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Antigua and Barbuda

Antigua and Barbuda - US Consular Information Sheet
April 02, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Antigua and Barbuda is a dual island nation known for its beaches, and is a favorite destination for yachtsmen.
Tourist facilities are widely avai
able.
English is the primary language.
Banking facilities and ATMs are available throughout the island.
Read the Department of State Background Notes on Antigua and Barbuda for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
All Americans traveling by air outside the United States are required to present a passport or other valid travel document to enter or re-enter the United States.
This requirement will be extended to sea travel (except closed loop cruises), including ferry service, by the summer of 2009.
Until then, U.S. citizens traveling by sea must have government-issued photo identification and a document showing their U.S. citizenship (for example, a birth certificate or certificate of nationalization), or other WHTI compliant document such as a passport card for entry or re-entry to the U.S.
Sea travelers should also check with their cruise line and countries of destination for any foreign entry requirements.

Applications for the new U.S. Passport Card are now being accepted.
We expect cards will be available and mailed to applicants in spring 2008.
The card may not be used to travel by air and is available only to U.S. citizens. Further information on the Passport Card is available at http://travel.state.gov/passport/ppt_card/ppt_card_3926.html and upcoming changes to U.S. passport policy can be found on the Bureau of Consular Affairs web site at http://travel.state.gov/travel/cbpmc/cbpmc_2223.html.
We strongly encourage all American citizen travelers to apply for a U.S. passport well in advance of anticipated travel.
American citizens can visit travel.state.gov or call 1-877-4USA-PPT (1-877-487-2778) for information on how to apply for their passports.

Immigration officials are strict about getting exact information about where visitors are staying, and will often request to see a return ticket or ticket for onward travel, as well as proof of sufficient funds to cover the cost of the visitor’s intended stay.
There is a departure tax payable when departing the country.
For further information on entry requirements, travelers can contact the Embassy of Antigua and Barbuda, 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC
20016, telephone (202) 362-5122, or consulates in Miami.
Additional information may be found on the home page of the Antigua and Barbuda Department of Tourism at http://www.antigua-barbuda.org.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Worldwide Caution, Travel Warnings, and Travel Alerts can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
Petty street crime does occur, and valuables left unattended on beaches, in rental cars or in hotel rooms are vulnerable to theft.
There has been an increase in crime in Antigua, including violent crimes, in the last six months.
However, this increase has not, for the most part, affected visitors to the island.
The Government of Antigua and Barbuda has taken steps to improve the effectiveness of the police in responding to crimes.
As everywhere, visitors to Antigua and Barbuda are advised to be alert and maintain the same level of personal security used when visiting major U.S. cities.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
There are many qualified doctors in Antigua and Barbuda, but medical facilities are limited to a public hospital and a private clinic and are not up to U.S. standards.
The principal medical facility on Antigua is Holberton Hospital, on Hospital Road, St. John's (telephone (268) 462-0251).
There is no hyperbaric chamber; divers requiring treatment for decompression illness must be evacuated from the island, to either Saba or Guadeloupe.
Serious medical problems requiring hospitalization and/or medical evacuation to the United States can cost thousands of dollars.
Doctors and hospitals often expect immediate cash payment for health services, and U.S. medical insurance is not always valid outside the United States.
U.S. Medicare and Medicaid programs do not provide payment for medical services outside the United States.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Antigua and Barbuda is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Traffic in Antigua and Barbuda moves on the left.
Major roads are generally in good condition, but drivers may encounter wandering animals and slow moving heavy equipment.
There is relatively little police enforcement of traffic regulations.
Buses and vans are frequently crowded and may travel at excessive speeds.
Automobiles may lack working safety and signaling devices, such as brake lights.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
For specific information concerning Antigua and Barbuda driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax, and mandatory insurance, contact the Antigua and Barbuda national tourist organization offices in New York via e-mail at info@antigua-barbuda.org.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Antigua and Barbuda’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Antigua and Barbuda’s air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Like all Caribbean countries, Antigua can be affected by hurricanes. The hurricane season normally runs from June to the end of November, but there have been hurricanes in December in recent years.
General information about natural disaster preparedness is available via the Internet from the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) at http://www.fema.gov/.
Please see Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Antigua and Barbuda laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Antigua and Barbuda are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.
REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Antigua and Barbuda are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site, https://travelregistration.state.gov/, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Antigua and Barbuda.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy in Bridgetown in located in the Wildey Business Park in suburban Wildey, south and east of downtown Bridgetown.
The main number for the Consular Section is (246) 431-0225; after hours, the Embassy duty officer can be reached by calling (246) 436-4950.
The web site for Embassy Bridgetown is http://barbados.usembassy.gov/. Hours of operation are 8:30 a.m. - 4:00 p.m., Monday-Friday, except local and U.S. holidays.

The U.S. Consular Agent, Rebecca Simon, in Antigua provides passport, citizenship and notarial services, and assists Americans in distress.
The Consular Agency is located in Suite #2, Jasmine Court, Friars Hill Rd, St. John’s, Antigua.
Contact information is as follows: telephone 1-268-463-6531, cellular 1-268-726-6531, or e-mail ANUWndrGyal@aol.com. The mailing address is P.O. Box W-1562, St. John’s, Antigua. The Consular Agent is available by appointment only.
The office is closed for local and U.S. Holidays.
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This replaces the Country Specific Information for Antigua and Barbuda dated April 2, 2007, to update sections on Entry/Exit Requirements, Safety and Security, Medical Facilities and Health Information, Traffic Safety and Road Conditions, and Crime.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Wed, 21 Mar 2018 18:14:27 +0100
By Gemma Handy

St. John's, Antigua and Barbuda, March 21, 2018 (AFP) - Voters in the hurricane-wracked twin island nation of Antigua and Barbuda headed to the polls Wednesday to elect a new government after Prime Minister Gaston Browne called snap elections.   Browne's Antigua Barbuda Labour Party, which has led the eastern Caribbean country since 2014, is widely expected to secure a second consecutive term.   The prime minister announced general elections on February 24, 15 months before a constitutionally mandated deadline, giving opposition parties less than four weeks to prepare.

And there will be no polling stations on Barbuda, which was battered by Hurricane Irma in September.    As a result, the estimated 400 Barbudans who have since returned home will have to travel to Antigua to cast their ballot. The government has promised to pay for related transport, accommodation and meal expenses.   Just over 51,000 Antiguans and Barbudans are eligible to vote. Voter turnout was around 90 percent in 2014.

Browne says the government wants to protect half a billion US dollars worth of developments currently under construction in the tourism-dependent country, and provide investors with stability.    One of the most prominent -- and controversial -- projects is a $250 million mega resort being built by Hollywood star Robert De Niro on Barbuda which was devastated by Hurricane Irma in September.   Lowering the cost of living in the country of 100,000 people is high on the
agenda.

- Ruling party dominates -
Browne, a former businessman and banker, has pledged to reduce electricity bills, along with the cost of land, and provide more affordable housing, under the slogan "Rebuilding Together." His wife Maria is also running for a seat on an ABLP ticket.   On Sunday, thousands of Browne's supporters donned the party's red colours and walked alongside a motorcade in an event that culminated in a public rally.   The "Delivering Hope" campaign of the main opposition group, the United Progressive Party (UPP), cites revitalization of the tourism and agricultural sectors as key priorities.

Fifty-three candidates will vie for seats in the 17 single-member constituencies -- of which the ABLP currently holds 14 -- in a first-past-the-post system.    The ruling party is alone in presenting a full slate of 17 candidates. The UPP, led by former finance minister Harold Lovell, has put forward 16.    A new party, the Democratic National Alliance, headed by current lawmaker and former UPP representative Joanne Massiah has registered 13 candidates.    There is a handful of smaller parties, a single independent runner and one representing the Barbuda People's Movement (BPM) contesting the small island's sole seat.

Polling stations opened at 6:00 am (1000 GMT) and are due to close at 6:00 pm. Alcohol sales are restricted during those hours and all public schools are closed, as many are serving as polling stations.   Teams representing the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) are observing the elections.   On its path through the Caribbean in September, Irma caused "absolute devastation" on Barbuda where up to 30 percent of properties were demolished, and 95 percent damaged, Browne had said at the time.    After a 10-year hiatus, voters returned Browne's Labour Party to power during the last ballot four years ago, when he pledged to economically transform the country.   The country became fully independent from Britain in 1981.
Date: Sun, 25 Feb 2018 08:04:27 +0100

Georgetown, Guyana, Feb 25, 2018 (AFP) - Antigua and Barbuda, a hurricane-ravaged Caribbean tourist destination, will go to the polls next month more than a year earlier than scheduled, the prime minister said on Saturday.   The two-island nation's parliamentary elections were scheduled for June 2019, but will now be held on March 21, Gaston Browne said.   Voters will select the 17 members of Antigua and Barbuda's House of Representatives, its lower house. Members of the Senate are appointed.   "Our primary focus for calling elections early is not about politics but is about your development. God forbid for there to be change in government," Browne said on radio.

After a 10-year hiatus, voters returned Browne's Labour Party to power during the last ballot in 2014, when he pledged to economically transform the country.   On Saturday, Browne said there had been "significant gains" since and that the government wanted to guard against unpredictability in the investment climate.   He cited cheaper housing for ordinary people, better roads, two Marriott-branded hotels, as well as a new airport on the island of Barbuda, which was battered last year by Hurricane Irma.   On its path through the Caribbean in September, Irma caused "absolute devastation" on Barbuda where up to 30 percent of properties were demolished, and 95 percent damaged, Browne had said at the time.    Labour has ruled Antigua and Barbuda almost continuously since 1949. The country became fully independent from Britain in 1981.
Date: Sat, 9 Sep 2017 18:35:21 +0200
By Gemma Handy

Codrington, Antigua and Barbuda, Sept 9, 2017 (AFP) - Homes, shops and government buildings were destroyed when Hurricane Irma slammed the Caribbean island of Barbuda this week, while a huge stretch of its once glorious 11-mile west coast beach has been wiped out.   Destruction was so widespread that authorities have ordered the entire population of 1,800 to evacuate as Hurricane Jose approached the island over the weekend. 

By mid-day Saturday Jose, a Category Four hurricane, was tracking towards the north-west and no longer expected to hit Barbuda, but it remained under a Tropical Storm warning.   Authorities on Barbuda -- one of the two islands that make up the nation of Antigua and Barbuda -- have only begun to measure the damage caused when Irma struck the island as a powerful Category Five hurricane overnight Tuesday to Wednesday.   "Terrifying," "horrific" and the "worst damage seen in a lifetime" were some of the descriptions from residents as they emerged from their shelters after Irma's passage.    A child died when Irma, the strongest storm ever recorded to form in the Atlantic, struck the island.   Authorities said 30 percent of properties were demolished by the monster storm.

- Surviving in a wardrobe -
Barbudans swapped tales of hiding in wardrobes and showers as 157 mile (252 kilometer) per hour wind from Irma ripped off roofs, uprooted trees and knocked down walls.   Sira Berzas, 40, spent more than an hour huddled in a wardrobe with a friend after Irma tore the roof off the home they were hiding in.   "I have never been so scared in my life. Jackie and I were holding on to each other and basically saying our goodbyes," Berzas told AFP.

When the eye of the hurricane came, she said, "we ran outside in our underwear screaming for help. Luckily there was a police truck which took us to a safer building."   In the rush to safety "we had to leave Jackie's kitten behind," said Berzas, who lost her Pink Sand Beach home, bar and restaurant to the disaster.   Thankfully Houdini lived up to his name. The kitten was later found crouched in a corner of the ruined house, trembling but alive.

- Fleeing Hurricane Jose -
Hundreds of Barbudans were transported on Friday to Antigua via a Venezuelan military plane for safety ahead of Hurricane Jose.   Many have family to visit on the sister island, but others had no idea where they would stay when they arrived.   "I don't know where we are going when we get to Antigua -- or how we will get there," said Beautymey John, who was on a dock waiting to board a boat to safety with her five children.   "I would rather stay here, it doesn't feel right to leave. We have to try and start again," she told AFP.

Other Barbudans also said they were determined to rebuild their homes and livelihoods.   Teacher Maurice George, 30, said the small bag he was taking to Antigua contained the bare essentials, but vowed to return as soon as the secondary school he works in reopens.   "It is heart-breaking to see our island looking like this," he said.   "But where some people see devastation, I see an opportunity to rebuild," he added.
Date: Sat, 19 Mar 2016 13:18:00 +0100

Washington, March 19, 2016 (AFP) - A 6.0-magnitude earthquake hit off the coast of the Caribbean island nation of Antigua and Barbuda Saturday, US experts said, but caused no tsunami warning or immediate reports of damage or injury.   The strong quake, which hit at 1126 GMT, struck at a depth of 24 kilometres (15 miles) with its epicentre located 153 kilometres northeast of the capital of Saint John's, according to the US Geological Survey.
Date: Mon 14 Dec 2015
Source: Antigua Observer [edited]

Prison sources are still complaining that, despite the alleged outbreak of chicken pox at Her Majesty's Prison (HMP), not much has been done to ensure that the virus does not affect more people who either work there or are in custody. A source said since Observer media reported on the incident, last Thu 10 Dec 2015 that there has been another suspected case, bringing the number of affected persons to 19.

The source explained that this occurred even while the other 18 infected persons were already in isolation in the chapel in the prison yard. That source is suggesting that health authorities should to go into the jail to "clean it and spray out the cells" because the virus, according to research, can be picked up from contaminated surfaces.

An official at HMP, who is not authorized to speak with the media, said although the affected inmates are being housed in the chapel away from the rest of the prison population, they are still able to come and go to other parts of the jail, including the washroom and for breaks. Another source indicated that most of the affected persons are on remand and it is highly likely they will be released at any time, and then the virus would likely spread to communities outside the prison walls.

Observer media was unable to reach the prison boss, Superintendent Albert Wade, for comment.

In the meantime, Attorney General Steadroy "Cutie" Benjamin, who has responsibility for the prison, has given assurance that prison authorities have taken adequate steps to control the spread of chickenpox.
======================
[Outbreaks of chickenpox are not uncommon in closed communities where contagious virus can spread rapidly. Chickenpox is a very contagious disease caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a herpes virus. It causes a blister-like rash, itching, tiredness, and fever. Chickenpox can be serious, especially in babies, adults, and people with weakened immune systems. It spreads easily from infected people to others who have never had chickenpox or received the chickenpox vaccine. Chickenpox spreads in the air through coughing or sneezing. It can also be spread by touching or breathing in the virus particles that come from chickenpox blisters and can be transmitted by touching surfaces that have recently be contaminated by open lesions as well. Chickenpox most commonly causes an illness that lasts about 7-10 days.

The classic symptom of chickenpox is a rash that turns into itchy, fluid-filled blisters that eventually turn into scabs. The rash may 1st show up on the face, chest, and back, then spread to the rest of the body, including inside the mouth, eyelids, or genital area. It usually takes about a week for all the blisters to become scabs. Some people who have been vaccinated against chickenpox can still get the disease. However, the symptoms are usually milder with fewer blisters and mild or no fever. About 25 to 30 percent of vaccinated people who get chickenpox will develop illness as serious as chickenpox in unvaccinated persons.

Chickenpox vaccine is safe and effective at preventing the disease. Most people who get the vaccine will not get chickenpox. If a vaccinated person does get chickenpox, it is usually mild -- with fewer blisters and mild or no fever. The chickenpox vaccine prevents almost all cases of severe disease (for further information, see: <http://www.cdc.gov/chickenpox/index.html>). - ProMed Mod.LL]

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
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Belgium

Belgium - US Consular Information Sheet
October 03, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Belgium is a highly developed and stable democracy with a modern economy. Tourist facilities are widely available.
Read the Department of State Background N
tes on Belgium for additional information.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: Belgium is a party to the Schengen agreement. As such, U.S. citizens may enter Belgium for up to 90 days for tourist or business purposes without a visa. The passport should be valid for at least three months beyond the period of stay. Sufficient funds and a return airline ticket are required. For further details about travel into and within Schengen countries, please see our fact sheet. For further information concerning entry requirements, contact the Embassy of Belgium at 3330 Garfield Street NW, Washington, DC 20008, telephone (202) 333-6900; or one of the Belgian Consulates General in Atlanta, Los Angeles, or New York.Visit the Belgian Embassy web site at http://www.diplobel.org/usa for the most current visa information.
Belgian law requires that everyone carry some form of official identification at all times, which must be displayed upon request to any Belgian police official. A U.S. passport suffices for these purposes.
See the section on Special Circumstances for information on new business visitor and employee registration requirements.
Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site. For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.
SAFETY AND SECURITY: Belgium remains largely free of terrorist incidents. Belgian law enforcement and security officials, in close cooperation with neighboring countries, maintain a solid anti-terrorism effort and a peaceful environment for tourists and business. However, like other countries that are members of the Schengen Agreement on free cross-border movement, Belgium’s open borders with its European neighbors allow the possibility for terrorist groups to enter/exit the country with anonymity.
Prior police approval is required for public demonstrations in Belgium, and police oversight is routinely provided to ensure adequate security for participants and passers-by. Nonetheless, situations may develop that could pose a threat to public safety. U.S. citizens are advised to avoid areas where public demonstrations are taking place.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.
Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).
The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME: Belgium remains relatively free of violent crime, but low-level street crime is common. Visitors should always be watchful and aware of their surroundings, however, because muggings, purse snatchings, and pickpocketing occur frequently, particularly in the major cities. Transportation hubs like the Metro (subway) and train stations are also frequented by thieves who take advantage of disoriented travelers. In Brussels, pickpocketing, purse snatching, and theft of light luggage and laptops are common at the three major train stations -- the North Station (Noordstation or Gare du Nord), the Central Station (Centraal Station or Gare Central) and especially at the South Station (Zuidstation or Gare du Midi). The latter is a primary international train hub, and travelers are advised to pay very close attention to their personal belongings when in the station. Common ploys are to distract the victim by spraying shaving cream or another substance on his or her back or asking for directions while an accomplice steals the luggage. It is a good idea to remain in physical contact with hand luggage at all times, and not to place carry-on luggage on overhead racks in trains.
Another growing problem, especially in Brussels, is theft from vehicles, both moving and parked. Do not leave valuables in plain sight where a thief may spot them. Thieves will sometimes position themselves at stop lights to scan for valuables in stopped cars. If they see a purse or other valuable item they break the window and steal the item before the victim can even react. Expensive car stereos and GPS navigational devices left in plain sight are often stolen from parked cars. Always drive with windows up and doors locked.
Travelers to Brussels should be aware that small groups of young men sometimes prey on unwary tourists, usually at night and often in Metro stations. Items such as expensive mobile phones and MP3 players are often the target. Travelers should carry only a minimum amount of cash, credit cards, and personal identification. Wearing expensive jewelry and watches is discouraged.
INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed. See our information on Victims of Crime.
MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Good medical facilities are widely available in Belgium. The large university hospitals can handle almost every medical problem. Hospitals in Brussels and Flemish-speaking Flanders will probably have English-speaking staff. Hospitals in French-speaking Wallonia may not have staff members who are fluent in English, however. The Embassy Consular Section maintains a list of English-speaking doctors, which can be found on the Embassy web site at http://brussels.usembassy.gov/medical_facilities.html.
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.
MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.
TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Belgium is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
Belgian urban highways are generally well built and maintained with extensive lighting systems, but rain and fog often reduce visibility. Rural roads are less likely to be illuminated at night. Belgian rules for right-of-way differ from those in the U.S., and new drivers should thoroughly understand these rules before driving in Belgium. For instance, traffic coming from the right generally has priority at uncontrolled intersections and roundabouts, even if coming from a smaller street. The maximum speed limit on Belgian highways is 120 kilometers (72 miles) per hour, but is not always posted except at Belgium’s borders and on roads leaving major airports. The maximum speed in urban areas is normally 50 km (30 miles) per hour. While Belgian authorities strictly enforce speed limits, many Belgians still drive significantly faster than the posted limit. Claims of ignorance may not prevent a significant fine for speeding, which can also lead to the vehicle’s being impounded if the driver is unable to pay the fine on the spot. Belgian police also conduct breath analysis checks for alcohol use, particularly at night and during major holidays.
Roadside assistance and information on road conditions are available in English from Touring Mobilis, tel: 0900 10280. Belgian police will also provide information on road conditions, tel: 02-642-6666. Emergency services are efficient and responsive. By phone within Belgium, for police emergencies dial 101 and for all other emergencies,112.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. Visit the website of Belgium’s national tourist office at http://www.visitbelgium.com/.
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Belgium’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Belgium’s air carrier operations. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: While most forms of monetary transactions are available (cash, credit cards), U.S. money orders cannot be negotiated in Belgium. Personal checks may only be cleared through a bank at which a person holds an account and clearance can take from two to four weeks. Banks and exchange facilities may refuse U.S. dollar denominations of $50 and $100 if they are not equipped with devices to identify counterfeit currency. Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) are widespread in Belgium and accept most U.S. ATM cards to withdraw funds. Travelers seeking to purchase Euros are more likely to find a more favorable exchange rate at banks than at money exchange facilities located at tourist locations, train stations, and airports. Please see our Customs Information.
Non-EU citizens visiting Belgium and staying in a private residence are required by Belgian law to register with local Commune authorities within three days of their arrival. Any change in visa or resident status must also be requested through Commune authorities and must be completed prior to the expiration of the current status. Given the requirements to change status in Belgium, it is nearly impossible to do so within the 90 days permitted to remain in Belgium without a visa under the Visa Waiver Program.
BUSINESS VISITOR AND EMPLOYEE REGISTRATION REQUIREMENT: Since April 1, 2007 non-Belgian employers and self-employed persons or their employees who carry out short term assignments in Belgium must declare these activities in advance.
This mandatory "Limosa" declaration applies to: (1) Employees and apprentices, who come to Belgium to execute certain temporary work and who, because of the nature of their short term assignment, are not subject to the Belgian social security system; (2) Self-employed people and self-employed apprentices who come to work in Belgium temporarily, irrespective of whether they are subject to the Belgian social security system.
Some exceptions to this general obligation exist. Certain persons may be exempted, especially for short-term assignments. For more information about the Limosa declaration, visit http://www.limosa.be.
For more information about working in Belgium, please see http://www.employment.belgium.be/home.aspx.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Belgian laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Belgium are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION: Americans living or traveling in Belgium are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Belgium. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy in Brussels is located at 25 Boulevard du Regent. The telephone number from the U.S. is 011-32-2-508-2111. Within Belgium, the telephone number is 02-508-2111. The Embassy’s fax number is 02-511-2725. The Consular Section’s fax number is 02-513-0409. The American Citizen Services Unit of the Consular Section is open from 1:30 to 3:30 p.m. Monday through Friday, except for American and Belgian holidays. Further information can be obtained at the Embassy’s web site at http://belgium.usembassy.gov/
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information for Belgium dated March 13, 2008, to update sections on Entry/Exit Requirements.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Wed, 13 Feb 2019 11:38:03 +0100
By Alex PIGMAN

Brussels, Feb 13, 2019 (AFP) - Belgium slowed to a standstill on Wednesday as a national strike closed airports, shuttered businesses and caused major disruption to railways.   The strike, called by three unions, severely disrupted the country's public transport, particularly in Brussels, where a meeting of NATO ministers was set to take place.  The strike affected post offices, schools, hospitals, waste collection, but also companies and shopping centres.

In the Dutch-speaking city of Ghent, two protestors were slightly injured when a vehicle forced a picket line, local police told AFP. The driver was arrested.    "The movement is well followed everywhere and in all sectors," said CSC union general secretary Marie-Helene Ska on Bel-RTL radio.   The national railway company expected half the trains nation-wide would be cancelled because of the movement, but high speed train traffic to London and Paris should be mostly spared.

The air traffic control agency, Skeyes, announced on Tuesday that it would not allow any flights to or from the country because it could not determine with certainty which employees would come to work.    No aircraft flying below 8,000 metres altitude would be allowed to fly over the country, the agency warned.   Skeyes was not able to say how many flights or how many passengers would be affected.    "Even if the terminal will remain open, we ask all passengers not to go to the airport," said Brussels Zaventem airport, the largest in Belgium, in a statement.   Charleroi airport, the second largest in Belgium and a local hub for low-cost giant Ryanair, had already announced its closure.    The German carrier TUI fly will operate its scheduled Belgian flights from the nearest French and Dutch airports.

Unions are calling for higher wages, benefits and pensions, and better end-of-career conditions. The movement is putting pressure on the right-of-centre government ahead of general elections in May.   Brussels, home to NATO, will be hosting a meeting of defence ministers that day, with officials from throughout the transatlantic military alliance converging on the city.   Dozens of supermarkets were closed, mainly in the French-speaking part of Belgium.   "Forty-four supermarkets are closed and we hope that the situation does not change during the day," said Carrefour spokesman Baptiste van Outryve to Belga news agency.   The last general strike in Belgium was in December 2014.
Date: Fri, 8 Feb 2019 16:02:19 +0100

Brussels, Feb 8, 2019 (AFP) - Belgium's biggest carrier Brussels Airlines said it had cancelled all of its flights out of the Belgian capital on Wednesday due to a national strike.   Brussels Airlines is "eliminating its entire 222-flight schedule. The travel itineraries of more than 16,000 passengers are impacted," the Lufthansa subsidiary said in a statement on Friday.

Flights from German carrier TUI fly will also be diverted out of Belgium to airports in neighbouring France and the Netherlands, the company told the Belga news agency.   Unions warned De Morgen newspaper that all commercial flights may be forced out of Belgian airspace Wednesday if air traffic controllers joined the action.

Several Belgian unions are demanding salary hikes for all sectors of the economy, with the whole country expected to be at a standstill on Wednesday.   Brussels, home to NATO, will be hosting a defence ministers meeting that day, with officials from throughout the transatlantic military alliance converging on the city.
Date: Mon, 29 Oct 2018 11:19:43 +0100

Brussels, Oct 29, 2018 (AFP) - A baggage handlers strike at Brussels international airport forced the cancellation of 130 out of 630 flights scheduled for Monday, the fifth day of the dispute, an official said.   Handlers at Belgian firm Aviapartner went on strike last Thursday over demands for better working conditions at Brussels-Zaventem airport, with 100 flights cancelled on Friday and still more over the weekend.

An official at Brussels airport told AFP 130 out of the 630 flights scheduled for Monday had been cancelled.   The Belga news agency said talks over the weekend failed to resolve the dispute and new discussions were scheduled for Monday.   The first day of the strike came at the end of a school holiday in neighbouring Netherlands and the start of one in Belgium that coincides with All Saints Day on November 1.

Brussels airport is the largest in Belgium, with nearly 25 million passengers passing through last year, compared to seven million at Charleroi airport in the south, the country's second biggest.
Date: Fri, 26 Oct 2018 22:05:31 +0200

Brussels, Oct 26, 2018 (AFP) - A strike by baggage handlers at Brussels airport has caused many flight cancellations, affecting thousands of passengers during a major school holiday, an official said Friday.   The travel chaos is set to continue, with Brussels Airport air traffic affected until at least Sunday morning.   "As a result of a work stoppage at baggage handler Aviapartner, no flights are being handled by Aviapartner until Sunday 28 October 6 am (0400 GMT)," Brussels Airport said in an online message.   Some 300 travellers spent Thursday night at Brussels-Zaventem airport after handlers at Belgian firm Aviapartner went on strike, airport spokeswoman Nathalie Pierard told AFP, with more set to do so overnight Friday.

Around 200 flights in or out of the airport were cancelled, according to public broadcaster RTBF, due to the strike over demands for higher staffing levels.   Pierard said most of those affected were Ryanair flights.    The Brussels Airport website said 30 carriers had been hit, also including British Airways, EasyJet and Air Maroc.   "Friday is one of the busiest days of the autumn. A total of 47,000 passengers are due to leave today," Pierard said.   Passengers were advised to contact their airline. Some flights were shifted to Charleroi, Brussels' other international airport, or to Lille in northern France, according to media reports.

The strike comes at the end of a school holiday in neighbouring Netherlands and the start of one in Belgium that coincides with All Saints Day.   A meeting between union delegates and at Aviapartner on Friday ended without any agreement, according to the Belga news agency, but was due to resume Saturday.   Brussels airport is the largest in Belgium, with nearly 25 million passengers passing through it last year, compared to seven million at Charleroi airport in the south, the country's second biggest.
Date: Fri, 26 Oct 2018 10:55:46 +0200

Brussels, Oct 26, 2018 (AFP) - A strike by baggage handlers at Brussels airport has caused the cancellation of around 100 flights, affecting thousands of passengers during a major school holiday, an official said Friday. Some 300 travellers spent Thursday night at Brussels-Zaventem airport after handlers at Belgian firm Aviapartner went on strike, airport spokeswoman Nathalie Pierard told AFP.

Pierard said about 100 departing and arriving flights were cancelled, mainly at Ryanair, as media reported the strike was over demands for higher staffing levels.   "Friday is one of the busiest days of the autumn. A total of 47,000 passengers are due to leave today," Pierard said.   Many other flights were delayed, she added.

The strike comes at the end of a school holiday in neighbouring Netherlands and the start of one in Belgium that coincides with All Saints Day.   A meeting between union delegates and at Aviapartner was due Friday in a bid to resolve the dispute.   Brussels airport is the largest in Belgium, with nearly 25 million passengers passing through last year, compared to seven million at Charleroi airport in the south, the country's second biggest.
More ...

World Travel News Headlines

Date: Mon, 25 Mar 2019 11:52:43 +0100

Sanaa, March 25, 2019 (AFP) - Nearly 110,000 suspected cases of cholera have been reported in war-hit Yemen since the beginning of January, including 190 related deaths, the UN said on Monday.   The UN office for humanitarian affairs (OCHA) said children under the age of five make up nearly a third of 108,889 cases which were reported between January 1 and March 17.

OCHA said the spike, which comes two years after Yemen suffered its worst cholera outbreak, was concentrated in six governorates including in the Red Sea port of Hodeida and the Sanaa province home to the capital.   Early rains could be blamed for the recent increase in suspected cholera cases, it said.   "The situation is exacerbated by poor maintenance of sewage disposal systems in many of the affected districts, the use of contaminated water for irrigation, and population movements," OCHA added.   The waterborne disease is endemic to Yemen, which witnessed the worst cholera outbreak in its modern history in 2017.

More than one million suspected cases were reported within an eight-month period that year. More than 2,500 people died of the infection between April and December 2017.    Yemen's brutal conflict, which pits Iran-linked rebels against a regional pro-government alliance led by Saudi Arabia, has left some 10,000 people dead since 2015 and pushed millions to the brink of famine.    The war has created the perfect environment for cholera to thrive, as civilians across the country lack access to clean water and health care.
Date: Wed 20 Mar 2019
Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]

Swedish public health authorities, Folkhalsomyndigheten, is reporting an outbreak of psittacosis, or parrot disease, since November 2018. According to officials, some 60 cases have been reported from the regions of Vastra Gotaland, Kalmar, Jonkoping, and Skane. This is the highest number of cases reported in one winter in 2 decades.

Those who have now fallen ill have mainly come into contact with bird droppings from wild birds, for example through the handling of bird tables and other outdoor activities. A smaller number are believed to have been infected by domestic birds (parrots) in cages. The most common way someone gets infected with the bacteria that cause psittacosis (_Chlamydia psittaci_) is by breathing in dust containing dried secretions (e.g., droppings, respiratory) from infected birds. It is rare for psittacosis to spread from person to person.

In general, psittacosis causes mild illness in people. The most common symptoms include fever and chills, headache, muscle aches, and dry cough. Psittacosis can also cause pneumonia (a lung infection) that may require treatment or care in a hospital. Rarely, psittacosis can result in death. Most people begin developing signs and symptoms of psittacosis within 5-14 days after exposure to the bacteria (_C. psittaci_). Occasionally, people report the start of symptoms after more than 14 days.
=================
[The news report above attributes the increase in number of human cases of psittacosis in Sweden since Nov 2018 mainly to contact with wild bird droppings, for example through the handling of bird tables and other outdoor activities. Outbreaks of avian chlamydiosis, due to _Chlamydia psittaci_ or the other Chlamydia species, have been reported occasionally in wild birds including shorebirds, waterfowl, and migratory birds, especially in birds under stress (<http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/psittacosis.pdf>).

An outbreak in Australia was probably caused by organisms carried in wild birds and spread when organisms in bird droppings became aerosolized during activities such as lawn mowing (<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15757553>). An increase in psittacosis cases in Sweden in the winter of 2013 was also linked to wild birds, apparently through exposure to wild bird droppings; most cases were associated with tending bird feeders (<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23725809>; also see ProMED-mail post Psittacosis - Sweden (02): wild bird http://promedmail.org/post/20130509.1701695).

Vastra Gotaland, Kalmar, Jonkoping, and Skane are counties located in southern Sweden. A map of Swedish counties can be found at <https://fotw.info/flags/se(.html>. - ProMED Mod.ML]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Date: Wed 20 Mar 2019
Source: PNA [edited]

A public elementary school in Tubungan town, Iloilo has recorded a total of 36 chickenpox cases from 15 Jan to 3 Mar [2019], the Provincial Health Office (PHO) said. In an interview on Wednesday [20 Mar 2019], Dr. Patricia Grace Trabado, PHO head, said the cases were observed as patients who sought treatment at the rural health units (RHU) and private clinics in Tubungan.

All the cases were recorded in Cadabdab Elementary School, with 21 male and 15 female students affected. Trabado said affected pupils might still be attending school even though they were infected, which resulted in its transmission.

She emphasized that the spread of the infection might have been prevented if the children were advised not to attend school with the onset of infection. "If a child is showing chickenpox symptoms, especially when he or she was previously exposed to an affected person, then the pupil will be advised to stay at home," she said.

Trabado said the source of the infection came from the 1st patient working in Iloilo City but lives in Tubungan town. "The patient might have a family member that attends school in Cadabdab. From there, we see where the infection originated," she said. Trabado, however, did not give figures of the disease other than that from the school.

The RHUs and private clinics were able to monitor and manage the cases, Trabado said. All the student patients were discharged, given medication, and let the viral infection take its course. "And eventually, the patients recovered," she said. However, Trabado warns that a child with chickenpox can get secondary infection when he or she scratches the blisters, creating skin lesions.

She added that cases of chickenpox and mumps are mostly observed during the summer season. Trabado said patients with chickenpox experience fever and headache in the first 1 or 2 days before the itchy blister rash appears.  [Byline: Gail Momblan]
======================
[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Date: Wed 20 Mar 2019
Source: USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services [edited]
<https://content.govdelivery.com/accounts/USDAAPHIS/bulletins/23806a5>

The US Department of Agriculture's (USDA) under secretary for marketing and regulatory programs, Greg Ibach, is alerting international travellers of a deadly swine disease they could unknowingly bring back into the United States on their clothes, shoes, or hands.

African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious and deadly disease affecting both domestic and feral (wild) pigs. It does not affect human health and cannot be transmitted from pigs to humans. Recent spread of the disease to new countries in Asia and Europe has triggered a series of actions by USDA, state agriculture departments, and the pork industry to bolster protections against ASF in the United States and keep ASF out of North America.

"ASF has never been detected in the United States," said Ibach, "but an outbreak here would not only affect the pork industry, but also have major impacts on trade and raise food prices for consumers. We are asking international travellers to help prevent the spread of ASF to the United States by understanding what products can be brought back into the United States and declaring any agricultural items in their baggage."

The USDA's Animal Plant and Health Inspection Service's (APHIS) new traveller website provides updated information about potentially harmful pests and diseases that can hitchhike on food or other agricultural products. When returning to the United States, travellers are reminded to declare food items and animal products in their luggage. Failure to declare items may result in serious penalties.

"USDA and US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) recognize the crucial work of detector dog teams at US ports of entry." said Ibach. "While travellers' declarations of any food products brought with them to the United States is a critical step to protecting US agriculture, the dogs and secondary agricultural inspections provide another line of defence to keep ASF out of the country."

Travellers will also see some changes at airports as USDA works with CBP to increase screenings of passenger baggage. This includes training and adding 60 additional beagle teams for a total of 179 teams working at key US commercial, sea, and air ports and ensuring travellers who pose an ASF risk receive secondary agricultural inspection. USDA is also coordinating with CBP to expand arrival screenings, including checking cargo for illegal pork and pork products.

Anyone who visits a farm in an ASF-affected country should take specific precautions before returning to the United States. Follow the farm's biosecurity protocols and wear site specific footwear and coveralls or clothing. Thoroughly clean and disinfect or dispose of clothes and footwear worn on the farm before returning, and declare the farm visit to CBP when re-entering the United States. Travelers should not visit farms or any other locations with pigs -- including livestock markets, zoos, circuses, and pet stores with pot-bellied pigs -- for at least 5 days after returning.

More information on ASF, partner resources, and additional resources for travellers are available on the APHIS ASF webpage
and in this infographic
======================
[This disease would be extremely serious for the US, and likely for all of North America. The warning is appropriate for travellers to be more alert to situations that could ultimately have horrible outcomes. - ProMED Mod.TG]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Date: Wed 20 Mar 2019
Source: ReliefWeb [edited]

The Federal Ministry of Health, in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO), Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, and UNICEF, has launched a large-scale mass vaccination campaign in Sudan to vaccinate more than 8.3 million people 9 months to 60 years of age against yellow fever in the states of Blue Nile, Gezira and Sennar during 10-29 Mar 2019.

The campaign represents a crucial step in protecting a large portion of the population and reducing the risk of severe and deadly yellow fever outbreaks in the country. It is the 3rd and final drive thatSudan is undertaking to protect populations at risk and prevent yellow fever epidemics, pending the implementation of infant immunization as routine practice.

The campaign forms a critical part of Sudan's ongoing work to protect all populations against yellow fever epidemics, in alignment with the global Eliminate Yellow fever Epidemics (EYE) Strategy. The country plans to complement these yellow fever mass campaigns and ensure long-term protection through the introduction of yellow fever vaccination into routine immunization in the coming months.

"We acknowledge the commitment of the health authorities in Sudan to avail cash and fuel during this economic crisis to ensure that their people, especially children, are protected with a quality vaccine which will contribute to health security and making the world safer," said Dr. Naeema Al-Gasseer, WHO Representative in Sudan.

"Yellow fever vaccination is the most important tool we have to prevent yellow fever outbreaks. The vaccine will be freely available to any eligible person and will provide life-long protection against the disease. While protecting yourself against mosquito bites is important to reduce the risk of many diseases, only vaccination can eliminate the risk of yellow fever outbreaks," she added.

Yellow fever is a viral disease that is transmitted by certain types of mosquito. Infection can cause fatal illness, including jaundice, and death, and can spread rapidly, locally and internationally, especially in urban areas. However, the disease can be prevented by a single dose of a highly effective and safe vaccine. This campaign aims to boost protection in the general population and will target all eligible people.

Sudan is at high risk for the spread of yellow fever due to a combination of climate and ecological factors, and because there are still areas of low population immunity. Recent years have seen global changes in the epidemiology of yellow fever, with outbreaks occurring in areas that were not previously assessed as being at high risk.

"We are observing a changing nature in yellow fever disease dynamics. It is very important that every eligible person in this campaign receives the vaccine to protect themselves, their families and their communities," said Professor Dr. Babkir Kabaloo, Undersecretary of the Federal Ministry of Health.

"The current campaign represents one of the final phases in the Ministry's efforts to protect the entire nation against yellow fever outbreaks. This campaign will cover Blue Nile, Gezira, and Sennar states. In the coming months, the remaining states of Khartoum, Northern and River Nile will also be covered, completing the protection of the entire Sudanese population," he added.

Sudan's health authorities and partners are working to introduce yellow fever vaccine in the national immunization schedule in the near future. This will help ensure the protection of the whole population and generations to come against this fatal but preventable disease.
=====================
[It is good to see this ambitious yellow fever (YF) vaccination campaign drawing to a close. Incorporating YF vaccine into routine childhood vaccination schedules is prudent and if successful will eliminate the need for intensive, country-wide campaigns to deal with outbreaks. YF is no stranger to Sudan. Between 3 Oct and 24 Nov 2013, a total of 44 confirmed cases of YF were reported, including 14 deaths. A total of 12 localities in West and South Kordofan were affected by that outbreak. There was a large YF outbreak in the Darfur state in 2012-2013. In 2012, the World Health Organisation (WHO) said that more than 840 people were infected with YF in Darfur and that the epidemic affected 35 of 64 localities in the region since September 2012. The total recorded cases of YF in Greater Darfur hit 849 with a 20% death toll during an epidemic in 2012 (see WHO Disease Outbreak News <http://who.int/csr/don/2012_12_03/en> as reported by ProMED post http://promedmail.org/post/20130125.1513849, as noted at the time by Mod.JW). Mounting campaigns in the face of these types of outbreaks is inefficient, logistically difficult, and costly -- financially and in terms of human lives. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Date: Thu 21 Mar 2019
Source: SBS News, Australian Associated Press (AAP) report [edited]

An egg recall has been announced following the discovery of a _Salmonella_ outbreak at a Victorian egg farm. The scare has prompted a recall of some brands of eggs from outlets in 4 states.

To date, 5 cases of _Salmonella [enterica_ serotype] Enteritidis have been linked to eggs produced by Victoria's Bridgewater Poultry, the state's health department said on [Thu 21 Mar 2019]. The company's free-range and barn-laid eggs are packaged as Woolworths brand, Victorian Fresh, and Loddon Valley, with best-before dates ranging from [20 Mar to 29 Apr 2019]. They are on shelves in Victoria, New South Wales, Tasmania, and South Australia. All other eggs are safe to eat, Chief Health Officer Brett Sutton said.

"It is important to know that not all eggs are affected, but any eggs carrying the listed brands should return them to the point of sale for a full refund. Alternatively, they can be discarded by throwing them into the garbage, not the garden or compost. "These eggs should not be given to pets or livestock."

Vulnerable people, including the elderly, are urged to avoid eating raw egg products.

Eggs of concern:
- Woolworths 12 Cage Free Eggs 700 g
- Victorian Fresh Barn Laid Eggs 600 g
- Victorian Fresh Barn Laid Eggs 700 g
- Victorian Fresh Barn Laid Eggs 800 g
- Loddon Valley Barn Laid 600 g (Victoria and South Australia only)
========================
[Salmonellosis is often thought to be associated with cracked eggs or eggs dirty with faecal matter, a problem controlled by cleaning procedures implemented in the egg industry. It is clearly the case, however, that most of the salmonellosis outbreaks linked to eggs were associated with uncracked, disinfected grade A eggs, or foods containing such eggs. The undamaged eggs become contaminated during ovulation, and thus were contaminated with the bacteria before the egg shell was formed. To avoid this, uncooked eggs should only be used as an ingredient, if pasteurized. - ProMED Mod.LL]

[Maps of Australia:
Date: Wed 20 Mar 2019 3:50 PM EDT
Source: The Day [edited]

Groton [New London county] public health officials are reminding residents to refrain from feeding or approaching wild or stray animals after a dog found in the area of Midway Oval tested positive for rabies [Wed 20 Mar 2019].

Rabies is a deadly disease caused by a virus that can infect all warm-blooded animals, including people, the Ledge Light Health District said in an alert sent to media outlets.

The disease mostly is spread by wild animals, but stray cats and dogs may also become infected and spread the virus, the district's alert said. The rabies virus lives in the saliva and brain tissue of infected animals, and the disease can be spread by scratches from infected animals or when infected saliva comes into contact with open wounds, breaks in the skin or mucous membranes, including the eyes, nose and mouth.

For more information, contact Ledge Light Health District at (860) 448-4882, extension 1311, or the animal control officer at (860) 441-6709.
======================
[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Connecticut, United States:
Connecticut county map:

Please keep your animals up-to-date on their rabies vaccine. It is for their protection and for your protection.

Regarding the 1st article, it sounds like South Carolina could consider using some oral rabies vaccine bait for some of their wild animals.

Unfortunately, wild animals may attack even when you are unaware of their presence.

Animals may be either unusually friendly and timid (dumb rabies) or aggressive and vicious (furious rabies). These are 2 presentations of the same disease but we should be aware of both forms and teach both forms to our children. - ProMED Mod.TG]
Date: Wed 20 Mar 2019
Source: Aiken Standard [edited]

[One person] in Aiken county may have been exposed to rabies following an unfriendly encounter with a wild raccoon, according to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control [DHEC].

According to a DHEC press release, the victim was on the North Augusta Greeneway Walking Trail on 16 Mar 2019 when they were bitten by a raccoon. The raccoon was later submitted to DHEC and tested positive for rabies. [Apparently the DHEC knows there is a victim so their earlier statement of "may have been exposed" seems a bit odd. - ProMED Mod.TG]

The victim who was bitten has since been referred to their health care provider. The raccoon on the Greeneway trail was the 3rd animal diagnosed with rabies in Aiken county this year [2019]. Statewide, there have been 32 confirmed cases of rabies in 2019. Coyotes, foxes, and skunks are also common carriers of the virus. Although it is extremely rare in people, rabies can be spread to humans and can also claim the lives of pets. The virus causes hallucinations, hydrophobia (fear of water), aggression, and death in its final stages.

Rabies is normally spread through bites but can also be spread when open wounds or areas like the eyes, nose, or mouth come into contact with saliva or blood of an infected animal. Infected areas should be washed with soap and water and medical attention should be sought immediately.  If a wild animal is foaming at the mouth and shows a lack of motor control (stumbling, staggering, or bumping into things) it may have rabies. Rabid animals are often very aggressive and do not fear people or other animals. [This behaviour may describe raccoons with distemper, but although they are not usually aggressive with distemper, they can be. The point is, when an animal is not acting normally it is time to move on and leave it alone and report it to the authorities in your area. - ProMED Mod.TG]

"To reduce the risk of getting rabies, always give wild and stray animals their space," said David Vaughan, Director of DHEC's Onsite Wastewater, Rabies Prevention, and Enforcement Division. "If you see an animal in need, avoid touching it and contact someone trained in handling animals, such as your local animal control officer or wildlife rehabilitator."

DHEC also stresses the importance of keeping pets up to date on their rabies shots to prevent the spread of the disease. For more information, call DHEC's Environmental Affairs Aiken office at 803-642-1637 during normal business hours on weekdays.  [Byline: Kristina Rackley]
========================
[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of South Carolina, United States:
South Carolina county map:
Date: Thu, 21 Mar 2019 16:10:28 +0100

Kinshasa, March 21, 2019 (AFP) - A six-month-old baby in the eastern DR Congo city of Bunia has died of Ebola, becoming the first fatality of the disease in a provincial capital, the heath ministry said Thursday.   Bunia, which has a population of 300,000, is the capital of Ituri province, which along with neighbouring North Kivu province has been battling an epidemic of Ebola since last August.

The baby is among 610 fatalities out of 980 recorded cases, the ministry said in a statement.   "The parents are apparently in good health," it said.   "Extensive investigations are underway and will include, among other things, analysis of the maternal milk to identify the source of contamination."   The ministry added that it had also registered 97 new cases in the previous three weeks.   This increase "was expected" given the impact of an attack on two Ebola treatment centres by armed groups in the troubled region, it said.
Date: Thu, 21 Mar 2019 22:32:17 +0100

Blantyre, Malawi, March 21, 2019 (AFP) - Heavy rains could cause a dam in southern Malawi to give way if there is no let-up, authorities said Thursday, urging local residents to take shelter.   The warning came after cyclone Idai battered neighbouring Mozambique last Friday killing 242 people    Hurricane-force winds and rains have also ravaged hit eastern Zimbabwe where over 100 have died.

In Malawi, the storm has affected nearly a million people with over 80,000 displaced, according to the WHO.   The Chagwa dam "has had one of its major embankments eroded due to heavy rains," the interior security ministry said in a statement. "(It) is likely to burst in the event of heavy and incessant rains."   The statement advised local residents in the southern African country to evacuate "in case of an emergency".