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United Arab Emirates

United Arab Emirates US Consular Information Sheet
28th February 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a federation of seven independent emirates, each with its own ruler.
The federal government is a constitutional re
ublic, headed by a president and council of ministers.
Islamic ideals and beliefs provide the conservative foundation of the country's customs, laws and practices. The UAE is a modern, developed country, and tourist facilities are widely available. Read the Department of State Background Notes on the United Arab Emirates for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: A passport is required. For stays of less than 60 days, U.S. citizens holding valid passports may obtain visitor visas at the port of entry for no fee. For a longer stay, a traveler must obtain a visa before arrival in the UAE. In addition, an AIDS test is required for work or residence permits; testing must be performed after arrival. A U.S. AIDS test is not accepted. For further information, travelers can contact the Embassy of the United Arab Emirates, 3522 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20037, telephone (202) 243-2400.
Visit the web site of the UAE's Ministry of Information regarding tourism, business, and residence in the UAE at http://www.uaeinteract.org.

Unlike other countries in the region that accept U.S. military ID cards as valid travel documents, the UAE requires U.S. military personnel to present a valid passport for entry/exit.

UAE authorities will confiscate any weapons, weapon parts, ammunition, body armor, handcuffs, and/or other military/police equipment transported to or through a civilian airport.
Americans have been arrested and jailed for transporting such weapons and equipment without the express written authorization of the UAE government, even though airline and U.S. authorities allowed shipment on a US-originating flight.

U.S. citizens and citizens of other countries that are not members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), who depart the UAE via land are required to pay a departure fee. This fee is 20 UAE dirhams and is payable only in the local UAE dirham currency.

Visit the Embassy of the United Arab Emirates web site at http://uae-embassy.org for the most current visa information.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY: Americans in the United Arab Emirates should exercise a high level of security awareness. The Department of State remains concerned about the possibility of terrorist attacks against U.S. citizens and interests throughout the world. Americans should maintain a low profile, vary routes and times for all required travel, and treat mail and packages from unfamiliar sources with caution. In addition, U.S. citizens are urged to avoid contact with any suspicious, unfamiliar objects, and to report the presence of the objects to local authorities.
U.S. Government personnel overseas have been advised to take the same precautions. In addition, U.S. Government facilities may temporarily close or suspend public services from time to time as necessary to review their security posture and ensure its adequacy.

Taking photographs of potentially-sensitive UAE military and civilian sites, or foreign diplomatic missions, including the U.S. Embassy, may result in arrest, detention and/or prosecution by local authorities.
In addition, engaging in mapping activities, especially mapping which includes the use of GPS equipment, without coordination with UAE authorities, may have the same consequences.

On several occasions in the past three years, small groups of expatriate recreational boaters were detained by the Iranian Coast Guard for alleged violation of Iranian territorial waters while fishing near the island of Abu Musa, approximately 20 miles from Dubai.
The UAE and Iran have had a long-standing dispute concerning jurisdiction of Abu Musa.
Fishing or sailing in these waters may result in seizure of vessels and detention of passengers and crew in Iran.
Obtaining consular assistance in Iran is difficult and can only be done through the Swiss Embassy in Tehran, which acts as a Protecting Power, providing limited U.S. consular services.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves overseas, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME: Crime generally is not a problem for travelers in the UAE. However, the U.S. Embassy advises U.S. citizens to take normal precautions against theft, such as not leaving a wallet, purse, or credit card unattended. Although vehicle break-ins in the UAE are rare, U.S. citizens are encouraged to ensure that unattended vehicles are locked and that valuables are not left out in plain sight.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Basic modern medical care and medicines are available in the principal cities of the UAE, but not necessarily in outlying areas.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747); fax 1-888-CDC-FAXX (1-888-232-3299), or via the CDC's web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.
TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning the United Arab Emirates is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

The police emergency number and ambulance number is 999. Mobile phones are widely used throughout the UAE, so passers-by usually request emergency police and medical services quickly. Response time by emergency services is adequate. However, medical personnel emphasize transport of the injured to the hospital rather than treatment on site. Traffic accidents are a leading cause of death in the UAE because drivers often drive at high speeds. Unsafe driving practices are common, especially on inter-city highways. On highways, unmarked speed bumps and drifting sand create additional hazards.

Country-wide traffic laws impose stringent penalties for certain violations, particularly driving under the influence of alcohol.
In the UAE, there is zero tolerance for driving after consumption of alcohol.
Penalties may include hefty jail sentences and fines over $6,000 and, for Muslims (even those holding U.S. citizenship), lashings. Persons involved in an accident in which another party is injured automatically go to jail, until the injured person is released from the hospital. Should a person die in a traffic accident, the driver of the other vehicle is liable for payment of compensation for the death (known as "dhiyya"), usually the equivalent of 55,000 U.S. dollars. Even relatively minor accidents may result in lengthy proceedings, during which both drivers may be prohibited from leaving the country.

In order to drive, UAE residents must obtain a UAE driver's license. Foreign driver's licenses are not recognized. However, a non-resident visitor to the UAE can drive if he/she obtains a valid international driver's license issued by the motor vehicle authority of the country whose passport the traveler holds. The UAE recognizes driver's licenses issued by other Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states only if the bearer is driving a vehicle registered to the same GCC state. Under no circumstances should anyone drive without a valid license.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
You may also visit the web site of the UAE’s national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at http://www.uaeinteract.org.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of the United Arab Emirates’ Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of the United Arab Emirates' air carrier operations. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA's web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: The UAE government does not recognize dual nationality.
Children of UAE fathers automatically acquire UAE citizenship at birth and must enter the UAE on UAE passports. UAE authorities have confiscated U.S. passports of UAE/U.S. dual nationals in the past. This act does not constitute loss of U.S. citizenship, but should be reported to the U.S. Embassy in Abu Dhabi or the U.S. Consulate General in Dubai. In addition to being subject to all UAE laws, U.S. citizens who also hold UAE citizenship may also be subject to other laws that impose special obligations on citizens of the UAE.
For additional information, please refer to our Dual Nationality flyer.

U.S. citizens have at times become involved in disputes of a commercial nature that have prompted local firms or courts to take possession of the U.S. citizen's passport. Travel bans may also be enforced against U.S. citizens involved in financial disputes with a local sponsor or firm. Such travel bans, which are rigidly enforced, effectively prevent the individual from leaving the UAE for any reason until the dispute is resolved. Although it is customary for a local sponsor to hold an employee's passport, it is illegal to do so under UAE law. Most contractual/labor disputes can be avoided by clearly establishing all terms and conditions of employment or sponsorship in the labor contract at the beginning of any employment. Should a dispute arise, the UAE Ministry of Labor has established a special department to review and arbitrate labor claims. A list of local attorneys capable of representing Americans in such matters is available from the Consular and Commercial sections of the U.S. Embassy in Abu Dhabi and the U.S. Consulate General in Dubai.

Codes of behavior and dress in the UAE reflect the country's Islamic traditions and are more conservative than those of the United States. Visitors to the UAE should be respectful of this conservative heritage, especially in the Emirate of Sharjah where rules of decency and public conduct are strictly enforced. Female travelers should keep in mind the cultural differences among the many people who coexist in the UAE and should be cognizant that unwitting actions may invite unwanted attention to them. Isolated incidents of verbal and physical harassment of Western women have occurred. Victims of harassment are encouraged to report such incidents to the U.S. Embassy in Abu Dhabi or the Consulate General in Dubai.

American citizens intending to reside and work in the UAE may have to present personal documents authenticated by the Department of State's Office of Authentications in Washington, D.C. before traveling to the UAE. This can be a complex process involving local, state and federal offices and requiring several weeks to complete.
For procedural information, the Office of Authentications may be contacted by telephone from within the United States at 800-688-9889 or 202-647-5002, by fax at 202-663-3636, or by e-mail at aoprgsmauth@state.gov.
In order to meet UAE government requirements for school registrations and residency sponsorship for family members, Americans intending to bring their families to reside with them in the UAE will need to have their marriage certificate and children's birth certificates, or custody/adoption decrees, if appropriate, authenticated by the Department of State in Washington, DC.
The U.S. Embassy and Consulate General cannot authenticate U.S. local- and state-issued personal, academic or professional documents; they will only be able to authenticate the final authentication document from the Department of State.
Additional information on authentication of documents can be found at http://www.state.gov/m/a/auth/.
In terms of employment, a recent change to UAE labor law requires local sponsors to have employees' diplomas, academic and/or occupational/professional certificates validated through a “Degree Verification” process established in the UAE.
Prospective employees will be required to submit photocopies of such documents for verification to a firm under contract to the Ministry of Labor.

In addition, persons in the education and health professions reportedly have to meet two requirements for validation of their educational credentials at this time – the formal “chain” authentication of academic/professional credentials in the U.S. and the “Degree Verification” process in the UAE.
Different UAE Ministries have different requirements in this regard.
Determining these requirements with one’s prospective employer is strongly recommended before arrival in the UAE.

Please see our Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating UAE laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in the UAE are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

Legislation enacted in January 1996 imposes the death sentence for convicted drug traffickers. Since January 2006, possession of even trace amounts of illegal drugs has resulted in sentences of four years imprisonment for foreign citizens transiting the UAE. American citizens transiting and entering the UAE’s airports and in possession of illegal drugs have been discovered, arrested and prosecuted by UAE authorities.
As mentioned, in such cases the minimum penalty is four years imprisonment.

Some drugs normally taken under a doctor's supervision in the United States, and even some over-the-counter U.S. drugs and medications, are classified as narcotics in the UAE and are illegal to possess.
A doctor's prescription should be carried along with any medication that is brought into the country.
A person may be subject to arrest and prosecution if possession of prescribed medicines (especially those containing codeine and similar narcotic-like ingredients) comes to the attention of local authorities.
The U.S. Embassy’s web site includes an unofficial list of such medicines, obtained from the UAE Ministry of Health.
Most medications available in the U.S. are also available by doctors’ prescription through hospitals and pharmacies in the UAE.

In addition, the UAE's tough anti-narcotics program also includes poppy seeds, widely used in other cultures, including the U.S., for culinary purposes, on its list of controlled substances. The importation and possession of poppy seeds in any and all forms is strictly prohibited. Persons found to possess even very small quantities of controlled substances listed by the UAE are subject to prosecution by the authorities and may be given lengthy prison terms of up to 15 years. Travelers with questions regarding the items on the list of controlled substances should contact the U.S. Embassy in Abu Dhabi or the U.S. Consulate General in Dubai. If suspected of being under the influence of drugs or alcohol, individuals may be required to submit to blood and/or urine tests and may be subject to prosecution.

Crimes of fraud, including passing bad checks and non-payment of bills (including hotel bills), are regarded seriously in the UAE and can result in imprisonment and/or fines. Bail generally is not available to non-residents of the UAE who are arrested for crimes involving fraud.

Drinking or possession of alcohol without a Ministry of Interior liquor permit is illegal and could result in arrest and/or fines and imprisonment. Alcohol is served at bars in most major hotels but is intended for guests of the hotel. Persons who are not guests of the hotel, and who consume alcohol in the restaurants and bars, technically are required to have their own personal liquor licenses. Liquor licenses are issued only to non-Muslim persons who possess UAE residency permits. Drinking and driving is considered a serious offense. Penalties generally are assessed according to religious law.

While individuals are free to worship as they choose, and facilities are available for that purpose, religious proselytizing is not permitted in the UAE.
Persons violating this law, even unknowingly, may be imprisoned or deported.

If arrested, U.S. citizens should contact the U.S. Embassy or Consulate General for assistance. The U.S. Consul will provide information on the local judicial system and a list of local attorneys. In Dubai, the U.S. Consul can also arrange for U.S. citizen detainees to meet with an ombudsman from the Human Rights Department of the Dubai police headquarters, if the detainee believes he or she is not being treated fairly.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION/EMBASSY AND CONSULATE LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in the United Arab Emirates are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site and to obtain updated information on travel and security within the United Arab Emirates. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.

The U.S. Embassy in Abu Dhabi is located at Embassies District, Plot 38, Sector W59-02, Street No. 4, P.O. Box 4009. The telephone number is (971) (2) 414-2200, and the Consular Section fax number is (971) (2) 414-2241. The email address for American Citizens Services inquiries, including passport questions, is abudhabiacs@state.gov. The after-hours telephone number is (971) (2) 414-2500. The Embassy Internet web site is http://uae.usembassy.gov.

The U.S. Consulate General in Dubai is located on the 21st floor of the Dubai World Trade Center, P.O. Box 9343. The telephone number is (971) (4) 311-6000 (for after-hours emergencies, contact the Embassy at (971)(2) 414-2200 for the Dubai Duty Officer, and the Consular Section fax number is (971) (4) 311-6213. The email address for American Citizens Services inquiries, including passport questions, is dubaiwarden@state.gov. The web site for the U.S. Consulate General in Dubai is http://dubai.usconsulate.gov.

The workweek for both the Embassy in Abu Dhabi and the Consulate General in Dubai is Sunday through Thursday.
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information for the UAE dated July 06, 2007, to update the sections on Traffic Safety and Road Conditions and Criminal Penalties.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu, 2 Apr 2020 12:24:14 +0200 (METDST)

Dubai, April 2, 2020 (AFP) - Emirates Airline said Thursday it is to resume a limited number of outbound passenger flights from April 6, less than two weeks after its coronavirus-enforced stoppage.   "Emirates has received approval from UAE authorities to restart flying a limited number of passenger flights," its chairman, Sheikh Ahmed bin Saeed Al-Maktoum, said on Twitter.   "From April 6, these flights will initially carry travellers outbound from UAE," he said, adding that details would be announced soon.      Dubai-owned carrier Emirates, the largest in the Middle East with 271 wide-body aircraft, grounded passenger operations last week as the UAE halted all passenger flights to fight the spread of coronavirus.

The UAE, which groups seven emirates including Dubai, has declared 814 coronavirus cases along with eight deaths.   It has imposed a sweeping crackdown, including the flight ban and closure of borders.   Sheikh Ahmed said Emirates, which owns the world's largest fleet of Airbus A-380 superjumbos with 113 in its ranks, was looking to gradually resume passenger services.   "Over the time, Emirates looks forward to the gradual resumption of passenger services in line with lifting of travel and operational restrictions, including assurance of health measures to safeguard our people and customers," he said.

When Emirates suspended flights, it cut between 25 percent and 50 percent of the basic salary of its 100,000-strong staff for three months, saying it wanted to avert layoffs.   Dubai's crown prince, Sheikh Hamdan bin Mohammed bin Rashid Al-Maktoum said Tuesday that Dubai will support the airline by injecting new capital.   Tourism, aviation, hotels and entertainment are key contributors to Dubai's mostly non-oil economy.
Date: Mon, 23 Mar 2020 00:45:56 +0100 (MET)

Dubai, March 22, 2020 (AFP) - The United Arab Emirates announced on Monday it will temporarily suspend all passenger and transit flights amid the novel coronavirus outbreak.    The Emirati authorities "have decided to suspend all inbound and outbound passenger flights and the transit of airline passengers in the UAE for two weeks as part of the precautionary measures taken to curb the spread of the COVID-19", reported the official state news agency, WAM.   It said the decision -- which is subject to review in two weeks -- will take effect in 48 hours, adding: "Cargo and emergency evacuation flights would be exempt."

The UAE, whose international airports in Abu Dhabi and Dubai are major hubs, announced on Friday its first two deaths from the COVID-19 disease, having reported more than 150 cases so far.   Monday's announcement came hours after Dubai carrier Emirates announced it would suspend all passenger flights by March 25.    But the aviation giant then reversed its decision, saying it "received requests from governments and customers to support the repatriation of travellers" and will continue to operate passenger flights to 13 destinations.

Emirates had said it will continue to fly to the United Kingdom, Switzerland, Hong Kong, Thailand, Malaysia, the Philippines, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Australia, South Africa, the United States and Canada.   "We continue to watch the situation closely, and as soon as things allow, we will reinstate our services," said the airline's chairman and CEO, Sheikh Ahmed bin Saeed Al-Maktoum.   Gulf countries have imposed various restrictions to combat the spread of the novel coronavirus pandemic, particularly in the air transport sector.   The UAE has stopped granting visas on arrival and forbidden foreigners who are legal residents but are outside the country from returning.
Date: Mon, 6 Jan 2020 17:38:26 +0100 (MET)

Dubai, Jan 6, 2020 (AFP) - The United Arab Emirates on Monday introduced a multiple-entry visa scheme valid for five years for all nationalities, with the aim of turning the Gulf state into a tourism hub.   "#UAE Cabinet chaired by @HHShkMohd, approves new amendment for tourist visas in #UAE," the government of Dubai Media Office tweeted, referring to Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, the UAE prime minister and ruler of Dubai.   "The new tourist visa will be valid for 5 years and can be used for multiple entries and is open for all nationalities," the Dubai Media Office wrote.

Sheikh Maktoum said on Twitter that the UAE currently attracts 21 million tourists a year.   Travellers from Africa, some South American countries, Arab states outside the Gulf, and European states from outside the European Union and former Soviet Union previously needed visas.   In October, Dubai is to host Expo 2020, a big-budget global trade fair.
Date: Thu 26 Sep 2019
Source: Gulf Business [edited]

Dubai Municipality has shut down a restaurant in Jumeirah after 15 people fell ill following an outbreak of _Salmonella_ infection, local media reported. An initial investigation revealed that the outbreak was likely caused by raw eggs served in a hollandaise sauce.

Officials received a report that several people, including a child, fell sick with symptoms such as diarrhoea, fever, and vomiting after eating at the restaurant. They collected samples and conducted tests, following which they found that the chef had used raw eggs in violation of the food safety rules.

The chef and person-in-charge (PIC) of food safety have been held, the municipality said. The food safety department has also downgraded the rating of the outlet and revoked its PIC certificate, Gulf News reported. The unnamed American outlet will be under "strict monitoring" for the next 6 months once it is allowed to reopen.

The municipality banned the use of raw eggs in ready-to-eat products in 2012 after authorities found them to be a cause for _Salmonella_ infections. Following the recent incident, the department has issued a fresh alert to restaurants reminding them about the ban.
=======================
[Salmonellosis is often thought to be associated with cracked eggs or eggs dirty with fecal matter, a problem controlled by cleaning procedures implemented in the egg industry. It is clearly the case, however, that most of the salmonellosis outbreaks linked to eggs were associated with uncracked, disinfected grade A eggs, or foods containing such eggs. The undamaged eggs become contaminated during ovulation, and thus were contaminated with the bacteria before the eggshell was formed. To avoid this, uncooked eggs should only be used as an ingredient if pasteurized. - ProMED Mod.LL]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Dubai, United Arab Emirates: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/3442>]
Date: Sat 24 Aug 2019 3:39:38 PM PKT
Source: Mena FN[edited]

A resident of Swabi district has succumbed to Congo fever in Sharjah hospital and was laid to rest there on [Sat 24 Aug 2019].

According to details, the man was cutting meat on Eid day, when he accidentally cut one of his fingers. He didn't take it seriously, but after few days, he felt unwell and was taken to the hospital in Sharjah where he was told that he is suffering from a lethal infection known as Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever.

Doctors have told him that while he was cutting meat, the deadly Congo virus entered into his body. He was unaware of it while the virus was gradually spreading in his veins, killing him a slow death.

And finally, the virus shattered his body to an extent that he was unable to recover. He was admitted to a hospital in Sharjah in an isolated ward and was kept away from his relatives so that they may not contract the virus. His dead body was laid to rest in Sharjah and was not allowed to be taken to his home town in Swabi due to the fear of virus spread. The man was a resident of Cham village in Daghai, in District Swabi and was living with his family in Sharjah.
=======================
[The report above does not signify how the case was confirmed, and whether any contact follow up was done post confirmation, since there is an incubation period between possible exposure and appearance of symptoms.

CCHF virus has the greatest geographic range of any tick-borne virus and there are reports of viral isolation and/or disease from more than 30 countries in Africa, Asia, Eastern and Southern Europe, and the Middle East. Numerous domestic and wild animals, such as cattle, goats, and sheep, and small mammals, such as hares and rodents, serve as asymptomatic hosts for amplification of the virus, which is transmitted through _Ixodid_ ticks, especially _Hyalomma_ spp that act as both reservoirs and vectors  (<https://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2018/12/20/502641.full.pdf>).

CCHF was first reported in the United Arab Emirates (UAE; Sharjah is one Emirate) in 1979, when 6 cases were reported among the staff of a hospital in Dubai. An outbreak of CCHF occurred during 1994-1995 with 35 human infections. In 1994, 35 clinical CCHF cases were reported in 1994,and between January 1998 and October 2013, 5 more cases and 2 deaths were reported from the UAE (Ince Y, Yasa C, Metin M, et al. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever infections reported by ProMED. Int J Infect Dis 2014; 26: 44-6;  <https://www.ijidonline.com/article/S1201-9712(14)01499-4/fulltext>).

As the vector is widely distributed and impending climatic changes are likely to widen this spectrum, there is need for the development and implementation of a strategic framework for the prevention and control of CCHF through a coordinated 'One Health' approach. - ProMED Mod.UBA]

[Maps of United Arab Emirates:
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Paraguay

Paraguay - US Consular Information Sheet
September 15, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Paraguay is a constitutional democracy with a developing economy.
Tourist facilities are adequate in the capital city of Asuncion, but they vary greatly
n quality and prices.
Travelers outside Asuncion should consider seeking travel agency assistance, as satisfactory or adequate tourist facilities are very limited in other major cities and almost nonexistent in remote areas.
Read the Department of State Background Notes on Paraguay for additional information.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport and visa are required.
U.S. citizens traveling to Paraguay must submit completed visa applications in person or by secure messenger to the Paraguayan Embassy or one of the consulates and pay a fee.
Paraguay issues visas for one-entry or multiple entries up to the validity of the U.S. passport.
Applicants under 18 years of age traveling alone must appear with both of their parents or a legal guardian.
In case of a guardian, an original and one copy of proof of legal guardianship are required.
A document of authorization from parents/guardian will be accepted only if it is notarized and certified by the county clerk.
Travelers entering or departing Paraguay with regular U.S. passports will be fingerprinted.
Some airlines include the Paraguayan airport departure tax in the price of the airline ticket.
It is recommended that you check with the airline in order to determine whether or not the departure tax has been included.
If the tax is not included in the airline ticket then payment would be required upon departure in either U.S. or local currency (no credit cards or checks accepted). Visit the Embassy of Paraguay web site at http://www.embaparusa.gov.py for the most current visa information.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
As stated in the Department of State's latest Worldwide Caution, U.S. citizens overseas may be targeted by extremist groups and should maintain a high level of vigilance.
The U.S. Embassy is not aware of any specific terrorist threat to Americans in Paraguay.
Individuals and organizations providing financial support to extremist groups operate in Ciudad del Este and along the tri-border area between Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina.
Small armed groups have also been reported to be operating in the San Pedro and Concepcion Departments.
Drug trafficking remains a serious concern in the Department of Amambay.
Because of concerns about the lack of security in border areas, the U.S. Embassy in Asuncion requires U.S. Government personnel and their family members to provide advance notice and a travel itinerary when traveling to Ciudad del Este or Pedro Juan Caballero.
As a general precaution, the Embassy also counsels its employees traveling outside the capital to provide an itinerary including dates, contact names, and telephone numbers where the employee may be reached.

Since January 2007, there have been numerous kidnapping incidents mainly in the Alto Parana department.
Targets have been members of the Paraguayan business community or their family members.
It is believed that the individuals responsible for the kidnappings are financially motivated and have pre-selected their targets based on the victims’ wealth.

U.S. citizens should avoid large gatherings or any other event where crowds have congregated to demonstrate or protest.
Such activities have resulted in intermittent road closures including major routes traveled by tourists and residents.
While generally nonviolent, demonstrations and/or roadblocks have turned violent in the past.
Areas where such closures and barricades exist should be avoided.
U.S. citizens who encounter demonstrations and/or roadblocks should not attempt to continue the planned travel or to confront those at the roadblock.
Instead, they should avoid areas where individuals are demonstrating and in case of roadblock, wait for the road to reopen or return to the origin of their trip.
Uniformed police often conduct roving checks of vehicles and passengers.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ website at http://travel.state.gov where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the United States and Canada, or for callers outside the United States and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).
The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
Crime has increased in recent years with criminals often targeting those thought to be wealthy.
Although most crime is nonviolent, there has been an increase in the use of weapons and there have been incidents where extreme violence has been used.
U.S. citizens have on occasion been the victims of assaults, kidnappings, robberies, and rapes.
Local authorities frequently lack the training and resources to solve these cases.
Under these circumstances, U.S. citizens traveling to or residing in Paraguay should be aware of their surroundings and security at all times.
They should take common sense precautions including refraining from displaying expensive-looking cameras and jewelry, large amounts of money, or other valuable items.
Resistance to armed assailants has often aggravated the situation and therefore is not advised.

Armed robbery, carjackings, car theft, and home invasions are a problem in both urban and rural areas.
Street crime, including pick pocketing and mugging, is prevalent in cities.
The number of pick pocketing incidents and armed assaults is also increasing on public buses and in the downtown area of Asunción.
As many incidents on public buses involve individuals snatching valuables, passengers should not wear expensive-looking jewelry or display other flashy items.
There have been incidents of pilferage from checked baggage at both airports and bus terminals.
Travelers have found it prudent to hide valuables on their person or in carry-on luggage.
Unauthorized ticket vendors also reportedly operate at the Asuncion bus terminal, badgering travelers into buying tickets for substandard or non-existent services.

In many countries around the world, counterfeit and pirated goods are widely available.
Transactions involving such products may be illegal under local law.
In addition, bringing them back to the United States may result in forfeitures and/or fines.
More information on this serious problem is available at http://www.cybercrime.gov/18usc2320.htm
INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime are solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

Below are the local equivalent phone numbers to the “911” emergency line in Paraguay.
In Asuncion, the following phone numbers exist for roadside/ambulance assistance:
Emergency Services, including police and ambulances:
911.
Fire Department, including rescue of accident victims: 131, 132.
See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Adequate medical facilities, prescription and over-the-counter medicine, supplies, and services are available only in Asuncion.
Elsewhere, these are limited and may not exist.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.
The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to Paraguay or foreign residents of the country.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Paraguay is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

U.S. citizens have been injured and killed in traffic accidents.
Only minimal standards must be met to obtain a Paraguayan driver's license, and driver education prior to licensing is not common.
Drivers throughout Paraguay routinely ignore traffic regulations.
No vehicle insurance is required, and many Paraguayans drive without any insurance coverage.
Persons who drive in Paraguay should be prepared to drive defensively and with their own insurance in both urban and rural areas.

Public transportation is readily available for urban and inter-city travel.
Buses vary in maintenance conditions and may not meet U.S. safety standards.
Armed robberies and pick pocketing occur on buses in cities and rural areas, sometimes with the apparent collusion of the bus driver.
Taxis are available and may be called using telephone numbers listed in the newspapers.
No passenger train service exists.
Bicycle travel may not be safe due to traffic and other road hazards.
Most urban streets consist of cobblestones over dirt.
Some roads in Asuncion and other large cities are paved.
However, these roads frequently develop potholes that often remain unrepaired.
Nearly all rural roads are unpaved, and during rainy periods and the rainy season (November-March/April), they may be impassable.
Road signs indicating hazards, such as sharp curves or major intersections, are lacking in many areas.

Driving or traveling at night is not advisable outside Asuncion because pedestrians, animals, or vehicles without proper lights are often on the roads.
In addition, assaults and other crimes against motorists traveling at night have occurred.
Extra precautions should be exercised along infrequently traveled portions of the rural roads.

Intercity highway maintenance is not equal to U.S. standards.
The privately maintained toll road between Caaguazu and Ciudad del Este and the routes between Asuncion and Encarnacion and Asuncion and Pedro Juan Caballero are in good condition.
Most other intercity routes are in good to fair condition, with brief stretches in poor condition.
The Trans-Chaco route is in fair condition except for the portion between Mariscal Estigarribia and the Bolivian border, which is unpaved and at times impassable.

The Touring and Automobile Club provides some roadside assistance to its members.
The Club may be contacted in Asuncion by visiting its offices at 25 de Mayo near Brazil, First Floor, or telephoning 210-550, 210-551, 210-552, 210-553, Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., or Saturday from 8:00 a.m. to noon, except for Paraguayan holidays.
The Touring Club also has offices in Ciudad del Este (tel. 061-512-340), Coronel Oviedo (tel. 0521-203-350), Encarnación (tel. 071-202-203), San Ignacio Misiones (tel. 082-232-080), Caaguazu Campo 9 ( tel. 0528-222-211), Santani (tel. 043-20-314), Pozo Colorado (cell phone. 0981-939-611, Villa Florida (tel. 083-240-205) and Ybyyau (tel. 039-210-206).
Towing services are scarce outside urban areas.
Twenty-four-hour tow truck services from Asuncion may be contacted by telephoning (021) 224-366, (021) 208-400, (cellular service provider) Tigo by dialing *822 or 0971-951-930.
For an extra fee, these companies may provide service outside Asuncion, but they typically demand immediate payment and may not accept credit cards.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
Visit the website of Paraguay’s national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at http://www.senatur.gov.py and http://www.mopc.gov.py/
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Paraguay’s Civil Aviation Authority as not being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for the oversight of Paraguay’s air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs%5Finitiatives/oversight/iasa/
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: Paraguay’s customs authority may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from Paraguay of items such as firearms, medications, toys resembling weapons, or protected species.
It is advisable to contact the Paraguayan Embassy in Washington, D.C., or one of Paraguay's consulates in the United States for specific information regarding customs requirements.

Paraguay does not recognize dual Paraguayan nationality for American citizens.
Under Article 150 of the Paraguayan Constitution, naturalized Paraguayans lose their nationality by virtue of a court ruling based on unjustified absence from the Republic for more than three years, or by voluntary adoption of another nationality.
Please see our Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Paraguay’s laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Paraguay are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.

Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information, see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION: Americans residing or traveling in Paraguay are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Paraguay.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy is located at 1776 Mariscal Lopez Avenue, Asuncion; telephone (011-595-21) 213-715, fax (011-595-21) 213-728; Internet: http://paraguay.usembassy.gov, email: paraguayconsular@state.gov.
The Consular Section is open for U.S. citizen services, including registration, Monday through Thursday from 1:00 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. and Fridays from 7:30 a.m. to 10:30 a.m., except for U.S. and Paraguayan holidays; telephone (011-595-21) 213-715, fax (011-595-21) 228-603.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Tue, 28 May 2019 03:40:13 +0200
By Hugo OLAZAR

Nanawa, Paraguay, May 28, 2019 (AFP) - Like 70,000 people living close to the broken banks of the Paraguay River, where the water level has risen seven meters (23 feet) in some places, Graciela Acosta has had to pack up her belongings and evacuate.   Piled up on a canoe are the 39-year-old housewife's bed, wardrobe, bedside table and her dog Pirulin.

Acosta is getting ready to cross the border into Argentina with her daughter to seek refuge in a reception center in the neighboring town of Clorinda.   "I've had enough! It's the third time that I've had to move everything because of the floods," said Acosta.   "I pray to God that it ends. Every time. it costs a lot of money."   However, there's no chance of Acosta leaving her home in Nanawa, a town of just 6,000 people that borders Argentina to the west and faces the capital Asuncion to the east across the Paraguay River, for good.   "As soon as the water level drops, I'll go home," she said.

- 'Greater impact' -
In Nanawa, only around 500 people were able to avoid evacuation, due to living in homes with upper floors above the flood levels.   They're used to this as the Paraguay River, one of the largest in the Americas, breaks its banks and causes havoc in the poorest Nanawa neighborhoods built on the flood plain.   The river's brown waters rise almost to the height of street signs: in some areas, there is up to one or two meters of water covering roads.

Paraguayans have seen worse, though, back in 1983, according to the assistant director of the country's meteorology and hydrology service, Nelson Perez.   "It's not the Paraguay River's worst flood, but the impact is greater because more people live close to the river," said Perez.   "These are the worst floods I've seen," said Ruben Acosta, 55, who peddles his moving services by canoe.   It's a far cry from January and February, when the river's level was so low that navigating it became difficult.   "It rained a lot in March, three times more than usual, and it also rained a lot in April and May," said Perez, who pointed to deforestation as an added problem.

- 'It's like being in Venice' -
Wading through water up to his chest, Rigoberto Nunez leaves a cemetery carrying a chandelier, a vase, some crucifixes and family portraits, all plucked from the family vault.   "I prefer to take them away to be safe," says the 47-year-old traveling salesman.    The town is without electricity or police and inhabitants are afraid of looters.   Nunez is heading to a reception center provided by Argentine authorities in a Clorinda slum where he's already stashed his furniture.   Enrique Cardozo's workshop has already been ravaged by the floods.   "I've lost my sofa, the cupboard, I had nowhere to put them," said the 51-year-old father of four.

The family has moved into the first floor of their house, which is just 15 meters from the river.   "It rained non-stop for a week. One day, the water rose one meter. It was impressive, we couldn't save everything," said Cardozo.   "There's nowhere you can put your feet on the ground. It's like being in Venice, we move about by Gondola!"

On the other side of the river, Asuncion has not been spared as several areas have also had to be evacuated.   In the Sajonia residential zone, inhabitants and shopkeepers have seen their sidewalks lined with sandbags, to keep back the floodwaters.   According to Perez, though, the problems -- and waters -- will soon subside.   The water level rose only slightly on Monday, and will continue to do so for a few more days before it drains away during the first half of June, he said.
Date: Mon, 27 May 2019 12:07:58 +0200

Asuncion, May 27, 2019 (AFP) - Heavy flooding in Paraguay has displaced 70,000 families and is threatening to further inundate the capital Asuncion in the coming weeks, the country's weather bureau said.   Water levels on the Paraguay River are rising at a rate of 4-5 centimetres (1.5-2 inches) every day and is only 46 cm (18 in) below a "disaster" level, according to official data from the Department of Meteorology and Hydrology (DMH).

Crossing that threshold would "have a very strong impact" because of the number of Asuncion residents who have moved into the city's floodplain, said DMH deputy director Nelson Perez on Sunday.   The city's water service infrastructure was clogged with garbage which was exacerbating the floods, Perez added. 

Unusually heavy downpours over May, including two days which together exceeded Asuncion's average monthly rainfall, have exacerbated the flooding, said DMH meteorologist Eduardo Mingo.    Some 40,000 people in Asuncion have already been affected by the floods, official data reported.   A further 10,000 people have been displaced in the southern town of Pilar on the Argentinian border.   The government has mobilized armed forces to help displaced residents relocate to shelters, but hundreds of families have opted to stay behind in their inundated homes.
Date: Thu, 4 Apr 2019 03:06:45 +0200

Asuncion, April 4, 2019 (AFP) - More than 20,000 families across Paraguay have been affected by severe flooding from two weeks of heavy rain that caused the country's main river to burst its banks, a senior official said Wednesday as an emergency was declared in the capital.   National Emergency Minister Joaquin Roa made the announcement as forecasters said the precipitation would continue for the rest of the week.   The Paraguay River, which runs some 1,000 kilometres north to south and splits the country in two, is expected to continue overflowing.

A 90-day emergency was declared in Asuncion on Wednesday due to the flooding. Hardest-hit are some 5,000 families living in the Banado Sur working-class neighbourhood on the city outskirts.   The people affected by flooding "need sheet metal roofing, wood, and all types of help," a municipal official told AFP.   The Paraguay River flows past Asuncion and eventually merges into the Parana River in Argentina.   "We did not expect it to swell so quickly," said Pablo Ramirez, a resident of Banado Sur, a neighbourhood in the capital, dismayed after returning to his home after he left it one month ago due to flooding.

Ramirez, who relies on crutches to get around following a car accident, said that he will not leave home this time. The flooding "will go by quickly," he said optimistically.   Pedro Velasco, the leading neighbourhood Catholic priest, said that one week ago they warned emergency officials that the river was about to overflow and asked for trucks to deliver aid and help evacuate people.   "They didn't move until Monday, but by then it was already too late and they couldn't come in" because of the flooding, Velasco said.   Roa said that his office will deliver 400,000 of food in the next days in coordination with the Paraguayan military.
Date: Thu 28 Feb 2019
Source: Hoy [in Spanish trans. Mod.TY, edited]

Patients who present with febrile symptoms and who reside in the area where the 1st positive case was reported positive request tests for hantavirus [infection]. Until now there are 5 cases, 3 were positive in initial laboratory tests and 2 are suspect cases that will be tested outside [the country] because the Central Laboratory does not do confirmatory tests.

The febrile cases of residents in Capiata [Central department], the area where the 1st cases of hantavirus occurred, are adding up and now Health Surveillance has reported 2 more suspected cases, all children between 2 and 7 years old living in the same city; community intervention continues in search of possible cases.

The 1st cases confirmed in a private laboratory remain hospitalized in intensive care and the others who have improved are now receiving ambulatory treatment, stated Dr Sandra Irala of Health Surveillance.

"The clinical picture of hantavirus [infection] is that of a patient with a temperature above 38 deg C [100.4 deg F] and respiratory difficulty is another characteristic in the endemic area such as that of Chaco. In the non-endemic area [hantavirus infection] is suspected if the patient presents with fever and other possible causes are eliminated," the doctor indicated in a press conference.

The rodents that transmit the hantavirus do not inhabit urban areas and the way in which the disease [virus] is acquired is through contact with excreta and other secretions such as saliva and urine of these [infected] rodents.

Irala pointed out that the cases that are initially positive should have a cross-section of studies for final confirmation, so the samples were sent to Argentina, where there is a reference laboratory for the detection of this type of virus.

The person acquires the virus by inhaling air contaminated with the virus that is transported through dust particles, which is why it is recommended before cleaning, especially of storage buildings, to open doors and windows to ventilate the environment and moisten the soil to before proceeding with the sweeping.

The possibility of acquiring a hantavirus [infection] is if you have a history of having visited the Chaco area or if you were in a country that registers outbreaks of hantavirus, such as southern Argentina.

The disease has a 30% mortality rate and in Paraguay every year about 20 cases are registered, all in the Chaco region.

Alerting symptoms
-----------------
The symptoms of hantavirus [infection] are similar to other infectious diseases and include fever, headache, and gastrointestinal problems and, according to the development and the seriousness of the case, the patient may present with respiratory manifestations.

Before the appearance of any of these or other symptoms [the Ministry of Health] urges the public to go to the nearest health service to make the appropriate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Under no circumstances should self-medication be used as this could aggravate the picture and obstruct the actual diagnosis of the disease.
=====================
[The active surveillance efforts in the neighborhood of the initial case has detected more patients now with a total 3 confirmed and 2 suspected. The tests used in the private laboratory to determine that 3 cases as confirmed are not indicated, nor if samples of these 3 cases were sent to the reference laboratory in Argentina for confirmation.

Most of the previous cases of hantavirus infection in Paraguay have been diagnosed in Boqueron department in the north western part of the country. This is the 1st report of hantavirus infections in the Central department of Paraguay. The possible hantavirus involved in this suspected case is not stated. A 2011 report indicated that Leguna Negra hantavirus was responsible for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases in Presidente Hayes department. In addition to Laguna Negra virus (rodent host _Calomys laucha_), other hantaviruses that can cause HPS and are found in Paraguay (and their rodent hosts) include Juquitiba (_Akodon cursor_), Ape Aime-Itapua (_Akodon montensis_), Araucaria (_A. montensis_, _Oligoryzomys nigripes_), Jabora and Jabora-like (_A. montensis_), Alto Paraguay (_Holochilus chararius_), and Lechiguanas (_Oligoryzomys nigripes_). - ProMED Mod.TY]

[Maps of Paraguay:
Date: Tue 12 Jun 2018
Source: WHO, Malaria [edited]

- What were the key elements to Paraguay's malaria elimination success that helped the country reach zero indigenous cases of the disease?
Paraguay is the 1st country in the Americas since Cuba in 1973 to be certified malaria-free, representing a significant public health achievement not only for Paraguay but for the Americas as a whole. Achieving elimination in Paraguay required substantial levels of political commitment and leadership, as well as sustained investments in its national malaria programme over a period spanning more than 50 years. Notable aspects of its approach include:

Rapid and targeted response
---------------------------
With free universal health services in Paraguay and a strong malaria surveillance system, malaria cases were detected early, investigated promptly, and classified correctly.

Dedicated elimination strategy
------------------------------
After reporting its last case of malaria in 2011, Paraguay launched a 5-year plan to consolidate the gains, prevent re-establishment of transmission, and prepare for elimination certification. Activities centred on strengthening epidemiological surveillance, robust case management, and a public information campaign on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of malaria to promote behaviour change among populations in at-risk areas.

Integration
-----------
During 2015 and 2016, as part of a broader health reform, malaria surveillance, diagnosis, and treatment activities were integrated within Paraguay's general health services, with the aim of expanding health coverage to at-risk populations and preventing re-establishment.

Strengthening surveillance skills
---------------------------------
A 3-year initiative to hone the skills of front-line health workers in the country's 18 health regions was launched in 2016 to keep the malaria surveillance system sustainable over the long term. Supported by The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the project addresses disease prevention, identification of suspected cases, accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment to respond to the on-going threat of malaria importation from endemic countries in the region and Africa.

- How has Paraguay managed to stay malaria-free since 2012? What are the systems in place that made this possible and how long will the country keep those systems operational?
As part of the WHO elimination certification process, countries must demonstrate that they have the capacity to prevent the re-establishment of malaria transmission. The availability of free universal health services in Paraguay and a strong malaria surveillance system ensure imported cases of malaria are detected and responded to in a timely manner to prevent local transmission.

The inclusion of the national malaria programme within the National Malaria Eradication Service (SENEPA, in the Spanish acronym), the institution within the ministry of health responsible for the control of vector-borne diseases, helps guarantee the programme's future existence.

Further, congressional legislation provides predictable and long-term financing for the national malaria programme: by law, 1.5 percent of annual income from Paraguay's social security programme is allocated to SENEPA. Together, these elements ensure that efforts to prevent the re-establishment of malaria transmission can be sustained in the decades to come.

- What are the benefits of malaria elimination for Paraguay?
Eliminating malaria in Paraguay means that no one will fall ill or die from local transmission of the disease, bringing about tangible health benefits at the individual and community levels, as well as broader socio-economic outcomes.

- What role did national leadership, political will, civil society and international partners play in Paraguay's success?
Eliminating malaria is a collective effort, requiring the sustained engagement of many partners at the national, regional and global levels. However, achieving elimination is a country-driven process. For elimination efforts to succeed, government stewardship is essential, together with the engagement and participation of affected communities.

- Does Paraguay coordinate cross-border surveillance activities to prevent importation of malaria cases and do they provide antimalarial treatment to visitors and migrants?
Paraguay provides free treatment to all citizens, visitors, and migrants, regardless of their nationality or residency status. The national malaria programme has identified 3 populations at greatest risk: the military, Brazilian students attending universities in Paraguay, and Paraguayans travelling to Africa. Targeted interventions include strengthening passive detection systems, promotion of health education, and providing prophylaxis to travellers heading to and returning from malaria-endemic regions in Africa.

To step up cross-border collaboration, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) funded a project focused on strengthening entomological surveillance and control of vector-borne diseases in the 'triple border' area of Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay. A key outcome of the project, which ran from 2010 to 2012, was the development of an _Anopheles_ mosquito range map, a tool that shows the geographic distribution of malaria-carrying mosquitoes.

- What are the lessons learned from Paraguay's experience that can be applied in other countries looking to eliminate malaria?
Paraguay provides universal free health services to all, one of the critical elements that helps drive a country towards malaria elimination. Sustained political commitment and robust financial support are further keys to success. Continued surveillance of suspected cases, targeted community engagement and education, as well as strengthening skills of front-line health workers, are recommended strategies that WHO encourages countries to adopt as part of their national malaria elimination programmes.
 
- Is Paraguay replicating its elimination strategy with other infectious and mosquito-borne diseases?
Paraguay has an integrated approach to entomological surveillance activities, taking into account several vector-borne diseases including dengue, leishmaniasis, and Zika virus. Integration of malaria surveillance into the general health system had been a challenging task in Paraguay, but the lessons and experiences learned from other vector-borne diseases have contributed to the smooth integration and transition of the malaria programme. At the same time, the approach used to eliminate malaria is now being applied to eliminate Chagas disease and schistosomiasis.
======================
[ProMED congratulates Paraguay for this important public health achievement. It is important to demonstrate that malaria eradication is possible, and the achievement could be an inspiration for the countries in southeast Asia experiencing a decline in artemisinin susceptibility. - ProMED Mod.EP]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Paraguay:
More ...

Niue

No Profile is available at present

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

20th July 2012

- Niue Island. 20 Jul 2012. Two tourists visiting Niue have been taken to hospital with dengue fever. More than 100 people, or about 8 percent of the population, are believed to be suffering from the fever, and visitors are being warned to use insect repellent during early morning and evening. Dengue, which does not often occur on Niue, has been afflicting  the island since February [2012]. It was originally confined to a small area of Niue's main village but has now spread throughout the island. One local man recently died from a serious form of the virus.
==================
[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map showing the location of Niue Island in the Pacific Ocean can be accessed at <http://healthmap.org/r/1ZWb>. - ProMed Mod.TY]
Monday 30th April 2012
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>

- Niue Island. 24 Apr 2012. The Niue Health Department says it believes the dengue outbreak has peaked. The department says there have been 47 recorded cases of dengue fever, but only one case has been picked up in the last 7 days. The Acting Director of Health, Manila Nosa, says it's a relief to see the wane in cases, but it's too early to say that dengue is completely gone. He said that there has been a lot of rain lately, and it's hoped this won't contribute to a further spread.
======================
[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Niue Island can be accessed at <http://healthmap.org/r/1ZWb>. - ProMed Mod.TY]
Monday 16th April 2012
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>

- Niue Island. 12 Apr 2012. Health authorities on Niue are confident that they are on top of the latest dengue outbreak that has infected 20 people to date. The chief medical officer, Dr Eddie Akau'ola, says this outbreak began about 3 weeks ago but they believe they have been able to contain it. He says it is peaking now and they expect a decline in a week or 2. Dr Akau'ola says none of the cases have been too serious.
====================
[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map showing the location of Niue Island in the Pacific can be accessed at <http://healthmap.org/r/2bMz>. - ProMed Mod.TY]
Tuesday 13th March 2012
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org/>

- Niue Island. 6 Mar 2012. Niue health authorities are hopeful they've contained a rare outbreak of dengue fever on the island where 3 people were reported with dengue last week, with 2 admitted to hospital.
======================
[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map showing the location of Niue Island in the Pacific can be accessed at <http://healthmap.org/r/1ZWb>. - ProMed Mod.TY]
Date: Sun, 24 Jul 2011 10:42:49 +0200 (METDST)
by Neil Sands

ALOFI, Niue, July 23, 2011 (AFP) - In a once-thriving village on the Pacific island of Niue, homes lie abandoned, their stucco-clad walls mildewed and crumbling as the jungle slowly reclaims them. "These villages used to be bustling with people -- now you go there in the afternoon and there's no one," says the Niue Tourism Authority chairman Hima Douglas. The number of people living on the lush coral atoll, about 2,500 kilometres (1,550 miles) northeast of New Zealand, has been declining for decades as inhabitants seek a better life overseas.

The population, which peaked at more than 5,000 in the mid-1960s, has dwindled to just 1,200, according to a New Zealand parliamentary report, raising doubts about the island nation's economic viability.  Douglas said a major cyclone in 2004, which destroyed much of Niue's infrastructure, accelerated the exodus, and the threat of future natural disasters was discouraging people from returning. "Of course it's concerning but it's not something we can do too much about until we can build an economy that will give them the confidence to come back," Niue's Premier Toke Talagi told reporters this month. "There aren't simple and easy answers to people leaving. We've got to build a strong economy and hope to attract them back." Known locally as "The Rock", Niue was settled by Polynesian seafarers more than 1,000 years ago and the palm-dotted island's name in the local language means "behold, the coconut".

The British explorer captain James Cook tried to land there three times in 1774 but was deterred by fearsome warriors, eventually giving up to set sail for more welcoming shores and naming Niue "savage island" on his charts. But modern day Niueans are desperate for visitors, with Talagi unveiling plans this month to turn it into a boutique tourism destination in a bid to put his nation on a sound economic footing. Using aid from New Zealand, with which Niue has a compact of free association giving its people dual citizenship, Talagi has overseen construction of a new tourism centre and expansion of the island's Matavai Resort.

Paths have also been cut through the jungle to give visitors access to swimming spots on the rugged limestone coastline, and cruise liners are being encouraged to include Niue on their itineraries. "We can become self-sustaining in the long term (and) reduce New Zealand assistance to Niue," Talagi said, estimating that visitor numbers could quadruple to 20,000 a year in the next decade. Addressing a visiting delegation of New Zealand business executives this month, Talagi acknowledged doubts about the nation's ability to meet the challenge. "I know some of you are a bit sceptical about our ability to become self sustaining... (but) tourism is not going to fail and I don't expect it to fail given the numbers that are being generated," he said.

The New Zealand parliamentary report, released last December, estimates that about 50,000 Niueans and their children now live in Australia and New Zealand, creating a shortage of skilled labour in one of the world's smallest states. "Niue is caught in a vicious cycle, with its economic difficulties both exacerbated by, and reflected in, the long-term decline of its population," it said, adding that 40 years of New Zealand aid "has yielded almost no return". The report's authors suggested Niue should concentrate on promoting itself as a retirement destination for elderly New Zealanders, who could help revitalise the economy. "The climate is excellent, existing buildings could be brought into service, and health facilities are satisfactory," it said. "Retirees would bring steady cash flow and contribute to stable employment options."

Asked about the suggestion, Talangi said "we'll look at everything", although one long-time resident, who asked not to be named, was unenthusiastic at the prospect. "How depressing to think that we might be turned into a major geriatric ward," she said. "Not that I have anything against old people, mind." Another resident said that whatever steps Niue took to improve its economy must result in major changes, pointing out people could earn more by moving to New Zealand and claiming unemployment benefits than working on the island. "It's pretty hard when your cuzzies (cousins) call you and say 'we're getting more on the dole in Auckland than you're getting paid'," he said.
More ...

Sao Toma and Principe

Sao Tome and Principe US Consular Information Sheet
August 15, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
São Tomé and Príncipe is a developing nation, comprising the islands of São Tomé and Príncipe, located off the western coast of central Africa.<
R />Facilities for tourism are limited, but adequate.
Read the Department of State Background São Tomé and Príncipe for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport, visa, and evidence of yellow fever vaccination are required for entry.
Visas must be obtained in advance.
Travelers can obtain visas and the latest information on entry requirements from the Permanent Mission of São Tomé and Príncipe to the UN, 400 Park Ave., 7th Floor, New York, NY
10022, telephone (212) 317-0533, fax (212) 317-0580.
Travelers transiting through Gabon can also obtain visas and the latest information on entry requirements from the São Tomé and Príncipe Embassy to Gabon, B.P. 49, Libreville, Gabon, telephone (241) 72-15-27, fax (241) 72-15-28.
Overseas, inquiries should be made at the nearest São Toméan and Príncipian embassy or consulate.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Americans should maintain security awareness at all times.
There have been recent, isolated incidents of civil unrest in the capital city.
Large gatherings or any other events where crowds have congregated to demonstrate or protest should be avoided.

Americans may contact the U.S. Embassy in Gabon for the most up-to-date information on safety and security.
The Embassy informs the registered resident U.S citizen community of security matters through a warden system (please see the Registration/Embassy Location section below for more information).

In the event of a fire, dial 112 on the telephone.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
Crimes such as burglary, pick-pocketing and armed robberies in homes do occur on the islands, particularly around the winter holidays.
Such crimes can occur anywhere, but are more prevalent in public places, such as in markets, on the streets, or near hotels.
Do not display large amounts of cash in public.
If possible, leave valuables and extra cash at your hotel while sightseeing or visiting the beach.
When dining in restaurants or visiting markets, it is recommended that one carry only minimal amounts of cash and avoid wearing excessive amounts of jewelry.
If involved in an attempted robbery or carjacking, Americans are encouraged to comply with the attacker to avoid injury and to report all incidents to the police and the U.S. Embassy in Libreville.
Police response time to reports of crime can be slow.

While scams and confidence schemes are not common, travelers should exercise caution.
The prevalence of sexual assault is low, and no specific groups seem to be targets for victimization.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends, and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

The local equivalent to the “911” emergency line in São Tomé and Príncipe to reach the police is 22-22-22.
See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Medical facilities in São Tomé and Príncipe are extremely limited.
There is one hospital in the country, on the island of São Tomé, and several foreign-run clinics.
However, the level of care is low.
For all but minor medical needs, it is necessary to travel to Libreville (Gabon), Lisbon (Portugal), or elsewhere.
Additionally, some medicines are not available; travelers should carry properly labeled required medicines and medications with them.

The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of São Tomé and Príncipe.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning São Tomé and Príncipe is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Streets in the city of São Tomé are paved, but large potholes are common.
Major roads outside of town are also paved.
Pedestrians, bicyclists, motorcyclists, and animals on the roads can be a major hazard.
Outside of the city of São Tomé, there are no sidewalks or shoulders along the side of roads.
In rural areas outside of the capital city, drivers are expected to honk the car’s horn periodically as a warning signal of their approach.
There is no street lighting outside of the capital.
Some roads may be impassable without a four-wheel-drive vehicle.

Only a few miles of improved roads exist on the island of Príncipe; the conditions are similar to those found on São Tomé.
Although taking taxis is fairly safe, it is advisable to rent a car instead.
If you must take a taxi, exercise caution, and negotiate the rate before entering the taxi.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in São Tomé and Príncipe, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed São Tomé and Príncipe’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
São Tomé and Príncipe is a lusophone country; travelers who do not speak Portuguese may face difficulties associated with the language barrier.

Americans should always carry identification with them in the event they are stopped by police.

Taking photographs of military or government buildings is strictly forbidden.
São Tomé and Príncipe is largely a cash economy.
Credit cards are accepted at only a few major hotels.
Travelers’ checks can be cashed or dollars exchanged for dobra at hotels and at one private bank in São Tomé city, but transaction fees can be high.
U.S. dollars are widely accepted at tourist establishments.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating São Toméan and Príncipian laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in São Tomé and Príncipe are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Although there is no U.S. Embassy in São Tomé and Príncipe, the U.S. Embassy in Libreville, Gabon is also accredited to São Tomé and Príncipe and can provide assistance to Americans there.
All Americans in São Tomé and Príncipe are encouraged to register with the U.S. Embassy in Gabon through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within São Tomé and Príncipe.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
By registering, Americans make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.

The U.S. Embassy is located in downtown Libreville on the Boulevard du Bord de Mer.
The mailing address is Centre Ville, B.P. 4000, Libreville, Gabon.
The telephone numbers are (241) 76-20-03 or (241) 76-20-04.
The fax numbers are (241) 74-55-07 or (241) 76-88-49 and the web site is http://libreville.usembassy.gov/.
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This replaces the Country Specific Information dated November 8, 2007 to update sections on Entry/Exit Requirements, Safety and Security, Crime, Information for Victims of Crime, Medical Facilities and Health Information, Traffic Safety and Road Conditions, Special Circumstances, and Registration/Embassy Location.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Tue, 12 Dec 2017 02:47:28 +0100
By Caroline CHAUVET

Sao Tome, Sao Tome and Principe, Dec 12, 2017 (AFP) - A big roadside poster announces a "Pest Control Campaign" in Sao Tome and Principe, with a man in a white face mask wielding an insecticide spray fuelled by a tank on his back.   The island nation in the Gulf of Guinea is at war against malaria, as it has been twice a year since 2003, with such success that the disease no longer routinely claims lives.   In mainland central Africa, the incidence of malaria spread by infected female mosquitos is among the highest rates in the world.

Malaria killed some 445,000 people around the planet in 2016, according to the World Health Organisation (WHO), out of 216 million estimated cases that year.   "Our last death was in 2016. It was a Portuguese man who failed to take measures for prevention and treatment," said Hamilton Nascimento, coordinator of the National Programme to Fight Paludism (PNLP) in Sao Tome.   In 2005, malaria claimed more than 5,000 lives out of about 50,000 infected people in Sao Tome and Principe, according to the WHO.   The humid tropical climate of the islands provides an ideal breeding ground for the female mosquitos that carry the parasitic infection from one person to another with their bloodsucking bites.

- National priority -
Yet since 2014, the number of deaths has fallen to none on Sao Tome, apart from the Portuguese victim. On Principe, lying to the north, malaria has been eradicated, in official terms.   The government wants to wipe it out everywhere by 2025, but the WHO has warned that a sizeable part of future funding is at risk.   The battle against a once endemic disease began as a national priority in the 1980s, in the wake of independence from Portugal in 1975, Nascimento told AFP.

The islands of Sao Tome and Principe, which have a combined land surface of 1,000 square kilometres (386 square miles), benefit from their offshore location west of Gabon and from a small population of less than 200,000 inhabitants.   "We have three strategies: spraying inside houses, distributing mosquito nets impregnated (with insecticide) and the fight against larvae using a biological insecticide that we spread in stagnant waters," Nascimento said.   The population of Sao Tome also has access to free medication to treat malaria and to testing campaigns nationwide. If a case of malaria is detected, "the hospital follows up the patient for 28 days," he added.   "Sick people are given free care by the health centres and medicine is
accessible everywhere in the country."

For all the successes in tackling a disease that has no available vaccine and is prone to mutate, residents of the islands have begun to grow weary of the repeated campaigns.   "The number of people who open their doors to the mosquito sprayers has gone down," Health Minister Maria Jesus Trovoada said, concerned that this refusal to take part "puts all the efforts of the government in peril".   Authorities in Sao Tome and Principe have been clear about their desire to reduce dependence on foreign aid, which accounts for about 90 percent of the nation's resources, and the battle with malaria is part of that goal.   At the end of the 1980s and again in 2012-2013, the disease ravaged the country because of a shortfall in funding and spreading resistance to insecticides, Hamilton said.   "We must often -- about every 10 years -- change the insecticide, because the mosquitos develop resistance," he explained.

- Funding cuts? -
While the government recently stepped up its contribution, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, a foundation partnered with the WHO, finances most measures to beat the disease on the islands.   The grant from the Global Fund may be slashed by more than 50 percent, the WHO warned in a recent report. Sao Tome and Principe would then "need more or less $5 million (4.2 million euros) between 2018 and 2021 to go on getting good results".   "The impact of lack of funding is unknown. However, if current efforts to control malaria have to be reduced due to lack of funds a high risk of a relapse exists," Rebekka Ott, the Global Fund representative on Sao Tome, told AFP.

The foundation is also concerned about Sao Tome's cutting of diplomatic ties with Taiwan at the end of 2016 in order to develop relations with China. Taiwan previously paid more than 30 percent of the cost of fighting malaria.   China, whose flag has already been mounted at the National Centre for Endemics, is expected to take up the baton, but by providing "technical assistance" rather than financial aid.   Whatever the obstacles, the WHO announced in April 2016 that 21 countries in the world may eliminate malaria by 2020. Six of those nations are in Africa: Algeria, Botswana, Cape Verde, Comoros, Swaziland and South Africa.
Date: Wed 8 Feb 2017
From: Raquel Tavares <raquelmrtavares@gmail.com> [edited]
[Re: ProMED-mail posts Buruli ulcer - Sao Tome and Principe
http://promedmail.org/post/20170208.4824961 and http://promedmail.org/post/20170210.4830051]
----------------------------------------------------------------------
In March 2016 we started following a patient from Sao Tome with severe leg ulcer, complicated with bacterial infection and extension to bone. In December 2016, an _Aspergillus fumigatus_ DNA was found in a bone biopsy. The patient has improved since, with anti-fungal therapy (first with itraconazole and in the last 2 months changed to voriconazole). I think this is a possible aetiology. It was a very difficult diagnosis, because normal fungal cultures were negative. We also did DNA and culture for _Mycobacterium ulcerans_ and it was negative.
------------------
Raquel Tavares,
MD Infectious Diseases Specialist
Hospital Beatriz Angelo
Loures Portugal
raquelmrtavares@gmail.com
Date: Fri 3 Feb 2017 13:46 CET
Source: L'Express, Agence France-Presse (AFP) [in French, machine trans., edited]
<http://goo.gl/DUrF3d>

A disease of unknown origin, manifested by a violent cutaneous ulcer, torments the inhabitants of Sao Tome. 1094 cases have been registered since October [2016] among a population of less than 200,000 inhabitants, the health authorities of the small African archipelago announced this [Fri 3 Feb 2017]. The authorities have requested support from the World Health Organization (WHO), which has sent a Benin specialist in Buruli ulcer.
=======================
Dr Irene Lai International SOS
irene.lai@internationalsos.com
=======================
[ProMED-mail thanks Irene Lai for submitting the news report above. Sao Tome, with a population of 56,945 residents, is the capital city of the island nation of Sao Tome and Pri­ncipe, in the Gulf of Guinea, off the western equatorial coast of Central Africa. (<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sao_Tome>). Buruli ulcer (also known as the Bairnsdale ulcer in Australia) is a chronic skin and soft tissue infection due to _Mycobacterium ulcerans_ with large ulcers usually on the legs or arms that can lead to adjacent bone infection and permanent disfigurement and disability.

Buruli ulcer is named after a county in Uganda. _M. ulcerans_ needs a temperature between 29-33 deg C (84.2-91.4) to grow in vitro (<http://jcm.asm.org/content/36/11/3420.full>). The organism produces a unique toxin -- mycolactone, which causes tissue damage and inhibits the immune response. Local immunosuppressive properties of the mycolactone toxin enable the disease to progress with no pain and fever.

The diagnosis can be confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), direct microscopy, histopathology, and culture. Buruli ulcer has been reported in over 30 countries usually with tropical climates in Africa, South America, Asia, and Western Pacific regions, as well as Australia. Countries in West and Central Africa -- Benin, Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Ghana -- report the majority of cases. In Africa, most cases occur in children under 15 years, whereas in Australia, only 10 per cent are children under 15 years; and in Japan, 19 per cent are children under 15 years.

_M. ulcerans_ has been identified in fresh and brackish water and soil in swampy areas. Abrasions of the skin after contact with contaminated water, soil, or vegetation are likely routes of entry. _M. ulcerans_ is not believed to be transmitted from person to person; but the exact mode of transmission is unknown and may vary by geographic region. Vectors, in particular aquatic insects and mosquitoes, may also play a role in some locations.

In south-eastern coastal Australia, possums, which have laboratory-confirmed _M. ulcerans_ skin lesions and/or _M. ulcerans_ PCR-positive faeces, may be a reservoir (ProMED-mail post Buruli ulcer - Australia: (VI) M. ulcerans, possum faeces http://promedmail.org/post/20140913.2771412).

Buruli ulcer has been reported to develop in travellers at the site of a trauma after having left a disease-endemic area. 80 per cent of cases detected early can be cured with a combination of antibiotics; however, late diagnosis can result in long and costly hospitalizations with significant morbidity and disability.

Medical treatment is rifampin, combined with either streptomycin, clarithromycin, or moxifloxacin for 8 weeks, in addition to surgical wound management.

Pictures of Buruli ulcers can be seen at (<https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XCQ67NGmytI>). - ProMED Mod.ML]

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/63>.]
Date: Thu, 5 Jan 2006 From: ProMED-mail Source: Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA) [edited] In response to a cholera outbreak that struck Sao Tome and Principe in Oct 2005, the Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA) is helping to control the outbreak by distributing disinfectants among the community, as well as promoting improved health and sanitation practices through campaigns that teach villagers how to prevent the transmission of this contagious disease. ADRA has organized an awareness campaign among 50 rural community groups targeting 1000 women, focusing primarily on the districts of MeZochi and Caue. With this training, the women become health promoters in their communities, teaching other people the same health and hygiene practices they have been taught. Each woman will receive training on how cholera is transmitted, how it can be treated, and how to prevent it. They will also receive bottles of lye, which they will use to safely disinfect water, food, and any other potential contaminant. In addition, ADRA will distribute 10 health education leaflets to each woman; one for her personal use, and 9 additional leaflets to share among her community. ADRA will also perform a theatre play that will be performed in 24 communities to educate the community on the cholera outbreak. As of 1 Jan 2006, nearly 30 people have succumbed to the disease, since the outbreak began 3 months ago, out of an estimated 1849 severe cases that have been reported since its inception.
Date: Tue, 20 Dec 2005 From: ProMED-mail Source: XinHuaNet.com [edited] The 2-month-old cholera epidemic sweeping Sao Tome and Principe shows no sign of letup, having claimed 5 more lives and doubling the number of reported cases. According to reports reaching here on Mon, 19 Dec 2005, the spokesman for the national committee overseeing the anti-cholera campaign, Jose Manuel de Carvalho, said that 5 more people had died from the disease in the preceding 2 weeks for a total of 25 fatalities. In the same period, de Carvalho added, the number of cases more than doubled to 1374 from 650. The outer island of Principe has so far been spared. He repeated government appeals for increased attention to personal and public hygiene to help staunch the highly infectious disease. Last week, a riot erupted in the archipelago's capital when a police officer tried to enforce a ban on the sale of street food at a Sao Tome market.
More ...

Poland

Poland US Consular Information Sheet
September 10, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Poland is a stable, free-market democracy, and has been a member of the European Union since 2004..
Tourist facilities are not highly developed in all areas,
and some services taken for granted in other European countries may not be available in some parts of Poland, especially in rural areas.
Read the Department of State Background Notes on Poland for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A valid passport is required.
Be sure to check your passport's validity -- Poland will not admit you if your passport is expired.
(Remember that U.S. passports for persons under 16 are valid for five, not ten, years).
On December 21, 2007, Poland joined the Schengen Zone.
U.S. citizens do not need visas for stays of up to 90 days for tourist, business, or transit purposes. That period begins when you enter any of the Schengen countries:
Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, and Sweden.

Note:
Although European Union regulations require that non-EU visitors obtain a stamp in their passports upon initial entry to a Schengen country, many borders are not staffed with officers carrying out this function.
If an American citizen wishes to ensure that his or her entry is properly documented, it may be necessary to request a stamp at an official point of entry.
Under local law, travelers without a stamp in their passports may be questioned and asked to document the length of their stay in Schengen countries at the time of departure or at any other point during their visit, and could face possible fines or other repercussions if unable to do so.

Polish immigration officials may ask travelers for proof of sufficient financial resources to cover their proposed stay in Poland, generally viewed as 100 zloty per day.
Additionally, citizens of non-EU countries, including the United States, should carry proof of adequate medical insurance in case of an accident or hospitalization while in Poland.
Polish immigration officials may ask for documentation of such insurance or proof of sufficient financial resources (at least 400 zloty per day) to cover such costs.
Those who lack insurance or access to adequate financial resources may be denied admission to Poland.
Medicare does not cover health costs incurred while abroad.

Poland requires Polish citizens (including American citizens who are or can be claimed as Polish citizens) to enter and depart Poland using a Polish passport.
Americans who are also Polish citizens or who are unsure if they hold Polish citizenship should contact the nearest Polish consular office for further information.

For further information on entry requirements, please contact the consular section of the Embassy of the Republic of Poland at 2224 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008, tel. (202) 234-3800, or the Polish consulates in Chicago, Los Angeles or New York.
Visit the Embassy of Poland web site at http://www.polandembassy.org for the most current visa information.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Poland remains largely free of terrorist incidents.
However, like other countries in the Schengen area, Poland’s open borders with its Western European neighbors allow the possibility of terrorist groups entering/exiting the country with anonymity.
Americans are reminded to remain vigilant with regard to their personal security.

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Bureau of Consular Affairs’
web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, including the Worldwide Caution, can be found.
Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll-free in the U.S. and Canada, or for overseas callers, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

CRIME:
While Poland generally has a low rate of violent crime, the incidence of street crime, which sometimes involves violence, is moderate.
Major cities have higher rates of crime against residents and foreign visitors than other areas.

Organized groups of thieves and pick-pockets operate at major tourist destinations, in train stations, and on trains, trams, and buses in major cities.
Thieves will target overnight trains.
Most pick-pocketing on trains occurs during boarding; in the most common scenario, a group of well-dressed young men will surround a passenger in the narrow aisle of the train, jostling/pick-pocketing him or her as they supposedly attempt to get around the passenger.
Keep an eye on cell phones; they are prized by thieves.
Beware of taxi drivers who approach you at the airport or who do not display telephone numbers and a company name; these drivers usually charge exorbitant rates.
Order your taxi by telephone and at the airport use only taxis in the designated taxi ranks.

Car thefts and car-jackings are significantly declining; however, theft from vehicles remains a constant concern.
Drivers should be wary of people indicating they should pull over or that something is wrong with their cars; when such drivers pull over to see if there is a problem, they may find themselves suddenly surrounded by thieves from a second vehicle.
Drivers encountering someone indicating that there is trouble with their car and the problem is not apparent should continue driving until they find a safe spot (a crowded gas station, supermarket, or even police station) to inspect their vehicles.
There also have been incidents of thieves opening or breaking passenger-side doors and windows in slow or stopped traffic to take purses or briefcases left on the seat beside the driver.
Those traveling by car should remember to keep windows closed and doors locked.
Extremist youth gangs are a threat, particularly in urban areas.
Verbal harassment and physical attacks have been directed against members of racial minorities or those who appear to be foreign, particularly those of Asian or African descent.

In many countries around the world, counterfeit and pirated goods are widely available.
Transactions involving such products may be illegal under local law.
In addition, bringing them back to the United States may result in forfeitures and/or fines.
More information on this serious problem is available at http://www.cybercrime.gov/18usc2320.htm
INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends, and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

The local equivalent to the “911” emergency line in Poland is: 112
See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Adequate medical care is available in Poland, but hospital facilities and nursing support are not comparable to American standards.
Physicians are generally well trained but specific emergency services may be lacking in certain regions, especially in Poland's small towns and rural areas.
Younger doctors generally speak English, though nursing staff often does not.
Doctors and hospitals often expect immediate cash payment for health services.
Medications are generally available, although they may not be specific U.S. brand-name drugs.

The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to, or foreign residents of, Poland.
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
Polish immigration law requires travelers either to carry adequate medical insurance in case of accident or hospitalization while in Poland or to be able to document access to sufficient financial resources (at least 400 zloty per day) to cover such medical emergencies.
Failure to carry insurance or the inability to provide documentation of sufficient financial resources if requested may result in a traveler being denied admission to Poland.
Medicare does not cover Americans in Poland.

The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Poland is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

An International Driving Permit (IDP), obtained prior to departure from the U.S., must accompany a U.S. driver's license.
A U.S. driver's license without an IDP is insufficient for use in Poland, and Americans cannot obtain IDPs in Poland.
Only two U.S. automobile associations — the American Automobile Association (AAA) and the American Automobile Touring Alliance (AATA) — have been authorized by the U.S. Department of State to distribute IDPs.
Polish roadside services, while not at Western levels, are rapidly improving.
Polski Zwiazek Motorowy Auto-Tour has multilingual operators and provides assistance countrywide; they can be reached by calling 9281 or 9637 preceded by the city code (outside of Warsaw 022-9281).
The police emergency number is 997, fire service is 998, and ambulance service is 999.
Mobile phone users can dial 112 for emergency assistance.
Seat belts are compulsory in both the front and back seats, and children under the age of 10 are prohibited from riding in the front seat.
You must use Headlights at all times, day and night.
Using your cellular phone while driving is prohibited, except for “hands-free” models.

There has been a substantial increase in the number of cars on Polish roads.
Driving, especially after dark, is hazardous.
Roads are generally narrow, poorly lighted, frequently under repair (especially in the summer months), and are often also used by pedestrians and cyclists.
The Ministry of Infrastructure has a program called “Black Spot” (Czarny Punkt), which puts signs in places with a particularly high number of accidents and/or casualties.
These signs have a black spot on a yellow background, and the road area around the “black spot” is marked with red diagonal lines.

Alcohol consumption is frequently a contributing factor in accidents.
Polish laws provide virtually zero tolerance for driving under the influence of alcohol, and penalties for driving under the influence of alcohol (defined as a blood alcohol level of 0.02 or higher) include a fine and probation or imprisonment for up to two years. Penalties for drivers involved in accidents are severe, and can be imprisonment from six months to eight years

Within cities, taxis are available at major hotels and designated stands or may be ordered in advance. Some drivers accept credit cards and/or speak English.
Travelers should be wary of hailing taxis on the street, especially those that do not have a telephone number displayed, because these may not have meters, and many of them charge more.
Do not accept assistance from “taxi drivers” who approach you in the arrivals terminal or outside the doors at Warsaw Airport.
Travelers availing themselves of these “services” often find themselves charged significantly more than the usual fare.
Use only taxis at designated airport taxi ranks.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
Visit the web site of Poland's National Tourist Office at http://www.polandtour.org and, that of Poland's Ministry of Transport responsible for road safety at http://www.mt.gov.pl.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Poland’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Poland's air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA's web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Visitors importing more than 10,000 Euros should, as part of the arrivals process, complete a form to declare currency, traveler's checks, and other cash instruments.
This form should be stamped by Polish Customs and retained by the traveler for presentation on departure.
Undeclared cash may be confiscated upon departure, and visitors carrying undeclared cash may be prosecuted.
Most banks now cash traveler's checks, ATMs are readily available, and credit cards increasingly accepted.
Polish customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning the export of items such as works of art, particularly those created before 1953.
Works produced by living artists after 1953 may be exported with permission from the Provincial Conservator of Relics.
Some works of art produced after 1953 may still be subject to a ban on exportation if the artist is no longer living and the work is considered of high cultural value.
If you are importing an item or work of art like those described above, even if only temporary (e.g., for an exhibit or performance) you should declare it to customs upon entry and carry proof of ownership in order to avoid problems on departure.
Contact the Polish Embassy in Washington, D.C., or one of the Polish consulates in the United States for specific information regarding customs requirements.
Please see our Customs Information.

Poland does not recognize (although it does not prohibit) dual nationality.
A person holding Polish and U.S. citizenship is deemed by Poland to be a Pole and subject to Polish law.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Polish laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use or trafficking in illegal drugs in Poland are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information, see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Poland are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Poland.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy in Warsaw is located at Aleje Ujazdowskie 29/31.
The Consular Section entrance is located around the corner at Ulica Piekna 12.
The Embassy's telephone number is (48) (22) 504-2000.
This number can be called 24 hours/day: for emergencies after business hours, press “0.”
The Embassy's fax number is (48) (22) 504-2688 and the fax number for the Consular Section is (48)(22) 627-4734 (consular fax only checked during normal business hours).
The U.S. Consulate General in Krakow is located at Ulica Stolarska 9.
The Consulate General's telephone number is (48) (12) 424-5100; fax (48)(12) 424-5103; after-hours cellular phone (for emergencies only) 601-483-348.
A Consular Agency providing limited consular services in Poznan is located at Ulica Paderewskiego 8.
The Consular Agency's telephone number is (48) (61) 851-8516; fax (48) (61) 851-8966.
The Embassy's web site is at http://poland.usembassy.gov/
* * *
This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated March 5, 2008 to update the sections on Information for Victims of Crime and Medical Facilities and Health Information.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu, 23 Apr 2020 17:58:37 +0200 (METDST)
By Anna Maria Jakubek

Warsaw, April 23, 2020 (AFP) - Massive wildfires have ravaged Poland's largest nature reserve, the Biebrza National Park, as the country faces its worst drought in years.    After the first flames struck Sunday, the blaze spread across 6,000 hectares or 10 percent of the park, which features some of Europe's best preserved wetlands and is home to moose, beavers, wolves and unique birds.    "It's a great tragedy... Usually at this time of year, everything here is under water.

I spoke to a firefighter who said they've never dealt with anything like this before," local resident Joanna Skrzypkowska told AFP.    "They're fighting really hard... they didn't sleep for three nights, just battled the fires, before help arrived," said the 56-year-old teacher, ecologist and farmer from the village of Wolka Piaseczna.    Park director Andrzej Grygoruk told the website Noizz that the last time Biebrza saw a major fire was in 2003.

- 'Without rain we could be in danger' -
The environment ministry said it believes illegal grass burning was to blame for the fire, with the situation aggravated by strong wind and drought.    Skrzypkowska said climate change, a snowless winter and local water management also played a role in the fire, which she says has fortunately not spread to the forests and has abated somewhat.

She added that since Wednesday the volunteer firefighters -- who ran to the blaze on foot with shovels -- have been bolstered by colleagues from nearby cities as well as planes and helicopters.    But firefighters say it is unclear when they will be able to put out the fire completely.   "I'm afraid it won't happen until we get some real, proper rain," said Skrzypkowska, adding that it has now been a month or two without precipitation.    President Andrzej Duda spoke of the nationwide drought on Wednesday, calling on citizens to be reasonable about their water use and telling reporters: "Without rain, we could be in danger."

In Warsaw, the water level of the Vistula river has sunk to 60 centimetres (24 inches), uncovering many sandbanks.  Biebrza National Park is known as a bird watcher's paradise: some 270 species have been observed there, according to its website.   "For some waterfowl species, Biebrza marshes are among the last refuges for the survival of their population in Central Europe," according to the site.   Park management said Thursday that it has received nearly 1.2 million zloty (260,000 euros, $290,000) in donations to help firefighters after setting up a special bank account for the cause.
Date: Thu, 16 Apr 2020 20:30:08 +0200 (METDST)
By Michel VIATTEAU and Mary SIBIERSKI

Warsaw, April 16, 2020 (AFP) - Poles begrudgingly strapped on face masks Thursday in line with new rules to cover up as the government plans to ease coronavirus lockdown restrictions ahead of May elections.   All stores except supermarkets and pharmacies are shut in Poland until April 19 to control the coronavirus outbreak that has infected more than 7,900 and killed over 300.    This week, the government rolled out new rules requiring anyone venturing out in public -- for now, people out for essential trips or key workers -- to wear masks. 

The edict was received with mixed reviews.    "It's awful," postal worker Natalia told AFP, towing a large wheeled letter-bag behind her.   "My glasses are fogging up and I can't see a thing. But you have to wear it," she added, declining to give her surname.   A bank employee was equally unenthusiastic about having to sport the face covering.    "It isn't comfortable but if it's necessary, we have no choice. We must abide by the rules," said bank employee Urszula.   The World Health Organization (WHO) says asking the public to wear face masks is justified in areas where hand washing and physical distancing are difficult.    But it also warns that masks alone cannot stop the coronavirus pandemic.

But some Warsaw residents saw the new face mask rule as a chance to show off their sartorial swagger.    "Don't you like my mask?", quipped a lady wearing a deftly crafted green and gold one as she waited in line at a Warsaw post office. "A seamstress friend made it for me."   A nearby solider, Dariusz Szczypulski, agreed: "People will wear them as fashion statements."

The rules were rolled out as Poland's right-wing Law and Justice (PiS) government prepares for a presidential election on May 10.   The government has refused to delay the vote despite growing pressure from the public, opposition parties and medical experts over virus fears.    Like several of it neighbours, Poland will ease virus restrictions in stages over the next few weeks.

Forests and parks, except children's playgrounds, will re-open as of Monday for exercise only.   Schools could start to reopen from April 26 along with the resumption of international flights and rail travel.    As for the new mask rules, violators caught without masks can be fined up to several hundred euros.    But one police officer in the sunny, windswept capital said they would not be too tought on offenders.   "Probably we will limit ourselves to a verbal warning," he said, refusing to be named. 
Date: Thu, 9 Apr 2020 15:01:11 +0200 (METDST)

Warsaw, April 9, 2020 (AFP) - Poland's government on Thursday extended lockdown measures to curb the COVID-19 pandemic, keeping borders closed to foreigners and making face coverings mandatory in public spaces from next week.   "The evolution of the pandemic has been milder in Poland than in Italy or France... we have an opportunity to bring the spread of coronavirus under control," Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki said in Warsaw.

Flanked by his health and education ministers, Morawiecki said Poland's March 13 decision to close borders to foreigners would be extended until May 3.   All stores except groceries and pharmacies would remain shut until April 19, he said, adding that the suspension of schools, international flights and rail travel would be extended to April 26th.

Restaurants are offering only takeaway service and public gatherings are limited to two people, under threat of  fines of up to 30,000 zloty (6,600 zloty, $7,200).   The government has yet to postpone a presidential election scheduled for May 10, despite growing pressure from the public, opposition parties and medical experts.

Morawiecki's right-wing Law and Justice (PiS) party has backed controversial legislation allowing a universal postal vote, criticised by the opposition and legal experts as unconstitutional.    PiS-allied President Andrzej Duda currently outpaces all other candidates by a large margin and may see him clinch victory in the first round of voting on May 10.

Health Minister Lukasz Szumowski announced on Thursday that Poles would be required to "cover their faces when venturing outside the home" as of next Thursday, but added that this "does not necessarily mean wearing a mask".   The Czech Republic and Austria claim their strategy to requiring masks in public spaces has slowed the rate of COVID-19 infection.   Austria is considering easing coronavirus lockdown measures from next week.   Poland, an EU member of 38 million people, has confirmed 5,341 cases of coronavirus, including 164 deaths.
Date: Tue, 31 Mar 2020 14:32:43 +0200 (METDST)

Warsaw, March 31, 2020 (AFP) - Poland's government on Tuesday further tightened measures taken to curb the spread of coronavirus, notably restricting the freedom of movement of youths, closing parks and hotels and limiting the number of shoppers.   "With every reckless, unnecessary instance of leaving the house, the pandemic drags on... We have to strictly adhere to social distancing rules," Polish Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki told reporters.   "They are crucial here so that the light at the end of the tunnel can in fact be ever more visible for us all eventually."   To crack down on youth social gatherings, children under the age of 18 will now only be able to leave the house in the presence of an adult.

Hair and beauty salons, tattoo parlours, parks, beaches and most hotels will now be closed and city bicycle systems will be unavailable.    A maximum of three people per cash register will be allowed inside grocery stores and pharmacies at one time to help maintain a social distance of two metres (about six feet).   Between 10 a.m. and noon every day, only seniors will be allowed to shop.    Most of the new measures will come into effect on Wednesday and last two weeks, though they may be extended.    They will be enforced by police and punishable by a fine of between 5,000 and 30,000 zloty (1,100-6,600 euros, $1,200-7,200).

Poland had already closed all schools, theatres, pools, museums and shut its borders to foreign visitors.    Restaurants are only offering takeaway service and public gatherings are limited to two people.    The government has yet to postpone a presidential election scheduled for May 10, despite growing pressure from the public, opposition parties, medical workers and even members of the right-wing governing party.    The EU member of 38 million people has 2,132 confirmed cases of coronavirus, including 31 deaths.
Date: Thu, 27 Feb 2020 05:04:04 +0100 (MET)

Kuala Lumpur, Feb 27, 2020 (AFP) - Badminton's German Open will not go ahead next week and the Polish Open has been postponed, officials said as two more Olympic qualifying events fell victim to the coronavirus.   It hasn't yet been decided whether the German Open, originally scheduled for March 3-8, will be postponed or cancelled entirely, the Badminton World Federation said late Wednesday.   New dates are being sought for the Polish Open, which was meant to take place on March 26-29, but it will not now fall in the qualifying period for the Tokyo Olympics.

Both events were in the same month as the All England Open, one of the biggest events in the badminton calendar, although that tournament is currently still set to go ahead.   "The BWF is continuing to monitor all official updates on COVID-19 with no change to the intention to stage other HSBC BWF World Tour or BWF-sanctioned tournaments," said a statement.   This week the Vietnam International Challenge, which also carried rankings points for the Olympics, was shifted from late March to early June.

The loss of qualifying tournaments will pose a problem for many players including two-time Olympic champion Lin Dan, who needs a rapid rise up the rankings to win a place on the Chinese team.   Many of China's players are currently in Britain and have been cleared to play during what is a "critical period" of Olympic qualifying, the Chinese Badminton Association said last weekend.   China have been the dominant force in badminton at recent Olympics, sweeping all five titles at London 2012 and winning the men's singles and doubles gold medals four years ago in Rio.
More ...

Malawi

General: Often referred to as the 'warm heart of Africa', Malawi is a small land-locked country situated between Mozambique, Zambia and Tanzania. It is dominated by the lake which forms its border with Mozambique in the central portion and Tanzania in the
northeast. The amount of tourism is still limited - associated with various issues including the fact that it has been relatively expensive to fly into the country directly. However this is changing and many find their way to this beautiful country and enjoy all that it as to offer.
Climate: Malawi is in the southern hemisphere and experiences a fairly typical sub-tropical climate with a rainy season from around October to May each year.
Dress Code: Quite uniquely Malawi has always had quite a strong dress-code applied for travellers and many tourists have found it necessary to change into more modest garments on request from the authorities. It is probably wise not to be the one to act too differently and to at least start with this in mind when arriving into the country. This includes avoiding short dresses for women and long unkept hair for men.
Banking Facilities: There are some ATM's in the main cities but generally they may not accept an international bank card. Credit cards are not accepted outside the main urban areas.

Security and Safety: In many regions of the world the level of crime and personal risk rises after nightfall. Malawi is no different in this respect and so travelling throughout the country at night is not recommended. It is especially unwise to walk in main cities during the hours of darkness.
Medical Facilities: Generally medical facilities throughout Malawi are limited and anyone with a serious illness would be recommended to move to more adequate facilities in either Zambia, Zimbabwe or ideally to South Africa if at all possible. Travellers on any personal medication should ensure that they carry sufficient supplies for the duration of their time abroad.
East African Safari: Many travel through Malawi on their way between Nairobi in Kenya and Capetown in South Africa. The road infrastructure and other facilities along this route is frequently difficult and it is unwise to consider travelling alone. Being part of an organised respected safari group is a very much wiser option. Even then it is essential to 'assess' the professionalism of the specific group you are travelling with during the first few days before granting them total control of your safety. It is important to listen to the leaders advice on the safety of food & water and their opinion on the necessity for adequate malaria prophylaxis to see if they can be trusted. Generally the answer is that among the well known groups there are excellent and superbly professional guides so this is not often an issue.
Food & Water: Like any trip to the tropics, what you eat and drink will largely determine how well you remain. Eat hot recently cooked food and steer clear of any street vendors. Eat what you know your stomach likes as otherwise it will be quick enough to tell you - often in the most unpleasant ways! Water is essential for survival but, despite this, it is better to remain thirsty for a short while rather than drink anything potentially contaminated. A cup of tea is often safer (if taken from a clean cup) as the water will have been boiled. Even when brushing your teeth make sure you use boiled filtered water if safe bottled water is unavailable.
Lake Malawi: It is hot. Everyone else is swimming in the Lake and they say it is safe. The answer is no, as unfortunately this is without doubt not the case, no matter what you hear. Schistosomiasis (Bilharzia) is a parasitic disease which abounds in Lake Malawi and can infect a person very easily - even from very minimal contact with the water. This can occur from paddling along the water edge or showering close to the lakeside where the same water is used. If you do partake make certain that you report to medical staff on your return home so this risk can be adequately checked through as appropriate.
Sun Exposure & Dehydration: Africa is a hot continent and regularly travellers become quite significantly dehydrated as their water intake may not be sufficiently high to cope with the loss through perspiration. Also, at this time, salt is removed from the body and this may lead to tiredness, headaches and muscular crampy pains etc. It is important to increase your fluid intake and (for most travellers quite safely) to increase the amount of salt you take with your meals. Avoid salt tablets as these are unnecessary and can be quite harmful.
Malaria: There is a considerable risk of contracting Malaria in this region throughout the year - even in the dry season. Adequate insect repellents, good mosquito nets for night time, covering your arms and legs and appropriate malaria tablets are all essential. Don't take any chance as you protect yourself again malaria. It is a killing disease and yet with care you can significantly help to protect yourself. The tablets do not however provide 100% cover.
Vaccines: There are no essential vaccines required for entry into Malawi - unless you are coming from a Yellow Fever country. However, it is always recommended that you ensure you are covered against a number of different diseases before your trip and this all needs to be talked through well before leaving home. The doctor at that time can also discuss some of the other extremely important health issues relating to Malawi to try to ensure that you remain safe and healthy.
Summary: Malawi is a beautiful country with a lot to offer for the wise traveller. However staying healthy and well is essential and taking unnecessary risks with your long term health is foolhardy.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Fri, 17 Apr 2020 19:07:23 +0200 (METDST)

Blantyre, Malawi, April 17, 2020 (AFP) - Malawi's High Court on Friday temporarily barred the government from implementing a 21-day lockdown to curb coronavirus following a petition by a human rights group.   The Human Rights Defenders Coalition argued that the government had failed to announce any measures to cushion the poor during the lockdown.

Malawi is one of the poorest countries in Africa. More than half of its population live below the poverty threshold.   The organisation's chairman, Gift Trapence, said the court had granted them temporary relief pending a judicial review in seven days.   "Yes, we have been granted the injunction," he told AFP. "So, what it means is that there is no lockdown for the next seven days."   The court did not give reasons for its stay order.

On Thursday and Friday, thousands of angry market traders marched in the capital Lilongwe and in the cities of Blantyre and Zomba, to protest against the lockdown.   They have vowed to disregard the shutdown, saying it will devastate workers who live hand-to-mouth.   President Peter Mutharika had announced a three-week lockdown starting on Sunday and said the measure "may be extended" if needed.   The southeast African country has recorded 17 cases of coronavirus, two of them fatal.
Date: Tue, 14 Apr 2020 23:04:15 +0200 (METDST)

Blantyre, Malawi, April 14, 2020 (AFP) - Malawi's President Peter Mutharika on Tuesday announced that the landlocked country will implement a 21-day lockdown to contain the spread of the coronavirus that has claimed two lives.   In a televised national address, Mutharika said the lockdown will be effective from midnight on Saturday and will end on May 9.    "This lockdown may be extended beyond 9th May as circumstances warrant, he cautioned.    "I would like to urge you to fully comply with the measures because they are for the good of our country."

So far, 16 people have tested positive for COVID-19 in Malawi mainly in the main cities of Blantyre and Lilongwe, the special cabinet committee announced on Monday.   Mutharika warned that up to 50,000 lives could be lost if measures were not put in place to spread the of the virus in the southeastern African country.   "Many more countries across the world have lost many lives. All our neighbouring countries have Coronavirus cases and lives are being lost. If we are not careful, Malawi can lose up to 50,000 lives. We need to act more now," he said.

The head of state said Malawi would require about K150 billion (about $200 million) for the implementation of a national COVID-19 preparedness and response plan.   "Fighting coronavirus is a challenging war for everyone, everywhere. It is also a very expensive war," he said.    When the first case was declared on April 2, Malawi announced the closure of all schools countrywide and restricted public gatherings to no less than 50 people.   Local government councils across the country also announced measures such as the closure of bars, banning weddings and public gatherings.
Date: Thu, 2 Apr 2020 20:58:06 +0200 (METDST)

Blantyre, Malawi, April 2, 2020 (AFP) - Malawi on Thursday announced its first three coronavirus infections, one of the last African countries to report the potentially deadly disease.   The southern African country was one of the few without any confirmed cases along with the Comoros, Lesotho, Sao Tome and Principe and South Sudan.      President Peter Mutharika said the infections were in the capital Lilongwe.

The first was detected in an elderly woman who had recently travelled to India to visit her relatives.   "Upon arrival in Malawi, she placed herself in self-quarantine for 14 days but later became symptomatic within the quarantine period," said Mutharika in an address to the nation.   Two of her contacts also tested positive.   Mutharika said the government would provide medical care for the three patients and track down their immediate contacts.   To date coronavirus has infected more than 6,720 people across Africa and killed at least 273.
Date: Thu, 27 Feb 2020 16:49:08 +0100 (MET)

Blantyre, Malawi, Feb 27, 2020 (AFP) - Malawi on Thursday became the latest African country to legalise the growing of cannabis, a crop that could supplement the tobacco industry, which has been the country's economic mainstay.    Lawmakers unanimously passed the new law legalising the farming, importing and exporting of cannabis for medicinal and industrial use, according to documents seen by AFP.

Malawi is one of the poorest countries in the world and has long relied on tobacco which brings in around 60 percent of foreign exchange earnings.   Several countries have decriminalised the growing and use of medicinal cannabis.   The new law establishes a regulatory authority which will be tasked with issuing licences to cultivate, process, store, sell, export and distribute cannabis.   The law also requires that cannabis will be grown under strict practices, including prohibiting children in the sector.

Malawi was last December forced to confront child labour practices after the US restricted tobacco imports from the impoverished nation over allegations workers including children were being exploited.   Cannabis has for many years been illegally grown in remote parts of Malawi and smuggled out of the country.    The grade is popularly known as "Malawi gold".

Financial crimes expert Jai Banda lauded parliament's decision as government has for years lost out on valuable tax revenue.   "Cannabis is mainly cultivated in remote areas, mainly for export to surrounding countries such as South Africa, Kenya and the overseas market. Trade is organised by professional traffickers," Banda told AFP.   "It has been a long journey but here we are. I guess we will be able to export and thereby earn the much needed forex. This is a path in the right direction."
Date: Wed 30 Oct 2019
Source: Phys.org [abridged, edited]

In the southern African nation of Malawi trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, has caused residents to become ill from tiny parasites [trypanosomes] which are spread by the bite of the tsetse fly. The relocation of hundreds of elephants to Malawi's largest wildlife reserve was meant to be a sign of hope and renewal in this southern African nation. Then nearby residents began falling ill.

The cause of the headaches, weakness, and pain were trypanosomes spread by the bite of the tsetse fly -- a companion of the elephants. Trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, is the result. Authorities said the Nkhotakota Wildlife Reserve has seen a surge in tsetse fly numbers since around 2015 when the elephants and other game animals were reintroduced.

The local hospital said it did not have a number of sleeping sickness cases. One community resident recalled at least 5 deaths from the disease.

The World Health Organization says sleeping sickness is endemic in 36 countries in sub-Saharan Africa but cases have been dropping. Last year [2018] just under 1000 cases were recorded, a new low. The majority of cases are reported in Congo.

Dr Janelisa Misaya, a Malawi College of Medicine principal investigator, underscored the need to control the tsetse fly population. "One tsetse can actually infect a lot of people at once," she said. "So we don't want to take chances." Some villagers expressed concern about the reintroduction of wildlife and the enlargement of the nearby reserve.

The African Parks field operations manager for the reserve, David Robertson, acknowledged that the reintroduction of animals in 2015 led to an increase in tsetse flies. "It is a bit ironic because it is a negative symptom of the success we are having," he said. "By increasing animal numbers, one of the unfortunate consequences could be an increase in tsetse fly numbers. Even though they are a natural part of the system, they contribute to biodiversity." The tsetse flies are something the parks workers need to manage differently, Robertson said. "We don't want to have neighboring communities or tourists to the park having an unpleasant experience or dangerous experience though contact with tsetse flies so we will do our best to manage that in the future."

To address the problem, African Parks in collaboration with Malawi's government has introduced pesticide-impregnated targets and traps that attract the flies. So far 600 have been placed in the wildlife reserve. They are placed near the edge of thickets in areas that will receive morning and evening light but are shaded from the most intense sunlight during midday hours. The area surrounding each is slashed and cleared with hoes to produce a firebreak to protect it from occasional wildfires.

Controlling the flies and animal populations are ways to help fight the disease. More assertive diagnosis and treatment are others. Local medical personnel are receiving more training to screen for and diagnose trypanosomiasis. The community has benefited from African Parks' support for screening efforts, said Tenson Mkumbwa, deputy lab manager at the Nkhotakota District Hospital. "This leads to early diagnosis and treatment," he said.  [byline: Kenneth Jali]
=====================
[ProMED-mail thanks John Frean and Lucille Blumberg for information on trypanosomiasis in wildlife, including elephants.

Many African game animals, including elephants, are reservoirs of _Trypanosoma brucei_. Antelopes are usually emphasised as the most important reservoirs rather than elephants.

The "less than 1000 cases/year" mostly refers to West African trypanosomiasis, which has a different epidemiology and a mainly human population reservoir. There are probably only about 100 cases of East African trypanosomiasis per year (Molyneux DH, Ashford RW. The Biology of _Trypanosoma_ and _Leishmania_. Parasites of Man and Animals. London: Taylor and Francis, 1983. pp. 140-43).

The vector, _Glossina_ spp. or tsetse flies feed on man, and a wide variety of domesticated and wild animals, reptiles, and birds. Thus it seems that it is the overall repopulation of the game reserve with wildlife that is responsible for an increase in the number of tsetse flies and the increase in human cases of trypanosomiasis. - ProMED Mod.EP]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Malawi:
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Mauritania

Mauritania US Consular Information Sheet
September 23, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Mauritania is a developing country in northwestern Africa.
Arabic is the official language, but French is widely used and several local languages are als
spoken.
Tourist facilities in the capital, Nouakchott, are adequate, but limited or non-existent elsewhere.
Read the Department of State Background Notes on Mauritania for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport and a visa are required, as is evidence of a yellow fever vaccination.
For the most current visa information, contact the Embassy of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, 2129 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC
20008, tel. (202) 232-5700, or the Mauritanian Permanent Mission to the UN, 211 East 43rd Street, Suite 2000, New York, NY 10017, telephone (212) 986-7963 or 8189, or e-mail Mauritania@un.int.
Overseas, inquiries should be made at the nearest Mauritanian embassy or consulate.

See our information on dual nationality, the prevention of international child abduction and Customs regulations.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
There is increasing activity by the terrorist group Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) in Mauritania.
On December 24, 2007, terrorists shot and killed four French tourists and wounded a fifth near the town of Aleg, in southeastern Mauritania.
On December 26, 2007, terrorists killed four soldiers near the town of El Ghallaouiya in northern Mauritania.
These two attacks were followed by an attack on the Israeli Embassy and an adjoining nightclub frequented by westerners early in the morning of February 1, 2008.
The perpetrators of these attacks are believed to be linked to AQIM.
These are the first attacks that have occurred in Mauritania since June 2005, when members of the terrorist group GSPC (now known as AQIM) attacked a military outpost based at Lemgheity, near the Algerian and Malian borders.
In the attack, they killed or wounded about 35 soldiers.
Travelers should avoid all non-essential travel to the Hodh El Charghi region of southeastern Mauritania due to increased AQIM activities in the border area.
Official Americans continue to travel to the town of Atar, although AQIM has also talked about targeting Westerners there.
Travelers should check http://mauritania.usembassy.gov for current Consular Warden messages concerning Mauritania.

Travelers should exercise prudence and caution when traveling in Mauritania.
They should not venture outside of urban areas unless in a convoy and accompanied by an experienced guide, and even then only if equipped with sturdy vehicles and ample provisions.
The U.S. Embassy in Nouakchott has received reports of banditry and smuggling in the more remote parts of Mauritania.
Landmines also remain a danger along the border with the Western Sahara and travelers should cross only at designated border posts.
The U.S. Embassy recommends that travelers avoid travel in regions north and east of Zouerate, Ouadane, and Tichit unless with a government escort.
Travelers planning overland trips from Mauritania to Morocco, Algeria, Senegal or Mali should check with the U.S. Embassy in Nouakchott before setting out.
For more information about travel in Mauritania, please see the section “Traffic Safety and Road Conditions” below.

The Mauritanian military led a bloodless coup on August 6, 2008.
There has been increased political unrest following the coup, but no violence.
There have also been increased political gatherings and street demonstrations.
The police have been using tear gas to break up some anti-coup demonstrations.
An increased police presence and additional vehicle controls may also be expected.
U.S. citizens should avoid large crowds and maintain security awareness at all times.

In Nouakchott and other major cities in Mauritania, there is an increased security presence and additional checkpoints.
Police routinely conduct road blocks at which they may ask for proof of identity and drivers’ licenses.
These checkpoints should be respected.
Americans visiting Mauritania should be prepared for such inquiries and carry their identification cards at all times.
It is best to drive cautiously and be prepared to stop at short notice.

American citizens should be aware of their surroundings at all times and maintain good personal security practices, including always locking their homes and cars.
They should avoid established patterns and take care not to draw attention to themselves.
When going out, they should avoid being part of large, highly visible groups of Westerners and when in restaurants or cafes, avoid sitting in areas that are easily visible from the street.

Although U.S. citizens are generally welcomed in Mauritania, there were reports of anti-American incidents such as threats and stoning of vehicles, following the 1998 U.S.- and British-led intervention in Iraq, and demonstrations outside the Embassy during the 2003 U.S. intervention in Iraq.
Some Muslim extremists have occasionally perceived Christian non-governmental organizations as a threat.
However, local authorities closely monitor political violence and religious extremist groups.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affair’s web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Public Announcements, including the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll-free in the U.S. and Canada or, for other callers, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. eastern time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
Crime in Mauritania is moderate but steadily increasing.
Most incidents occur in the cities and larger towns, and are petty crimes such as pick pocketing and the theft of improperly secured and openly visible valuables left in vehicles.
Most criminal activity occurs at night and walking alone at night is not advisable.
Residential burglaries and robberies, particularly at the beaches in Nouakchott, are not uncommon.
In Nouakchott, travelers should avoid the beach at night.
During the day, beach-goers should travel in large groups or stay in popular areas because of the increase in the number of thefts and robberies, some involving injury to victims, reported there in the past several years.
Violent crimes and crimes involving the use of weapons are rare, but increasing.
Rapes and assaults have occurred and, in some instances, involved the American community.
Foreign tourists, including Americans, might be targeted for kidnapping in Mauritania.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you in finding appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends, and explain how funds can be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Medical facilities in Mauritania are limited.
There are few modern clinics or hospitals beyond the capital and a few major towns.
At local pharmacies, some medicines are difficult to obtain; travelers are advised to bring their own supplies.

Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease.
Chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum malaria is a severe form of the disease that is found in many parts of western Africa, including Mauritania.
Because travelers to Mauritania are at high risk for contracting malaria, they should take one of the following anti-malarial drugs:
mefloquine (Lariam™), doxycycline, or atovaquone/proguanil (Malarone™).
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have determined that a traveler who is on an appropriate anti-malarial drug has a greatly reduced chance of contracting the disease.
In addition, other personal protective measures, such as the use of insect repellents, may help to reduce malaria risk.
Travelers who become ill with a fever or flu-like illness while traveling in a malaria-risk area and up to one year after returning home should seek prompt medical attention and tell the physician their travel history and what anti-malarial drugs they have been taking.
For additional information on malaria, protection from insect bites, and anti-malarial drugs, please visit the CDC travelers’ health web site at http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Mauritania is provided for general reference only and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Public transportation is not safe and road conditions in Mauritania are generally poor, particularly in the interior.
Overland travel is difficult and roadside assistance is almost nonexistent.
The country’s size and harsh climate make road maintenance and repair especially problematic.
Mauritania has only about 2,070 km (1,286 miles) of surfaced roads, 710 km (441 miles) of unsurfaced roads, and 5,140 km (3,194 miles) of unimproved tracks.
Drivers should not offer rides to hitchhikers, nor should visitors to Mauritania accept rides offered by strangers.


The traditional route to Nouadhibou, prior to the completion of a paved road, was along the beach during low tide.
Some travelers continue to use this route, as do visitors to coastal fishing villages and other points of interest, and smugglers and others who try to avoid the security checkpoints that are often established along the asphalt roads.
Pedestrian visitors to the beach should exercise caution because of the beach’s use as a route for motorized vehicles.

U.S. citizens traveling overland for long distances in Mauritania should travel in convoys and be sure to have suitable four-wheel drive vehicles, a local guide, an adequate supply of water and food, and a second fuel reservoir.
Multiple vehicles are recommended in case of breakdown.
A Global Position Satellite (GPS) receiver and satellite phone are essential when traveling in remote areas.
Visitors are urged not to travel alone into the desert.

Driving in Mauritania is treacherous, and we encourage travelers to hire a trained local driver.
Traffic patterns differ considerably from American-style “rules of the road,” and many Mauritanians drive without regard to traffic signs or rules.
Roadway obstructions and hazards caused by drifting sand, animals, and poor roads often plague motorists; when combined with the number of untrained drivers and poorly maintained vehicles, heightened caution is imperative at all times.
Drivers should be alert to conditions and always wear their seat belts.
Motorcycle and bicycle riders should wear helmets and protective clothing.
Nighttime driving is discouraged.

The telecommunications infrastructure is limited and cellular telephone coverage is not wide spread.
For those traveling outside the major urban areas, it is recommended to have a satellite telephone readily available.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Mauritania, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Mauritania’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s internet website at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Mauritanian customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning the temporary import or export of items such as firearms, narcotics, alcoholic drinks and pork products.
Contact the Embassy of Mauritania in Washington, DC for specific information regarding customs regulations.

The local currency is the ouguiya, and it may not be imported or exported.
Credit cards can be used only at a few hotels in the capital, Nouakchott, and the northwestern city of Nouadhibou.
ATM machines are available only in Nouakchott.
Major foreign currencies are changeable in banks and numerous currency exchanges; however, this service is not always available without advanced notice or prior arrangement.
There is a risk of getting fraudulent bank notes even from banks which often do not have the security means to detect fake bank notes.
Furthermore, credit card fraud is a problem, so it is strongly advisable to pay hotel bills in cash.

Islamic ideals and beliefs in the country encourage conservative dress.
Sleeved garments and below-the-knee skirts are recommended, and people should avoid wearing shorts.
Please see our Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Mauritania’s laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession or use of, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Mauritania are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Mauritania are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Mauritania. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy is located between the Presidency building and the Spanish Embassy on Rue Abdallaye.
The postal address is B.P. 222, Nouakchott, telephone (222) 525-2660/2663, 525-1141/45, or 525-3038 (ext. 5441), and fax (222) 525-1592.
The Consular Section may be contacted by e-mail at ConsularNKC@state.gov
* * *
This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated April 29, 2008, to update the section on Safety and Security.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Tue, 31 Mar 2020 15:32:42 +0200 (METDST)

Nouakchott, March 31, 2020 (AFP) - Mauritania has declared its first fatality from coronavirus, state media reported on Tuesday, adding to the growing death toll on the African continent.    The victim is a 48-year-old French-Mauritanian dual national who tested positive for the virus after she died, according to the Mauritanian Information Agency.    The woman had been quarantined alongside 16 other French nationals who landed in the West African state in mid-March, in one of the last flights to reach Mauritania before it banned international arrivals.

N'Diaye Mamadou, an official in charge of the isolation centre in the capital Nouakchott, told state TV that the woman's case was unusual because she did not initially present symptoms.   She began to feel ill on Sunday evening, before her condition worsened on Monday morning. She then died en route to hospital on Monday, Mamadou said.    France's embassy in Nouakchott said on Tuesday that it had been in contact with the woman, but that it had been unaware of her worsening health.

Mauritania has recorded six coronavirus cases in total, two of which have recovered.    The government has also ordered a night-time curfew and stopped travel between its 13 regions in a bird to curb the spread of the virus.     The African continent has recorded over 5,300 coronavirus cases to date, according to an AFP tally, of whom 171 have died.
Date: Sat, 14 Mar 2020 01:44:10 +0100 (MET)

Nouakchott, March 14, 2020 (AFP) - Mauritania has confirmed its first case of novel coronavirus, the country's health minister said on Friday, adding to the growing number of cases in West Africa.   In a televised statement, Health Minister Mohamed Nedhirou Ould Hamed said the case involved a foreigner who tested positive on Friday.   "He was immediately isolated and the state has all the means at its disposal to take care of those suffering from the virus," the minister said.   A statement from the health ministry, also released on Friday, said the man was an expatriate who had flown into Mauritania from Europe on Monday.   He isolated himself after a friend in Europe tested positive for the virus, the statement added.    Health officials discovered he was feverish on Friday morning and he was confirmed positive for coronavirus later in the evening.

The health minister also promised, in his televised address, that the government would stop charter flights coming to Mauritania from France.   The West African state of Guinea registered its first coronavirus case on Friday too.    And Senegal, which shares a border with Mauritania, registered 11 new coronavirus infections on Friday, bringing its total number to 19.    Ivory Coast, Ghana, Burkina Faso and Nigeria have all also recently registered coronavirus cases.    Gabon, which announced its first case earlier this week, said Friday it would close schools for two weeks and stop issuing tourist visas to areas hit by the pandemic.
Date: Mon 30 Apr 2018
Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]
<http://outbreaknewstoday.com/crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-case-reported-mauritania-28755/>

The Mauritania Ministry of Health has reported a confirmed case of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever [CCHF] in Ould Yengé commune, Guidimaka region located in the southern-most part of the country. The case-patient is a 58-year-old male herder from Elghabra locality who became ill on [16 Apr 2018] (reportedly) after tending to a sick cow days earlier. He presented to a private clinic the same day [16 Apr 2018] with high fever, arthralgia and headache. He was admitted, managed for an unspecified medical condition and discharged on [18 Apr 2018].

The following day [19 Apr 2018], he developed bleeding from the gums and nose, and was admitted to the regional hospital where he was transfused and subsequently discharged on [20 Apr 2018], following an apparent clinical improvement. On [21 Apr 2018], the case-patient's health deteriorated and he was taken to Guerou health centre, from where he was immediately referred to Cheikh Zayed hospital in Nouakchott on [22 Apr 2018].

A blood specimen was obtained and shipped to the national public health laboratory. The test result released on [24 Apr 2018] was IgM positive for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever. A total of 32 close contacts, including 10 health workers and 4 family members, have been listed and are being followed up. Efforts to identify other close contacts are ongoing.

The case-patient used public transportation and a taxi at various stages of his movement during the course of illness. Preliminary investigations also established that all the 4 healthcare facilities that managed the case-patient did not apply appropriate infection prevention and control measures, potentially indicating a higher number of contacts.

According to the WHO, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever is a widespread disease caused by a tick-borne virus (_Nairovirus_) of the _Bunyaviridae_ family. The CCHF virus causes severe viral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks, with a case fatality rate of 10-40 percent. CCHF is endemic in Africa, the Balkans, the Middle East and Asian countries south of the 50th parallel north - the geographical limit of the principal tick vector.

The hosts of the CCHF virus include a wide range of wild and domestic animals such as cattle, sheep and goats. Animals become infected by the bite of infected ticks and the virus remains in their bloodstream for about one week after infection, allowing the tick-animal-tick cycle to continue when another tick bites.

Although a number of tick genera are capable of becoming infected with CCHF virus, ticks of the genus _Hyalomma_ are the principal vector. The CCHF virus is transmitted to people either by tick bites or through contact with infected animal blood or tissues during and immediately after slaughter. The majority of cases have occurred in people involved in the livestock industry, such as agricultural workers, slaughterhouse workers and veterinarians. Human-to-human transmission is possible.
=======================
[There is need to emphasize inter-sectoral collaboration involving health, veterinary and entomology/environmental services to map the areas of vector distribution. Furthermore, awareness messages among the high exposure groups should be widespread as CCHF vector propagates from May onwards leading to higher transmission rates in summer. - ProMED Mod.UBA]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Guidimaka Region, Mauritania: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/25044>]
Date: Mon 27 Nov 2017
Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]

Following cases of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) reported this spring and summer [2017], the Mauritania Ministry of Health has reported an addition CCHF case last week [week ending Sun 26 Nov 2017] in a 48-year-old male farmer from Haye Sakin community in Dar Nairn, at the outskirt of the capital city, Nouakchott. He fell sick on the [11 Nov 2017] and was later treated and discharged last week.  The frequency of these events affirms the relative prevalence of the pathogen and the reservoir and vector for CCHF virus (Hyalomma ticks) in the country.

According to the WHO, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a widespread disease caused by a tick-borne virus (Nairovirus) of the _Bunyaviridae_ family. The CCHF virus causes severe viral haemorrhagic fever outbreaks, with a case fatality rate of 10-40 percent.  CCHF is endemic in Africa, the Balkans, the Middle East and Asian countries south of the 50th parallel north - the geographical limit of the principal tick vector. The hosts of the CCHF virus include a wide range of wild and domestic animals such as cattle, sheep and goats.

Animals become infected by the bite of infected ticks and the virus remains in their bloodstream for about one week after infection, allowing the tick-animal-tick cycle to continue when another tick bites. Although a number of tick genera are capable of becoming infected with CCHF virus, ticks of the genus _Hyalomma_ are the principal vector.

The CCHF virus is transmitted to people either by tick bites or through contact with infected animal blood or tissues during and immediately after slaughter. The majority of cases have occurred in people involved in the livestock industry, such as agricultural workers, slaughterhouse workers and veterinarians. Human-to-human transmission is possible.
=========================
[Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), an acute viral disease in humans, is characterized by extensive ecchymoses, bleeding, and hepatic dysfunction and is associated with a 30 percent case-fatality ratio (World Health Organization Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever. Fact sheet no. 208. Geneva: the Organization; 1998). It is caused by CCHF virus (genus _Nairovirus_, family _Bunyaviridae_).

CCHF is a zoonosis transmitted to large and small mammals and birds by ticks. Although the virus has been isolated from several genera and species of ixodid ticks, the main group of vectors involved in CCHF virus transmission appears to be ticks of the genus _Hyalomma_ (Hoogstraal H. The epidemiology of tick-borne Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Asia, Europe, and Africa. J Med Entomol. 1979;15(4):307-417.). Immature ticks acquire the virus by feeding on infected small vertebrates. Once infected, they remain infected throughout their development and, when they are mature, transmit the infection to large animals, such as livestock. Transovarian transmission has also been demonstrated.

The circulation of CCHF virus and the high prevalence of infected animals and ticks have been well documented in Mauritanian farming areas since 1983 (Gonzalez JP, LeGuenno B, Guillaud M, Wilson ML. A fatal case of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Mauritania: virological and serological evidence suggesting epidemic transmission. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1990;84(4):573-6).

Mauritania experienced a fairly large CCHF outbreak in 2003, involving 38 cases with a case fatality rate of 28.6 percent. Over 90 percent of the cases (35/38) were resident in Nouakchott. In 2017, the WHO reported confirmation of a 3rd CCHF case in Boutilimit as well as in 2 patients referred from Mauritania to Dakar, Senegal who tested positive between May and June 2017. These cases had also originated from the capital city Nouakchott. This may be indicative of the relative prevalence of the reservoir and vector for the CCHF virus (Hyalomma ticks) in the country.

Even though the country has established adequate diagnostic capacity, which facilitated rapid confirmation of cases; the national authorities and partners need to carry out extensive outbreak investigations, including seroprevalence studies, to determine the potential risk for continued CCHF outbreaks in humans and institute effective prevention and control measures, with a strong animal health component  (<http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/258794/1/OEW34-192582017.pdf>).

The case reported in this report is a farmer admitted in early
November [2017], however no exposure history is mentioned. - ProMED Mod.UBA]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map Nouakchott, Nouakchott, Mauritania:
Date: 28 Aug 2017
Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]

On 24 Aug 2017, the Mauritania Ministry of Health notified WHO of a confirmed case of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in a 47-year-old shepherd, from Arafat Village in Mohammedia, Boutilimit Prefecture, located about 150 km southeast of the capital, Nouakchott.

In May 2017, health officials reported 2 imported cases of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Senegal imported from Mauritania. A 3rd imported case was reported in June 2017.

He developed headache, muscle and joints pains and diarrhea on 20 Aug 2017 and sought medical attention. He was treated with anti-malarial medicines and analgesics.

After 2 days, he returned for medical care as his condition worsened. He was tested for CCHF because of bleeding manifestations and was IgM positive for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The patient is still hospitalized and in stable clinical condition.

Mauritania experienced a fairly large CCHF outbreak in 2003, involving 38 cases with a case fatality rate of 28.6 percent. According to the WHO, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a widespread disease caused by a tick-borne virus (Nairovirus) of the Bunyaviridae family. The CCHF virus causes severe viral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks, with a case fatality rate of 10-40 percent.

CCHF is endemic in Africa, the Balkans, the Middle East and Asian countries south of the 50th parallel north, the geographical limit of the principal tick vector. The hosts of the CCHF virus include a wide range of wild and domestic animals such as cattle, sheep and goats.

Animals become infected by the bite of infected ticks, and the virus remains in their bloodstream for about one week after infection, allowing the tick-animal-tick cycle to continue when another tick bites. Although a number of tick genera are capable of becoming infected with CCHF virus, ticks of the genus _Hyalomma_ are the principal vectors.

The CCHF virus is transmitted to people either by tick bites or through contact with infected animal blood or tissues during and immediately after slaughter. The majority of cases have occurred in people involved in the livestock industry, such as agricultural workers, slaughterhouse workers and veterinarians. Human-to-human transmission is possible.  [Byline:  Robert Herriman]
==================
[An outbreak of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever was documented in Nouakchott, the capital of Mauritania in 2003. The index case was detected on 18 Feb 2003. By 21 Mar 2003, the Ministry of Health of Mauritania had reported a total of 35 cases (18 laboratory confirmed) of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF), including 6 deaths [Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever - Mauritania (04) http://promedmail.org/post/20030324.0732].

In the period from February to August 2003, 38 persons were infected with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus; 35 of these persons were residents of Nouakchott. The 1st patient was a young woman who became ill shortly after butchering a goat. She transmitted the infection to 15 persons in the hospital where she was admitted and 4 members of her family. In Nouakchott, 2 disease clusters and 11 isolated cases were identified. Of the patients not infected by the 1st case-patient, almost half were butchers, which suggests that the primary mode of animal-to-human transmission was direct contact with blood of infected animals.

Cattle heavily infested with ticks were more likely to be CCHFV seropositive, and vector control to reduce the tick burden can result in reduced seroprevalence. Cattle are noted as the most sensitive indicator of low-level CCHFV circulation because they tend to be highly infested with _Hyalomma_ spp. ticks, which are the most common vectors of CCHF  [<http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0004210>].

The circulation of CCHF virus and the high prevalence of infected animals and ticks have been well documented in Mauritanian farming areas since 1983 [Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and Rift Valley fever in south-eastern Mauritania. Saluzzo JF, Digoutte JP, Camicas JL, Chauvancy G Lancet. 1985 Jan 12; 1(8420):116].

Since then, this is the latest case reported from that country, with history of exposure to livestock. - ProMed Mod.UBA]

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/13859>.]
More ...

World Travel News Headlines

Date: Tue, 26 May 2020 09:15:57 +0200 (METDST)

Riyadh, May 26, 2020 (AFP) - Saudi Arabia will end its nationwide coronavirus curfew from June 21, except in the holy city of Mecca, the interior ministry said Tuesday, after more than two months of stringent curbs.   Prayers will also be allowed to resume in all mosques outside Mecca from May 31, the ministry said in a series of measures announced on the official Saudi Press Agency.   The kingdom, which has reported the highest number of virus cases in the Gulf, imposed a full nationwide curfew during Eid al-Fitr, the Muslim holiday that marks the end of the fasting month of Ramadan.

The ministry said it will begin easing restrictions in a phased manner this week, with the curfew relaxed between 6 am and 3 pm between Thursday and Saturday.   From Sunday until June 20, the curfew will be further eased until 8 pm, the ministry added.   The kingdom will lift the lockdown entirely from June 21.   "Starting from Thursday, the kingdom will enter a new phase (in dealing with the pandemic) and will gradually return to normal based on the rules of social distancing," Health Minister Tawfiq Al-Rabiah said on Monday.   Saudi Arabia has reported around 75,000 coronavirus infections and some 400 deaths from COVID-19.

In March, Saudi Arabia suspended the year-round "umrah" pilgrimage over fears of the disease spreading in Islam's holiest cities.   That suspension will remain in place, the interior ministry said.   Authorities are yet to announce whether they will proceed with this year's hajj -- scheduled for late July -- but they have urged Muslims to temporarily defer preparations for the annual pilgrimage.   Last year, some 2.5 million faithful travelled to Saudi Arabia from around the world to participate in the hajj, which Muslims are obliged to perform at least once during their lifetime.
Date: Tue, 26 May 2020 05:52:24 +0200 (METDST)

Santiago, May 26, 2020 (AFP) - Chile registered a new high for coronavirus cases on Monday, with nearly 5,000 infections in 24 hours, including two ministers in President Sebastian Pinera's government.   Health authorities announced 4,895 new infections in the South American country and 43 deaths.

Public Works Minister Alfredo Moreno and Energy Minister Juan Carlos Jobet said they were among those with the disease.   "I have been informed that the COVID-19 test I had a few days ago was positive," Moreno said on Twitter, adding that he had no symptoms so far.   The 63-year-old minister had placed himself in quarantine after one of his staff tested positive.  Jobet also tested positive after starting to quarantine preventatively on Saturday, "when he experienced mild symptoms, which could be associated with the disease," a statement from the Energy Ministry said.

The 44-year-old minister "has had no direct contact with President Sebastian Pinera or other cabinet members in recent days," the statement said, without specifying how he became infected.   Three other ministers, who had self-quarantined after being in contact with infected people, all tested negative and resumed work.

Chile suffered a surge in infections last week, prompting the government to order the lockdown of Santiago.   The capital is the main focus of the pandemic in Chile, with 90 percent of the country's 74,000 cases.   Last week, the Senate was closed after three senators tested positive for the coronavirus. Sessions were held by video conference.
Date: Tue, 26 May 2020 01:15:01 +0200 (METDST)

Quito, May 25, 2020 (AFP) - Demonstrators defied coronavirus restrictions to march in cities across Ecuador on Monday in protest against President Lenin Moreno's drastic economic measures to tackle the crisis.   Moreno last week announced public spending cuts including the closure of state companies and embassies around the world, but trade unions Monday said workers were paying a disproportionate price compared to Ecuador's elite.   "This protest is because the government is firing workers to avoid making the rich pay," Mecias Tatamuez, head of the county's largest union, the Unitary Front of Workers (FUT), told reporters at a march in Quito.

Around 2,000 people marched in the capital, waving flags and banners and shouting anti-government slogans.   The protesters wore masks and respected distancing measures recommended against the spread of the coronavirus that has caused at least 3,200 deaths in the country, making it South America's worst hit nation per capita. Authorities say more than 2,000 further deaths are likely linked to the virus.

Demonstrations took place in several other cities, including Guayaquil, the epicentre of Ecuador's health crisis, where union leaders said hundreds marched through the city.   Moreno ordered the closure of Ecuadoran embassies, a reduction in diplomatic staff and scrapped seven state companies as part of measures designed to save some $4 billion.    He also announced the liquidation of the TAME airline, which has lost more than $400 million over the last five years.

The government says the pandemic has so far cost the economy at least $8 billion.   Public sector working hours have been cut by 25 percent, with an accompanying 16 percent pay cut.   Moreno said on Sunday that 150,000 people had lost their jobs because of the coronavirus.   Ecuador was struggling economically before the pandemic hit, due to high debt and its dependence on oil.   The IMF predicts that the economy will shrink by 6.3 percent this year, the sharpest drop of any country in South America.
Date: Mon, 25 May 2020 22:20:46 +0200 (METDST)

Dublin, May 25, 2020 (AFP) - Ireland recorded no new deaths from the coronavirus on Monday for the first time since March 21.   Prime Minister Leo Varadkar called it a "significant milestone", adding on Twitter: "This is a day of hope. We will prevail."

The announcement came one week after Ireland, which has suffered 1,606 deaths from 24,698 infections, began to ease lockdown measures that had been in place for nearly two months.   Ireland entered lockdown in late March, recording a peak of 77 deaths on a single day on April 20.   "In the last 24 hours we didn't have any deaths notified to us," chief medical officer Tony Holohan said at a daily press briefing.   He warned that the zero figure could be a result of a lag in reporting of deaths over the weekend, but he added: "It's part of the continued trend that we've seen in (the) reduction in the total number of deaths."

Ireland has announced a five-step plan to reopen the nation by August and took the first steps last Monday -- allowing outdoor employees to return to work, some shops to reopen and the resumption of  activities such as golf and tennis.   While the news of no fresh deaths was greeted as progress, officials remain concerned there will be a "second wave" as the lockdown is loosened.   "The number of new cases and reported deaths over the past week indicates that we have suppressed COVID-19 as a country," Holohan added in a statement.   "It will take another week to see any effect on disease incidence that might arise from the easing of measures."
Date: Mon, 25 May 2020 21:59:40 +0200 (METDST)

Luxembourg, May 25, 2020 (AFP) - Luxembourg will ease its coronavirus restrictions on Wednesday, reopening cafes and restaurants and allowing civil and religious ceremonies under strict conditions, the government announced.   The tiny country has so far registered only 3,993 COVID-19 cases, of which 110 have been fatal. Four people are in intensive care and shops were closed on March 18 to slow the spread of the new coronavirus.

Prime Minister Xavier Bettel told a news conference on Monday that eateries could reopen terraces with a maximum of four people at a single table.   Indoor dining in cafes and restaurants will resume on Friday, he said, with social distancing of 1.5 metres (five feet) between groups.   Marriages and funerals will also be allowed if the attendees wore face masks and kept two metres distance from each other.   Bettel however said cafes and restaurants would have to close at midnight.

Francois Koepp, the general secretary of the Horeca federation grouping hotels, restaurants and cafes, welcomed the announcement, saying the sector had "greatly suffered from the confinement".   He said it provided employment to some 21,000 people in this nation of 620,000 inhabitants.   Cinema theatres and gyms will open at the end of the week but children's parks will remain closed.   The government has pledged to give every citizen over 16 a voucher worth 50 euros ( $54) to spend in hotels to provide a boost to the sector.   The vouchers will also be given to some 200,000 cross border workers from Belgium, France and Germany.
Date: Mon, 25 May 2020 20:36:16 +0200 (METDST)

Prague, May 25, 2020 (AFP) - The Czech Republic and Slovakia will reopen their border this week for those travelling to the other country for up to 48 hours, Czech Prime Minister Andrej Babis said Monday.   "This will be possible without tests or quarantine" starting Wednesday, he added in a message posted on Twitter.   The Czech Republic and Slovakia formed a single country until 1993. Babis himself was born in the Slovak capital of Bratislava.

Both countries have fared well in the current pandemic, with Slovakia posting the lowest death toll per capita in the EU and the Czech Republic keeping its COVID-19 figures down as well.   The Czech government will also open border crossings with Austria and Germany on Tuesday but will still require negative COVID-19 tests from those entering the country.   "We have negotiated similar conditions on the other side of the border with our German and Austrian colleagues," Interior Minister Jan Hamacek said.   The interior ministry said blanket border checks would be replaced by random ones and added it would still not allow tourists into the country.

Czech Health Minister Adam Vojtech said the government was working on other measures to ease the travel restrictions adopted in mid-March.   "We would like to introduce them next week," he added.   Vojtech said EU citizens could now come to the Czech Republic "on business or to visit their family for a maximum of 72 hours if they submit a negative coronavirus test."

The country is also accessible to non-EU citizens who do seasonal jobs there, on condition they have tested negative.   Czech restaurants, bars, hotels, castles, zoos and swimming pools have been open since Monday, when the government lifted many anti-virus measures.   Czechs also no longer have to wear face masks outside their homes, except in shops and on public transport.
Date: Mon, 25 May 2020 17:45:38 +0200 (METDST)
By Shafiqul ALAM

Dhaka, May 25, 2020 (AFP) - Some 15,000 Rohingya refugees are now under coronavirus quarantine in Bangladesh's vast camps, officials said Monday, as the number of confirmed infections rose to 29.   Health experts have long warned that the virus could race through the cramped settlements, housing almost a million Muslims who fled violence in Myanmar, and officials had restricted movement to the area in April.

Despite this, the first cases in the camps were detected in mid-May.   "None of the infections are critical. Most hardly show any symptoms. Still we have brought them in isolation centres and quarantined their families," Toha Bhuiyan, a senior health official in the surrounding Cox's Bazar area told AFP.   He said narrow roads to three districts of the camps -- where the majority of the infections were detected -- have been blocked off by authorities.

The 15,000 Rohingya inside these so-called blocks faced further restrictions on their movement, he said.   It comes as charity workers expressed fears over being infected in the camps as they worked without adequate protection.   Two of the areas under isolation are in Kutupalong camp, home to roughly 600,000 Rohingya.   "We are trying to scale up testing as fast as possible to make sure that we can trace out all the infected people and their contacts," Bhuiyan said.

Seven isolation centres with the capacity to treat more than 700 COVID-19 patients have been prepared, he said.   Officials hope to have just under 2,000 ready by the end of May, he added.   Mahbubur Rahman, the chief health official of Cox's Bazar, said authorities hoped this week they would double the number of tests being performed daily from 188.   He said further entry restrictions have been imposed on the camp, with a 14 day quarantine in place for anyone visiting from Dhaka.   "We are very worried because the Rohingya camps are very densely populated. We suspect community transmission (of the virus) has already begun," Rahman told AFP.

- 'Very little awareness' -
Bangladesh on Monday notched up a record single-day spike in coronavirus cases, with 1,975 new infections, taking the toll to 35,585 cases and 501 deaths.   In early April authorities imposed a complete lockdown on Cox's Bazar district -- home to 3.4 million people including the refugees -- after a number of infections.

But a charity worker with one of the many aid organisations active in the camps said Monday he and many others were "very worried".   "Fear and panic has gripped aid workers because many of us were forced to work without much protection," he told AFP without wishing to be named.   "Social distancing is almost impossible in the camps. There is very little awareness about COVID-19 disease among the refugees, despite efforts by aid agencies."

The lack of information is exacerbated by local authorities having cut off access to the internet in September to combat, they said, drug traffickers and other criminals.   More than 740,000 Rohingya fled a brutal 2017 military crackdown in Myanmar to Cox's Bazar, where around 200,000 refugees were already living.
Date: Mon, 25 May 2020 15:25:38 +0200 (METDST)

Antananarivo, May 25, 2020 (AFP) - Madagascar's government has announced it will dispatch troops and doctors to an eastern town after several bodies were found in the streets and where two people died from the novel coronavirus.   Madagascar's cabinet held a special meeting on Sunday to discuss the situation in Toamasina, the country's second largest city.   The Indian Ocean island nation has registered 527 infections and two deaths, both in Toamasina.

Since Thursday, more than 120 new cases were confirmed, and several bodies were found in the city's streets though the cause of death was not clear.   "Doctors must carry out thorough examinations to see if these deaths are caused by another illness (...) or if they are really due to severe acute respiratory problems which is the critical form of COVID-19," Professor Hanta Marie Danielle Vololontiana, spokesperson for the government's virus taskforce, said in a national broadcast on Sunday.   The government will send 150 soldiers to reinforce Toamasina, maintain order and enforce measures against the coronavirus such as mask wearing and social distancing.

The cabinet also fired Toamasina's prefect without providing any explanation.    A team was also ordered to distribute a drink based on artemisia, a plant recognised as a treatment against malaria, which the Malagasy authorities claim cures COVID-19.    The potential benefits of this herbal tea, called Covid-Organics, have not been validated by any scientific study.    The cabinet has also announced an investigation into the death of a doctor in Toamasina. According to local press, the victim was hospitalised after contracting COVID-19 and was found dead hanged in his room on Sunday morning.
Date: Mon, 25 May 2020 09:20:17 +0200 (METDST)
By Bhuvan Bagga with Indranil Mukherjee in Mumbai

New Delhi, May 25, 2020 (AFP) - Domestic flights resumed in India on Monday even as coronavirus cases surge, while confusion about quarantine rules prompted jitters among passengers and the cancellation of dozens of planes.   India had halted all flights within the country, and departing and leaving for abroad, in late March as it sought to stop the spread of coronavirus with the world's largest lockdown.   But desperate to get Asia's third-largest economy moving again, the government announced last week that around 1,050 daily flights -- a third of the usual capacity -- would resume on Monday.

Aviation Minister Hardeep Singh Puri said strict rules would include mandatory mask-wearing and thermal screenings, although middle seats on the aircraft would not be kept empty.   The announcement reportedly caught airlines and state authorities off-guard, with several local governments announcing that passengers would have to go into quarantine for two weeks on arrival.   Maharashtra, the Indian state with the highest number of coronavirus cases, capped at 50 the number of departures and arrivals in and out of its capital Mumbai.

Airlines scrapped dozens of flights on Monday while hundreds of passengers cancelled their bookings, reports said.   The NDTV news channel said 82 flights to and from New Delhi had been cancelled and nine at Bangalore airport.   Other flights from cities including infection hotspots Mumbai and Chennai were struck off, many at short notice, reports said.   At Mumbai airport social distancing was forgotten as irate passengers harangued staff after their flights were cancelled at the last minute.

- 'Really scary' -
At New Delhi airport, hundreds of people anxious to get home but apprehensive about the risks queued from before dawn -- all wearing masks and standing at least one metre (three feet) apart.   Security personnel behind plastic screens verified check-in documents and that passengers had the government contact tracing app, Aarogya Setu, on their phones.

"While I'm looking forward (to flying home), the idea of flying is really scary," student Gladia Laipubam told AFP as she stood in line.   "Anything can happen. It's very risky. I don't really know when I'll be able to come back to Delhi now. There is no clarity from the university too at this time."   One female airline employee wearing gloves, a mask and a protective face shield said she and many other colleagues felt "very nervous" about starting work again.   "Dealing with so many people at this time is so risky. I must have interacted with at least 200 people since this morning," she told AFP, not wishing to be named.

Cabin crew on the planes had to wear full protective suits with masks, plastic visors and blue rubber gloves, and many were also confused about the rules, the Press Trust of India reported.   "There is no clarity on whether I need to go into home quarantine for 14 days after returning to my base or show up for duty on Monday," one pilot told PTI.   New coronavirus cases in India crossed 6,000 for the third consecutive day on Sunday, surging to a record single-day spike of 6,767 infections.   The country has recorded almost 140,000 cases and over 4,000 deaths.   Singh has said that international flights could resume in June, although dozens of special flights have in recent weeks brought back some of the hundreds of thousands of Indians stuck abroad.
Date: Fri, 22 May 2020 11:02:28 +0200 (METDST)

Suva, Fiji, May 22, 2020 (AFP) - A huge fire at one of Suva's largest markets blanketed the Fijian capital in thick smoke before it was brought under control Friday, firefighters said.   The blaze engulfed the Suva Flea Market, a major tourist attraction near the waterfront, sending plumes of acrid black smoke into the air.   The National Fire Authority said an adjoining shop was also badly damaged but there were no reports of injuries.   "It's been stopped now and no one was injured but that's all we can say at the moment," a spokesman told AFP.   The said the cause of the fire was being investigated.