 30 million euros ($32.6 million) and announced the hiring on short-term contracts of 2,000 doctors and 2,000 nursing staff.    "These measures are just a drop in the ocean," said Tossonidou, a radiologist.    "The hospital system needs 30,000 additional permanent doctors," she said, also citing the lack of protective equipment and COVID-19 testing in hospitals.    "The majority of tests are currently carried out in private hospitals at costs ranging from 150 to 300 euros ($163-326)," said Tossonidou.    Greece, a country of around 10.7 million people, has suffered relatively less than other European nations in the pandemic, recording 81 deaths out of 1,755 cases.
Date: Sun, 22 Mar 2020 18:02:51 +0100 (MET)

Athens, March 22, 2020 (AFP) - Greece will impose a nationwide lockdown to stem the spread of the coronavirus, limiting people to their homes except for essential outings, Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis said Sunday.    "I have given orders that all appropriate action be taken to enforce the ban on all unnecessary movement across the country," Mitsotakis said in a televised address to the nation.   The restrictions will come into force from 6:00 am local time (0400 GMT) on Monday, and will require citizens to carry proof of identity to leave their homes. 

Outings are only permitted for people "going to work, the doctor, or to visit someone who needs help, or those who are buying food or medication", the prime minister said.    Citizens are also permitted to leave the house to walk their pets or exercise outdoors alone or with one other person.

There are 15 recorded deaths and 624 infections from the coronavirus in Greece, which has a population of 11 million.    Since reporting its first death from the virus on March 12, the country has gradually rolled out measures to limit gatherings and non-essential travel along with closing schools, shops and entertainment venues.
Date: Sat, 21 Mar 2020 10:59:18 +0100 (MET)

Athens, March 21, 2020 (AFP) - A strong 5.6 magnitude earthquake struck early Saturday in northwest Greece, damaging property in the city of Parga, authorities said.   The quake struck at 0049 GMT (0249 local time), with the epicentre 11 kilometres (around six miles) from Parga in Kanalaki district, and 316 kilometres northwest of Athens, the Athens geodynamic observatory said.   "No casualties have been reported at the moment," Parga mayor Nikolas Zacharias told AFP by telephone.

"Some old abandoned houses in Kanalaki collapsed and some houses suffered significant damage in this district of 2,500 inhabitants," Zaharias said, adding the temblor was strong throughout the area.   Landslides partially damaged the region's roads, he added.   Greece lies on major fault lines and is regularly hit by earthquakes, but they rarely cause casualties.   In 2017, a 6.7-magnitude earthquake killed two people on the island of Kos in the Aegean sea, causing significant damage.   In 1999, a 5.9-magnitude quake left 143 people dead in Athens and the region northwest of the capital.
More ...

Montserrat

Montserrat US Consular Information Sheet
June 04, 2007
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: Montserrat is a British overseas territory and part of the British West Indies.
The island rises in a series of mountain slopes to a high point of over 3,000 feet
t the Soufriere Volcano in the exclusion zone.
Montserrat is a highly active volcanic island.
The Government of Montserrat has issued several recent proclamations and warnings urging residents and visitors to be vigilant and to be prepared to move at short notice.
For further information, see "Special Circumstances" in this Information Sheet.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: Proof of citizenship and identity, in addition to an onward/return ticket and sufficient funds to cover the expected stay, are required for entry into Montserrat.
However, U.S. citizens are now required to present a valid passport to travel by air between the United States and the Caribbean.
As early as January 1, 2008, a valid passport will also be required for travelers by sea.There is a departure tax payable upon leaving Montserrat.

See our Foreign Entry Requirements brochure for more information on Montserrat and other countries.
For further information, travelers may contact the British Embassy, 19 Observatory Circle N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008; telephone (202) 588-7800; or the nearest consulate of the United Kingdom in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Los Angeles, New York, Denver, Houston, Miami, Orlando, Seattle, or San Francisco.
Visit the British Embassy's web site at http://www.britainusa.com/ for the most current visa information.

See Entry and Exit Requirements for more information pertaining to dual nationality and international child abduction.
Please refer to our Customs Information to learn more about customs regulations.

SAFETY AND SECURITY: For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department’s Internet web site, where the current Travel Warnings and Public Announcements, including the Worldwide Caution Public Announcement, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME: The crime rate in Montserrat is low.
However, travelers should take normal, common sense precautions.
Travelers should avoid carrying large amounts of cash and displaying expensive jewelry.
Travelers should also use hotel safety deposit facilities to safeguard valuables and travel documents.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: St. John’s Hospital, Montserrat’s main hospital, can handle most routine and surgical emergencies.
However, there is no hyperbaric chamber in Montserrat.
Doctors in private practice are also available.
Arrangements can be made quickly to transfer more serious problems off island by helicopter to Antigua or Guadeloupe.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s internet site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) website at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.

MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Montserrat is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

In Montserrat, vehicles are operated on the left-hand side of the road.
There is no organized government roadside assistance, but local residents are often willing to aid those with car trouble.
Roads are narrow, winding and steep.
For specific information concerning Montserrat driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, please contact the Montserrat Tourist Board in Montserrat at tel. 1 (664) 491-2230 or 491-8730.
You may also email them at info@montserrattourism.ms.
The web address for the Tourist Board is http://www.visitmontserrat.com/.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Montserrat's Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for the oversight of Montserrat’s air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA's Internet web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Ongoing volcanic activity from the Soufriere Hills Volcano has led to the evacuation and relocation of residents from the southern half of the island’s so called ‘exclusion zone' since 1995.
Additional evacuations occurred as recently as early 2007, when volcanic activity increased.
Because the volcano is still active and dangerous, access to the southern part of the island and a surrounding maritime exclusion zone is restricted.
Persons entering restricted areas without authorization are subject to fine and/or imprisonment.

In early 2007, Montserrat government authorities warned residents and visitors of volcanic activity and an increase of pyroclastic flows in Tyres Ghaut, Gages Valley and behind Gages Mountain.
Authorities also evacuated people living in the potential impact areas in and near the Belham Valley - Isles Bay Hill, Old Towne (south of Loblolly Lane), Isles Bay Plantation, lower Happy Hill, Water Works junction and Water Works Estate - due to the volcano’s activity.

When in Montserrat, citizens are advised to monitor Radio Montserrat (Radio ZJB) for the latest official guidance.
In addition to the hazards posed by the Soufriere Hills Volcano as outlined above, Montserrat can be affected by hurricanes.
The hurricane season normally runs from June to the end of November, but there have been hurricanes in December in recent years.
General information about natural disaster preparedness is available via the Internet from the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) at http://www.fema.gov.

The official Montserrat Volcano Observatory website, http://mvo.ms/, is helpful for updates on volcanic activity.
Updates on volcano activity can also be found on the website of the Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency at http://www.cdera.org/.
Please see our Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offences.
Persons violating Montserrat's laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Montserrat are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children’s Issues website.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION: Americans living or traveling in Montserrat are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department's travel registration website, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Montserrat.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.

The U.S. Embassy is located in the Wildey Business Park, Wildey, St. Michael, telephone 1-246-436-4950, web site http://bridgetown.usembassy.gov.

Hours of operation are 8:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Monday through Friday, except Barbados and U.S. holidays.
Assistance may also be provided by the U.S. Consular Agency in Antigua, located at Suite #2, Jasmine Court, Friars Hill Rd, St. John’s, Antigua.
Contact information is as follows: telephone 1-268-463-6531, cellular 1-268-726-6531, or e-mail ANUWndrGyal@aol.com.
The mailing address is P.O. Box W-1562, St. John’s, Antigua.
The Consular Agent is available by appointment only.
The office is closed for local and U.S. Holidays.
* * *
This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated January 9, 2007, to update the Entry/Exit Requirements, Aviation Safety Oversight and Embassy Location sections.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Sat, 13 Feb 2010 21:42:24 +0100 (MET)
by Colin James

ST JOHN'S, Feb 13, 2010 (AFP) - Resilient residents of the tiny Caribbean island of Montserrat Saturday shrugged off clouds of ash spewing out of a volcano, and donned masks to go about their daily business.   "It is makes you sneeze a lot," Gregory Willock, the president of the Montserrat Cricket Association, told AFP in the nearby island of Antigua by telephone.

Life has continued as normal since the Soufriere Hills volcano erupted Thursday, throwing up a plume of smoke and volcanic ash 10 kilometers (six miles) into the air, he said.   "All I know is it can create problems for people who have sinus" problems, Willock added, saying many residents had taken to wearing masks while schools and government offices have been operating as normal.   Thursday's eruption came almost 15 years after the volcano, which had lain dormant throughout recorded history, first rumbled into life in July 1995.

The 1995 eruption threw up a huge plume of ash and molten lava into the sky, which in coming weeks rained down on the British overseas territory.   The island's capital city Plymouth was buried in ash and volcanic debris in a further massive eruption a month later and destroyed. Two-thirds of the island's population were forced to flee abroad.   This time islanders are praying for rain to clear away the blanket of dust, which has even stopped the cricket team practicing.   "We cannot practice because Salem Park is not accessible. We need rain to get rid of ash on the ground," Willcock said Saturday.

Another resident, who asked not to be named, said his only complaint so far had to do with his medical condition. He's asthmatic.   "It has not worried me but because of my complaint I'm being ultra-careful. I'm talking to you with a mask over my mouth," he told AFP.   "However, life goes on beautifully. It is just like normal life. We are a resilient people," he said.   Many flights around the Caribbean remained cancelled Saturday due to clouds of ash spewed up into the skies.   "The continued ash hanging in the atmosphere presents a risk to planes and to the security of passengers," the police in the nearby island of Guadeloupe said in a statement.

The airport in Guadeloupe, which lies just 80 kilometers (50 miles) south of Montserrat, would remain closed until Sunday, it said.   "The dispersion of these ashes will depend on today's weather conditions," it added in a statement, after fire engines were deployed late Friday to try clear the airport's runways of a thick layer of ash.   Some 300 people were stranded on Guadeloupe waiting to leave, the director of the islands' tourism office Thierry Gargar told AFP. He added they were all being accommodated in hotels on the islands.

Flights to other Caribbean tourist hotspots including Anguilla, St. Kitts and Nevis and St. Maarten also remained disrupted.   The ash has also forced LIAT, the region's biggest airline, to temporarily suspend flights in and out of the V.C. Bird International airport in nearby Antigua, although flights resumed Saturday to Dominica.

Montserrat, settled by English and Irish colonizers in 1632, has been dubbed "The Emerald Isle of the Caribbean" for its lush vegetation. It has been trying to rebuild its tourism industry since the 1995 eruption.   The buried capital Plymouth, which has been compared to a modern-day Pompeii, now lies in an exclusion zone, but can be visited with organized tours.
Date: Sat, 13 Feb 2010 03:16:13 +0100 (MET)

ST. JOHN'S, Feb 12, 2010 (AFP) - Ash from a volcanic eruption on the Caribbean island of Montserrat hung in the air around Antigua and Barbuda Friday, causing difficult driving conditions and forcing flight suspensions.   Montserrat's Soufriere Hills volcano erupted Thursday, sending a plume of ash 10 kilometers (six miles) high into the sky, the Montserrat Volcano Observatory said.

The ash forced LIAT, the region's biggest airline, to temporarily suspend flights in and out of Antigua's V.C. Bird International airport.   The airline said in a statement late Friday it had resumed flights to and from Antigua, but added that the "continued presence of airborne ash clouds over Dominica and Guadeloupe has forced LIAT to suspend all remaining flights to both destinations."   Flights to other Caribbean islands including Anguilla, St. Kitts and Nevis and St. Maarten were also disrupted on Thursday.

Montserrat is about 35 kilometers south of Antigua and Barbuda, but residents on the southern side of Antigua said heavy ash had fallen on their homes and made driving conditions difficult at times.   Yvonne McMillan, a resident of the southern village of Jennings, told an Antiguan radio station that "it was pretty rough" on Friday morning.   "Visibility was extremely poor. Coming off a hill you don't see what's below. I had to switch (my lights) to low beam all the time because high beam confused me even more," she said.   Meteorological officials described the ash fall as "quite bad."   Senior forecaster Lorne Salmon said cooling meant the air had become heavier, sinking into valley and low-lying areas.   "When this happens a lot of the ash becomes more concentrated," she said.
Date: Fri, 12 Feb 2010 16:08:48 +0100 (MET)

POINTE-A-PITRE, Guadeloupe, Feb 12, 2010 (AFP) - Ash from a volcano that has erupted on the Caribbean island of Montserrat has spread to neighbouring islands, forcing authorities to close schools in the French territory of Guadeloupe.

The Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat erupted on Thursday sending ash 10 kilometers (six miles) high into the sky, according to French weather experts, and forcing other islands to take precautions.   Montserrat is about 80 kilometers (50 miles) north of Guadeloupe.   Point-a-Pitre airport on Guadeloupe was closed straight away and French state representative Jean Fabre ordered schools to close on Friday. He said there was a risk of eye irritation and breathing problems.

Buildings and cars were covered in a layer of grey ash on Friday while flights to Guadeloupe were still diverted to Martinique about 250 kilometers (160 miles) to the south.   The Soufriere volcano has been active since 1995 when a major eruption buried half of Montserrat's capital, Plymouth. Two thirds of the island's 12,000 people have since left.
January 10, 2007 This Public Announcement is being issued to alert American citizens of increasing volcanic activity on the island of Montserrat, and to provide new information from the Government of Montserrat regarding sections of the island that are prohibited to visitors. Travelers are strongly advised to thoroughly consider the risks of travel to Montserrat, and to take adequate precautions to ensure their safety if they do travel. This Public Announcement expires April 9, 2007. U.S. citizens traveling to and residing in Montserrat should be aware that renewed volcanic activity at the Soufriere Hills Volcano has led to evacuations from certain areas of the island. The Government of Montserrat has identified unsafe restricted areas, which include the south and eastern parts of Montserrat adjacent to the active volcano. Remaining or attempting to enter these zones is prohibited by the Government of Montserrat. All Americans currently living or traveling in Montserrat are advised to make arrangements to depart on short notice if requested to do so by the Government of Montserrat. U.S. citizens in affected regions should immediately head to safe ground and/or identify shelter, monitor local media reports, and follow the instructions of local emergency officials. Visitors should be familiar with their hotel evacuation plans. U.S. citizens should carry their travel documents (i.e. U.S. Passport, Birth Certificate, picture IDs, etc.) with them at all times or secure them in a safe location. Additionally, all American citizens in the area are reminded to stay in contact with friends and family in the United States to keep them apprised of their current whereabouts. Lastly, residents and travelers can obtain official guidance and information by monitoring Radio Montserrat (Radio ZJB) or by checking the status of the volcano's activity at the Global Volcanism Program's website located at http://www.volcano.si.edu/reports/usgs. Americans living or traveling in Montserrat are encouraged to register with the U.S. Embassy Bridgetown, Barbados, through the State Department's travel registration website, https://travelregistration.state.gov. Americans without internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. For additional information on Montserrat, please consult the Department of State's latest Consular Information Sheet for Montserrat at http://travel.state.gov. American citizens may also obtain up-to-date information on the situation in Montserrat by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the United States or Canada or 1-202-501-4444 from overseas. The duty officer at the U.S. Embassy Bridgetown, Barbados, can be reached at 246-823-2675.
5 February 2003 The vast majority of visits to Montserrat are trouble free. However, because of ongoing volcanic activity, entry into the southern part of the island and the southern coastal waters is prohibited. Life and commercial activity, including tourism continue as normal in the central and northern regions. There is no history of terrorism in the territory. Though the crime rate is very low you should take sensible precautions against petty crime, including tourism continue as normal in the central and northern regions. To view the article in full, visit the page below: http://www.fco.gov.uk/servlet/Front?pagename=OpenMarket/Xcelerate/ShowPage&c=Page&cid=1007029390590&a=KCountryAdvice&aid=1013618386244
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Liberia

Liberia - US Consular Information Sheet
February 21, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: Liberia is a country in West Africa that suffered from years of instability and conflict from 1990 - 2003, with attendant destruction of buildings, roads, and infras
ructure and public institutions.
A comprehensive peace accord ended the conflict in August 2003 and a United Nations peacekeeping force (UNMIL) was deployed to facilitate disarmament and demobilization, help arrange democratic elections and provide for security of the country.
In late 2005, Liberians went to the polls and elected Ellen Johnson Sirleaf as president.
The new government was inaugurated in January 2006, and has made tremendous progress towards restoring security and stability to the country.

Despite nearly four years of peace and a renewal of economic growth, Liberia is still one of the poorest countries in the world and many basic services (public power, water and sewage, land line phones) are either limited or unavailable.
Facilities for foreign visitors are adequate in the capital, Monrovia, but virtually non-existent in the rest of the country.
The official language of Liberia is English.
Read the Department of State Background Notes on Liberia for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport and a visa are required for entry, as is evidence of a yellow fever vaccination and a physician's letter attesting to absence of communicable diseases.
Visa applicants may also be asked to provide evidence of health insurance.
Immigration officials no longer issue visas at the airport.
Persons arriving without a visa may be deported immediately, without leaving the airport.
Persons arriving from the United States must obtain a Liberian visa before traveling.
There is a US $25 airport tax on departing passengers, although this is usually collected as part of the ticket price.
For the latest information on entry requirements, visa fees and airport tax for Liberia, contact the Embassy of the Republic of Liberia, 5201 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011, tel. (202) 723-0437, web site www.embassyofliberia.org.
Overseas, inquiries should be made at the nearest Liberian embassy or consulate.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
The Department of State urges U.S. citizens to plan proposed travel to Liberia carefully and to exercise caution when traveling in Liberia.
Neither public transport nor taxis are available at the international airport, which is located 40 miles outside of Monrovia; therefore, before traveling to Liberia, Americans are urged to make arrangements for transportation from the international airport into the city center.
Americans traveling to Liberia are also urged to ensure that they have confirmed reservations at a reputable hotel, as rooms can be scarce and difficult to find without advance plans.

Americans who travel to or reside in Liberia should realize that Liberia's police force is in the process of being rebuilt.
There is a UN Mission in Liberia (UNMIL), but its mandate is to ensure political stability in Liberia.
Americans who travel around Liberia must realize that the role of UN Police (UNPOL) officers is to serve as advisors to the Liberia National Police. Accordingly, they do not have the authority to arrest or detain, and they are unarmed.
The Liberia National Police, for its part, has a limited presence in Monrovia, and even less of a presence outside of Monrovia.
In addition, police officers can be a source of problems for visitors as well as a source of aid or assistance.
Although problems with corruption have improved, travelers may be detained by police officers who solicit bribes.
Americans are encouraged to carry a photocopy of their passports with them at all times so that, if questioned by local officials, proof of identity and U.S. citizenship is readily available.
If detained or arrested, U.S. citizens should always ask to be allowed to contact the U.S. Embassy.

U.S. citizens in Liberia should be aware of their surroundings at all times and use caution when moving around, especially at night.
The U.S. Embassy recommends that American citizens observe a suggested curfew of 2:00 a.m. – 6:00 a.m.
Travel outside of Monrovia after dark is strongly discouraged as roads are in poor condition and thus dangerous to navigate at night.
U.S. citizens should avoid crowds, political rallies, and street demonstrations and maintain security awareness at all times.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department’s Internet web site, where the current Worldwide Caution Public Announcement, Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts can be found. Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME:
Crime in Liberia is rated high and is exacerbated by the high rate of unemployment.
Theft, assault, sexual crimes, and murder are problems, and they occur more frequently after dark.
Foreigners, including U.S. citizens, have been targets of street crime, robbery, and sexual assault.
Women have been attacked on deserted beaches.
Residential armed break-ins occur.
The police are ill equipped and largely incapable of providing effective protection or investigation.
Criminal activity is reported in both urban and rural areas.

Perpetrators of business fraud often target foreigners, including Americans.
Formerly associated with Nigeria, these fraud schemes are now prevalent throughout western Africa, including Liberia, and pose a danger of both financial loss and physical harm.
An increasing number of American citizens have been the targets of such scams.
The best way to avoid becoming a victim of fraud is common sense – if it looks too good to be true, it probably is.
Any unsolicited business proposal originating in Liberia should be carefully checked before committing any funds, providing any goods or services, or undertaking any travel.
There is also an increase in Liberian/American Internet relationships, where there are eventual requests for financial assistance under fraudulent pretenses.
For additional information, please see the Department of State's Bureau of Consular Affairs brochure International Financial Scams.

Petty corruption is rampant; poorly paid government officials are not immune from the temptation to collect fees for doing their job.
The result is that travelers may be asked for bribes and inconvenienced for not paying them.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Hospitals and medical facilities in Liberia are very poorly equipped and are incapable of providing many services.
Emergency services comparable to those in the U.S. or Europe are non-existent, and the blood supply is unreliable and unsafe for transfusion.
Americans with serious medical problems travel or are medically evacuated to the United States, Europe or South Africa.
Medicines are scarce, often beyond expiration dates, and generally unavailable in most areas.
As there is neither an effective garbage removal service nor a functioning sewer system, the level of sanitation throughout urban areas is very poor, which increases the potential for disease.
Upper respiratory infections and diarrhea are common, as well as the more serious diseases, typhoid and malaria.
All travelers to Liberia must be vaccinated against yellow fever and should carry a supply of all prescription medication, plus anti-malaria medication, adequate for their entire stay.
A typhoid vaccination is also recommended.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
For travel to Liberia, obtaining separate medical evacuation insurance before arriving in Liberia is strongly recommended.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.
SWIMMING HAZARD:
Liberia has many excellent beaches along the Atlantic coastline that tourist and those who live in the country enjoy throughout the year, however American citizens should be aware of the threat of dangerous rip currents better known as rip tides.
These strong currents can occur anywhere on the coast given the right surf conditions.
The Liberia Weather Service does not provide information on where and when these tides form and there are no lifeguards posted on beaches.
American citizens who plan to swim in the Atlantic should read from various sources e about the dangers of rip currents and how to navigate if you find yourself in such a situation; or better still do not swim if you are unfamiliar with swimming in water where very strong rip currents occur.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Liberia is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Road travel in Liberia can be hazardous.
Potholes and poor road surfaces are common, making safe driving extremely challenging.
Cars, trucks, and taxis are often overloaded with people and goods and make frequent stops without signaling.
Drivers overtake on the right as well as the left.
Many vehicles operate with threadbare tires, and blowouts are frequent.
Public taxis are poorly maintained and usually overloaded.
Intersections must be approached with caution.
The absence of public streetlights makes pedestrians walking in the city streets and those walking on country roads difficult to see at night.
Drivers and pedestrians are cautioned that high-speed car convoys carrying government officials require all other vehicles to pull off the road until they have passed.

Travelers should expect delays at UNMIL security checkpoints, as well as time-consuming detours around the many bridges and roads damaged by war, neglect, or the heavy annual rains, which occur from May to November.
Travelers can expect strict enforcement of border controls by Liberian, Ivorian, Sierra Leonean, and Guinean authorities.
At times border crossings to neighboring countries are closed.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: As there is no direct commercial air service between the United States and Liberia, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Liberia’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Lodging, fuel, transportation, and telephone services are unevenly available in Liberia, and are nonexistent or severely limited in rural areas.
Neither water nor electricity is commercially available in Liberia, including the capital of Monrovia.
Most hotels have utilities available, but not always on a 24-hour basis.
There is no working landline telephone system in Liberia.
Several cell phone companies provide service in Monrovia and some areas outside the capital.
US cellular phones do not always work in Liberia and it is advisable to rent or purchase a local cellular phone.
The postal system is slow and unreliable.
Commercial air courier service is available through UPS, Federal Express (FedEx), and other companies.

The U.S. dollar is readily accepted in Liberia, and there is no limit on the amount of foreign currency that can be transported into and out of the country, provided one follows the specific regulations on how such transfers must be done.
Sums in excess of US $10,000 must be reported at the port of entry and no more than US $7,500 in foreign currency banknotes can be moved out of the country at one time.
Larger sums must be transferred via bank drafts or other financial instruments; persons without a Liberian bank account are limited to two outgoing US $5,000 over-the-counter cash wire transfers per month.
Wire transfers are not widely used and are subject to substantial fees.
ATMs are unavailable and Traveler's checks and credit/debit cards are not accepted anywhere in Liberia.

Photographing military installations, air and seaports, and important government buildings is prohibited.
Visitors should not take photographs of sites or activities that might be considered sensitive, or police are liable to confiscate the camera.

Please see our information on Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Liberian law, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Liberia are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
The U.S. Embassy does not always receive timely notification of the arrest of U.S. citizens by Liberian authorities.
If arrested, U.S. citizens should ask to be allowed to contact the U.S. Embassy (see the Registration/Embassy Location section below).
Americans should carry a photocopy of their U.S. passport with them at all times.
The consular section of the U.S. Embassy cannot give legal assistance but can provide a list of Liberian attorneys if one is required.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children’s Issues web pages.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Liberia are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Liberia.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy is located at 111 United Nations Drive, Mamba Point, Monrovia; telephone 231-77-054-826; fax 231-77-010-370; web site http://monrovia.usembassy.gov.
U.S. citizens who wish to write to the U.S. Embassy in Monrovia may address letters to the Consular Section, 8800 Monrovia Place, U.S. Department of State, Washington, D.C. 20521-8800, or send emails to ConsularMonrovia@state.gov.
*

*

*
This replaces the Consular Information Sheet on Liberia dated June 15, 2007 to include a caution on swimming at local beaches.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Wed, 8 Apr 2020 16:44:56 +0200 (METDST)

Monrovia, April 8, 2020 (AFP) - Liberian President George Weah declared a state of emergency in the West African country on Wednesday, with the capital Monrovia set to go into lockdown in a bid to curb coronavirus.    In a televised statement, the president said that all movement between Liberia's 15 counties would be banned from 11:59 pm on Friday, and that all non-essential businesses and government offices would close.

Residents of four counties -- including Monrovia's, which is home to about 1 million people -- must also stay at home for two weeks, he said.    Authorities in those counties will allow people to leave their homes only to buy food or for health reasons.     "We have to ask ourselves why we should abide by these measures. The answer is simple: to save lives," Weah said.

Wednesday's announcement escalates earlier health measures which banned large gatherings as well as flights to and from virus-stricken countries.   As with other poor countries in the region, there are fears that Liberia is ill prepared to handle a large outbreak.

The nation of some 4.8 million has recorded 13 coronavirus cases to date, with three deaths.  But Liberia was badly hit during the West Africa's 2014-16 Ebola crisis, which killed more than 4,800 people in the country.    Weah warned that the coronavirus was the greatest threat facing Liberia since Ebola.    "The horrific scenarios that are beginning to emerge should serve as sufficient warning for every one of us to spring into action," he said.   Coronavirus "has already arrived in Liberia, and confirmed cases are now on the rise," Weah added.   Decimated after back-to-back civil wars from 1989 to 2003, Liberia also suffers economic woes including rampant inflation and fuel shortages.
Date: Wed 1 Apr 2020
Source: Liberian Observer [abridged, edited]

Amid the outbreak of coronavirus in Liberia, there is also a report of an outbreak of measles in 2 districts of Nimba County.  Speaking on Radio Nimba on the morning of Tue 24 Mar 2020, the surveillance officers of the County Health Team, Isaac Cole and Telekpeh Weh Johnson, named the 2 districts as Sanniquellie and Tappita. They said the Ministry of Health has begun a routine vaccination campaign in the affected areas.

When contacted for more details, one of the surveillance officers, Mr. Talekpeh Wehyee Johnson, could not give the exact numbers of cases treated, because the data officer was not close to him, but said hundreds of children were treated. He said the number of cases in Tappita has dropped, and it is only Sanniquelliie that still has some cases of measles.  He named Gbapa, an old mining town near Yekepa, as one of the highly hit communities in the Sanniquellie Mah District.

The measles situation was disclosed when the surveillance officers appeared on local radio to intensify awareness on the deadly coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak in the country. They urged the citizens to abide by all the preventive measures prescribed by the MOH.

They also reassured the public that the ongoing vaccination campaign is strictly intended for measles, not COVID-19, as has wrongly been disclosed to the public. However, COVID-19 preventive awareness is also intensifying on local radio stations across Nimba, with some visible signs of cooperation among citizens.

Nearly all the business centres and private homes in Nimba have buckets full of water for hand-washing.

The fear of COVID-19 has slowed down businesses and movements across the county. Although most night clubs are still open in Ganta, customers are not frequenting such venues as they did under normal circumstances. Some of the leading restaurants are mostly empty, with people basically concentrating on buying food for storage and preparation at home.  "We are only looking for food money now, because there are no customers," said Boye Suah, a proprietor of an entertainment centre.

Meanwhile, commercial vehicles continue to ply between Ganta and Monrovia, but they are not fully abiding by the rules and regulations set by MoH, which calls for 3 passengers in a taxi.

The public buses are also running and carrying 60 passengers on each bus, but the closeness of the passengers on seats has created much public concern.  [Byline: Ishmael F. Menkor]
Date: Mon 2 Mar 2020
Source: Journal du Cameroun [abridged, edited]

The National Public Health Institute of Liberia (NPHIL) has confirmed a measles outbreak in Grand Kru County in south-eastern Liberia that has affected 73 people with 2 deaths recorded so far, reports said on Mon [2 Mar 2020]. According to Dr. Masoka Fallah, the dead are a 1-year-old boy and an 11-month old baby girl.

Dr. Fallah quoted Grand Kru County health authorities as saying the outbreak is concentrated in the districts of Forpoh, Dorbor, Jloh and Barclayville.

The NPHIL Director General said a massive awareness campaign has been launched, including consultations with citizens, the business community, other government ministries and agencies, and the county leadership on measures to prevent the spread of the disease.

The county health team has also commenced community level awareness to discourage discrimination of persons suspected of the disease.
Monday 10th February 2020

ECDC have informed us, that since the beginning of 2020, there has been a significant increase in the number of Lassa cases in Liberia, in West Africa.  Between 1/1/20 and 28/1/20, 55 suspected Lassa cases have been identified; 24 are confirmed and nine, fatal. Among the 55 cases are three infected healthcare workers (one death).  What has changed, is that, since 2016, Lassa cases have been increasing annually.  Cases are spread across six different counties (Bong, Grand Bassa, Montserrado, Lofa, Margibi and Nimba - the majority in Grand Bassa).  Lassa is endemic in these areas, sporadic cases occasionally being encountered during the dry season (in West Africa, this runs from November until April).  
 
Similarly in Nigeria, Lassa has been increasing since the beginning of 2020, with 258 confirmed cases and 41 deaths in 19 states (Edo, Ondo and Ebonyi states being most affected).  Longer-term Lassa secular trends are increasing, reaching a peak in 2018.  Improved surveillance probably accounts for much of the increase, as the overall case fatality rate for Lassa in Nigeria has halved from 40% to about 20% over the last 20 years.  In affected areas though, the numbers of cases remains high; the greatest danger of exposure occurring during these episodic upsurges.

An estimated 300,000-500,000 cases of Lassa with 5,000 related deaths occur annually in West Africa.
 
The risk of importation of Lassa into EU/EEA is very low. The few recently-reported imports all had a recent travel history to endemic areas (save one secondary case reported by Germany).
 
Travellers to West Africa should be informed of the risk of exposure to Lassa fever virus, particularly in areas experiencing ongoing outbreaks. Travellers should avoid exposure to rodents, and consumption of foods and drinks potentially contaminated by rodent droppings, and to patients with symptoms suggestive of haemorrhagic fever. When caring for patients with suspected or confirmed Lassa, measures should focus on preventing contact with the patient's blood and body fluids, and contaminated surfaces or materials.
 
Further information on Lassa is available from:
 
·         HPSC

·         World Health Organization  

·         Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Rgds
 
For and on behalf of Dr Kevin Kelleher
A/Director, HSE Health Protection Surveillance Centre
Ireland's National EWRS Focal Point
25-27 Middle Gardiner Street
Dublin, 1
 
Date: Fri 17 Jan 2019
Source: Front Page Africa [edited]

The Surveillance Officer of Grand Bassa County Health team has confirmed to FrontPage Africa that there is a Lassa fever outbreak in District 4, Grand Bassa County leading to 3 deaths and 20 others confirmed infected with the virus.

Gabriel B. Kassay said over 60 specimens were taken to Monrovia for testing as a result of the outbreak.  "Out of the 60 plus, over 20 specimens were confirmed affected with Lassa fever," he said, adding that 3 persons have died from the disease at the Liberia Agricultural Company (LAC) concession area in Wee Statutory District.

Kassay said there were several incidents of Lassa fever in the LAC plantation area in 2019.  "According to the Liberia health law, one confirmed case of Lassa fever is considered an outbreak, and so since August 2019, there have been lots of people affected in the LAC area," he said while expressing concern that "the lack of awareness is a major factor" for the frequent cases of the virus in the county.  "The Grand Bassa Health Team has been very instrumental in helping to curtail the spread of the disease in the affected area, but there is a need for awareness in the entire county."

Kassay said the spread of Lassa fever might increase if the citizens are not trained to know the cause and effects of Lassa fever.
=====================
[The number of cases has increased from 9 on 2 Dec 2019 (See Lassa fever - West Africa (43): Liberia http://promedmail.org/post/20191207.6828798) to 20 confirmed cases now. The reported number of deaths remains at 3. The previous ProMED-mail post (see Lassa fever - West Africa (31): Liberia http://promedmail.org/post/20190902.6653653) reported that according to MoH data, a total of 92 suspected cases between 1 Jan-25 Aug 2019, including 21 deaths, have been reported. Of these, 25 cases have been confirmed by RT-PCR (Nimba (9), Bong (10), Grand Bassa (5), and Grand Kru (1)), while 9 remain suspected cases, the release recorded. The case-fatality rate among confirmed cases in that report was stated as 36% (9 deaths out of 25 confirmed cases). Males are mostly affected by the disease (56%) of confirmed cases as compared to females.

Occurrence of Lassa fever cases in areas outside the usual "Lassa fever belt" is of concern, and the Ministry of Health is wise to increase public information and advize citizens about measures that should be taken to avoid infection with the virus. Occurrence of Lassa fever in Liberia is not new, and cases have occurred there sporadically for several years. Between 1 Jan and 27 Jun 2018, 20 cases were laboratory confirmed (see archive no. http://promedmail.org/post/20180711.5898495). Apparently, all those Lassa fever virus infections were acquired by contact with infected rodents or their excretions. Lassa fever virus can be acquired from infected rodents or patients in the hospital. Transmission can occur in health facilities when personal protective equipment is not employed or barrier-nursing practices or biocontainment facilities in the laboratory are not adequate to protect staff from blood and secretions of infected patients.

As mentioned in previous posts, Lassa fever virus transmission to humans occurs when people are in contact with the reservoir rodent host, the multimammate mouse (_Mastomys natalensis_ and _M. erythroleucus_) and the African wood mouse (_Hylomycus pamfi_) or their excreta, as was likely the situation in many of these cases. Rodent control has to be undertaken at the village level with individual households employing the preventive measures listed above. This requires an extensive and continuous public education effort.

Images of the _Mastomys natalensis_ mouse, the rodent reservoir of Lassa fever virus, can be seen at
_M. erythroleucus_ and _Hylomycus pamfi_ at

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World Travel News Headlines

Date: Mon, 1 Jun 2020 10:23:53 +0200 (METDST)

Yerevan, June 1, 2020 (AFP) - Armenian Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan and his family have tested positive for the coronavirus, he said Monday, as the rate of new infections soared in the Caucasus nation.   "My coronavirus test was positive yesterday," Pashinyan said in a self-recorded video message on Facebook, adding that his family were also infected.   He said he had no "viable symptoms" of the virus and would be working from home.   The prime minister and his wife Anna Hakobyan, who is a journalist, have four children.   The ex-Soviet republic of some three million has so far reported 9,492 cases of the coronavirus and 139 deaths.

Coronavirus patients have overwhelmed Armenia's hospitals and last week health officials said that intensive care treatment could be soon restricted to patients with the best chance of survival.   Pashinyan's announcement came nearly one month after Armenia on May 4 lifted a state of emergency imposed in March to slow the spread of the coronavirus.

The prime minister acknowledged his government had failed to enforce anti-virus measures and there had been widespread quarantine violations.   Pashinyan was elected prime minister in the wake of mass popular protests he led two years ago against veteran leader Serzh Sarkisian and his Republican Party.   He has since led a relentless crusade against graft and initiated sweeping judicial reforms.
Date: Mon, 1 Jun 2020 09:17:15 +0200 (METDST)

San Salvador, June 1, 2020 (AFP) - Tropical Storm Amanda triggered flash floods, landslides and power outages as it barrelled through El Salvador and Guatemala Sunday, killing 14 people, authorities said, warning of further heavy rain to come.   El Salvador President Nayib Bukele declared a 15-day state of emergency to cope with the effects of the storm, which he estimated to have caused $200 million in damage, but which weakened later in the day as it moved into Guatemala.

Amanda, the first named storm of the season in the Pacific, unleashed torrents of floodwater that tossed vehicles around like toys and damaged about 200 homes, the head of the Civil Protection Service William Hernandez said.   The fatalities were all recorded in El Salvador, Interior Minister Mario Duran said, warning that the death toll could rise.   One person is still missing, senior government official Carolina Recinos added.   "We are experiencing an unprecedented situation: one top-level emergency on top of another serious one," San Salvador mayor Ernesto Muyshondt said, referring to the coronavirus pandemic.

He added that half of those killed died in the capital, and that 4,200 people had sought refuge in government-run shelters after losing their homes or being forced to leave because they were in high-risk areas.   In some flooded areas, soldiers worked alongside emergency personnel to rescue people.   "We lost everything, we've been left with nowhere to live," said Isidro Gomez, a resident of hard-hit southeastern San Salvador, after a nearby river overflowed and destroyed his home.

Another victim, Mariano Ramos, said that at dawn residents of his San Salvador neighborhood were slammed by an avalanche of mud and water. An elderly man died in the area, officials said.   El Salvador's environment ministry warned residents of the "high probability" of multiple landslides that could damage buildings and injure or kill people.

Nearly 90 percent of El Salvador's 6.6 million people are considered vulnerable to flooding and landslides due to its geography.   In neighboring Guatemala, officials said roads had been blocked by at least five landslides and some flooding was reported, but no evacuations were underway.   Even though Amanda weakened to tropical depression status, Guatemalan officials warned that heavy rain would continue, with swollen rivers and possible "landslides affecting highways ... and flooding in coastal areas."
Date: Mon, 1 Jun 2020 06:55:18 +0200 (METDST)

Lima, June 1, 2020 (AFP) - Peru on Sunday reported 8,800 new COVID-19 infections, setting a new daily record for a country that already has the second highest number of novel coronavirus cases in Latin America after Brazil.   The death toll is now at 4,506, the third highest in the region -- itself the new hotspot of the deadly disease -- after Brazil and Mexico, with President Martin Vizcarra warning the country is only halfway through the crisis.

Infections have jumped in Peru despite a months-long mandatory lockdown and a nigh time curfew and the government ordering international borders to be closed.   The spike is concentrated around the capital Lima, where one third of the population lives, and put tremendous strain on Peru's economy and healthcare system.   Four out of every ten Peruvians lost their source of income when the lockdown began, according to one study, and last week Peru secured a two-year, $11 billion credit line from the International Monetary Fund.

- 'Tremendous challenge' in Chile -
Neighbouring Chile on Sunday reported 57 more fatalities in the past 24 hours, a new record that brings the country's COVID-19 death toll to 1,054.   "We are facing the largest pandemic of the past 100 years," said Deputy Health Minister Paula Daza, as she announced the latest figures.    "It is a tremendous challenge; we are living very difficult times in our country."

In Santiago, where the 80 percent of the virus cases were reported, 96 percent of the emergency room beds were taken, officials said.   Officials reported a sharp increase in cases over the past two weeks.   In early May the government of President Sebastian Pinera said that the number of virus cases had hit a plateau, and lockdown restrictions would be loosened.
Date: Mon, 1 Jun 2020 03:38:38 +0200 (METDST)
By Anna SMOLCHENKO

Moscow, June 1, 2020 (AFP) - Shopping malls and parks are set to reopen in Moscow on Monday as the Russian capital eases coronavirus restrictions despite having the world's third-largest caseload.   The relaxation of the confinement orders in Moscow, the epicentre of Russia's outbreak with a population of more than 12 million, comes after President Vladimir Putin announced the epidemic had passed its peak in the country.

Under lockdown since March 30, residents of Europe's most populous city were until now only allowed to leave their homes for brief trips to shop, walk dogs or travel to essential jobs with a permit.   While Muscovites welcomed the opportunity to return to parks and malls after weeks of being cooped up at home, many ridiculed the Moscow mayor's "experiment" aimed at regulating people's walks and exercise.

As a two-week test measure, Sergei Sobyanin said residents of Moscow will be allowed to take walks according to a staggered schedule based on their home address.   "Regular walks are allowed between 9am and 9pm but no more than three times a week -- twice on weekdays and once on a weekend," said Sobyanin on his blog, adding that a detailed schedule would be released separately.   People can jog or exercise between 5am and 9am but must wear masks, according to the new rules.   Sobyanin said he feared that without limits on walking, people would throng the streets in scenes reminiscent of May Day outpourings in Soviet times.

- 'Sheer lunacy' -
The new regulations unleashed a flood of mockery on social media, with political commentator Alexander Golts calling them "sheer lunacy".   Critics quipped that life in Moscow was beginning to imitate dystopian fiction such as the novels of Aldous Huxley and Yevgeny Zamyatin.

Popular comedian Maxim Galkin, who has nearly eight million followers on Instagram, released a sketch in which Putin and Sobyanin discuss a "breathing schedule" for Moscow residents.   The five-minute parody has been viewed nearly six million times over the past few days.   When the restrictions are relaxed, dry-cleaners, laundry services and repair workshops will be allowed to reopen, while restaurants, cafes and cinemas will remain closed for now.

Moscow authorities also said that no mass gatherings would be allowed during the city-wide quarantine that will remain in place until at least June 14.   On Thursday authorities sentenced prominent reporter and activist Ilya Azar to 15 days in jail for staging a lone protest in central Moscow.   Dozens of his supporters have also been briefly detained over the past few days.   Rights organisations including Amnesty International and the Council of Europe have warned Moscow against using the coronavirus lockdown as a pretext to muzzle activists.

Many critics have also questioned the move to lift the restrictions as Russia reported more than 9,000 new infections on Sunday.   With more than 405,000 confirmed infections and over 4,600 deaths, the country has the world's third-largest caseload after the United States and Brazil.   Analysts say Putin is keen to open up the Russian economy and has recently ordered a World War II victory parade postponed by the contagion to be held on June 24.   The 67-year-old leader is also widely expected to announce a new date for a vote on constitutional reforms that could pave the way for him to potentially stay in power until 2036.
Date: Sun, 31 May 2020 11:16:20 +0200 (METDST)

Mogadishu, May 31, 2020 (AFP) - At least 10 people died and 12 were wounded when an explosive device ripped through a minibus outside the Somali capital Mogadishu on Sunday, the government said.   The deadly explosion occurred near Lafole village along the Afgoye-Mogadishu where the passenger bus was travelling early in the day.   "At least 10 civilians were killed in an explosion at Lafole area this morning, those who died were all civilians," the information ministry said in a statement, adding that the victims were on their way to a funeral.

Witnesses said the minibus was completely destroyed, and described an horrific scene with everyone on board either dead or wounded and many bodies ripped apart or burned beyond recognition.   "This was a horrible incident this morning, the explosive device went off as the bus was passing by the area and destroyed it completely," said Daud Doyow, a witness.   "Bodies of civilians were strewn in pieces and most of the people died," he added.   "There were more than 20 people on board and 10 of them were confirmed dead while the rest are seriously wounded and taken to hospital, this is a horrible scene here," said another witness, Abdirisak Adan.   No group immediately claimed responsibility for the bombing, but Somalia's al Qaeda-aligned Shabaab group carries out regular attacks in and around the capital, often killing civilians.
Date: Wed, 27 May 2020 17:58:12 +0200 (METDST)

Nairobi, May 27, 2020 (AFP) - Kenya said Wednesday it had documented a record 123 cases of coronavirus in the past 24 hours, a "staggering" figure although one also explained in part by wider testing.   "Today, I come to you with sombre news," Health Minister Mutahi Kagwe said.   "Our figures today are staggering. Out of the 3,077 samples tested, we have 123 positive cases. For the first time we have hit a triple digit.    "This is the highest number of positive cases we have ever recorded in a single day since we recorded the first case on March 13."

A total of 1,471 cases of COVID-19 have been recorded in Kenya since the start of the epidemic. Of these, 55 have been fatal.   The tally of infections has doubled since mid-May but the country has also tripled its number of daily tests, from less than 1,000 to nearly 3,000, which has helped unearth more cases.

Kagwe sounded a warning about the vulnerability of crowded slums in the capital Nairobi, which leads the list of new cases followed by the port city of Mombasa.   "There is a raging number of infections in these areas," he said, adding: "No-one should have a false sense of security about their immunity to COVID-19."   Among its anti-coronavirus measures, Kenya has a national 7pm-5am curfew, which is currently in force until June 6, and has a ban on entering or exiting the cities of Nairobi, Mombasa, Kilifi, Kwale and Mandera.
Date: Wed, 27 May 2020 16:38:21 +0200 (METDST)

Nicosia, May 27, 2020 (AFP) - Cyprus hopes to attract tourists after its coronavirus lockdown by paying the medical costs of anyone who tests positive for COVID-19 while holidaying on the island, officials said Wednesday.   The plan was outlined in a letter to tour operators and airlines detailing the measures Cyprus is taking to ensure the safety of its tourism sector.   The letter was made public Wednesday and signed by the ministers of foreign affairs, transport, and tourism.

The Mediterranean island is marketing itself as a safe holiday destination during the global pandemic.   The Republic of Cyprus has reported 939 novel coronavirus cases and only 17 deaths.   The government said it is "committed to taking care of all travellers who test positive during their stay, as well as their families and close contacts".   It pledged to cover accommodation, dining and medical care if a tourist falls ill with the virus.   The "traveller will only need to bear the cost of their airport transfer and repatriation flight," it said.

- 'Quarantine hotels' -
A 100-bed hospital will be available exclusively for tourists who test positive, with more beds available "at very short notice if required".   An additional 112 beds in intensive care units with 200 respirators will be reserved for critically ill patients.   Designated "quarantine hotels" will have 500 rooms available for family members and close contacts of patients.

Other hotels on the island will be allowed to remain open if a guest tests positive, but their room will "undergo a deep clean".   Authorities have forecast a 70 percent decline in tourist arrivals in 2020.    Tourism earned Cyprus EUR2.68 billion ($2.94 bn) in 2019 -- about 15 percent of gross domestic product -- down one percent from the previous year, which was bolstered by a record 3.97 million arrivals.   Cyprus plans to reopen its airports on June 9 to arrivals from 13 countries considered low risk.   These include Israel, Greece, Germany, Austria and Malta but the island's two biggest markets Britain and Russia are not on the approved list.

hose arriving between June 9-19 will need to provide a health certificate proving they do not have the virus.   That requirement will be dropped from June 20, when another six countries will be added to the approved list, including Switzerland and Poland.   Cyprus says it will update the list of approved countries on a weekly basis based on scientific advice.

Officials will administer temperature checks and free random testing of arrivals.   Having tested over 10 percent of its population, Cyprus says it has one of the lowest coronavirus infection rates in Europe.   "Very few countries worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean, can boast about such statistics," the letter said.
Date: Wed, 27 May 2020 14:45:11 +0200 (METDST)

Stockholm, May 27, 2020 (AFP) - Airline SAS said Wednesday it would resume flights on several domestic and international routes in June, over two months after the operator grounded most of its fleet over the new coronavirus' impact on travel.   "This primarily includes domestic flights within and between the Scandinavian countries, but flights to New York, Chicago and Amsterdam from Copenhagen are also set to resume," SAS said in a statement.

The Scandinavian airline announced in mid-March it was halting most of its traffic and furloughing around 90 percent of its staff.   In late April the airline, whose two largest shareholders are the Swedish and Danish states, announced it was laying off about 5,000 people, representing 40 percent of the company's workforce.

In early May the company secured a state-guaranteed credit line of 3.3 billion Swedish kronor ($344 million or 313 million euros) to help it navigate the impact of the new coronavirus.   Even with the resumption of some flights, the airline continues to operate at a reduced capacity, but the added routes means an effective doubling of the aircraft in use from 15 to 30, according to SAS.   Finnair, of Nordic neighbour Finland, announced early last week it would start resuming its long-haul flight to Asia in July.
Date: Wed, 27 May 2020 14:25:21 +0200 (METDST)

Yerevan, May 27, 2020 (AFP) - Virus cases have overwhelmed Armenia's hospitals, officials said Wednesday, raising the prospect that intensive care treatment could be restricted to patients with the best chance of survival.   The tiny Caucasus nation of some three million has so far reported 7,774 coronavirus cases and 98 deaths.   At a cabinet meeting on Wednesday, Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan said "the situation with the coronavirus pandemic is very severe in Armenia."

Health ministry spokeswoman Alina Nikoghosyan told AFP: "if the current situation persists, in the coming days, intensive care will only be available for the patients with the best survival chances."   Health Minister Arsen Torosyan said Sunday that out of the country's 186 intensive care beds for coronavirus patients, only 32 remained empty and would soon be filled.

The prime minister called for stricter enforcement of measures aimed at containing the outbreak such as the wearing of face masks in public spaces.   This comes after the country lifted a state of emergency on May 4 which it had declared in March because of the pandemic.   Pashinyan said his government had failed to enforce anti-virus measures and there had been widespread quarantine violations.   "Our mistake was that we put too much trust in our citizens' sense of responsibility," he said.

Deputy Prime Minister Tigran Avinyan said he did not rule out that the government could have to impose a fresh nationwide lockdown.   Analysts have criticised the government's handling of the crisis, saying a decision to close borders was taken too late and officials sent the public "confusing messages."   "Officials were calling for the wearing of face masks, but they themselves didn't wear them until recently," said analyst Tatul Hakobyan.
Date: Wed, 27 May 2020 09:53:01 +0200 (METDST)

New Delhi, May 27, 2020 (AFP) - India is wilting under a heatwave, with the temperature in places reaching 50 degrees Celsius (122 degrees Fahrenheit) and the capital enduring its hottest May day in nearly two decades.   The hot spell is projected to scorch northern India for several more days, the Meteorological Department said late Tuesday, "with severe heat wave conditions in isolated pockets".   As global temperatures rise, heatwaves are a regular menace in the country -- particularly in May and June. Last year dozens of people died.

Met officials said Churu in the northern state of Rajasthan was the hottest place on record on Tuesday, at 50 Celsius, while parts of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh sweltered in the high 40s.   Parts of the capital, New Delhi, recorded the hottest May day in 18 years with the mercury hitting 47.6 Celsius.   No deaths have been reported so far this year, but last year the government said the heat had killed 3,500 people since 2015. There have been fewer
fatalities in recent years.

The country of 1.3 billion people suffers from severe water shortages with tens of millions lacking running water -- to say nothing of air conditioning.   Parts of Delhi and elsewhere regularly see scuffles when tankers arrive to deliver water. Last year Chennai made international headlines when the southern city ran out of water entirely.   The heatwave adds to problems the country already has dealing with the spread of coronavirus.   India now has the 10th highest number of coronavirus cases globally, climbing above 150,000 on Wednesday with almost 4,500 deaths.

Last week cyclone Amphan killed more than 100 people as it ravaged in eastern India and Bangladesh, flattening villages, destroying farms and leaving millions without power.   Huge swarms of desert locusts, meanwhile, have destroyed nearly 50,000 hectares (125,000 acres) of crops across western and central India, and may enter Delhi in coming days.   The north-eastern states of Assam and Meghalaya are also currently experiencing floods, with more heavy rainfall forecast in the coming days.