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United Arab Emirates

United Arab Emirates US Consular Information Sheet
28th February 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a federation of seven independent emirates, each with its own ruler.
The federal government is a constitutional re
ublic, headed by a president and council of ministers.
Islamic ideals and beliefs provide the conservative foundation of the country's customs, laws and practices. The UAE is a modern, developed country, and tourist facilities are widely available. Read the Department of State Background Notes on the United Arab Emirates for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: A passport is required. For stays of less than 60 days, U.S. citizens holding valid passports may obtain visitor visas at the port of entry for no fee. For a longer stay, a traveler must obtain a visa before arrival in the UAE. In addition, an AIDS test is required for work or residence permits; testing must be performed after arrival. A U.S. AIDS test is not accepted. For further information, travelers can contact the Embassy of the United Arab Emirates, 3522 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20037, telephone (202) 243-2400.
Visit the web site of the UAE's Ministry of Information regarding tourism, business, and residence in the UAE at http://www.uaeinteract.org.

Unlike other countries in the region that accept U.S. military ID cards as valid travel documents, the UAE requires U.S. military personnel to present a valid passport for entry/exit.

UAE authorities will confiscate any weapons, weapon parts, ammunition, body armor, handcuffs, and/or other military/police equipment transported to or through a civilian airport.
Americans have been arrested and jailed for transporting such weapons and equipment without the express written authorization of the UAE government, even though airline and U.S. authorities allowed shipment on a US-originating flight.

U.S. citizens and citizens of other countries that are not members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), who depart the UAE via land are required to pay a departure fee. This fee is 20 UAE dirhams and is payable only in the local UAE dirham currency.

Visit the Embassy of the United Arab Emirates web site at http://uae-embassy.org for the most current visa information.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY: Americans in the United Arab Emirates should exercise a high level of security awareness. The Department of State remains concerned about the possibility of terrorist attacks against U.S. citizens and interests throughout the world. Americans should maintain a low profile, vary routes and times for all required travel, and treat mail and packages from unfamiliar sources with caution. In addition, U.S. citizens are urged to avoid contact with any suspicious, unfamiliar objects, and to report the presence of the objects to local authorities.
U.S. Government personnel overseas have been advised to take the same precautions. In addition, U.S. Government facilities may temporarily close or suspend public services from time to time as necessary to review their security posture and ensure its adequacy.

Taking photographs of potentially-sensitive UAE military and civilian sites, or foreign diplomatic missions, including the U.S. Embassy, may result in arrest, detention and/or prosecution by local authorities.
In addition, engaging in mapping activities, especially mapping which includes the use of GPS equipment, without coordination with UAE authorities, may have the same consequences.

On several occasions in the past three years, small groups of expatriate recreational boaters were detained by the Iranian Coast Guard for alleged violation of Iranian territorial waters while fishing near the island of Abu Musa, approximately 20 miles from Dubai.
The UAE and Iran have had a long-standing dispute concerning jurisdiction of Abu Musa.
Fishing or sailing in these waters may result in seizure of vessels and detention of passengers and crew in Iran.
Obtaining consular assistance in Iran is difficult and can only be done through the Swiss Embassy in Tehran, which acts as a Protecting Power, providing limited U.S. consular services.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves overseas, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME: Crime generally is not a problem for travelers in the UAE. However, the U.S. Embassy advises U.S. citizens to take normal precautions against theft, such as not leaving a wallet, purse, or credit card unattended. Although vehicle break-ins in the UAE are rare, U.S. citizens are encouraged to ensure that unattended vehicles are locked and that valuables are not left out in plain sight.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Basic modern medical care and medicines are available in the principal cities of the UAE, but not necessarily in outlying areas.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747); fax 1-888-CDC-FAXX (1-888-232-3299), or via the CDC's web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.
TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning the United Arab Emirates is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

The police emergency number and ambulance number is 999. Mobile phones are widely used throughout the UAE, so passers-by usually request emergency police and medical services quickly. Response time by emergency services is adequate. However, medical personnel emphasize transport of the injured to the hospital rather than treatment on site. Traffic accidents are a leading cause of death in the UAE because drivers often drive at high speeds. Unsafe driving practices are common, especially on inter-city highways. On highways, unmarked speed bumps and drifting sand create additional hazards.

Country-wide traffic laws impose stringent penalties for certain violations, particularly driving under the influence of alcohol.
In the UAE, there is zero tolerance for driving after consumption of alcohol.
Penalties may include hefty jail sentences and fines over $6,000 and, for Muslims (even those holding U.S. citizenship), lashings. Persons involved in an accident in which another party is injured automatically go to jail, until the injured person is released from the hospital. Should a person die in a traffic accident, the driver of the other vehicle is liable for payment of compensation for the death (known as "dhiyya"), usually the equivalent of 55,000 U.S. dollars. Even relatively minor accidents may result in lengthy proceedings, during which both drivers may be prohibited from leaving the country.

In order to drive, UAE residents must obtain a UAE driver's license. Foreign driver's licenses are not recognized. However, a non-resident visitor to the UAE can drive if he/she obtains a valid international driver's license issued by the motor vehicle authority of the country whose passport the traveler holds. The UAE recognizes driver's licenses issued by other Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states only if the bearer is driving a vehicle registered to the same GCC state. Under no circumstances should anyone drive without a valid license.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
You may also visit the web site of the UAE’s national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at http://www.uaeinteract.org.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of the United Arab Emirates’ Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of the United Arab Emirates' air carrier operations. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA's web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: The UAE government does not recognize dual nationality.
Children of UAE fathers automatically acquire UAE citizenship at birth and must enter the UAE on UAE passports. UAE authorities have confiscated U.S. passports of UAE/U.S. dual nationals in the past. This act does not constitute loss of U.S. citizenship, but should be reported to the U.S. Embassy in Abu Dhabi or the U.S. Consulate General in Dubai. In addition to being subject to all UAE laws, U.S. citizens who also hold UAE citizenship may also be subject to other laws that impose special obligations on citizens of the UAE.
For additional information, please refer to our Dual Nationality flyer.

U.S. citizens have at times become involved in disputes of a commercial nature that have prompted local firms or courts to take possession of the U.S. citizen's passport. Travel bans may also be enforced against U.S. citizens involved in financial disputes with a local sponsor or firm. Such travel bans, which are rigidly enforced, effectively prevent the individual from leaving the UAE for any reason until the dispute is resolved. Although it is customary for a local sponsor to hold an employee's passport, it is illegal to do so under UAE law. Most contractual/labor disputes can be avoided by clearly establishing all terms and conditions of employment or sponsorship in the labor contract at the beginning of any employment. Should a dispute arise, the UAE Ministry of Labor has established a special department to review and arbitrate labor claims. A list of local attorneys capable of representing Americans in such matters is available from the Consular and Commercial sections of the U.S. Embassy in Abu Dhabi and the U.S. Consulate General in Dubai.

Codes of behavior and dress in the UAE reflect the country's Islamic traditions and are more conservative than those of the United States. Visitors to the UAE should be respectful of this conservative heritage, especially in the Emirate of Sharjah where rules of decency and public conduct are strictly enforced. Female travelers should keep in mind the cultural differences among the many people who coexist in the UAE and should be cognizant that unwitting actions may invite unwanted attention to them. Isolated incidents of verbal and physical harassment of Western women have occurred. Victims of harassment are encouraged to report such incidents to the U.S. Embassy in Abu Dhabi or the Consulate General in Dubai.

American citizens intending to reside and work in the UAE may have to present personal documents authenticated by the Department of State's Office of Authentications in Washington, D.C. before traveling to the UAE. This can be a complex process involving local, state and federal offices and requiring several weeks to complete.
For procedural information, the Office of Authentications may be contacted by telephone from within the United States at 800-688-9889 or 202-647-5002, by fax at 202-663-3636, or by e-mail at aoprgsmauth@state.gov.
In order to meet UAE government requirements for school registrations and residency sponsorship for family members, Americans intending to bring their families to reside with them in the UAE will need to have their marriage certificate and children's birth certificates, or custody/adoption decrees, if appropriate, authenticated by the Department of State in Washington, DC.
The U.S. Embassy and Consulate General cannot authenticate U.S. local- and state-issued personal, academic or professional documents; they will only be able to authenticate the final authentication document from the Department of State.
Additional information on authentication of documents can be found at http://www.state.gov/m/a/auth/.
In terms of employment, a recent change to UAE labor law requires local sponsors to have employees' diplomas, academic and/or occupational/professional certificates validated through a “Degree Verification” process established in the UAE.
Prospective employees will be required to submit photocopies of such documents for verification to a firm under contract to the Ministry of Labor.

In addition, persons in the education and health professions reportedly have to meet two requirements for validation of their educational credentials at this time – the formal “chain” authentication of academic/professional credentials in the U.S. and the “Degree Verification” process in the UAE.
Different UAE Ministries have different requirements in this regard.
Determining these requirements with one’s prospective employer is strongly recommended before arrival in the UAE.

Please see our Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating UAE laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in the UAE are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

Legislation enacted in January 1996 imposes the death sentence for convicted drug traffickers. Since January 2006, possession of even trace amounts of illegal drugs has resulted in sentences of four years imprisonment for foreign citizens transiting the UAE. American citizens transiting and entering the UAE’s airports and in possession of illegal drugs have been discovered, arrested and prosecuted by UAE authorities.
As mentioned, in such cases the minimum penalty is four years imprisonment.

Some drugs normally taken under a doctor's supervision in the United States, and even some over-the-counter U.S. drugs and medications, are classified as narcotics in the UAE and are illegal to possess.
A doctor's prescription should be carried along with any medication that is brought into the country.
A person may be subject to arrest and prosecution if possession of prescribed medicines (especially those containing codeine and similar narcotic-like ingredients) comes to the attention of local authorities.
The U.S. Embassy’s web site includes an unofficial list of such medicines, obtained from the UAE Ministry of Health.
Most medications available in the U.S. are also available by doctors’ prescription through hospitals and pharmacies in the UAE.

In addition, the UAE's tough anti-narcotics program also includes poppy seeds, widely used in other cultures, including the U.S., for culinary purposes, on its list of controlled substances. The importation and possession of poppy seeds in any and all forms is strictly prohibited. Persons found to possess even very small quantities of controlled substances listed by the UAE are subject to prosecution by the authorities and may be given lengthy prison terms of up to 15 years. Travelers with questions regarding the items on the list of controlled substances should contact the U.S. Embassy in Abu Dhabi or the U.S. Consulate General in Dubai. If suspected of being under the influence of drugs or alcohol, individuals may be required to submit to blood and/or urine tests and may be subject to prosecution.

Crimes of fraud, including passing bad checks and non-payment of bills (including hotel bills), are regarded seriously in the UAE and can result in imprisonment and/or fines. Bail generally is not available to non-residents of the UAE who are arrested for crimes involving fraud.

Drinking or possession of alcohol without a Ministry of Interior liquor permit is illegal and could result in arrest and/or fines and imprisonment. Alcohol is served at bars in most major hotels but is intended for guests of the hotel. Persons who are not guests of the hotel, and who consume alcohol in the restaurants and bars, technically are required to have their own personal liquor licenses. Liquor licenses are issued only to non-Muslim persons who possess UAE residency permits. Drinking and driving is considered a serious offense. Penalties generally are assessed according to religious law.

While individuals are free to worship as they choose, and facilities are available for that purpose, religious proselytizing is not permitted in the UAE.
Persons violating this law, even unknowingly, may be imprisoned or deported.

If arrested, U.S. citizens should contact the U.S. Embassy or Consulate General for assistance. The U.S. Consul will provide information on the local judicial system and a list of local attorneys. In Dubai, the U.S. Consul can also arrange for U.S. citizen detainees to meet with an ombudsman from the Human Rights Department of the Dubai police headquarters, if the detainee believes he or she is not being treated fairly.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION/EMBASSY AND CONSULATE LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in the United Arab Emirates are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site and to obtain updated information on travel and security within the United Arab Emirates. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.

The U.S. Embassy in Abu Dhabi is located at Embassies District, Plot 38, Sector W59-02, Street No. 4, P.O. Box 4009. The telephone number is (971) (2) 414-2200, and the Consular Section fax number is (971) (2) 414-2241. The email address for American Citizens Services inquiries, including passport questions, is abudhabiacs@state.gov. The after-hours telephone number is (971) (2) 414-2500. The Embassy Internet web site is http://uae.usembassy.gov.

The U.S. Consulate General in Dubai is located on the 21st floor of the Dubai World Trade Center, P.O. Box 9343. The telephone number is (971) (4) 311-6000 (for after-hours emergencies, contact the Embassy at (971)(2) 414-2200 for the Dubai Duty Officer, and the Consular Section fax number is (971) (4) 311-6213. The email address for American Citizens Services inquiries, including passport questions, is dubaiwarden@state.gov. The web site for the U.S. Consulate General in Dubai is http://dubai.usconsulate.gov.

The workweek for both the Embassy in Abu Dhabi and the Consulate General in Dubai is Sunday through Thursday.
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information for the UAE dated July 06, 2007, to update the sections on Traffic Safety and Road Conditions and Criminal Penalties.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Fri, 8 Mar 2019 11:58:53 +0100
By Shatha Yaish

Hatta, United Arab Emirates, March 8, 2019 (AFP) - Just over 100 kilometres (62 miles) from Dubai's skyscrapers, Mohammed al-Kaabi strolls through the tranquil desert with his friends as the sun sets.   Kaabi, 27, hails from a long line of Emiratis, a people with a centuries-old bedouin history tied inextricably to the local desert.    Today, he is among a fast-growing group drawn to a new wave of a tradition of desert camping but with all the trappings of comfort, style and modernity.   With "glamping", short for "glamorous camping", Dubai aims to expand on its renown for luxurious city living and its tradition of camping.

Betting on tourism at a time of low oil prices, Dubai is now offering stays in chic desert trailers, in plush mountainside lodgings and beach camps, as it seeks to put its own mark on the glamping trend that has swept world tourism destinations.   "This place is far from the cities and the high-rises," said Kaabi, sporting the traditional full-length white Emirati robe worn by men.   "Camping is very popular in the UAE, but when you want to bring the family it becomes more complicated," he added, at a campsite in Hatta, near the Omani border.   "But here, safety and comfort are provided for."

- A room with... a bed -
Camping is still a beloved way of life for many Emiratis, who take their equipment and head for the desert from the fall months onwards, when the scorching summer heat has faded.    Tourists and expat residents also increasingly opt to escape the hustle and bustle of the city.

Dubai welcomed a record 15.9 million visitors in 2018, many of whom were drawn to its mega malls, luxurious hotels and pristine beaches.   It hopes to push the figure up to 20 million visitors annually by next year, when it hosts the six-month global trade fair, Expo 2020.    The mountainous eastern Hatta desert has lots to offer "glampers" with a taste for adventure but also for their home comforts.   Near the Hatta dam, campers have a choice between a trailer, caravan or five-star lodge fully equipped with TVs and power points for charging a smartphone.

Seated outside a trailer, Jamil Fahmy, a Dubai resident from Saudi Arabia, said glamping was the perfect way to escape the city without compromising on hygiene.    "It's fun, with the fire and hanging with friends and all that, but I personally prefer to sleep in a room with a bed and a private bathroom, and that's what we get here," he told AFP.    "It's great to be an adventurer and explore and cook fireside, and that's what we did.   "But when the time came, we retreated into the beautiful room and slept on a bed."

- 'Five-star camping' -
Rooms with modern amenities, including bathrooms and beds, start from 400 dirhams (about $110, 100 euros) per night at the Hatta site, which opened in October.    The Hatta camping project, part of Dubai's plan to use tourism to diversify revenues, is also home to a 350-metre zip wire.   Last year, Dubai faced a downturn in the real-estate market due to a supply glut, while oil prices also dropped, affecting the UAE as a whole.    Several glamping sites, some on the beach, have popped up across the UAE in recent years, with options to participate in yoga classes, star gazing or kayaking.

For Jay, a 37-year-old Briton, glamping offers a new experience after a decade in the UAE.    "We're fairly outdoorsy, we came here kayaking before, we did the big zip line," he told AFP, referring to the Hatta zip wire.    But, he added with a laugh that with the usual no-frills style of camping "you haven't got a shower or all the facilities" so glamping is a welcome step-up.   "You get the outdoors and all of that, and nature, and you can barbeque -- but you can also have a shower and get clean!   "It's not five-star hoteling, but five-star camping."
Date: 30 Jan 2019
From: Taiichiro Kobayashi <tkobayashi@cick.jp> [edited]

Two women who returned to Japan from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) were diagnosed with dengue fever (DF). They could be the 1st reported cases of DF infected in the UAE. They live in Japan and travelled together to the UAE from 29 Dec 2018 to 4 Jan 2019. During their stay in the UAE, they mostly stayed in Dubai and were bitten by mosquitoes several times.

They came to Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital on 16 Jan 2019. A 32-year-old woman and a 29-year-old woman complained of high fever for 6 and 4 days, respectively. One revealed an erythematous rash on her trunk, face and extremities, and their tourniquet test results were positive. Their blood examinations revealed leukocytopenia, thrombocytopenia and mild liver dysfunction.

Although the UAE is not known as an endemic country of DF, we suspected the women of having DF because of their history, physical examination and laboratory test results. We performed a rapid diagnostic test of DF (SD BIOLINE Dengue DUO), and their results of non-structural protein 1 (NS1) antigen were positive. Furthermore, dengue virus serotype 3 (DENV-3) genotype III genome was detected from both of their sera with real-time RT-PCR and following viral genome sequence analysis at the Laboratory of Arboviruses, National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID), Japan.

These 2 cases may be a signal of the emergence of DF in the UAE, where urbanization progresses and many travellers and immigrants from DF-endemic countries are being accepted.
===============================
Taiichiro Kobayashi
Department of Infectious Diseases
Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome
Hospital
Tokyo, Japan
<tkobayashi@cick.jp>

Yuya Atsuta, Masaru Tanaka, Kazuaki Fukushima, Keishiro Yajima and Akifumi Imamura
Department of Infectious Diseases
Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital Tokyo, Japan

Takahiro Maeki, Shigeru Tajima, Satoshi Taniguchi, Masayuki Saijo and Chang-Kweng Lim
Department of Virology I, National Institute of Infectious Diseases Tokyo, Japan

[ProMED thanks the colleagues from Japan for sharing this important update on imported dengue fever cases, which were serotyped as DENV-3, from the UAE into Japan.

The worldwide distribution of dengue is expanding, in part due to globalized traffic and trade. _Aedes albopictus_ is a competent vector for dengue viruses (DENV) and is now established in numerous regions of the world. Travellers with viraemia arriving in any country from dengue-affected areas of the world can become proponents of local outbreaks. The above report also highlights the importance of considering dengue in differential diagnosis of fever with suggestive blood picture even in cases presenting in nonendemic areas. - ProMED Mod.UBA]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail maps:
United Arab Emirates: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/132]
Date: Wed 5 Sep 2018
Source: BBC [edited]

A total of 19 people have been taken ill after an Emirates airline plane landed in New York, officials say. The plane was quarantined at JFK airport as those on board were checked by health officials. As many as 10 were taken to hospital but others refused treatment.

The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) said that initially about 100 people including some crew had complained of illness. Flight 203 from Dubai landed at 09:10 (13.10 GMT) with 521 passengers.

Emergency vehicles were seen on the runway as it landed. Soon afterwards, Emirates airline tweeted that the sick passengers were being attended to and those who were unaffected would be allowed to leave the plane.

The CDC said in a statement that is was "aware of an Emirates flight from Dubai that arrived this morning at JFK".

"Approximately 100 passengers, including some crew on the flight, complained of illness including cough and some with fever.

"CDC public health officers are working with... officials to evaluate passengers including taking temperatures and making arrangements for transport to local hospitals those that need care."

Later Eric Phillips, spokesman for New York Mayor Bill de Blasio, confirmed that all the passengers were off the plane and the sick people had been taken to hospital.

He said that some of the passengers had originally come from the Saudi Arabian city of Mecca, which was currently experiencing a flu outbreak, and that the passengers' symptoms were "pointing to the flu".
Date: Mon 28 May 2018
Source: EMPRES-I (Global Animal Disease Information System) [edited]

According to an EMPRESS report issued today [Mon 28 May 2018], there was a human case of MERS-CoV infection confirmed by PCR testing in Gayathi, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. This report was based on an OIE report.

No further information was provided.
=====================
[The most recent confirmed human MERS-CoV infection in the UAE was reported in December 2017 and involved an Omani camel herder who was identified as an asymptomatic infection. This was detected as part of border screening of camels on entry to the UAE following the detection of positive MERS-CoV infection in the camels (see MERS-CoV (01): Malaysia (ex KSA), Saudi Arabia, UAE (ex Oman) http://promedmail.org/post/20180102.5532148).

I was unable to find more information on the case mentioned in the EMPRES report above, from either the HAAD (Health Authority of Abu Dhabi) website, or the OIE or EMPRES websites. Questions that come to mind include: demographics (age, sex); clinical picture (was this based on clinical illness in the human or was this part of screening after identification of MERS-CoV infected camels entering the UAE (where screening is typically done); possible high risk exposures (either contact with camels, contact with other known cases, contact with the health sector before onset of illness, or history of travel to other geographic areas where MERS-CoV circulation is known).

More information from knowledgeable sources would be greatly appreciated.

The HealthMap/ProMED map of the UAE can be found at:
Date: Thu 21 Sep 2017
Source: Eurosurveillance Edition 2017, 22(38) [edited]

ref: Dabrera G, Brandsema P, Lofdahl M, et al. Increase in legionnaires' disease cases associated with travel to Dubai among travellers from the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Netherlands, October 2016 to end August 2017. Euro Surveill. 2017; 22(38): pii=30618.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Abstract
--------
Between 1 Oct 2016 and 31 Aug 2017, 51 legionnaires' disease (LD) cases from the United Kingdom (UK), Sweden, and the Netherlands were identified with associated travel to Dubai. Cases did not all stay in the same accommodation, indicating that no single accommodation could be the source for all these infections. While local investigations continue into other potential sources, clinicians should remain alert to the possibility of LD among travellers returning from Dubai with respiratory illness.

Introduction
------------
In December 2016, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) reported an increase in legionnaires' disease (LD) cases associated with travel to Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE) [1] based on cases reported to ELDSNet (European legionnaires' disease surveillance network), an ECDC-operated surveillance system among European Union (EU) countries, Iceland, and Norway [2] for laboratory-confirmed, travel-associated LD (TALD) cases who stayed in commercial accommodation site(s) (such as hotels) during the 2-10-day incubation period.

As this increase in Dubai-associated TALD cases continues, we describe cases reported with symptom onset between 1 Oct 2016 and 31 Aug 2017 among residents from the UK, Sweden, and the Netherlands (the 3 countries that were initially reporting the largest numbers of cases). We describe the ongoing situation as at 18 Sep 2017 to provide further insight into the observed increase and create awareness among physicians and travellers returning with compatible symptoms to consider legionella as a differential diagnosis [1].

[The full Eurosurveillance article can be accessed at the source URL above. - ProMED Mod.ML]
====================
[Dubai is one of the 7 emirates and the most populous city of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) (<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dubai>). Dubai has become a popular tourist destination. It is said to be the 4th most visited city in world, with over 15 million visitors in 2016, after London, Paris, and Bangkok (<https://www.khaleejtimes.com/listicles/dubai-worlds-fourth-most-popular-destination-in-2016>).

Overnight visitors in Dubai spent almost USD 11 billion in 2014

Dubai can be located on the HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map at

In 2009, ProMED-mail first reported legionnaires' disease in 3 travellers to Dubai, one of whom from the UK died (Legionellosis, fatal, hotel - United Arab Emirates: (Dubai) http://promedmail.org/post/20090205.0509). In December 2016, ProMED-mail reported an increase in the number of cases of legionnaires' disease in 2016, compared with previous years, in European travelers returning from Dubai, with 26 cases having their onset of illness since 1 Oct 2016 (Legionellosis - EU: EU travellers, ex United Arab Emirates (Dubai) susp http://promedmail.org/post/20161230.4733569). In June 2017, ProMED-mail reported that an additional 34 cases among European travelers to Dubai, with the most recent case becoming ill in May 2017, suggesting an ongoing exposure risk (Legionellosis - Europe (03): ex United Arab Emirates (Dubai) http://promedmail.org/post/20170602.5079438).

According to the Eurosurveillance report above on 51 legionnaires' disease cases with symptom onset between 1 Oct 2016 and 31 Aug 2017, from the UK, Sweden, and the Netherlands associated with travel to Dubai, of 43 cases staying in commercial accommodation only 15 stayed in sites where there were 2 or more cases, whereas 27 stayed in sites where there were no other cases. In addition, 3 of the 51 cases were associated with a foreign-travel related cluster in other countries.

Of the 51 cases of legionnaires' disease, 50 were infected by organisms speciated as _Legionella pneumophila_. However, the serogroup was known for only 16 cases: 13 of the 16 were serogroup 1, 2 were serogroup 13 and 1 was serogroup 2-14. Sequence-based typing (ST) was available for only 9 cases: 6 cases were ST616, and 3 cases were ST1327. ST616 was only observed in cases associated with travel to Dubai and ST1327 was associated with travel to Dubai for all but one case. Furthermore, 11 cases spent their entire incubation period in Dubai. These findings supported the assertion that at least some of these infections occurred within Dubai. However, the cases for whom sequence-based typing was available were all linked to different accommodations sites.

No increase in pneumonia notifications occurred locally in Dubai between October and December 2016, which suggested an environmental _Legionella_ source in Dubai that might have been frequented more often by foreign travelers than by local residents. Another explanation was that the local Dubai population is predominantly young, with only 8.7 percent in the 50 years or older age group in 2016, and therefore potentially at lower risk for legionnaires' disease than foreign travelers. Also, the investigators noted that the increase in cases of legionnaires' disease among European travelers to Dubai could not be fully explained by an increase in the number of European travelers to Dubai, but so far no environmental sources have been identified in Dubai. - ProMED Mod.ML]
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Paraguay

Paraguay - US Consular Information Sheet
September 15, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Paraguay is a constitutional democracy with a developing economy.
Tourist facilities are adequate in the capital city of Asuncion, but they vary greatly
n quality and prices.
Travelers outside Asuncion should consider seeking travel agency assistance, as satisfactory or adequate tourist facilities are very limited in other major cities and almost nonexistent in remote areas.
Read the Department of State Background Notes on Paraguay for additional information.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport and visa are required.
U.S. citizens traveling to Paraguay must submit completed visa applications in person or by secure messenger to the Paraguayan Embassy or one of the consulates and pay a fee.
Paraguay issues visas for one-entry or multiple entries up to the validity of the U.S. passport.
Applicants under 18 years of age traveling alone must appear with both of their parents or a legal guardian.
In case of a guardian, an original and one copy of proof of legal guardianship are required.
A document of authorization from parents/guardian will be accepted only if it is notarized and certified by the county clerk.
Travelers entering or departing Paraguay with regular U.S. passports will be fingerprinted.
Some airlines include the Paraguayan airport departure tax in the price of the airline ticket.
It is recommended that you check with the airline in order to determine whether or not the departure tax has been included.
If the tax is not included in the airline ticket then payment would be required upon departure in either U.S. or local currency (no credit cards or checks accepted). Visit the Embassy of Paraguay web site at http://www.embaparusa.gov.py for the most current visa information.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
As stated in the Department of State's latest Worldwide Caution, U.S. citizens overseas may be targeted by extremist groups and should maintain a high level of vigilance.
The U.S. Embassy is not aware of any specific terrorist threat to Americans in Paraguay.
Individuals and organizations providing financial support to extremist groups operate in Ciudad del Este and along the tri-border area between Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina.
Small armed groups have also been reported to be operating in the San Pedro and Concepcion Departments.
Drug trafficking remains a serious concern in the Department of Amambay.
Because of concerns about the lack of security in border areas, the U.S. Embassy in Asuncion requires U.S. Government personnel and their family members to provide advance notice and a travel itinerary when traveling to Ciudad del Este or Pedro Juan Caballero.
As a general precaution, the Embassy also counsels its employees traveling outside the capital to provide an itinerary including dates, contact names, and telephone numbers where the employee may be reached.

Since January 2007, there have been numerous kidnapping incidents mainly in the Alto Parana department.
Targets have been members of the Paraguayan business community or their family members.
It is believed that the individuals responsible for the kidnappings are financially motivated and have pre-selected their targets based on the victims’ wealth.

U.S. citizens should avoid large gatherings or any other event where crowds have congregated to demonstrate or protest.
Such activities have resulted in intermittent road closures including major routes traveled by tourists and residents.
While generally nonviolent, demonstrations and/or roadblocks have turned violent in the past.
Areas where such closures and barricades exist should be avoided.
U.S. citizens who encounter demonstrations and/or roadblocks should not attempt to continue the planned travel or to confront those at the roadblock.
Instead, they should avoid areas where individuals are demonstrating and in case of roadblock, wait for the road to reopen or return to the origin of their trip.
Uniformed police often conduct roving checks of vehicles and passengers.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ website at http://travel.state.gov where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the United States and Canada, or for callers outside the United States and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).
The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
Crime has increased in recent years with criminals often targeting those thought to be wealthy.
Although most crime is nonviolent, there has been an increase in the use of weapons and there have been incidents where extreme violence has been used.
U.S. citizens have on occasion been the victims of assaults, kidnappings, robberies, and rapes.
Local authorities frequently lack the training and resources to solve these cases.
Under these circumstances, U.S. citizens traveling to or residing in Paraguay should be aware of their surroundings and security at all times.
They should take common sense precautions including refraining from displaying expensive-looking cameras and jewelry, large amounts of money, or other valuable items.
Resistance to armed assailants has often aggravated the situation and therefore is not advised.

Armed robbery, carjackings, car theft, and home invasions are a problem in both urban and rural areas.
Street crime, including pick pocketing and mugging, is prevalent in cities.
The number of pick pocketing incidents and armed assaults is also increasing on public buses and in the downtown area of Asunción.
As many incidents on public buses involve individuals snatching valuables, passengers should not wear expensive-looking jewelry or display other flashy items.
There have been incidents of pilferage from checked baggage at both airports and bus terminals.
Travelers have found it prudent to hide valuables on their person or in carry-on luggage.
Unauthorized ticket vendors also reportedly operate at the Asuncion bus terminal, badgering travelers into buying tickets for substandard or non-existent services.

In many countries around the world, counterfeit and pirated goods are widely available.
Transactions involving such products may be illegal under local law.
In addition, bringing them back to the United States may result in forfeitures and/or fines.
More information on this serious problem is available at http://www.cybercrime.gov/18usc2320.htm
INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime are solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

Below are the local equivalent phone numbers to the “911” emergency line in Paraguay.
In Asuncion, the following phone numbers exist for roadside/ambulance assistance:
Emergency Services, including police and ambulances:
911.
Fire Department, including rescue of accident victims: 131, 132.
See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Adequate medical facilities, prescription and over-the-counter medicine, supplies, and services are available only in Asuncion.
Elsewhere, these are limited and may not exist.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.
The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to Paraguay or foreign residents of the country.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Paraguay is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

U.S. citizens have been injured and killed in traffic accidents.
Only minimal standards must be met to obtain a Paraguayan driver's license, and driver education prior to licensing is not common.
Drivers throughout Paraguay routinely ignore traffic regulations.
No vehicle insurance is required, and many Paraguayans drive without any insurance coverage.
Persons who drive in Paraguay should be prepared to drive defensively and with their own insurance in both urban and rural areas.

Public transportation is readily available for urban and inter-city travel.
Buses vary in maintenance conditions and may not meet U.S. safety standards.
Armed robberies and pick pocketing occur on buses in cities and rural areas, sometimes with the apparent collusion of the bus driver.
Taxis are available and may be called using telephone numbers listed in the newspapers.
No passenger train service exists.
Bicycle travel may not be safe due to traffic and other road hazards.
Most urban streets consist of cobblestones over dirt.
Some roads in Asuncion and other large cities are paved.
However, these roads frequently develop potholes that often remain unrepaired.
Nearly all rural roads are unpaved, and during rainy periods and the rainy season (November-March/April), they may be impassable.
Road signs indicating hazards, such as sharp curves or major intersections, are lacking in many areas.

Driving or traveling at night is not advisable outside Asuncion because pedestrians, animals, or vehicles without proper lights are often on the roads.
In addition, assaults and other crimes against motorists traveling at night have occurred.
Extra precautions should be exercised along infrequently traveled portions of the rural roads.

Intercity highway maintenance is not equal to U.S. standards.
The privately maintained toll road between Caaguazu and Ciudad del Este and the routes between Asuncion and Encarnacion and Asuncion and Pedro Juan Caballero are in good condition.
Most other intercity routes are in good to fair condition, with brief stretches in poor condition.
The Trans-Chaco route is in fair condition except for the portion between Mariscal Estigarribia and the Bolivian border, which is unpaved and at times impassable.

The Touring and Automobile Club provides some roadside assistance to its members.
The Club may be contacted in Asuncion by visiting its offices at 25 de Mayo near Brazil, First Floor, or telephoning 210-550, 210-551, 210-552, 210-553, Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., or Saturday from 8:00 a.m. to noon, except for Paraguayan holidays.
The Touring Club also has offices in Ciudad del Este (tel. 061-512-340), Coronel Oviedo (tel. 0521-203-350), Encarnación (tel. 071-202-203), San Ignacio Misiones (tel. 082-232-080), Caaguazu Campo 9 ( tel. 0528-222-211), Santani (tel. 043-20-314), Pozo Colorado (cell phone. 0981-939-611, Villa Florida (tel. 083-240-205) and Ybyyau (tel. 039-210-206).
Towing services are scarce outside urban areas.
Twenty-four-hour tow truck services from Asuncion may be contacted by telephoning (021) 224-366, (021) 208-400, (cellular service provider) Tigo by dialing *822 or 0971-951-930.
For an extra fee, these companies may provide service outside Asuncion, but they typically demand immediate payment and may not accept credit cards.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
Visit the website of Paraguay’s national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at http://www.senatur.gov.py and http://www.mopc.gov.py/
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Paraguay’s Civil Aviation Authority as not being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for the oversight of Paraguay’s air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs%5Finitiatives/oversight/iasa/
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: Paraguay’s customs authority may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from Paraguay of items such as firearms, medications, toys resembling weapons, or protected species.
It is advisable to contact the Paraguayan Embassy in Washington, D.C., or one of Paraguay's consulates in the United States for specific information regarding customs requirements.

Paraguay does not recognize dual Paraguayan nationality for American citizens.
Under Article 150 of the Paraguayan Constitution, naturalized Paraguayans lose their nationality by virtue of a court ruling based on unjustified absence from the Republic for more than three years, or by voluntary adoption of another nationality.
Please see our Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Paraguay’s laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Paraguay are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.

Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information, see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION: Americans residing or traveling in Paraguay are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Paraguay.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy is located at 1776 Mariscal Lopez Avenue, Asuncion; telephone (011-595-21) 213-715, fax (011-595-21) 213-728; Internet: http://paraguay.usembassy.gov, email: paraguayconsular@state.gov.
The Consular Section is open for U.S. citizen services, including registration, Monday through Thursday from 1:00 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. and Fridays from 7:30 a.m. to 10:30 a.m., except for U.S. and Paraguayan holidays; telephone (011-595-21) 213-715, fax (011-595-21) 228-603.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Tue, 28 May 2019 03:40:13 +0200
By Hugo OLAZAR

Nanawa, Paraguay, May 28, 2019 (AFP) - Like 70,000 people living close to the broken banks of the Paraguay River, where the water level has risen seven meters (23 feet) in some places, Graciela Acosta has had to pack up her belongings and evacuate.   Piled up on a canoe are the 39-year-old housewife's bed, wardrobe, bedside table and her dog Pirulin.

Acosta is getting ready to cross the border into Argentina with her daughter to seek refuge in a reception center in the neighboring town of Clorinda.   "I've had enough! It's the third time that I've had to move everything because of the floods," said Acosta.   "I pray to God that it ends. Every time. it costs a lot of money."   However, there's no chance of Acosta leaving her home in Nanawa, a town of just 6,000 people that borders Argentina to the west and faces the capital Asuncion to the east across the Paraguay River, for good.   "As soon as the water level drops, I'll go home," she said.

- 'Greater impact' -
In Nanawa, only around 500 people were able to avoid evacuation, due to living in homes with upper floors above the flood levels.   They're used to this as the Paraguay River, one of the largest in the Americas, breaks its banks and causes havoc in the poorest Nanawa neighborhoods built on the flood plain.   The river's brown waters rise almost to the height of street signs: in some areas, there is up to one or two meters of water covering roads.

Paraguayans have seen worse, though, back in 1983, according to the assistant director of the country's meteorology and hydrology service, Nelson Perez.   "It's not the Paraguay River's worst flood, but the impact is greater because more people live close to the river," said Perez.   "These are the worst floods I've seen," said Ruben Acosta, 55, who peddles his moving services by canoe.   It's a far cry from January and February, when the river's level was so low that navigating it became difficult.   "It rained a lot in March, three times more than usual, and it also rained a lot in April and May," said Perez, who pointed to deforestation as an added problem.

- 'It's like being in Venice' -
Wading through water up to his chest, Rigoberto Nunez leaves a cemetery carrying a chandelier, a vase, some crucifixes and family portraits, all plucked from the family vault.   "I prefer to take them away to be safe," says the 47-year-old traveling salesman.    The town is without electricity or police and inhabitants are afraid of looters.   Nunez is heading to a reception center provided by Argentine authorities in a Clorinda slum where he's already stashed his furniture.   Enrique Cardozo's workshop has already been ravaged by the floods.   "I've lost my sofa, the cupboard, I had nowhere to put them," said the 51-year-old father of four.

The family has moved into the first floor of their house, which is just 15 meters from the river.   "It rained non-stop for a week. One day, the water rose one meter. It was impressive, we couldn't save everything," said Cardozo.   "There's nowhere you can put your feet on the ground. It's like being in Venice, we move about by Gondola!"

On the other side of the river, Asuncion has not been spared as several areas have also had to be evacuated.   In the Sajonia residential zone, inhabitants and shopkeepers have seen their sidewalks lined with sandbags, to keep back the floodwaters.   According to Perez, though, the problems -- and waters -- will soon subside.   The water level rose only slightly on Monday, and will continue to do so for a few more days before it drains away during the first half of June, he said.
Date: Mon, 27 May 2019 12:07:58 +0200

Asuncion, May 27, 2019 (AFP) - Heavy flooding in Paraguay has displaced 70,000 families and is threatening to further inundate the capital Asuncion in the coming weeks, the country's weather bureau said.   Water levels on the Paraguay River are rising at a rate of 4-5 centimetres (1.5-2 inches) every day and is only 46 cm (18 in) below a "disaster" level, according to official data from the Department of Meteorology and Hydrology (DMH).

Crossing that threshold would "have a very strong impact" because of the number of Asuncion residents who have moved into the city's floodplain, said DMH deputy director Nelson Perez on Sunday.   The city's water service infrastructure was clogged with garbage which was exacerbating the floods, Perez added. 

Unusually heavy downpours over May, including two days which together exceeded Asuncion's average monthly rainfall, have exacerbated the flooding, said DMH meteorologist Eduardo Mingo.    Some 40,000 people in Asuncion have already been affected by the floods, official data reported.   A further 10,000 people have been displaced in the southern town of Pilar on the Argentinian border.   The government has mobilized armed forces to help displaced residents relocate to shelters, but hundreds of families have opted to stay behind in their inundated homes.
Date: Thu, 4 Apr 2019 03:06:45 +0200

Asuncion, April 4, 2019 (AFP) - More than 20,000 families across Paraguay have been affected by severe flooding from two weeks of heavy rain that caused the country's main river to burst its banks, a senior official said Wednesday as an emergency was declared in the capital.   National Emergency Minister Joaquin Roa made the announcement as forecasters said the precipitation would continue for the rest of the week.   The Paraguay River, which runs some 1,000 kilometres north to south and splits the country in two, is expected to continue overflowing.

A 90-day emergency was declared in Asuncion on Wednesday due to the flooding. Hardest-hit are some 5,000 families living in the Banado Sur working-class neighbourhood on the city outskirts.   The people affected by flooding "need sheet metal roofing, wood, and all types of help," a municipal official told AFP.   The Paraguay River flows past Asuncion and eventually merges into the Parana River in Argentina.   "We did not expect it to swell so quickly," said Pablo Ramirez, a resident of Banado Sur, a neighbourhood in the capital, dismayed after returning to his home after he left it one month ago due to flooding.

Ramirez, who relies on crutches to get around following a car accident, said that he will not leave home this time. The flooding "will go by quickly," he said optimistically.   Pedro Velasco, the leading neighbourhood Catholic priest, said that one week ago they warned emergency officials that the river was about to overflow and asked for trucks to deliver aid and help evacuate people.   "They didn't move until Monday, but by then it was already too late and they couldn't come in" because of the flooding, Velasco said.   Roa said that his office will deliver 400,000 of food in the next days in coordination with the Paraguayan military.
Date: Thu 28 Feb 2019
Source: Hoy [in Spanish trans. Mod.TY, edited]

Patients who present with febrile symptoms and who reside in the area where the 1st positive case was reported positive request tests for hantavirus [infection]. Until now there are 5 cases, 3 were positive in initial laboratory tests and 2 are suspect cases that will be tested outside [the country] because the Central Laboratory does not do confirmatory tests.

The febrile cases of residents in Capiata [Central department], the area where the 1st cases of hantavirus occurred, are adding up and now Health Surveillance has reported 2 more suspected cases, all children between 2 and 7 years old living in the same city; community intervention continues in search of possible cases.

The 1st cases confirmed in a private laboratory remain hospitalized in intensive care and the others who have improved are now receiving ambulatory treatment, stated Dr Sandra Irala of Health Surveillance.

"The clinical picture of hantavirus [infection] is that of a patient with a temperature above 38 deg C [100.4 deg F] and respiratory difficulty is another characteristic in the endemic area such as that of Chaco. In the non-endemic area [hantavirus infection] is suspected if the patient presents with fever and other possible causes are eliminated," the doctor indicated in a press conference.

The rodents that transmit the hantavirus do not inhabit urban areas and the way in which the disease [virus] is acquired is through contact with excreta and other secretions such as saliva and urine of these [infected] rodents.

Irala pointed out that the cases that are initially positive should have a cross-section of studies for final confirmation, so the samples were sent to Argentina, where there is a reference laboratory for the detection of this type of virus.

The person acquires the virus by inhaling air contaminated with the virus that is transported through dust particles, which is why it is recommended before cleaning, especially of storage buildings, to open doors and windows to ventilate the environment and moisten the soil to before proceeding with the sweeping.

The possibility of acquiring a hantavirus [infection] is if you have a history of having visited the Chaco area or if you were in a country that registers outbreaks of hantavirus, such as southern Argentina.

The disease has a 30% mortality rate and in Paraguay every year about 20 cases are registered, all in the Chaco region.

Alerting symptoms
-----------------
The symptoms of hantavirus [infection] are similar to other infectious diseases and include fever, headache, and gastrointestinal problems and, according to the development and the seriousness of the case, the patient may present with respiratory manifestations.

Before the appearance of any of these or other symptoms [the Ministry of Health] urges the public to go to the nearest health service to make the appropriate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Under no circumstances should self-medication be used as this could aggravate the picture and obstruct the actual diagnosis of the disease.
=====================
[The active surveillance efforts in the neighborhood of the initial case has detected more patients now with a total 3 confirmed and 2 suspected. The tests used in the private laboratory to determine that 3 cases as confirmed are not indicated, nor if samples of these 3 cases were sent to the reference laboratory in Argentina for confirmation.

Most of the previous cases of hantavirus infection in Paraguay have been diagnosed in Boqueron department in the north western part of the country. This is the 1st report of hantavirus infections in the Central department of Paraguay. The possible hantavirus involved in this suspected case is not stated. A 2011 report indicated that Leguna Negra hantavirus was responsible for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases in Presidente Hayes department. In addition to Laguna Negra virus (rodent host _Calomys laucha_), other hantaviruses that can cause HPS and are found in Paraguay (and their rodent hosts) include Juquitiba (_Akodon cursor_), Ape Aime-Itapua (_Akodon montensis_), Araucaria (_A. montensis_, _Oligoryzomys nigripes_), Jabora and Jabora-like (_A. montensis_), Alto Paraguay (_Holochilus chararius_), and Lechiguanas (_Oligoryzomys nigripes_). - ProMED Mod.TY]

[Maps of Paraguay:
Date: Tue 12 Jun 2018
Source: WHO, Malaria [edited]

- What were the key elements to Paraguay's malaria elimination success that helped the country reach zero indigenous cases of the disease?
Paraguay is the 1st country in the Americas since Cuba in 1973 to be certified malaria-free, representing a significant public health achievement not only for Paraguay but for the Americas as a whole. Achieving elimination in Paraguay required substantial levels of political commitment and leadership, as well as sustained investments in its national malaria programme over a period spanning more than 50 years. Notable aspects of its approach include:

Rapid and targeted response
---------------------------
With free universal health services in Paraguay and a strong malaria surveillance system, malaria cases were detected early, investigated promptly, and classified correctly.

Dedicated elimination strategy
------------------------------
After reporting its last case of malaria in 2011, Paraguay launched a 5-year plan to consolidate the gains, prevent re-establishment of transmission, and prepare for elimination certification. Activities centred on strengthening epidemiological surveillance, robust case management, and a public information campaign on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of malaria to promote behaviour change among populations in at-risk areas.

Integration
-----------
During 2015 and 2016, as part of a broader health reform, malaria surveillance, diagnosis, and treatment activities were integrated within Paraguay's general health services, with the aim of expanding health coverage to at-risk populations and preventing re-establishment.

Strengthening surveillance skills
---------------------------------
A 3-year initiative to hone the skills of front-line health workers in the country's 18 health regions was launched in 2016 to keep the malaria surveillance system sustainable over the long term. Supported by The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the project addresses disease prevention, identification of suspected cases, accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment to respond to the on-going threat of malaria importation from endemic countries in the region and Africa.

- How has Paraguay managed to stay malaria-free since 2012? What are the systems in place that made this possible and how long will the country keep those systems operational?
As part of the WHO elimination certification process, countries must demonstrate that they have the capacity to prevent the re-establishment of malaria transmission. The availability of free universal health services in Paraguay and a strong malaria surveillance system ensure imported cases of malaria are detected and responded to in a timely manner to prevent local transmission.

The inclusion of the national malaria programme within the National Malaria Eradication Service (SENEPA, in the Spanish acronym), the institution within the ministry of health responsible for the control of vector-borne diseases, helps guarantee the programme's future existence.

Further, congressional legislation provides predictable and long-term financing for the national malaria programme: by law, 1.5 percent of annual income from Paraguay's social security programme is allocated to SENEPA. Together, these elements ensure that efforts to prevent the re-establishment of malaria transmission can be sustained in the decades to come.

- What are the benefits of malaria elimination for Paraguay?
Eliminating malaria in Paraguay means that no one will fall ill or die from local transmission of the disease, bringing about tangible health benefits at the individual and community levels, as well as broader socio-economic outcomes.

- What role did national leadership, political will, civil society and international partners play in Paraguay's success?
Eliminating malaria is a collective effort, requiring the sustained engagement of many partners at the national, regional and global levels. However, achieving elimination is a country-driven process. For elimination efforts to succeed, government stewardship is essential, together with the engagement and participation of affected communities.

- Does Paraguay coordinate cross-border surveillance activities to prevent importation of malaria cases and do they provide antimalarial treatment to visitors and migrants?
Paraguay provides free treatment to all citizens, visitors, and migrants, regardless of their nationality or residency status. The national malaria programme has identified 3 populations at greatest risk: the military, Brazilian students attending universities in Paraguay, and Paraguayans travelling to Africa. Targeted interventions include strengthening passive detection systems, promotion of health education, and providing prophylaxis to travellers heading to and returning from malaria-endemic regions in Africa.

To step up cross-border collaboration, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) funded a project focused on strengthening entomological surveillance and control of vector-borne diseases in the 'triple border' area of Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay. A key outcome of the project, which ran from 2010 to 2012, was the development of an _Anopheles_ mosquito range map, a tool that shows the geographic distribution of malaria-carrying mosquitoes.

- What are the lessons learned from Paraguay's experience that can be applied in other countries looking to eliminate malaria?
Paraguay provides universal free health services to all, one of the critical elements that helps drive a country towards malaria elimination. Sustained political commitment and robust financial support are further keys to success. Continued surveillance of suspected cases, targeted community engagement and education, as well as strengthening skills of front-line health workers, are recommended strategies that WHO encourages countries to adopt as part of their national malaria elimination programmes.
 
- Is Paraguay replicating its elimination strategy with other infectious and mosquito-borne diseases?
Paraguay has an integrated approach to entomological surveillance activities, taking into account several vector-borne diseases including dengue, leishmaniasis, and Zika virus. Integration of malaria surveillance into the general health system had been a challenging task in Paraguay, but the lessons and experiences learned from other vector-borne diseases have contributed to the smooth integration and transition of the malaria programme. At the same time, the approach used to eliminate malaria is now being applied to eliminate Chagas disease and schistosomiasis.
======================
[ProMED congratulates Paraguay for this important public health achievement. It is important to demonstrate that malaria eradication is possible, and the achievement could be an inspiration for the countries in southeast Asia experiencing a decline in artemisinin susceptibility. - ProMED Mod.EP]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Paraguay:
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Cyprus

Cyprus US Consular Information Sheet
December 30, 2009

Since 1974, Cyprus, a Mediterranean island nation, has been divided de facto into a government-controlled area comprising the southern two-thirds of the island, and a northern third (t
e self-declared “Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus"), administered by Turkish Cypriots. The United States does not recognize the “Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus” nor does any country other than Turkey. Facilities for tourism in Cyprus are highly developed. Cyprus joined the European Union in 2004. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Cyprus for additional information.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: A passport is required for travel to Cyprus. A visa is not required for a stay of up to 90 days. For longer stays, a visa or residence permit is required. U.S. citizens should be mindful that the Government of Cyprus does not recognize the residence permits issued by Turkish Cypriot authorities for the portions of the island under Turkish Cypriot administration. The Government of Cyprus does not issue residency permits to individuals who live in the areas outside government control.
On occasion, Americans who resided in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots for more than 90 days without a Republic of Cyprus residence permit have been detained by officials at Larnaca airport and denied entry into the government-controlled area. They also may be subject to prosecution.

The U.S. Embassy encourages travelers to read the “Special Circumstances” section of this fact sheet for important additional information about entry requirements into the Turkish Cypriot-administered areas.
For further information on entry requirements for Cyprus, travelers can contact the Embassy of the Republic of Cyprus at 2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008-4082, tel. (202) 462-5772, or the Cypriot Consulate in New York at 13 East 40th St., 5th Floor, New York, NY 10016, tel. (212) 686-6016/17. Visit the Embassy of Cyprus’ web site at http://www.cyprusembassy.net for the most current visa information.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site. For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.
SAFETY AND SECURITY: Do not, under any circumstances, attempt to enter the U.N. buffer zone at any place other than a designated crossing point. This area is mined and militarized.
Never photograph military installations or anything that could be perceived as being of security interest (especially in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots). Pay particular attention to areas marked with “no photography” signs. Police on both sides strictly enforce these restrictions.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State’s Bureau of Consular Affairs web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.
Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME: The crime rate in Cyprus is low. Visitors in urban areas should take the normal precautions they would take in any large city. Americans frequenting bars should avoid so-called “cabarets,” which sometimes employ women brought to Cyprus for sexual exploitation. These establishments can also present foreign patrons with grossly inflated bar tabs, threatening those customers who refuse to pay.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you in finding appropriate medical care, contacting family members or friends, and explaining how funds can be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of a crime in Cyprus is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

The local equivalent to the “911” emergency line in the Republic of Cyprus is 199 or 112.

Emergency assistance is available in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots by calling 155.
Also see our information on Victims of Crime.
MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Medical care is available at both government hospitals and private clinics. Emergency rooms offer adequate care to stabilize patients, most of whom are then transferred to private hospitals. Many of the private-sector doctors have been trained in the United Kingdom or the United States. While fees are generally lower than those in the United States, medical supplies are often more expensive. Paramedics do not staff ambulances. The standard of medical care in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots is improving but still falls below that found in the government-controlled area. The World Health Organization considers Cyprus to be one of the healthiest areas of the Mediterranean. Water supplies are potable, and the refuse collection/sewage disposal system is adequate. Communicable diseases such as typhoid are rare. Respiratory ailments and allergies are sometimes exacerbated by the dry and dusty climate.

Some HIV/AIDS entry restrictions exist for visitors to and foreign residents of Cyprus.
Legislation mandates that aliens known to have certain communicable diseases and HIV be denied entry into the country.
American citizens who think they may be included in this restriction are encouraged to check with the Embassy of Cyprus at http://www.cyprusembassy.net before they travel.
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.
MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Cyprus is provided for general reference only, and it may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
In recent years, Cyprus ranked among the top three countries in Europe, on a per capita basis, in traffic fatalities. Speeding, tailgating, overtaking, and the running of caution lights are commonplace and major causes of accidents. Emergency assistance is available in the Republic of Cyprus by calling 112 or 199.
Emergency assistance is available in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots by calling 155.
There are few public buses and no rail lines. Taxis are widely available. Traffic moves on the left side of the road, British style, and modern motorways link the major cities. Secondary roads, especially in mountainous areas, tend to be narrow and winding, and they are not as well maintained as major highways. Traffic laws, signs and speed limits are consistent with the standards used throughout Europe. Traffic circles (roundabouts) are often utilized at major intersections.

The use of seat belts (in front seats) and child car seats is required. Motorcyclists are required to wear helmets and the use of cellular phones while driving is prohibited unless used with some form of hands-free kit. Liability insurance is mandatory.

Road safety conditions in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots are similar to conditions in the south, except that the road network is less developed. Insurance purchased in the government-controlled area is not valid in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots, but insurance for that area may be purchased near the U.N. "buffer zone" checkpoints.
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. For specific information concerning driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance in Cyprus, contact the Cyprus Tourism Organization at 13 East 40th Street, New York, NY 10016, tel. (212) 683-5280, email: gocyprus@aol.com, web site: http://www.visitcyprus.com/wps/portal.
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Cyprus, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Cyprus’ Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: Since 1974, the Republic of Cyprus has designated Larnaca and Paphos international airports, and the seaports of Limassol, Larnaca, and Paphos, as the only legal points of entry into and exit from Cyprus. These ports are all in the government-controlled southern part of the island. Entry or exit via any other air or seaport is considered an illegal act by the Republic of Cyprus. Formerly, visitors choosing to arrive at non-designated airports and seaports in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots were not allowed to cross the U.N.-patrolled “buffer zone” to the government-controlled area in the south. Since 2004, when the Republic of Cyprus implemented new EU-related crossing regulations, Americans (and citizens of other non-EU countries not requiring visas) have been able to cross regardless of their port of entry into Cyprus.

Most American visitors to Cyprus are able to cross the “buffer zone” without hindrance, although on occasion difficulties are encountered at both the government and Turkish Cypriot checkpoints. Cypriot officials at the “buffer zone” checkpoints or at airports and seaports in the government-controlled area may detain and prosecute Americans who have been present for more than 90 days in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots if they do not possess a residency permit issued by the Government of Cyprus.

For visits of less than 90 days, American citizens may enter the Turkish Cypriot-administered area by displaying a valid U.S. passport.
Stays for 90 days or longer require a “temporary residency visa” issued by Turkish Cypriot authorities.
Turkish Cypriot authorities have deported foreigners who violate this law.
Turkish Cypriot authorities emphasize that the requirement to obtain a temporary residency visa within 90 days of arriving in the Turkish Cypriot-administered area cannot be avoided by periodically visiting the southern part of the island controlled by the Republic of Cyprus.
Policy and procedures regarding travel across the “buffer zone” are subject to change. More information on current procedures may be obtained at the U.N. “buffer zone” Ledra Palace checkpoint in Nicosia.
In an effort to prevent international child abduction, many governments have initiated strict identification procedures at entry/exit points. These often include requiring documentary evidence of relationship and permission for the child's travel from the parent(s) or legal guardian, if not present. Having such documentation on hand, even if not required, may facilitate entry and departure. Although Cyprus is party to the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, the Convention cannot be used effectively to recover a child abducted to the area administered by Turkish Cypriots.

Cyprus customs authorities enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from Cyprus of items such as firearms. There are no restrictions on contemporary religious materials and medication for personal use; however, Cyprus does restrict the export of Byzantine era ecclesiastical material.
It is advisable to contact the Embassy of the Republic of Cyprus in Washington, DC for specific information regarding customs requirements or visit http://www.mof.gov.cy/mof/customs/ced.nsf/DMLindex_en/DMLindex_en?OpenDocument.
In many countries around the world, counterfeit and pirated goods are widely available. Transactions involving such products are illegal and bringing them back to the United States may result in forfeitures and/or fines. Cyprus restricts the export of Byzantine period ecclesiastical material and all archaeological material, including ancient coins. The U.S. Customs Service may impose corresponding import restrictions in accordance with the Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act. Also see our Customs Information.

In addition to being subject to all Cypriot laws affecting American citizens, individuals who also possess Cypriot nationality may be subject to laws that impose special obligations on citizens of Cyprus. For example, American citizens whom the Republic of Cyprus considers to be Cypriot citizens may be subject to compulsory military service and other aspects of Cypriot law while in Cyprus. American citizen males between the ages of 16 and 26 years who reside in the United States and whose parents or grandfather were Greek Cypriots or have Greek Cypriot names are advised to obtain a written confirmation that they reside permanently outside of Cyprus from the Cypriot Embassy in Washington, D.C. before they travel to Cyprus.
After their arrival in Cyprus, the young men should present their foreign residency confirmation statement to the Cypriot National Guard Registration office to obtain an exit permit. Those who believe they may be affected should inquire at the Embassy of the Republic of Cyprus regarding their status. American citizens whom the Turkish Cypriot authorities consider to be "citizens" may also be subject to compulsory military service in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots. The U.S. Embassy is unable to exempt dual nationals from such service.
For additional information, please see our dual nationality flyer.

American Citizens who buy or lease property, particularly in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots, may find their ownership challenged by people displaced as a result of the 1974 conflict. Prospective property buyers should always seek legal advice before buying. On October 20, 2006, the government of the Republic of Cyprus passed Article 303A of the Criminal Code which makes it a felony to buy, rent or sell property in Cyprus without the consent of the registered owner. Cypriot courts have used the law to prosecute people involved in the sale or purchase of property in the area administered by the Turkish Cypriots. The government of Cyprus has also attempted to enforce Cypriot legal judgments in property matters in other EU countries. Cypriot customs authorities routinely detain anyone arriving in Cyprus or crossing the buffer zone found to be in possession of documents relating to property purchases in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots.

In June 2006 the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" amended the laws governing its "Immovable Property Commission" to enable the Commission to accept claims for compensation or restitution from Greek Cypriots for property in the north.
The Government of the Republic of Cyprus does not recognize the legitimacy of the "Immovable Property Commission."
Some Greek Cypriots who have filed claims with the Commission have been subjected to intensive governmental and public pressure to withdraw their claims.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, American citizens are subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Cypriot laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Cyprus are strict, and convicted offenders can expect jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION: Americans living or traveling in Cyprus are encouraged to register with the U.S. Embassy through the State Department's travel registration web site
in order to obtain updated information on travel and security within Cyprus. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.

The U.S. Embassy is located at Metochiou and Ploutarchou Streets, Engomi, Nicosia, tel. 357-22-39-3939; fax 357-22-39-3344; e-mail consularnicosia@state.gov; web site http://cyprus.usembassy.gov/
The U.S. Government also maintains an office in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots. The office is located at 6 Serif Arzik Street, Koskluciftlik, Nicosia.
The telephone number when calling from the United States or the Republic of Cyprus is 0090-392-227-3930. When calling within the area administered by Turkish Cypriots, please dial 227-3930.
* * * * * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information dated June 27, 2008
to update sections on Entry and Exit Requirements, Information for Victims of Crime,
Special Circumstances, and Registration/Embassy Location.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu, 18 Oct 2018 07:16:17 +0200

Larnaca, Cyprus, Oct 18, 2018 (AFP) - Cypriot low-cost carrier Cobalt Air announced it was cancelling all flights from Thursday after just two years in operation, leaving passengers stranded and scrambling to get their money back.   The airline warned customers its offices would no longer be staffed and urged them to seek refunds through their travel agent or credit card company.   In a brief announcement issued on its website without prior warning late on Wednesday, the airline said it was cancelling all flights from 23:50 pm (2050 GMT) "due to indefinite suspension of Cobalt's operations".   "As a result, future flights or services provided by Cobalt will be cancelled and will no longer operate," it added without elaborating on the reasons.

The airline advised passengers who have tickets not to go to the Mediterranean holiday island's main airport at Larnaca on Thursday or attempt to contact its offices "as no Cobalt flights will operate and no Cobalt staff will be present".   "For refunds, please contact your credit card provider or travel agent," its statement said.   "We sincerely apologise once again and would like to thank our very loyal customers for their support over the last two years of Cobalt operations."   Cobalt, the largest Cypriot airline since the collapse of the state-owned flag carrier, ceased operations after reports that it had failed to reach a deal with a potential European investor.   It is not yet clear how many passengers have been affected by the sudden shutdown.   But the Cypriot transport ministry said passengers expecting to fly with Cobalt on Thursday should secure one-way tickets in economy class from another airline and keep their receipt to be reimbursed.

Nine flights had been scheduled to arrive and nine to depart from Larnaca airport on Thursday.   Transport Minister Vasiliki Anastasiadou said that any stranded passengers in Cyprus would be helped.   Reportedly, the company has only 15 million euros in its accounts, which it needed to pay its 200 staff.   There was speculation that the budget airline was facing cash flow problems after two of its aircraft were grounded for two days.   Although Cobalt refused to comment on the rumours, sources within the company reportedly attributed the liquidity problems to difficulties faced by Chinese investors in exporting capital due to Chinese government restrictions.   The airline's largest shareholder is AJ Cyprus, with 49 per cent of the shares. AJ Cyprus is owned by China's AVIC Joy Air.   Cobalt stepped in to replace bankrupt state-owned Cyprus Airways, which shut down in January 2015.   Cobalt started flight operations in 2016 and acquired six aircraft -- two Airbus 319s and four Airbus 320s -- flying to 23 destinations.
Date: Tue, 17 Jul 2018 16:48:37 +0200

Nicosia, July 17, 2018 (AFP) - More than 1.6 million tourists visited Cyprus in the six months to June, the largest number ever for the first half of the year, the island's statistics office said Tuesday.   Tourist arrivals in January-June rose 12.4 percent to 1.64 million from 1.46 million in the same period last year, according to the Cyprus Statistical Service (Cystat).   "This also outnumbers the total of arrivals ever recorded in Cyprus during the first six months of the year," it said.

An influx of tourists from main market Britain and an upswing from Sweden helped Cyprus mark another record as arrivals in June broke the 500,000 barrier, Cystat said.   "June 2018 had the highest volume of tourist arrivals ever recorded in Cyprus during the specific month," it said.   Arrivals reached 511,073 in June, an increase of 8.2 percent from last year's 472,450.   The statistical department noted however a 5.1 percent drop in the number of Russian tourists, as well as a 15.1 percent decrease in arrivals from Israel and a 11.3 percent decline from Germany.   Year-on-year tourist arrivals from number one market the United Kingdom rose by 9.9 percent in June to 164,477 while there was a 20.2 percent increase in tourists from Sweden.

Sweden has now become the island's third largest tourist market, with Russia still holding second place.   Industry officials argue that arrivals from Russia are down due to fluctuations of the ruble and the renewed popularity of Turkey -- a destination made more attractive by a weak Turkish lira.   The tourism boom has helped Cyprus return to growth following a 10-billion-euro bailout in March 2013 to rescue its crumbling economy and insolvent banks.   Income from tourism now accounts for about 15 percent of the eastern Mediterranean island's gross domestic product and is credited with underpinning a quick recovery.   A record 3.65 million tourists took holidays in Cyprus last year, spending an unprecedented 2.6 billion euros.
Date: Sun, 24 Jun 2018 22:13:43 +0200

Nicosia, June 24, 2018 (AFP) - A British tourist was killed in a hit-and-run incident on Sunday near the Cypriot resort city of Paphos, police said.    The 39-year-old man was found dead at the scene after police responded to reports of an incident in the south-western coastal resort of Peyia at around 2:30 am (1130 GMT on Saturday).   The car was later found by police after being dumped in the sea.   Police arrested a man and woman in connection to the man's death.

A Paphos court on Sunday extended their detention for eight days on suspicion of pre-meditated murder.    Police said a 32-year-old British man also hit by the car was being treated at hospital, describing his condition as "out of danger".   According to local media reports, the two suspects and the tourists were involved in an argument at a pub in Peyia earlier in the evening.   Neither the identity of the dead tourist nor the two suspects have been released.
Date: Mon, 5 Mar 2018 15:30:54 +0100

Nicosia, March 5, 2018 (AFP) - Cyprus saw its best ever receipts from tourism in 2017, official data showed on Monday, in a record year for the eastern Mediterranean holiday island considered a regional safe haven.   Tourism income last year reached 2.63 billion euros ($3.23 billion) beating the 2.36 billion record set in 2016, an 11.7 percent increase, according to the Cyprus statistical service.   The surge in tourist spending coincides with another record year in arrivals, with more than 3.65 million people visiting the island last year -- 14.6 percent up from the 3.18 million visitors in 2016.

The expenditure per person, per day for the period January to December 2017 recorded a decrease of 2.6 percent (from 78.07 euros to 76.07).   In December the Lebanese were the biggest spenders on an average 147.88 euros per day and the most frugal were the Norwegians on 25.81 euros per day.   The island has benefited from a surge in arrivals from its largest markets Britain and Russia as well as a revival in those coming from Germany, Sweden and Israel.

Cyprus is seen as a safe haven for tourists, with other traditionally popular destinations in the eastern Mediterranean having been hit by political upheaval and security fears.   The surge has helped Cyprus return to growth following a 10-billion-euro package to rescue its crumbling economy and insolvent banks in March 2013.   Income from tourism accounts for about 12 percent of the eurozone member's gross domestic product and is credited with ensuring a relatively quick recovery.
Date: Fri, 17 Nov 2017 13:08:25 +0100

Nicosia, Nov 17, 2017 (AFP) - Cyprus has smashed its record for annual tourist arrivals with two months to spare, with the total reaching 3.4 million at the end of October, official figures showed on Friday.   The eastern Mediterranean island has benefited from its reputation as a regional safe haven as unrest has hit the tourism sectors of its traditional competitors Egypt, Tunisia and Turkey.   Arrivals in the first 10 months already comfortably exceeded the record 3.18 million registered in the whole of 2016.

Cyprus has benefited from a boom in visitors from its largest market, Britain -- up nearly eight percent for January-October -- along with a revival in those coming from Germany (up 60 percent), second largest market Russia (up 5.2 percent) and Israel (up 80.8 percent).   The surge has helped Cyprus return to growth following a 10-billion-euro bailout to rescue its crumbling economy and insolvent banks in March 2013.   Income from tourism accounts for about 12% of the country's gross domestic product and is credited with underpinning a quick recovery.
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Liberia

Liberia - US Consular Information Sheet
February 21, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: Liberia is a country in West Africa that suffered from years of instability and conflict from 1990 - 2003, with attendant destruction of buildings, roads, and infras
ructure and public institutions.
A comprehensive peace accord ended the conflict in August 2003 and a United Nations peacekeeping force (UNMIL) was deployed to facilitate disarmament and demobilization, help arrange democratic elections and provide for security of the country.
In late 2005, Liberians went to the polls and elected Ellen Johnson Sirleaf as president.
The new government was inaugurated in January 2006, and has made tremendous progress towards restoring security and stability to the country.

Despite nearly four years of peace and a renewal of economic growth, Liberia is still one of the poorest countries in the world and many basic services (public power, water and sewage, land line phones) are either limited or unavailable.
Facilities for foreign visitors are adequate in the capital, Monrovia, but virtually non-existent in the rest of the country.
The official language of Liberia is English.
Read the Department of State Background Notes on Liberia for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport and a visa are required for entry, as is evidence of a yellow fever vaccination and a physician's letter attesting to absence of communicable diseases.
Visa applicants may also be asked to provide evidence of health insurance.
Immigration officials no longer issue visas at the airport.
Persons arriving without a visa may be deported immediately, without leaving the airport.
Persons arriving from the United States must obtain a Liberian visa before traveling.
There is a US $25 airport tax on departing passengers, although this is usually collected as part of the ticket price.
For the latest information on entry requirements, visa fees and airport tax for Liberia, contact the Embassy of the Republic of Liberia, 5201 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011, tel. (202) 723-0437, web site www.embassyofliberia.org.
Overseas, inquiries should be made at the nearest Liberian embassy or consulate.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
The Department of State urges U.S. citizens to plan proposed travel to Liberia carefully and to exercise caution when traveling in Liberia.
Neither public transport nor taxis are available at the international airport, which is located 40 miles outside of Monrovia; therefore, before traveling to Liberia, Americans are urged to make arrangements for transportation from the international airport into the city center.
Americans traveling to Liberia are also urged to ensure that they have confirmed reservations at a reputable hotel, as rooms can be scarce and difficult to find without advance plans.

Americans who travel to or reside in Liberia should realize that Liberia's police force is in the process of being rebuilt.
There is a UN Mission in Liberia (UNMIL), but its mandate is to ensure political stability in Liberia.
Americans who travel around Liberia must realize that the role of UN Police (UNPOL) officers is to serve as advisors to the Liberia National Police. Accordingly, they do not have the authority to arrest or detain, and they are unarmed.
The Liberia National Police, for its part, has a limited presence in Monrovia, and even less of a presence outside of Monrovia.
In addition, police officers can be a source of problems for visitors as well as a source of aid or assistance.
Although problems with corruption have improved, travelers may be detained by police officers who solicit bribes.
Americans are encouraged to carry a photocopy of their passports with them at all times so that, if questioned by local officials, proof of identity and U.S. citizenship is readily available.
If detained or arrested, U.S. citizens should always ask to be allowed to contact the U.S. Embassy.

U.S. citizens in Liberia should be aware of their surroundings at all times and use caution when moving around, especially at night.
The U.S. Embassy recommends that American citizens observe a suggested curfew of 2:00 a.m. – 6:00 a.m.
Travel outside of Monrovia after dark is strongly discouraged as roads are in poor condition and thus dangerous to navigate at night.
U.S. citizens should avoid crowds, political rallies, and street demonstrations and maintain security awareness at all times.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department’s Internet web site, where the current Worldwide Caution Public Announcement, Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts can be found. Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME:
Crime in Liberia is rated high and is exacerbated by the high rate of unemployment.
Theft, assault, sexual crimes, and murder are problems, and they occur more frequently after dark.
Foreigners, including U.S. citizens, have been targets of street crime, robbery, and sexual assault.
Women have been attacked on deserted beaches.
Residential armed break-ins occur.
The police are ill equipped and largely incapable of providing effective protection or investigation.
Criminal activity is reported in both urban and rural areas.

Perpetrators of business fraud often target foreigners, including Americans.
Formerly associated with Nigeria, these fraud schemes are now prevalent throughout western Africa, including Liberia, and pose a danger of both financial loss and physical harm.
An increasing number of American citizens have been the targets of such scams.
The best way to avoid becoming a victim of fraud is common sense – if it looks too good to be true, it probably is.
Any unsolicited business proposal originating in Liberia should be carefully checked before committing any funds, providing any goods or services, or undertaking any travel.
There is also an increase in Liberian/American Internet relationships, where there are eventual requests for financial assistance under fraudulent pretenses.
For additional information, please see the Department of State's Bureau of Consular Affairs brochure International Financial Scams.

Petty corruption is rampant; poorly paid government officials are not immune from the temptation to collect fees for doing their job.
The result is that travelers may be asked for bribes and inconvenienced for not paying them.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Hospitals and medical facilities in Liberia are very poorly equipped and are incapable of providing many services.
Emergency services comparable to those in the U.S. or Europe are non-existent, and the blood supply is unreliable and unsafe for transfusion.
Americans with serious medical problems travel or are medically evacuated to the United States, Europe or South Africa.
Medicines are scarce, often beyond expiration dates, and generally unavailable in most areas.
As there is neither an effective garbage removal service nor a functioning sewer system, the level of sanitation throughout urban areas is very poor, which increases the potential for disease.
Upper respiratory infections and diarrhea are common, as well as the more serious diseases, typhoid and malaria.
All travelers to Liberia must be vaccinated against yellow fever and should carry a supply of all prescription medication, plus anti-malaria medication, adequate for their entire stay.
A typhoid vaccination is also recommended.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
For travel to Liberia, obtaining separate medical evacuation insurance before arriving in Liberia is strongly recommended.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.
SWIMMING HAZARD:
Liberia has many excellent beaches along the Atlantic coastline that tourist and those who live in the country enjoy throughout the year, however American citizens should be aware of the threat of dangerous rip currents better known as rip tides.
These strong currents can occur anywhere on the coast given the right surf conditions.
The Liberia Weather Service does not provide information on where and when these tides form and there are no lifeguards posted on beaches.
American citizens who plan to swim in the Atlantic should read from various sources e about the dangers of rip currents and how to navigate if you find yourself in such a situation; or better still do not swim if you are unfamiliar with swimming in water where very strong rip currents occur.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Liberia is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Road travel in Liberia can be hazardous.
Potholes and poor road surfaces are common, making safe driving extremely challenging.
Cars, trucks, and taxis are often overloaded with people and goods and make frequent stops without signaling.
Drivers overtake on the right as well as the left.
Many vehicles operate with threadbare tires, and blowouts are frequent.
Public taxis are poorly maintained and usually overloaded.
Intersections must be approached with caution.
The absence of public streetlights makes pedestrians walking in the city streets and those walking on country roads difficult to see at night.
Drivers and pedestrians are cautioned that high-speed car convoys carrying government officials require all other vehicles to pull off the road until they have passed.

Travelers should expect delays at UNMIL security checkpoints, as well as time-consuming detours around the many bridges and roads damaged by war, neglect, or the heavy annual rains, which occur from May to November.
Travelers can expect strict enforcement of border controls by Liberian, Ivorian, Sierra Leonean, and Guinean authorities.
At times border crossings to neighboring countries are closed.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: As there is no direct commercial air service between the United States and Liberia, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Liberia’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Lodging, fuel, transportation, and telephone services are unevenly available in Liberia, and are nonexistent or severely limited in rural areas.
Neither water nor electricity is commercially available in Liberia, including the capital of Monrovia.
Most hotels have utilities available, but not always on a 24-hour basis.
There is no working landline telephone system in Liberia.
Several cell phone companies provide service in Monrovia and some areas outside the capital.
US cellular phones do not always work in Liberia and it is advisable to rent or purchase a local cellular phone.
The postal system is slow and unreliable.
Commercial air courier service is available through UPS, Federal Express (FedEx), and other companies.

The U.S. dollar is readily accepted in Liberia, and there is no limit on the amount of foreign currency that can be transported into and out of the country, provided one follows the specific regulations on how such transfers must be done.
Sums in excess of US $10,000 must be reported at the port of entry and no more than US $7,500 in foreign currency banknotes can be moved out of the country at one time.
Larger sums must be transferred via bank drafts or other financial instruments; persons without a Liberian bank account are limited to two outgoing US $5,000 over-the-counter cash wire transfers per month.
Wire transfers are not widely used and are subject to substantial fees.
ATMs are unavailable and Traveler's checks and credit/debit cards are not accepted anywhere in Liberia.

Photographing military installations, air and seaports, and important government buildings is prohibited.
Visitors should not take photographs of sites or activities that might be considered sensitive, or police are liable to confiscate the camera.

Please see our information on Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Liberian law, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Liberia are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
The U.S. Embassy does not always receive timely notification of the arrest of U.S. citizens by Liberian authorities.
If arrested, U.S. citizens should ask to be allowed to contact the U.S. Embassy (see the Registration/Embassy Location section below).
Americans should carry a photocopy of their U.S. passport with them at all times.
The consular section of the U.S. Embassy cannot give legal assistance but can provide a list of Liberian attorneys if one is required.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children’s Issues web pages.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Liberia are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Liberia.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy is located at 111 United Nations Drive, Mamba Point, Monrovia; telephone 231-77-054-826; fax 231-77-010-370; web site http://monrovia.usembassy.gov.
U.S. citizens who wish to write to the U.S. Embassy in Monrovia may address letters to the Consular Section, 8800 Monrovia Place, U.S. Department of State, Washington, D.C. 20521-8800, or send emails to ConsularMonrovia@state.gov.
*

*

*
This replaces the Consular Information Sheet on Liberia dated June 15, 2007 to include a caution on swimming at local beaches.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Mon 6 May 2019
Source: Front Page Africa [edited]

The emergence of a rare skin disease known in Liberia as "Be Serious" has sparked fear amongst residents of Charlie Town in Rivercess County. Residents, mainly parents, say children who are under 15 years of are seriously infected. They are afraid that the disease is contagious and is fast spreading rashes on the bodies of school-going-kids.

They are afraid that the situation will become an emergency, due to lack of adequate medication at the only clinic in the area. Joe Gbessigie, a resident of the town, says he's worried that instead of providing medicines, the clinic only gives patients prescriptions to buy drugs from private pharmacies.

Nathaniel Zoklah, the Township Commissioner, says some kids who are affected by the disease are in school, and he is concerned that the situation poses risk to other pupils. "At this time of the school year, keeping children who are affected with the disease may affect their education, so the kids are in schools with their friends but it is risky also," Commissioner Zoklah said. "They are interacting, eating together and this disease has the ability to spread through contact, so more children risk being affected."

The residents have not been able to state the actual cause of the disease, but some are assuming that it is waterborne. Some of the residents in Charlie Town and its surroundings said the hand pumps that are a major source of drinking water are all damaged, forcing residents to fetch water from creeks.  [Byline: Willie N. Tokpah]
===========================
[The disease referred to in this report and its accompanying photograph is most likely to be scabies.  Scabies is a skin infestation by the scabies mite - _Sarcoptes scabiei_. The infection is found worldwide and is transmitted under poor hygienic conditions. The mite is transmitted by physical contact and poor hygiene is a main risk factor. Outbreaks are seen in refugee camps and nursing homes.

An outbreak is handled by ensuring that the affected people and close contacts at risk have a frequent bath and change clothes daily. The traditional treatment is pyrethroid containing ointments which kill the mites, but ivermectin orally is easier to administer and thus more acceptable and ensures better compliance. Especially in an outbreak in a school the best way to stop the outbreak would be administration of ivermectin to all children. - ProMED Mod.EP]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Rivercess County, Liberia: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/42309>]
Date: Tue 23 Oct 2018
Source: The Bush Chicken [edited]

The director for immunization at the Ministry of Health says there are currently 29 reported measles cases in Grand Gedeh, with 7 of those cases confirmed.

Director for immunization at the Health Ministry Adolphus T. Clarke said reports of the outbreak in Tchien district 1st emerged on [Wed 17 Oct 2018]. Speaking to The Bush Chicken in an exclusive interview, Clarke said out of the 29 cases reported, health officials in the area realized that 11 children under 5 years of age were affected by the disease. The other children were older than 5.

"The 29 cases identified were managed at the Martha Tubman Memorial Hospital in Zwedru, and the affected children fully recovered with no death reported."

With support from the Ministry of Health, Clarke said the county responded quickly with vaccinations. "The exercise has concluded, and health officials were able to reach a total of 1551 children not less than 5 years," he said. "So I can say that the county responded swiftly to the outbreak of the disease and recorded zero deaths."

However, things did not go smoothly. Due to the poor road conditions in the south-eastern region, Clarke said some health officials who left Monrovia with vaccinations for Grand Gedeh endured difficulties during the journey. "Others had to travel through neighbouring Ivory Coast to reach the country," he said.

The director indicated that, due to the challenge in attaining high vaccination coverage, health authorities in the country knew that, at some point in time, there would be sporadic outbreaks of the disease in the county.

Clarke said the current outbreak was not severe, because the ministry has dealt with sporadic outbreaks of measles in the past. He noted that health officials in Grand Gedeh have now been encouraged to carry out vaccination campaigns in affected and nearby communities as the dry season approaches.

"We have encouraged mothers to make use of the health facilities in the county and ensure that their children are vaccinated against all the diseases the ministry is preventing," Clarke said.  [Byline: Zeze Ballah]
Date: Thu 27 Sep 2018
Source: Front Page Africa [edited]

The National Public Health Institute of Liberia (NPHIL) in collaboration with the Ministry of Health (MoH) and partners is investigating a suspected case of yellow fever in Grand Kru County.

According to a release issued in Monrovia, the suspected case is a 2-year-old female from Farina Town, Barclayville Health District. There has been no death or new cases reported. The suspected case has been managed and is in good health.

A blood specimen has been collected and sent to the National Public Health Reference Laboratory (NPHRL) for confirmation. According to the release, health authorities in the county are conducting an active case search, risk assessment, and planning for a possible reactive vaccination exercise, pending the laboratory result.

Since January 2018, this is the 2nd reported suspected case from Grand Kru County. The 1st was a 29-year-old female from Dorbor District.

There have been no confirmed cases of yellow fever in the country since the 2009 nationwide preventive vaccination campaign. The release also noted that a total of 94 suspected cases of yellow fever have been recorded across the country since the beginning of 2018.

Yellow fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes. The symptoms include fever, headache, jaundice, muscle pain, nausea, vomiting, and fatigue. Communities have been advised to report unexplained deaths for safe and dignified burials as measures to prevent infection. Community engagement and response activities have been intensified in the area.

Meanwhile, the public is advised to take the following public-health measures:
- Keep your environment clean
- Visit a health facility immediately when you feel the symptoms of yellow fever
- Continue sleeping under treated bed nets

Yellow fever is not transmitted through body touch or body fluids.
=====================
[Yellow fever (YF) cases have occurred sporadically in Liberia, although the last YF ProMED-mail post was in 2009. The 94 suspected YF cases this year (2018), including the most recent one above, is a cause for serious concern. It is important to have a timely laboratory diagnosis and well-developed contingency plans should YF be confirmed. YF can quickly spread if a significant proportion of the human population is unvaccinated and the vector mosquitoes are abundant. The above report does not indicate the number of unvaccinated individuals nor the status of the vector mosquito population. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Grand Kru County, Liberia: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/32407>]
Date: Fri 6 Jul 2018, 5:00 PM
Source: WHO Weekly Bulletin on Outbreaks and Other Emergencies [edited]

Event Description
-----------------
Liberia has continued to experience sporadic cases of Lassa fever since the beginning of 2018. In week 25 (week ending 26 Jun 2018), 2 new confirmed Lassa fever cases were reported in Nimba County, the only county with active transmission currently. Nimba County has reported 5 confirmed Lassa fever cases since [12 May 2018]. In the latest event (the 2 confirmed cases in week 25), the 1st case-patient, a 59-year- old male from Gbehlay Geh district, fell ill on [4 Jun 2018] and was treated with antimalarials and antibiotics at a local clinic. On [20 Jun 2018], the case-patient presented to a public hospital with fever and other constitutional symptoms, and had bleeding from a venepuncture site.

On [21 Jun 2018], a blood specimen was collected and sent to the National Public Health Reference Laboratory (NPHRL). The test result released on [26 Jun 2018] was positive for Lassa fever virus infection. The 2nd case-patient, a 41-year-old female, is the wife of the first case-patient (described above). She developed illness on [17 Jun 2018] and was admitted to the same hospital on [20 June 2018] with fever and other constitutional symptoms. Being a known contact, a blood specimen was collected on [21 Jun 2018] and the test result released on [26 Jun 2018] was positive for Lassa fever. The 2 case-patients are admitted under barrier nursing and ribavirin treatment initiated. A total of 26 contacts, including 13 health workers, have been line listed and are being followed up.

Between [1 Jan 2018] and [27 Jun 2018], a total of 130 suspected Lassa fever cases, including 33 deaths, were reported. Of these, 20 cases were laboratory confirmed, 103 were discarded (after testing negative), and 7 cases were not tested due to inadequate specimens. Of the 20 confirmed cases, 14 have died, giving a case fatality rate of 70 percent. Females make up 60 percent (12) of the confirmed cases. The age range for the confirmed cases is 1 to 65 years old, with a median of 32.5 years. The confirmed cases are from 5 counties, namely (Nimba (9), Bong (4), Montserrado (3), Margibi (2), and Grand Bassa (2).

Public Health Actions
---------------------
- The Ministry of Health and the National Public Health Institute of Liberia (NPHIL) are coordinating response activities to the Lassa fever outbreak, with support from WHO, CDC and other partners. The national epidemic preparedness and response committee (NEPRC), under the leadership of NPHIL, have been meeting weekly to review the Lassa fever outbreak situation and provide technical support to sub-national level, with technical support from WHO, and US-CDC; 15 WHO field offices are providing technical and operational support to the response.
- Active surveillance, including case search, case investigation and contact tracing are ongoing in the affected districts. A specimen transport system using couriers is available at designated points across the country to transport specimens to the NPHRL for testing.
- The Ganta United Methodist Hospital has been designated as a treatment centre, and equipped with ribavirin and other medical supplies for case management. Orientation of healthcare workers on case management protocol is ongoing.
- Healthcare workers in the country are being trained on Lassa fever case management and infection prevention and control (IPC) measures by NPHIL and MOH, with support from WHO.
- Health workers' exposure risk assessment is planned to be conducted in the clinic or hospital where the confirmed cases sought care.
- Community engagement activities are ongoing in the affected communities, including home visits and providing information on environmental cleanliness.

Situation Interpretation
------------------------
Sporadic Lassa fever cases continue to occur in certain parts of Liberia where the disease is known to be endemic. Bong, Grand Bassa, Margibi, and Nimba are among the counties that report cases annually. In 2017, a total of 30 confirmed cases were reported from 7 counties. The reason for these sporadic cases is known: the constant interaction of rats (the vector for Lassa fever virus) and people in unsanitary conditions. The national authorities and partners need to prioritize measures mitigating this exposure risk factor by improving vector and environmental management components of the response. This goes along with effective social mobilization and community engagement strategies, targeting vector control and environmental management in the communities. There is also a need to enhance capacity at the subnational levels for early case detection, case investigation, appropriate case management and its associated IPC [infection prevention and control] measures aimed at averting infection among health workers.
========================
[The number of Lassa fever cases in Liberia continues to slowly increase. Between 1 Jan 2018 and 27 Jun 2018, 20 cases were laboratory confirmed, up from 18 cases on 1 Jun 2018. Apparently, all these Lassa fever virus infections were acquired by contact with infected rodents or their excretions. Lassa fever virus can be acquired from infected rodents or patients in the hospital but in the above report, there is no mention of Lassa fever virus nosocomial transmission. Transmission can occur in health facilities when personal protective equipment is not employed and barrier-nursing practices are not adequate to protect staff from blood and secretions of infected patients. The hospitals attending the patients mentioned above do have barrier measures in place.

As mentioned in previous posts, Lassa fever virus transmission to humans occur when people are in contact with the reservoir rodent host, the multimammate mouse (_Mastomys natalensis_ and _M. erythroleucus_) and the African wood mouse (_Hylomycus pamfi_) or their excreta, as was likely the situation in these cases. Rodent control has to be undertaken at the village level with individual households employing the preventive measures listed above. This requires an extensive and continuous public education effort.

Images of the _Mastomys natalensis_ mouse, the rodent reservoir of Lassa fever virus, can be seen at
_M. erythroleucus_ and _Hylomycus pamfi_ at:

[Maps of Liberia can be accessed at:
Date: Fri 15 Jun 2018
Source: WHO Regional Office for Africa, Health Information and Risk Assessment [edited]

Weekly bulletin on outbreaks and other emergencies week 24: [11-17 Jun 2018; data as of 15 Jun 2018]
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Liberia: 2930 cases, 14 deaths, 0.5 percent CFR

Event description
-----------------
Liberia has been experiencing recurrent measles outbreaks since the beginning of 2018. In week 23 (week ending 10 Jun 2018), a total of 61 new suspected measles cases (with no deaths) were reported from 13 out of the 15 counties in the country, compared to 72 new cases reported in week 22 [week ending 3 Jun 2018]. 23 blood specimens collected from the suspected cases have been shipped to the National Reference Laboratory, while 20 of the case-patients had epidemiological links to confirmed cases. During the reporting week, 14 out of 92 health districts (in 5 counties) attained measles epidemic threshold of 3 laboratory confirmed cases. The 5 counties are Grand Bassa, Margibi, Maryland, Montserrado, and Nimba.

Between week 1 and week 23 of 2018 [1 Jan-10 Jun 2018], a total of 3086 suspected measles cases were reported. Of these, 177 were laboratory confirmed, 1762 had epidemiological links to confirmed cases, 562 were clinically compatible, 156 were discarded (after testing negative), and test results for 429 cases were pending. Of the 2930 confirmed, epidemiologically linked, clinically compatible, and suspected cases, 14 have died, giving a case fatality rate of 0.5 percent in this group; 558 (19 percent) were vaccinated, 334 (11 percent) were not vaccinated and 2 038 (70 percent) had unknown vaccination status. About 39 percent of the affected people are 4 years of age and below, 25 percent are between 5 and 9 years and 36 percent are 10 years and above.

Public health actions
---------------------
The Ministry of Health Expanded Program on Immunization and the National Public Health Institute of Liberia (NPHIL) are coordinating response activities to the measles outbreak, with support from WHO, UNICEF, and other partners. The national epidemic preparedness and response committee (NEPRC), under the leadership of NPHIL and with technical support from WHO, UNICEF, US-CDC and other agencies, have been meeting weekly to review the measles outbreak situation and provide technical support to sub-national level. WHO has deployed the Polio STOP team in the 15 counties to support sub-national level response.

A nation-wide measles immunization campaign has been conducted across the country in 3 phases since 15 Feb 2018, targeting a total of 654 803 children aged 6-59 months. Preliminary data indicates that 97 percent (63 350) of the targeted populations were vaccinated across the country.

Active search for measles cases continues throughout the country and has been reinforced in districts and communities with sustained outbreaks. Epidemic threshold is monitored weekly across the country through routine data collection and analysis.

All measles cases are being provided with symptomatic management along with a high dose of vitamin A.

The National Public Health Reference Laboratory has been testing samples reported across the country, by serology (IgM detection), and routinely releasing test results.

Communities have been provided with education to seek early care for measles cases at the nearest health facility. Communities have also mobilized through town criers, radio messaging, and posters to ensure high coverage of the immunization campaign among targeted age group.

Situation interpretation
------------------------
Liberia has been experiencing recurrent measles outbreaks since the beginning of the year [2018]. The reason for these outbreaks is known: the accumulation of a large number of susceptible populations over the years due to suboptimal immunization coverage. It is concerning that measles incidence cases are occurring in spite of the 3 phases of mass immunization campaigns conducted since February 2018, with seemingly high administrative coverage. The national authorities and partners need to drastically and speedily reduce the number of susceptible individuals in the most affected age-groups, maintain the build-up of vulnerable individuals at very low levels by immunising a large proportion (over 95 percent) of each new birth cohort and implement additional vaccination activities to periodically protect susceptible individuals who have accumulated.

With the well-developed immunization programme, structures, and systems, such measles outbreaks should be predicted and adequate preparedness measures put in place. Additionally, each measles outbreak should be followed by thorough evaluation of the cause of the outbreak, the surveillance system for early outbreak detection, the preparedness measures preceding the outbreak and the management of the outbreak, and an overall review of immunization programme goals and operations.
==========================
[A map showing the geographical distribution of measles cases in Liberia, week 1-23, 2018 can be seen at the source URL above. - ProMED Sr.Tech.Ed.MJ]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Liberia:
More ...

World Travel News Headlines

Date: Tue, 16 Jul 2019 10:44:51 +0200

Zagreb, July 16, 2019 (AFP) - Some 10,000 tourists were evacuated from a popular party beach on a Croatian island after a forest fire erupted early Tuesday, police said.

Police ordered visitors to night clubs on Zrce beach on the northern island of Pag to leave after the blaze erupted in a pine forest at around 1:00 am (2300 GMT Monday), a police statement said.   No one was injured in the fire which was brought under control, the mayor of the nearby town of Novalja, Ante Dabo, told national radio.  The cause was not immediately known.   Three firefighting planes were rushed to the scene to help extinguish the blaze which spread to a local road that had to be closed.

The island of Pag and its Zrce beach are popular with young tourists, notably British, who party there.  Tourism is a pillar of Croatia's economy, with visitors flocking to hundreds of islands and islets along its stunning Adriatic coast.   Last year the country of 4.2 million people welcomed more than 19 million tourists.
Date: Mon, 15 Jul 2019 01:09:24 +0200

Kinshasa, July 14, 2019 (AFP) - The first case of Ebola has been confirmed in Goma, now the biggest city to have been affected by the disease since its outbreak in eastern DR Congo last August, the health ministry said on Sunday.  A sick man had arrived in Goma early Sunday by bus with 18 other passengers and the driver from Butembo, one of the main towns touched by Ebola in Nord-Kivu province.

The man was tested  "and the results of the laboratory test confirmed that he was positive for Ebola," the ministry said in a statement.   It added that his trip began on Friday after "the first symptoms appeared on July 9 (Tuesday)".   "Given that the patient was quickly identified, as well as all the passengers on the bus from Butembo, the risk of the disease spreading in the city of Goma is low," the ministry said.    The passengers and the bus driver will begin getting vaccinations on Monday, it added.

The Ebola outbreak in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has so far killed 1,655 people and 694 have been cured, according to a health ministry bulletin on Saturday.  And 160,239 people have been vaccinated, it added.  But efforts to tackle the crisis have been hampered both by militia attacks on treatment centres, in which some staff have been killed, and by the hostility of some local people to the medical teams.
Date: Sun, 14 Jul 2019 13:37:24 +0200

Pamplona, Spain, July 14, 2019 (AFP) - Three men were gored Sunday during the eighth and final bull run of Spain's San Fermin festival, bringing to eight the total number of daredevils injured during this year's fiesta.   Among those who were hospitalised this year after being injured by a bull's horns was an American who was wounded in the neck while taking a selfie.    In the last run, two Australians aged 27 and 30 as well as well as a 25-year-old Spaniard from Madrid were gored by the half-tonne fighting bull, "Rabonero", regional health authorities said.

The three men suffered injuries to the armpit, arm and leg from the bull's horns. Another two men were taken to hospital with bruises.   During Sunday's run in the northern city of Pamplona, Rabonero, the heaviest of the six bulls used in the event, became separated from the pack moments into the run and began charging people in its way.   Isolated bulls are more likely to get disoriented and start charging at people.

The bulls from the Miura ranch in the southwestern province of Seville completed the 848.6-metre (928-yard) course from a holding pen to the city bull ring in two minutes and 45 seconds.   Each morning from July 7 to 14, hundreds of daredevils, many wearing traditional white shirts with red scarves tied around their necks, tested their bravery by running ahead of a pack of bulls through the course set up in the narrow, winding streets of the medieval city.

- Like getting hit by a truck -
The bulls face almost certain death in afternoon bullfights, and earlier this month animal rights activists staged a "die-in" protest in the streets of the city to protest the tradition.   At the end of the festival's first run, a bull ran over and sunk one of its horns deep in the neck of a 46-year-old  American from San Francisco, Jaime Alvarez, narrowly missing key arteries.    He was injured as he was trying to take a video-selfie with his mobile phone.   "It was like a truck or car just hitting me in the side of the head. I put my hand on my neck and I saw blood," he told US television from a Pamplona hospital.   His wife had asked him not to take part in the bull run, he added.    He was released from hospital two days later.

Another 23-year-old American from Kentucky and 40-year-old Spaniard were also gored that day.   In addition to the eight men who were gored, another 27 people were taken to hospital for broken bones and bruises suffered during the bull runs.   About 500 more people were treated at the scene for more minor injuries, according to the Red Cross.   The festival dates back to medieval times and was immortalised in Nobel Prize-winning author Ernest Hemingway's 1926 novel "The Sun Also Rises".   It claims scores of casualties every year although last year just two men were gored.

Although the runs are over, the festival's closing ceremony takes place at midnight Sunday.   People from around the world flock to the city of 200,000 residents to test their bravery and enjoy the festival's mix of round-the-clock parties, religious processions and concerts.   Sixteen people have been killed in the bull runs since records started in 1911.   The last death was in 2009 when a bull gored a 27-year-old Spaniard in the neck, heart and lungs.
Date: Sun, 14 Jul 2019 12:47:38 +0200

Labuha, Indonesia, July 14, 2019 (AFP) - A major 7.3-magnitude earthquake hit the remote Maluku islands in eastern Indonesia Sunday, sending panicked residents running into the streets, but no tsunami warning was issued.   The shallow quake struck about 165 kilometres (100 miles) south-southwest of the town of Ternate in North Maluku province at 6:28 pm (0928 GMT), according to the US Geological Survey.
 
"The earthquake was quite strong, sending residents to flee outside. They are panicking and many are now waiting on the roadside," said local disaster mitigation official Mansur, who like many Indonesians goes by one name.   Officials were assessing the situation but there were no immediate reports of casualties, he told AFP.

In the town of Labuha, one of the closest to the epicentre, panicked residents took to motorcycles in a bid to flee to higher ground, according to an AFP photographer in town when the earthquake hit.   Local disaster official Ihsan Subur told Metro TV that no damage or casualties had been reported there so far, but residents took to the streets and many evacuated to higher ground.   "Electricity went of during the earthquake, but now it's back to normal," ubur said, adding that at least seven big aftershocks were felt after the initial quake.

The province was also hit by a 6.9-magnitude tremor last week.   Indonesia experiences frequent seismic and volcanic activity due to its position on the Pacific "Ring of Fire", where tectonic plates collide.   Last year, a 7.5-magnitude quake and a subsequent tsunami in Palu on Sulawesi island killed more than 2,200 people, with another thousand declared missing.   On December 26, 2004, a devastating 9.1-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Sumatra and triggered a tsunami that killed 220,000 across the Indian Ocean region, including around 170,000 in Indonesia.
Date: Sun, 14 Jul 2019 09:02:36 +0200

Sydney, July 14, 2019 (AFP) - A strong 6.6-magnitude earthquake struck off northwest Australia Sunday, shaking buildings over a wide area but causing no immediate reports of damage or injuries.   The shallow quake hit early Sunday afternoon 10 kilometres under the Indian Ocean 203 kilometres (126 miles) west of the West Australian beach resort of Broome, the US Geological Survey said. No tsunami alert was issued.   Sergeant Neil Gordon of the Broome police department said the quake rattled the city for more than a minute.   "The building here was shaking for about a minute and a half ... a steady shaking for that period of time," he told AFP by telephone.   He added that there had been "no reports of any injuries or any damage throughout the district," following the tremor.   The national broadcaster ABC said there were some reports of minor damage from the quake, and no injuries.   Australian media said the tremor was felt across a long stretch of the northwestern coast of Australia, from the West Australian capital of Perth and the mining centres of Karatha and Port Hedland to the south and as far as Darwin to the north.

Thursday 11th July 2019
https://www.who.int/csr/don/11-july-2019-ebola-drc/en/

The outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in North Kivu and Ituri provinces, Democratic Republic of the Congo continues this past week with a similar transmission intensity to the previous week. While the number of new cases continues to ease in former hotspots, such as Butembo, Katwa and Mandima health zones, there has been an increase in cases in Beni, and a high incidence of cases continues in parts of Mabalako Health Zone. In addition to these re-emerging hotspots, there are a large number of people with confirmed and probable infections moving to other health zones, with the greatest number coming from Beni Health Zone. The movement of cases causes the outbreak to spread to new health zones and re-emerge in health zones with previously controlled infections. Overall, this underscores the importance of robust mechanisms for listing and following up contacts and understanding the motivations for peoples’ decisions to move.

After the first reported case in the Ariwara Health Zone on 30 June, no new cases have been observed in that health zone. A response team deployed to that zone continues to identify contacts, engage the community, and vaccinate individuals at risk. Response personnel from the bordering countries of Uganda and South Sudan continue to support operational readiness activities. Resources are being dedicated to monitoring the Uganda-Democratic Republic of the Congo border in that area.

In the 21 days from 19 June through 9 July 2019, 72 health areas within 22 health zones reported new cases, representing 11% of the 664 health areas within North Kivu and Ituri provinces (Figure 2). During this period, a total of 247 confirmed cases were reported, the majority of which were from the health zones of Beni (41%, n=101), Mabalako (19%, n=48), Lubero (6%, n=16), and Mandima (5%, n=13). As of 09 July 2019, a total of 2437 EVD cases, including 2343 confirmed and 94 probable cases, were reported (Table 1). A total of 1646 deaths were reported (overall case fatality ratio 68%), including 1552 deaths among confirmed cases. Of the 2437 confirmed and probable cases with known age and sex, 57% (1384) were female, and 29% (704) were children aged less than 18 years.

Cases continue to increase among health workers, with the cumulative number infected rising to 132 (5% of total cases). Of the 128 health workers with information available, the greatest proportion is among health workers at health posts [poste de santé] (20%, n = 26) and private health facilities (35%, n = 45). The majority (68%, n = 87) of health worker infections were among nurses.

No new EVD cases or deaths have been reported in the Republic of Uganda since the previous EVD Disease Outbreak News publication on 13 June 2019. As of 3 July, 108 contacts exposed to those cases were identified, and they all completed the 21-day follow-up period. All contacts were asymptomatic. Arua district, located in the north-western part of Uganda near the Uganda-Democratic Republic of the Congo border, is currently stepping up its response readiness to prevent imported cases of Ebola following the case that died on 30 June 2019 in Ariwara Health Zone in neighbouring Democratic Republic of the Congo, located 8 kilometres from the Uganda border. This case is known to have over 200 contacts, some of whom are in the communities bordering the Arua district. As of 9 July 2019, two suspected cases in the Arua district were reported and both tested negative. As of 9 July 2019, the cumulative number of individuals vaccinated in Arua district is 811 out of 1092 targeted front line and healthcare workers.

More information here: https://www.who.int/csr/don/11-july-2019-ebola-drc/en/

Date: Sat, 13 Jul 2019 10:41:55 +0200

Kuala Lumpur, July 13, 2019 (AFP) - Flash floods killed a Dutch tourist in a popular cave located in the rugged Mulu National Park on Malaysia's Borneo island, an official said Saturday, as a search continues for a missing guide.    Local fire and rescue chief Law Poh Kiong identified the dead man as 66-year-old Peter Hans Hovenkamp from Utrecht in the central Netherlands.     "He died due to drowning following flash floods in the caves. His body was found in a river inside the cave and was taken to the Miri public hospital for a post-mortem on Saturday," he told AFP.   Law said a search-and-rescue operation involving 16 officers had been launched to locate 20-year local tour guide Roviezal Robin.   Eight other tourists in the same group "almost become victims" but fled to higher ground and escaped from being washed into the river, Law added.

Hovenkamp was reported missing on Friday while the group was touring the popular "Deer Cave", home to an estimated three million bats which form amazing patterns in the sky when they leave each dusk.   Mulu park, located in the remote Borneo jungle of Sarawak state and famous for its caves, cliffs and gorges, is a UNESCO world heritage site.   It sees thousands of visitors annually, particularly for its cooling rains during the summer months.    Law described the death as "a freak tragedy."
Date: Sat, 13 Jul 2019 09:52:36 +0200

Kathmandu, July 13, 2019 (AFP) - Floods and landslides triggered by torrential monsoon rains have killed at least 40 people across South Asia in the last two days, officials said Saturday.   The monsoon, which lasts from June to September, causes widespread death and destruction across South Asia each year.   In Nepal, 27 people have died in floods and landslides after heavy rains hit the country's eastern region and the southern plains.

Bishwaraj Pokharel, spokesperson for Nepal Police, added that another 11 people were injured and 15 others reported missing.    Three of the victims were killed when a wall collapsed in the capital Kathmandu.   "Our first priority is life saving rescue and all our resources have been deployed," Home Ministry official Umakanta Adhikari told AFP.

Police used boats to bring people to safety as rivers swelled, inundating their settlements, while parents were seen wading across chest-high waters carrying children on their shoulders.    Nepal's weather department issued a high alert for the southern Sapta Koshi river on Saturday and sent SMS warnings to people in the area.

In neighbouring India 11 deaths have been recorded in the north-eastern states of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh, officials said Friday.  Monsoon floods have inundated 21 districts in Assam, affecting thousands, officials said Friday.

In Bangladesh aid groups were providing rations to Rohingya refugees in the southeast of the country with the UN World Food Programme saying Friday that two people including a child had died.   Last year, more than 1,200 people were been killed across South Asia in monsoon storms with India's Kerala suffering its worst floods in nearly 100 years.
Date: Fri, 12 Jul 2019 16:00:57 +0200

Chennai, India, July 12, 2019 (AFP) - A special 50-wagon train carrying 2.5 million litres of water arrived in the Indian city of Chennai Friday, as the southern hub reels under one of its worst shortages in decades.    The wagons were hauled by a special locomotive, decorated with flowers and with a "Drinking Water for Chennai" banner on its front.   Four special trains a day have been called up to bring water to Chennai -- India's sixth most populous city -- from Vellore, some 80 miles (125 kilometres) away, to help battle the drought.    The first consignment will be taken to a water treatment centre, and then distributed in trucks to different parts of the metropolis on Saturday.   Chennai has seen only a fraction of the rain it usually receives during June and July.   The city of 4.9 million people also needed trains to bring water in when it suffered a similar crisis in 2001.

The bustling capital of Tamil Nadu state normally requires at least 825 million litres of water a day, but authorities are currently only able to supply 60 percent of that.   With temperatures regularly hitting 40 degrees Celsius (104 Fahrenheit), reservoirs have run dry and other water sources are dwindling further each day.   The Chennai metro has turned off its air conditioning, farmers have been forced to stop watering their crops, and offices have asked staff to work from home.   The city's economy has also taken a hit as some hotels and restaurants shut shop temporarily, and there have been reports of fights breaking out as people queue for water. 
Date: Fri, 12 Jul 2019 11:42:26 +0200

Sydney, July 12, 2019 (AFP) - A looming ban on climbing Australia's Uluru rock, intended to protect the sacred site from damage, has instead triggered a damaging influx of visitors, tourism operators said Friday.    Clambering up the giant red monolith, also known as Ayers Rock, will be prohibited from October -- in line with the wishes of the traditional Aboriginal owners of the land, the Anangu.   But a rush to beat the ban has led to a sharp increase in tourists and is causing its own problems for the World Heritage Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park.   Families arriving in campers vans and RVs are a particular problem, chief executive of Tourism Central Australia Stephen Schwer told AFP.   "We have got so much of one particular market coming, we don't have enough infrastructure to handle the number of drive travellers."

While most visitors are doing the right thing, camping venues in the area are at capacity with advance bookings, leaving many less organised arrivals to set up illegally.   "People don't realise when they go off the road they are actually trespassing on pastoral land, or Aboriginal land, or protected land," Schwer said.   "We are getting people that are leaving their rubbish behind and lighting fires," he added.   "Sadly, people are also emptying their toilet waste out of their vans on what they think is unpopulated land, but is actually private land."   In the 12 months to June 2019, more than 395,000 people visited the Uluru-Kata National Park, according to Parks Australia, about 20 percent more than the previous year.   Yet just 13 percent of those who visited also climbed the rock, the government agency said.    Tourism operators say that Australian and Japanese tourists most commonly seek to climb Uluru.

The Aboriginal connection to the site dates back tens of thousands of years and it has great spiritual and cultural significance to them.   "Since the hand back of Uluru and Kata Tjuta to traditional owners in 1985, visitors have been encouraged to develop an understanding and respect for Anangu and their culture," a spokesperson for Parks Australia said.     "This is reflected in the 'please don't climb' message," they added.   Lyndee Severin from Curtin Springs station and roadhouse, one of just a few camping venues within 100 kilometres of Uluru, said "the vast majority of people are doing the right thing" but hundreds were setting up illegally by the side of the road or down a bush track.   "So we have some people that think that the rules don't apply to them," she told AFP.