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Anguilla

Anguilla US Consular Information Sheet
March 03, 2009
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: Anguilla is a British overseas territory in the Caribbean, part of the British West Indies. It is a small but rapidly developing island with particularly well-developed
ourist facilities.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 requires all travelers to and from the Caribbean, Bermuda, Panama, Mexico and Canada to have a valid passport to enter or re-enter the United States. U.S. citizens must have a valid U.S. passport if traveling by air, including to and from Mexico.
If traveling by sea, U.S. citizens can use a passport or passport card. We strongly encourage all American citizen travelers to apply for a U.S. passport or passport card well in advance of anticipated travel.
American citizens can visit travel.state.gov or call 1-877-4USA-PPT (1-877-487-2778) for information on how to apply for their passports.

In addition to a valid passport, U.S. citizens need onward or return tickets, and sufficient funds for their stay.
A departure tax is charged at the airport or ferry dock when leaving. For further information, travelers may contact the British Embassy, 19 Observatory Circle NW, Washington, DC
20008; telephone (202) 588-7800; or the nearest consulate of the United Kingdom in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Los Angeles, New York, Denver, Houston, Miami, Orlando, Seattle, or San Francisco. Visit the British Embassy web site for the most current visa information.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
While Anguilla's crime rate is relatively low, both petty and violent crimes
do occur. Travelers should take common-sense precautions to ensure their personal security, such as avoiding carrying large amounts of cash or displaying expensive jewelry. Travelers should not leave valuables unattended in hotel rooms or on the beach. They should use hotel safety deposit facilities to safeguard valuables and travel documents. Similarly, they should keep their lodgings locked at all times, whether they are present or away, and should not leave valuables in their vehicles, even when locked.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

The local emergency line in Anguilla is 911.
See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
There is only one hospital, Princess Alexandra Hospital (telephone: 264-497-2551), and a handful of clinics on Anguilla, so medical facilities are limited.
Serious problems requiring extensive care or major surgery may require evacuation to the United States, often at considerable expense.

There are no formal, documented HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to and foreign residents of Anguilla, but there have been anecdotal reports of exclusion.
Please verify this information with the British Embassy before you travel.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad, consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site.
Further health information for travelers
is available from the WHO.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Anguilla is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Unlike the U.S., traffic in Anguilla moves on the left. The few roads on the island are generally poorly paved and narrow. While traffic generally moves at a slow pace, with the increasing number of young drivers in Anguilla, there are occasional severe accidents caused by excessive speed. Although emergency services, including tow truck service, are limited and inconsistent, local residents are often willing to provide roadside assistance. For police, fire, or ambulance service dial 911.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
Visit the Government of Anguilla web site for further road safety information.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
Civil aviation operations in Anguilla fall under the jurisdiction of British authorities. The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of the United Kingdom’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Anguilla’s air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA web site.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Anguilla laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Anguilla are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Anguilla are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department's travel registration web site and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Anguilla. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy with consular responsibility over Anguilla is located in Bridgetown, Barbados in the Wildey Business Park in suburban Wildey, southeast of downtown Bridgetown.
The main number for the Consular Section is (246) 431-0225; after hours, the Embassy duty officer can be reached by calling (246) 436-4950.
Visit the U.S. Embassy Bridgetown online for more information.
Hours of operation are 8:30 a.m. – 4:30 p.m. Monday through Friday, except Barbadian and U.S. holidays.
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information for Anguilla dated April 2, 2008, to update sections on Country Description, Entry/Exit Requirements, Information for Victims of Crime, and Medical Facilities and Health Information.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Sat, 9 Sep 2017 19:31:32 +0200

Paris, Sept 9, 2017 (AFP) - France's meteorological agency on Saturday issued its highest warning for the Caribbean islands of St Martin and St Barts as Hurricane Jose bore down, three days after they were hit by Hurricane Irma.   The alert warned of a "dangerous event of exceptional intensity," with winds that could reach 120 kilometres (75 miles) per hour, and strong rains and high waves.

St Barts is a French overseas territory, as is the French part of St Martin, which is divided between France and the Netherlands.   Twelve people were killed on the two islands by Hurricane Irma, thousands of buildings were flattened and the authorities are struggling to control looting.   The French state-owned reinsurer CCR on Saturday estimated the damage at 1.2 billion euros ($1.4 billion).   Irma is now heading for Florida, where a total of 6.3 million people have been ordered to evacuate, according to state authorities.
Date: Tue 29 Apr 2014
Source: National Institute for Public Health and the Environment [edited]

1 Oct 2013-29 Apr 2014 (week 18) St Maarten - Since the last report (week 15 [17?]) 52 new cases have been confirmed among St Maarten residents. Up to 29 Apr 2014, now a total of 343 confirmed cases have been reported. One of these confirmed cases was hospitalized.

The median age of the confirmed patients was 44 years, range 4-92 years. Of those cases for which gender was available, 201 were female and 130 were male.

- On 6 Dec 2013, the 1st indigenous chikungunya [virus infection] case of St Maarten was reported. Retrospectively, the 1st patient with suspected complaints was reported in mid-October 2013 in St Martin.
------------------------------------
Communicated by:
Roland Hubner
Superior Health Council
Brussels
Belgium
=====================
[The report also has graphs showing case numbers over time.

Maps of St Martin/St Maarten can be accessed at
Date: 5-11 May 2014
Source: Institut de Veille Sanitaire (French Institute for Public Health Surveillance, InVS) [edited]

Cases since the beginning of the outbreak in December 2013:
- St Martin: (susp) 3240 cases; deaths 3; stable.
- St Barthelemy: (susp) 500 cases; stable.
- Martinique: (susp) 24 180; deaths 3; increasing.
- Guadeloupe: (susp) 13 600 cases; deaths 1; increasing.
- French Guiana: (susp) not available; (probable or confirmed) 122 cases with 83 locally acquired; increasing, with a new cluster in Kourou and 2 near Cayenne.
======================
[The 16 May 2014 report from Guyaweb (<http://www.guyaweb.com/actualites/news/sciences-et-environnement/le-chik-revient-kourou-setend-cayenne-desormais-saint-laurent/>) states that there are 2 new cases in Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, overlooking the Suriname River, of which one is certainly autochthonous, and a new focal point occurred in Kourou with 4 cases.

Maps of the area can be seen at
and <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/35574>. - ProMed Mod.TY]
Date: 7-13 Apr 2014
Source: INVS Point Sanitaire No. 14 [in French, trans. ProMed Mod.TY, edited]

Cases since the beginning of the outbreak in December, 2013:
- St. Martin: (susp.) 2980 cases, (probable and conf.) 793 cases; Deaths 3; Decreasing.
- Saint Barthelemy: (susp.) 460 cases, (probable or confirmed) 135 cases; Decreasing.
- Martinique: (susp.) 16 000, (probable or confirmed) 1473 cases; Deaths 2; Increasing.
- Guadeloupe: (susp.) 4710 cases, (probable or confirmed) 1261 cases; Deaths 1; In epidemic status.
- French Guiana: (susp.) 7 cases with 4 locally acquired, (probable or confirmed) 39 cases with 26 locally acquired) 30 cases; (imported) 16 cases; Moderate to increasing; Half of probable and confirmed cases are located in Kourou; however indigenous cases have also been recorded from the Cayenne Matoury, Remire and Macouria communities.
=================
[Maps showing case distributions on each island can be accessed at the above URL. - ProMed Mod.TY]
Date: Thu 27 Mar 2014
Source: The Daily Herald [edited]

As St. Maarten continues to take measures to combat the spread of the chikungunya virus, the number of cases continues to climb.

Health Minister Cornelius de Weever announced on Wednesday [26 Mar 2014], that the total number of confirmed chikungunya cases thus far stood at 224.

De Weever also announced that government will be signing a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with French St. Martin as a means of collectively responding to the mosquito threat that puts the population at risk. He said both sides have been working closely together to address the dengue and chikungunya threats.

The MOU will cover, amongst other things, a regular exchange of epidemiological information on vector-borne diseases and collectively publishing and representing data collected under the agreement.

The need for collective information campaigns and enhancement of the mosquito vector-control programme will also be included in the MOU. The MOU also describes the need for planning execution and evaluation of collective responses to the chikungunya threat.
=========================
[The increase in the number of chikungunya virus infections over the past week in St. Maarten is of concern, rising from 123 cases to 224 cases. This number is confirmed in another report that also indicates that there are an additional 325 suspected cases (<http://www.rivm.nl/dsresource?type=pdf&disposition=inline&objectid=rivmp:239786>).  - ProMed Mod.TY]

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/35574>.]
More ...

Tunisia

General Information
************************************
Tunisia is situated in Northern Africa and is a common tourist destination for Irish travellers. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the south east and the Medite
ranean Sea to the east and north. It has a Mediterranean climate with mild rainy winters and hot dry summers. Costal temperatures are less extreme than the inland regions ranging from an average daily low in January of 70C to an average daily high in August of 320C. Rainfall throughout the country varies considerably from about 40" in the northwest down to only 4" in the southwest.
Safety & Security
************************************
Most tourists will not have any significant difficulties in this regard but criminals have targeted tourists and business travellers for thefts, pickpocketing, and scams.
Care should be taken with wallets and other valuables kept in handbags or backpacks that can be easily opened from behind in crowded streets or marketplaces.
Harassment of unaccompanied females occurs rarely in hotels, but more frequently elsewhere.
Health Facilities
************************************
The level of health care facilities in Tunisia will usually be found to be below that normally accepted at home in Ireland. In general the larger hotels will have English speaking doctors in attendance. Unfortunately the hospital/clinic backup for these practitioners is usually very limited.
Food & Water Facilities
************************************
The World Health Organisation statistics suggest that close to 35% of all travellers to these regions will develop significant diarrhoea during their stay. In almost all cases this can be traced back to unwise eating and drinking habits by tourists not taking sufficient care. Most significantly, travellers should stay away from cold foods (especially lettuce) and also all undercooked shell fish (mainly prawns, oysters, mussels and shrimps).
Hotel tap water will frequently not be potable and should not be used for drinking or brushing teeth. Sealed mineral water should be used at all times.
Fruit juice drinks sold by street traders should always be avoided as frequently the drink will have been supplemented with straight tap water.
Malaria in Tunisia
************************************
It is fortunate that this disease is not endemic in Tunisia and so travellers do not require to take prophylactic tablets. Nevertheless there are plenty of mosquitoes and sandflys during the hotter summer months and travellers will need to use insect repellents to protect against these uncomfortable bites. (see Protection against Insect Bites - Tropical Medical Bureau )
Jiggers & Chiggers
************************************
These are uncomfortable parasitic diseases which usually occur on the feet and often present looking like an ingrown toenail. Travellers returning home with unexplained skin rashes should always attend for medical assessment.
Rabies
************************************
This viral disease occurs throughout Africa and is evident in Tunisia. The disease can be transmitted by the bite (or lick or scratch) of any infected warm-blooded animal. Dogs will be the main risk animal but cats and monkeys can also transmit the disease. Any contact must be treated seriously and washed out immediately. An antiseptic should then be applied and further medical attention must always be sought.
Leishmaniasis
************************************
This is a parasitic disease transmitted by the bite of an infected sandfly. The disease occurs in Tunisia mainly during the summer and autumn months. Sandflys are much smaller than mosquitoes and are mainly found hovering around your ankles usually first thing in the morning or during the cooler evening hours. In most cases the bites cause little harm but occasionally deep infection can occur with more serious consequences. Again, travellers should wear sensible clothing and use adequate insect repellent. A bite which is slow to heal needs to be medically checked.
Sunbathing
************************************
One of the common health complaints associated with Tunisia relates to travellers becoming sun burnt while there on holidays. This is particularly the case with smaller children and toddlers. It is essential that travellers use high factor protection creams to lessen the risk of burning and to remember that skin cancer is commonly associated with burnt skin.
Anthrax from Leather Goods
************************************
This bacterial disease has been reported in Tunisia and travellers need to be aware that the disease can be transmitted through unprepared leather goods usually bought in the local market places. Even though this will be rare, any unusual sore should be medically checked after you return home.
Vaccinations for Tunisia
************************************
There are no essential vaccinations for Tunisia but travellers from Ireland are strongly recommended to have vaccination cover against
*
Poliomyelitis (childhood booster)
*
Typhoid (food & water borne disease)
*
Tetanus (childhood booster)
*
Hepatitis A (food & water borne disease)
Those spending longer periods in the country, or trekking, may need to consider vaccination cover
against
Rabies
and
Hepatitis B.
Summary
************************************
Be careful of the intense sun during the summer months. Care with food and water consumption will also be essential at all times.
Further Information
************************************
If you require any further information on staying healthy while overseas please contact either of the help lines at the numbers below.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu, 27 Jun 2019 14:23:48 +0200

Tunis, June 27, 2019 (AFP) - Two suicide bombers attacked security forces in the Tunisian capital on Thursday, killing a police officer and wounding at least eight people including several civilians, the interior ministry said.   One attack on the main street of Tunis wounded three civilians and two police personnel, the interior ministry initially said.   "Five (are) wounded -- three civilians and two police officers", Interior Ministry spokesman Sofiene Zaag told AFP, before later saying that a police officer had died of his wounds.

Body parts were strewn in the road around a police car on Habib Bourguiba avenue near the old city, according to an AFP correspondent.   "It was a suicide attack, which took place at 10:50 (0950 GMT)," Zaag said.   The second attack targeted a base of the national guard in the capital and wounded four security personnel, the ministry said.   "At 11:00 am (1000 GMT) an individual blew himself up outside the back door" of the base, wounding four security personnel, Zaag said.   Civil protection units and police rapidly deployed to Habib Bourguiba avenue, where the interior ministry is located.    People initially fled in panic, before some crowded around the scene of the attack, expressing anger against the authorities. Shops and offices were closed by police.

Tunisia, the cradle of the Arab Spring uprisings, has been hit by repeated Islamist attacks since the 2011 overthrow of longtime dictator Zine El Abidine Ben Ali.   On October 29, 2018 an unemployed graduate blew herself up near police cars on Habib Bourguiba, killing herself and wounding 26 people, mostly police officers, according to the interior ministry.   The Tunisian authorities said the suicide bomber had sworn allegiance to IS.

The attack was the first to rock the Tunisian capital for over three and a half years.   In March 2015, jihadist gunmen killed 21 tourists and a policeman at the National Bardo Museum in Tunis.   And in June that year, 30 Britons were among 38 foreign holidaymakers killed in a gun and grenade attack on a beach resort near the Tunisian city of Sousse.
Date: Thu, 9 May 2019 17:43:55 +0200
By Caroline Nelly Perrot

Tunis, May 9, 2019 (AFP) - As holidaymakers flock to Tunisia once more following a series of attacks, the country's tourism minister has his sights set on diversifying the industry and taking visitors beyond the beach.   "Practically all the big tour operators here have returned," said Rene Trabelsi, six months into his ministerial post.   He credits "huge efforts" for making the country safe for visitors again, after attacks in 2015 targeting tourists.   Gunmen killed 21 foreign visitors and a Tunisian security guard at the capital's Bardo National Museum, followed by a shooting rampage at a Sousse beach resort which left 38 people dead -- mostly British tourists.

Britain, France and other countries have recently eased their travel warnings, deeming most of Tunisia now safe.   Two million holidaymakers have visited Tunisia so far this year, according to government figures touted by the tourism minister.   That marks a 24 percent jump on the same period last year, and a 7 percent increase compared to the 2010 industry reference point.   But despite tourists returning, revenue has so far failed to reach that of nearly a decade ago.

The indebted industry is heavily reliant upon cheap "all-inclusive" holidays and the government is trying to diversify the tourism sector, which accounts for around 7 percent of GDP.   "During the high season, Tunisia will be packed, but we're interested in the low season, from September to March," said Trabelsi, sitting behind his large desk in the capital Tunis.   The minister wants to attract tourists over the winter months who are also interested in activities away from the beach.   "We're negotiating with the tour operators" to offer charter flights after the summer, said Trabelsi who hopes visitors will sign up for golf, spa treatments and cultural activities.   "This year already, a lot of hotels which closed during winter after the crisis, want to stay open," he said.   An electronic music festival in southern Tunisia is due to take place in September, while a jazz festival is planned in Tabarka near the Algerian border.

- No 'right to fail' -
Whereas half the holidaymakers in 2010 were European, they now make up less than a third of visitors amid an increasing number of tourists from other North African countries and further afield.   The government aims to welcome nine million visitors this year, but Trabelsi said Tunisians still need to tackle "environmental terrorism" to avoid scaring tourists away.   "I'm using that word to shock and alert," said the minister, warning that poor environmental standards can put tourists off "like when there's an attack".

Following Tunisia's 2011 revolution, authorities failed to keep atop of waste management. Municipal councils were elected for the first time a year ago but the clean-up is far from complete.   "We also have a cultural problem," said Trabelsi. "If each person swept outside their front door, that would already be huge."   Trabelsi has for years been co-organiser of an annual Jewish pilgrimage to Djerba, where his father is president of the island's synagogue, and in the 1990s he set up his own travel agency.   But months into his first political post, he said he has no intention of staying in government long-term.   "I want to make a mark, and Tunisians expect a lot from me. I come from the private sector, I have a different religion, so I don't have the right to fail," Trabelsi said.   "But once my mission is accomplished, I'll return to my own affairs."
Date: Sun 16 Feb 2019
Source: Realites Online [in French, trans. ProMED Corr.SB, edited]
<https://www.realites.com.tn/2019/02/tunisie-1318-cas-de-leishmaniose-enregistres-a-gafsa>

As of Sat 15 Feb 209, the Metlaoui Regional Hospital in Gafsa governorate has hosted 1318 patients with leishmaniasis, following the proliferation of mosquitoes [actually leishmania is transmitted by sandflies] near the lakes and wastewater. According to Shems Fm, citing its correspondent in the region, the number of leishmaniasis cases has tripled compared to the year 2017.
============================
[We presume these cases are cutaneous leishmaniasis. Cutaneous leishmaniasis, CL, caused by _Leishmania major_ is a major public health problem in Tunisia. It occurs mainly in central and southwestern Tunisia (semi-arid and arid areas), with thousands of cases. There are foci with a permanent active transmission, so, from time to time, outbreaks occur, related to new agricultural projects or large population movements (introduction to a non-immune population).  In some villages, up to 60 percent of the population is infected.

For a detailed discussion of _Leishmania_ in Tunisia please see Alvar J, Valez ID, Bern C, et al. Leishmaniasis worldwide and global estimates of its incidence.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(5): e35671; <https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671> - ProMED Mod.EP]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Gafsa, Tunisia:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/8782>]
Date: Thu, 17 Jan 2019 17:26:14 +0100
By Aymen Jamli

Tunis, Jan 17, 2019 (AFP) - A public sector strike brought Tunisia to a standstill Thursday as workers heeded calls from a powerful trade union to stay home over demands for wage hikes and economic reforms.   Across the country, schools were closed, public offices shuttered and transport paralysed after calls for a 24-hour strike by the Tunisian General Labour Union (UGTT).   The international airport in Tunis was hit hard, with thousands of travellers stranded without flights or information.   The UGTT had addressed its call to the country's 677,000 civil servants and 350,000 employees of state-owned companies, who make up nearly a quarter of the Tunisian workforce. 

Protesters took to the streets of the capital chanting "the Tunisian people do not accept humiliation", criticising Prime Minister Youssef Chahed's for bowing to reforms dictated by the International Monetary Fund (IMF).    Some held portraits of IMF chief Christine Lagarde, with a bright red X painted over her face.    Tunisia is seen as having had a relatively smooth democratic transition since the January 14, 2011 toppling of president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali after 23 years in power.

But price hikes fuelled by the fall of the Tunisian dinar, combined with tax increases and stubborn unemployment, have spurred social discontent.   In 2016, the IMF granted Tunisia a 2.4-billion-euro loan over the span of four years in exchange for a promise to carry out economic reforms and to control civil service salaries to avoid pushing up the public deficit.   "The UGTT will oppose the failure of the liberal choices of these leaders," UGTT head Noureddine Taboubi told the crowd, speaking from a balcony at the union's headquarters.   In Sfax, the second largest city in the country, thousands of demonstrators took to the streets.    The union has called for wage hikes for public sector employees to counter the decline in purchasing power due to inflation, which stands at 7.5 percent.

In a televised speech Wednesday, Prime Minister Chahed said public finances meant he could not accept the union's demands, adding that dialogue would continue after the strike.   "It is the wage increases conceded after the revolution in the absence of real growth that have led to inflation, debt and declining purchasing power," he argued.    Economist Ezzedine Saidane blamed Tunisia's economic problems on a long-term "lack of overall vision".    He told AFP structural reforms rather than a wage hike were needed "to limit inflation and boost job-creating growth".   Thursday's strike was the first to bring together employees from both the public sector and state-owned companies.    In November, Tunisian civil servants staged the biggest general strike in years.
Date: Mon, 14 Jan 2019 18:49:43 +0100

Tunis, Jan 14, 2019 (AFP) - Tunisia's powerful UGTT trade union on Monday called for a strike as the country, grappling with economic hardships, marked the eighth anniversary of the 2011 revolution that toppled its longtime dictator.   The Tunisian General Labour Union, the UGTT, called on public sector employees to observe the strike on Thursday -- the second since November -- to demand a wage rise and economic reforms.   In a speech at the union's headquarters, secretary general Noureddine Taboubi said the strike should go ahead as talks between the UGTT and the government on social and economic reforms remained deadlocked.

Civil servants represent a sixth of Tunisia's workforce and in November the UGTT said it was demanding 673,000 state employees receive salary hikes equal to those granted in 2018 to public companies, which range from 15 to 30 euros ($17-34) a month.   But President Beji Caid Essebsi has urged a boycott of the strike.   "It is necessary to stop or limit" strikes, he said, during a visit at the Bardo National Museum where an exhibit was on display to pay tribute to Tunisian revolution which sparked the 2011 Arab Spring uprisings.   Essebsi added, however, that "we must take into consideration the deteriorating purchasing power of citizens".

The North African country is seen as having had a relatively smooth democratic transition since the January 14, 2011 toppling of president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali after 23 years in power.   At the same time, price hikes fuelled in particular by the fall of the Tunisian dinar, combined with tax increases and stubborn unemployment, have spurred social discontent that escalated into riots across several cities in January last year.

In 2016, the International Monetary Fund granted Tunisia a 2.4-billion-euro loan over the span of four years in exchange for a promise to carry out economic reforms.   The country is grappling with an inflation rate of 7.5 percent and unemployment stands at more than 15 percent, with those worst hit being young university graduates.

Many Tunisians hope there will be change in 2019 when presidential and legislative elections are due to take place.   Meanwhile on Monday, hundreds of Tunisians, including politicians, took to the streets of the capital to celebrate the ousting eight years ago of strongman Ben Ali, gathering in the landmark Habib Bourguiba Avenue in central Tunis.
More ...

Lesotho

Lesotho US Consular Information Sheet
May 28, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Lesotho is a constitutional monarchy with a democratically elected lower house of parliament.
The upper house, the Senate, is comprised of appointed hereditary ch
efs and politicians.
A Prime Minister is the head of the government.
Geographically, Lesotho is an extremely mountainous developing nation completely surrounded by the country of South Africa.
The capital, Maseru, is at 5,000 feet (1,500M) above sea level, and the mountains reach to 11,400 feet (3,500M). Facilities for tourism are limited.
A limited number of restaurants are available in Maseru.
Read the Department of State Background Notes on Lesotho for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport is required, but no visa for U.S. citizens is needed for visits of 180 days or less.
Vaccination for yellow fever is a common requirement and travelers should carry their international vaccination cards with them.
For more information concerning entry requirements, travelers may contact the Embassy of the Kingdom of Lesotho, 2511 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008, telephone (202) 797-5533.
Visit the Embassy of Lesotho’s web site at http://www.lesothoemb-usa.gov.ls/ for the most current visa information.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Lesotho held a general election in February 2007, which international and local observers considered peaceful and independent.
Opposition parties disputed the allocation of parliamentary seats following the election, leading to a protracted political impasse, massive rallies, and several work stoppages in 2007 which disrupted public transportation and some commercial activity.
Although the Southern African Development Community (SADC) undertook a mediation effort aimed at achieving dialogue and reconciliation, senior political and government figures were targeted in a spate of armed attacks in June 2007.
These attacks, including the kidnapping of Lesotho Defense Force (LDF) guards and the seizure of military weapons, resulted in a government-imposed daily curfew from June 15 to June 22, 2007, and reports of harassment at security checkpoints and roadblocks.
Efforts by the Maseru City Council to disperse unlicensed street vendors in the central business district led to confrontations between police and vendors.
U.S. citizens should avoid political gatherings and street demonstrations and maintain security awareness at all times.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
U.S. citizens should remain vigilant about their surroundings at all times.
Lesotho has a high level of crime and foreigners are frequently targeted, robbed and sometimes killed.
American citizens reported an increased number of incidents in the first half of 2008, including armed and unarmed confrontations, carjackings, and home invasions.
However, there are no indications that U.S. citizens are being specifically targeted or that there is an increase in the overall crime rate.

The Lesotho Mounted Police Service reported the presence of a number of armed gangs.
Lesotho’s high unemployment rate, aggravated by the return of large numbers of unemployed miners from South Africa, and the ongoing effects of social upheaval due to high HIV/AIDS rates of infection, continue to contribute to an increasing number of reported crimes.
These types of crimes occur primarily in the capital city of Maseru, but can occur elsewhere in Lesotho.
Crime scenes have included popular restaurants, pedestrian overpasses, unlit or poorly lit roads, and other locations foreigners are known to frequent.
Victims have included foreign diplomats, volunteer workers, employees of non-governmental organizations, and nationals of Lesotho.
U.S. citizens are advised to avoid large groups and demonstrations, walking and driving at nighttime if possible, and walking in the capital city of Maseru even during daylight.
Personal crime is more likely to occur at night, but there have been numerous recent incidents in the middle of the day.
Traveling alone or at night is particularly dangerous.
The Lesotho Mounted Police Service handles policing duties.
Police resources are limited and response time varies widely.
U.S. citizens should report crime to the police and to the Embassy consular section.

There is a serious baggage pilferage problem at Johannesburg International Airport, also known as Oliver Tambo International Airport, in South Africa.
Persons traveling by air to Lesotho must travel via Johannesburg.
The pilferage problem particularly affects travelers changing airlines and those flying on smaller airlines.
Passengers flying on major international carriers may not be affected to the same degree.
Travelers are encouraged to secure their luggage, use an airport plastic wrapping service, and avoid placing currency, electronics, jewelry, cameras or other valuables in checked luggage.
Make an inventory of items in checked baggage to aid in claims processing if theft does occur.
The claims processing procedure can be time-consuming.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney, if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Medical facilities in Lesotho are limited.
Good medical service is available in Bloemfontein, South Africa, 90 miles west of Maseru.
There is no reliable ambulance service in Lesotho.
The Embassy maintains a list of physicians and other health care professionals in Lesotho who may see U.S. citizen patients.
The Embassy does not guarantee their services or provide recommendations.
Many medicines are unavailable at facilities in Lesotho; travelers should carry with them an adequate supply of needed medicines and/or prescription drugs, along with copies of prescriptions.
Lesotho has a very high HIV/AIDS prevalence rate, currently estimated at over thirty percent of the adult population.
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Lesotho is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
Traffic moves on the left, with right-hand drive vehicles.
Never assume right-of-way, as aggressive and undisciplined local driving habits result in frequent collisions.
Lesotho has a high number of traffic-related deaths and injuries given its small size.
The previous king died in a road accident in 1996.
Driving after dark is dangerous due to the absence of street lighting, livestock on the roads, and the prevalence of crime, including incidents of carjacking.
American citizens may encounter roadblocks manned by unauthorized or off-duty police officers soliciting cash payments for alleged traffic violations.
Travel is best done by private car.
Rental cars are available, and cars rented in neighboring South Africa may be brought into Lesotho with written permission from the rental company.
Although bus and public taxi services exist, chronic overloading combined with inadequate vehicle maintenance and lack of driver training make them unsafe.
Some private taxi service exists in the capital, but roving mini-bus taxis should be avoided.
There is no passenger train service in the country.
Although the number of paved roads is gradually increasing, the majority of Lesotho’s 5,000 miles of roads are unpaved.
A few main rural highways are comparable to U.S. two-lane rural roads, but lane markings, signs, shoulders and guardrails are not to U.S. standards, and unfenced livestock pose a particular danger.
Lesotho's mountainous terrain makes driving on secondary roads hazardous.
Unpaved roads in the interior, often narrow, twisty and steep, are poorly maintained. For travel in the interior, especially in wet or snowy weather, a high ground clearance or four-wheel-drive vehicle is recommended.
Four-wheel-drive is required for entering Lesotho through the Sani Pass on the eastern border.
The authority for road safety issues rests with the Lesotho Mounted Police Service.
There are no auto clubs or reliable ambulance services.
Drivers should contact the police in emergencies.
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
Visit the web site of the country’s national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at http://www.lesothoemb-usa.gov.ls/tourism.htm.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Lesotho, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Lesotho’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

The only scheduled air service is between Maseru and Johannesburg on a South African Airways subsidiary. There is no scheduled service among towns within Lesotho.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Tap water is not reliably potable.
Visitors to the interior of Lesotho should bring clothing and equipment suitable for cold weather during the winter months (June - October).
In the mountains, weather conditions can deteriorate rapidly.
In winter snow often closes mountain passes and temperatures often drop below freezing during the night, even in the lowlands.

Please see our Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Lesotho laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Lesotho are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Lesotho are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Lesotho.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy is located at 254 Kingsway, Maseru West; the mailing address is PO Box 333, Maseru 100, Lesotho.
The telephone number is 266-22-312-666. The Embassy’s e-mail address is infomaseru@state.gov and the URL is http://maseru.usembassy.gov/.
*

*

*
This replaces the Country Specific Information for Lesotho dated December 19, 2007 to update sections on Entry/Exit Requirements, Crime, and Traffic Safety and Road Conditions.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Mon 27 May 2019
Source: The Post [edited]

Over 50 people were taken ill this week after they ate meat from cattle that died of anthrax in Qeme last Saturday [18 May 2019]. About 55 were rushed to nearby clinics while 18 of them were given prophylaxis and treated as outpatients. Most of the victims developed blisters and had swollen limbs while others suffered from severe stomach-aches and diarrhoea. So far more than 20 cattle have died from anthrax.

The Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security this week declared that there had been an anthrax outbreak in Qeme area. The disease was 1st noticed in the villages of Ha-Tseka and Ha-Au in Qeme last Saturday [18 May 2019] after the villagers informed the ministry that their cattle were dying. The minister of agriculture, Mahala Molapo, told the post that they ensured that the carcasses were buried and those who ate meat of dead cattle were rushed to health centres for treatment.

A rapid response team comprising the Ministries of Agriculture and Health has since responded to the outbreak in the district. The team is comprised of experts from the Disease Control Unit, the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the epidemiologists who swiftly moved to contain the disease. "Our main focus is treating those who ate the infected animals and how to properly bury the carcasses," Molapo said. "We are also testing water sources in the area." He said they are also going to hold public gatherings where they are going to sensitize the communities about the disease. Molapo said they have also banned the movement of animals in and out of the Qeme area, and next week they are going to embark on vaccination campaigns.

The minister said no one has died so far as a result of eating the contaminated meat. He said neighbouring countries have been notified and no movement of animals will be allowed between Lesotho and its neighbours until the disease is contained. He added the country's export of animal products such as skins and meat has also been banned until the crisis is addressed. "We are also planning to provide vaccines countrywide to prevent other diseases like Black Quarter," he said. The minister maintained they have put in place control measures to contain the disease in the affected areas to prevent more cattle from dying.

Meanwhile, the district administrator of Maseru, Mpane Nthunya, said they will start the vaccination campaigns next week. Nthunya said their work will be to meet the community leaders in the affected areas to sensitize them about the outbreak.  [byline: Tokase Mphutlane]
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communicated by:
Sabine Zentis
Castleview English Longhorns
Gut Laach
D-52385 Nideggen
Germany
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[These human cases are in relation to the same villages reported in the previous OIE report (See: ProMED-mail. Anthrax - Lesotho: (MS) cattle, OIE http://promedmail.org/post/20190524.6485405.] With 3 villages affected a human case load of 50 is not unexpected in spite of the optimistic response of the local authorities. To locate the affected area go to the OIE report to see their map. - ProMED Mod.MHJ]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Date: Fri, 9 Sep 2016 05:27:46 +0200
By Julie JAMMOT

Semonkong, Lesotho, Sept 9, 2016 (AFP) - Across the rough grasslands of Lesotho, jockeys wearing wool balaclavas and scruffy old helmets urge their horses towards the finishing post as hundreds of spectators cheer from a nearby hillside.

Horseracing in the mountain kingdom of Lesotho is not like at Ascot or Longchamp, but it is still highly competitive, involves lots of gambling and is a major social occasion.   The course at Semonkong, in the centre of the landlocked nation, hosts races once a month in the winter, with the most prestigious days marking King Letsi III's birthday in July and independence day in October.   Before each race, the horses are paraded in front of a crowd that expertly assesses breeding, formation and fitness of runners with such exotic names as "4x4", "Cain" and "Jerusalem".   Then the gambling begins.

Most bets are head-to-head wagers over which of two selected horses will be faster, rather than the overall race winner.   "It's an entertainment but it's also our culture, and it refreshes the mind," Mohale Mpapa, 45, a leading racehorse owner and farmer, told AFP.   "It's important to me because I get money if my horse wins, and for the country it's very important because we teach kids how to ride horses.   "If you take care of someone, if you respect him, you make them a good jockey. It's the same with a horse, you need to treat it well."   The horses are either cross-breeds, thoroughbreds from neighbouring South Africa or local "Basotho" ponies, which are better suited to the terrain and climate, and are still used for everyday transport.

- The will to win -
Mpapa's current jockey is Modikeng Tladi, 16, who also works for him as a shepherd.   Tladi -- wearing bright earrings -- rises at dawn and looks after racehorses and sheep that all live in one small, corrugated-iron shed.   "I will be very excited if I win, and very proud, because I will have won a professional race in front of everyone," he said before a recent race meeting.

"In my first race, I was so scared, now I'm used to it. I feel comfortable and excited when I ride the horse, I want to win all the time."   Tladi takes the patchwork blanket off a horse called "Kodi-a-Malla" and walks him over the hills to the racecourse -- a difficult job as the animal is twice his size and full of energy.   When race time finally comes, tensions mount as Mpapa checks the small saddle and issues last-minute instructions to Tladi before helping him on board.

Without stalls, the horses line up chaotically and -- after several false starts -- set off at a furious pace when an official waves his white flag and just avoids being trampled.   Tladi only manages fourth, but the team is happy enough.   "During training my horse got injured, so I didn't train him very hard, and next time it will be better," said Mpapa, who owns 15 horses in total.

- Unique heritage -
The Lesotho races are growing as a cultural event, and have received government sponsorship to boost visitor numbers to a nation that boasts stunning landscapes and a unique heritage independent from surrounding South Africa.

The owners of the first four horses in each race win between $20 and $70, with more than $1,000 on offer during the day.   "I have loved horses since I was very young, and they're part of my business," said Jonathan Hales, 46, who owns the nearby Semonkong Lodge that caters for tourists.   "The future of the horses of Lesotho comes out of these races, where all the breeders and owners can analyse and look at them.   "Tourism is also connected to the horses, so we promote them and care for them -- it's all about fun, not about winning and losing."

Jockeys such as Tladi may not agree.   After riding in several races and making some small bets, he made about $60 during the day -- 10 days of normal pay.   While the owners of victorious horses celebrate with joyful dancing, the jockeys barely manage a smile as they quickly ride over to collect their cash.   For the spectators, many of them wearing traditional blankets, racing combines their passion for animals with a chance to test their luck and judgement.   "The horse I bet on just lost, but I will keep gambling, I just love horses," said 50-year-old Motseki Pakela.
Date: Sat, 13 Aug 2016 05:04:53 +0200
By Julie JAMMOT

Sephareng, Lesotho, Aug 13, 2016 (AFP) - For farmer Mohlakoane Molise, the view of the enormous Katse dam from his smallholding high in the mountains of Lesotho taunts him daily.   His country is suffering through its worst drought in 35 years, but the vast and vital water reserves remain out of reach, destined instead for export to neighbouring South Africa.   "I am very angry about that water, because it could benefit us, we could use it to water the crops when there is a drought. But that's not happening," the 65-year-old widower told AFP.

Kneeling in front of his round, thatch-roofed hut, he sorted through his maize, examining each grain, one-by-one.   The operation didn't take long. His total annual harvest filled just two large sacks, in place of the usual dozen.   According to the World Food Programme (WFP), the 2016 harvest for Lesotho's primary crop maize is estimated at 25,000 tonnes, a dramatic drop from last year's 78,000-tonne haul.

Instead, the mountainous kingdom -- entirely landlocked by South Africa -- must import food from its larger neighbour.   But it too has been hit by the drought after the El Nino weather phenomenon wreaked havoc on the region's rainfall patterns, and maize prices have sky-rocketed by 60 percent in the last year.   According to the United Nations, 40 million people across southern Africa risk malnutrition by next year's harvest.   "From September, we'll have nothing left and we'll struggle to buy maize from the shop," said Molise.   Below, the immense dark blue of the dam stood out in stark contrast to the bare, brown mountains.

- 'It's like a desert' -
The valley here was flooded in the nineties to make way for Katse. The deal: hydroelectricity for impoverished Lesotho in exchange for a reliable water supply to the bustling cities of Johannesburg and Pretoria.   "There were fields around the river before the dam was built, and there were trees, but they are covered by water," said Molise.   "Since the dam is here, it's difficult to get water. The crops are very poor, even the grazing land. It's like a desert."   In Sephareng, the village tap has run dry for months. Residents must instead make their way up the mountain -- a good half-hour walk along a rocky trail -- to a communal pump. There, a feeble trickle of water fills their buckets, while their cows and donkeys drink from the small puddles left behind by a vanishing stream.

For its part, Africa's second-largest dam is fulfilling its mandate, despite the drought.   "The level today is about 63.4 percent, which is quite low," said Tatuku Maseatile, Katse acting branch manager for the Lesotho Highlands Development Authority (LHDA).   "We are still able to meet our annual targets in terms of both generation and water transfer."   From his office high up on the soaring dam wall, he had an unparalleled view of the waters below.   "I do think people are benefiting from the dam," he said, ticking the projects off: a water supply system, construction jobs, two industrial fishing projects, schools.   "And roads in the mountains, tarred roads brought by the project -- another direct spin-off -- and a clinic built and transferred to the government."

- Disastrous consequences -
Along those tarred roads, women trudged uphill for hours to reach the clinic for the WFP's monthly food distribution.   "We give them four packs each," explained Mamakase Grace Sello, 21, a nutrition student interning with the WFP.   "It's for lactating or pregnant mothers, and infants below the age of two. But we know that often the whole family eats some, including the fathers, even if they should not. The nutrients are for the babies."   In a country where the overwhelming majority of families depend on their own crops for food and where nearly a quarter of the population is affected by AIDS, charities are predicting disastrous consequences by next year's harvest.

Earlier this year, the Lesotho government declared the drought a natural disaster.   "I've never seen a drought like this," said shepherd Ntoaesele Mashongoane, 32.   "This drought is really terrible, especially for the pregnant sheep. They don't have enough grass and there's no water."   His flock moved down the steep mountainsides to the water's edge for a drink -- a small consolation -- and the deep blue of the dam reflected the skies above, not a raindrop in sight.
Date: Thu, 1 Nov 2012 17:33:42 +0100 (MET)

MASERU, Lesotho, Nov 01, 2012 (AFP) - The Lesotho government fears it may not raise enough cash to avert a pending food crisis caused by two successive crop failures, the head of the country's disaster management authority said Thursday. "We are far from reaching the amount required to bail the country out of the food crisis it's facing, we may not even get half of that money and we strongly appeal for more donors to assist us," said Mats'eliso Mojaki. The tiny mountainous country is trying to raise 1.8 billion maloti, or around $200 million it believes is needed to avert disaster caused by unfavourable weather. "We are in a dire situation and can only appeal to the international community to assist."

Mojaki indicated that the country has not developed alternative plans in case they fail to get the entire amount. "At the present moment we do not have a plan B, but are however devising a long term prevention and adaptation plan. UNICEF Deputy Representative Naqib Safi described the situation as "dire". "More than two thirds of the country's population is facing a serious food crisis and we need assistance." Around 725,000 people out of a population of 1.8 million are said to be at serious risk this year and next. The kingdom relies on subsistence agriculture for income.
Date: Fri, 28 Sep 2012 15:15:28 +0200 (METDST)

GENEVA, Sept 28, 2012 (AFP) - More than 725,000 people face a food crisis in the tiny southern African nation of Lesotho after successive disastrous harvests cut production by 70 percent, the World Food Programme said Friday.   "Lesotho is facing the devastating effects of two successive crop failures due to drought and late rainfall," WFP spokeswoman Elisabeth Byrs told reporters in Geneva.

More than one third of the country's nearly two million people were at risk because of the poor harvests, Byrs said, describing the crop deficit as a "catastrophe for this little country".   Production of maize, the main staple food in Lesotho, has declined by 77 percent compared with last year, the food agency said.

Levels of other cereals such as sorghum and wheat were down by 80 percent and 52 percent respectively, meaning that the country will have less than 10 percent of its requirements for 2012/13, the WFP added in a statement.   Among those facing the food crisis, 230,000 people were "particularly vulnerable" to hunger, the agency said, especially the very poor, orphans and those with HIV/AIDS, an illness that affects 25 percent of the population.

Announcing an appeal for $38 million (29.3 million euros) in association with other humanitarian partners, the WFP said it aimed to provide life-saving help to 118,000 "of the most deprived".   It would also meet the needs "of all 725,000 food-insecure people" by boosting crop production and improving food security, health and nutrition.   The development follows Lesotho's declaration of an emergency food crisis on August 9, Byrs said.
More ...

World Travel News Headlines

Date: Fri, 23 Aug 2019 18:13:17 +0200 (METDST)

London, Aug 23, 2019 (AFP) - British Airways pilots on Friday said they will strike for three days in September in a dispute over pay, in a move that could affect tens of thousands of travellers.   The strikes on September 9, 10 and 27 were announced by the British Airline Pilots Association (Balpa), which said there had been a 93-percent vote in favour of industrial action.   "It is completely unacceptable that Balpa is destroying the travel plans of tens of thousands of our customers with this unjustifiable strike action," said the airline.   "We are extremely sorry that after many months of negotiations, based on a very fair offer, Balpa has decided on this reckless course of action," it said.

British Airways said it would change schedules to try and ensure as many people as possible can take their flights but warned that "many" customers will not be able to travel.   "We will be offering refunds and re-bookings for passengers booked on cancelled flights," it said.   Balpa said the strikes were "a last resort" but added that pilots had made "sacrifice after sacrifice" in recent years.   Balpa estimated each day of strike action would cost the company around £40 million (44 million euros, $49 million).
Date: Fri, 23 Aug 2019 15:08:04 +0200 (METDST)
By Obert SIMWANZA

Lusaka, Aug 23, 2019 (AFP) - Children living in a central Zambian mining town are still exposed to high levels of toxic lead 25 years after the mine closed, Human Rights Watch said Friday, as lawyers announced plans to take legal action.   Decades of lead mining have left Kabwe, around 150 kilometres (95 miles) north of Lusaka, severely polluted, with serious health implications for residents.   The mine, which operated from the early 1900s until its closure in 1994, was at one time the world's largest lead mine. It was run by the Zambian government from the early 1970s when the mining industry was nationalised.     In a report published Friday, HRW said the town in the Copperbelt area still has extreme levels of contamination and children continue to be exposed to high levels of toxic lead in soil and dust around their homes, schools and play areas.

HRW's children's rights fellow and report author Joanna Naples-Mitchell described the situation in Kabwe as "a public health emergency" and said the government was "not responding with the sense of urgency that is warranted".    "The Zambian government is aware that Kabwe has been severely contaminated... since the 1990s and efforts to clean up have been inadequate," she told AFP.   A class action suit is being prepared to demand compensation for poisoning from Anglo American South Africa, a former investor in the mine, London-based law firm Leigh Day announced Friday. The law firm deals in human rights issues.   The case will be brought in courts in South Africa, where the mining firm is based, said the lawyers, who are acting on behalf of some 200 children who have been treated for lead poisoning.   Anglo American on Friday said in a statement it did not believe it was "in any way responsible for the current situation" in Kabwe.    "We were concerned to learn of the situation at Kabwe as reported by the press," it said, adding "the nationalisation more than 40 years ago effectively placed these issues under the control of the Zambian Government".

- 'Severely contaminated' -
The HRW report said that although lead and zinc mining have stopped in the town, various medical studies conducted over the past seven years show children there still had elevated levels of lead in their blood.   Between 2003 and 2011, the World Bank funded a government project to decontaminate Kabwe's affected townships, and to test and treat children. But some 76,000 people, or a third of the town's population, still live in contaminated areas.   One recent study published last year and cited by HRW estimated that more than 95 percent of children in the townships surrounding the lead mine have elevated blood lead levels and that about half of them require medical intervention.   "This is the worst environmental disaster I have seen in 30 years of practice," said lawyer Richard Meeran of Leigh Day.    Johannesburg-based collaborating lawyer Zanele Mbuyisa said they will argue that "the environmental damage created has potentially contaminated almost three generations of men, women and children".

- Insufficient resources -
Three years ago, the government launched another five-year World Bank-funded project to get rid of the lead and carry out new rounds of testing and treatment.   The project targets around 10,000 people including children, pregnant women and mothers.   "We think this a very important opportunity for the Zambian government to find a lasting solution to this problem," said Naples-Mitchell.   She urged Zambia to find new and effective methods to clean up the lead, adding that their 2018 study indicated that pollution levels were "as high they had been in the 1970s".    In a letter last month, the government indicated to HRW that it does not have enough resources to address the full scale of the contamination.   The government did not immediately comment on the report.   Children are more vulnerable to lead poisoning since they absorb four to five times as much as an adult and this can retard their growth and IQ, while in worst cases it can result in brain damage or even death.
Date: Fri, 23 Aug 2019 14:02:01 +0200 (METDST)

Khartoum, Aug 23, 2019 (AFP) - Rain and flash floods have killed 54 people in Sudan since the start of July and affected nearly 200,000, the United Nations said Friday.   The worst affected area is While Nile state in the south but Khartoum and other regions have also been affected.   "More than 37,000 homes have been destroyed or damaged," the UN said, quoting figures from the government body it partners with in the crisis response.   "Humanitarians are concerned by the high likelihood of more flash floods," it said, adding that most of the 54 recorded deaths were due to collapsed roofs and electrocution.

The floods are having a lasting humanitarian impact on communities, with cut roads, damaged water points, lost livestock and the spread of water-borne diseases by insects.   The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs said an extra $150 million were needed from donors to respond to the floods, in addition to the $1.1 billion required for the overall humanitarian situation in Sudan.
Date: Thu, 22 Aug 2019 21:40:50 +0200 (METDST)

Warsaw, Aug 22, 2019 (AFP) - At least five people, including two children, were killed and more than 100 others were injured Thursday during a sudden thunderstorm in Poland and Slovakia's Tatra mountains, according to rescuers and officials.   Most of the victims were on the Polish side, where lightning struck a large metal cross on top of Mount Giewont and a metal chain near the summit, rescuers said. One person died in Slovakia.   "There were a lot of incidents involving lightning strikes today in the Tatras," Polish mountain rescue service chief Jan Krzysztof told Poland's PAP news agency.    "More than 100 people are injured," Poland's Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki said after arriving in the nearby mountain resort town of Zakopane.

Rescuers believe many hikers were nearby when lightning struck the cross on Giewont's summit.   They had set out to climb Poland's highest mountains when the skies were clear earlier in the day.    "We heard that after (the) lightning struck, people fell... the current then continued along the chains securing the ascent, striking everyone along the way. It looked bad," Krzysztof said.    Lightning also struck on the nearby Czerwone Wierchy mountain massif, injuring a Portuguese citizen.
Date: Wed 21 Aug 2019
Source: Forbes [edited]

A Missouri county has imposed mandatory hepatitis A vaccinations for food handlers. Franklin County, Missouri, joins a handful of jurisdictions across the country with mandatory hepatitis A vaccine programs aimed at preventing further cases. This development is part of a larger trend aimed at expanding vaccinations for hepatitis A and addressing future outbreaks of the disease.

Hepatitis A is a contagious liver disease that can cause symptoms ranging from fever to jaundice and, in extreme cases, liver failure and death. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the virus is most commonly spread in the USA via the fecal-oral route, meaning that a person unknowingly ingests something contaminated with the faeces of an infected person.

Hepatitis A is a particularly insidious virus, as an infected person is most contagious 2 weeks before symptoms develop, and those symptoms can take as long as 50 days after exposure to develop. Fortunately, hepatitis A is preventable by vaccine.

CDC is investigating outbreaks of hepatitis A across 29 states. According to CDC, 233 individuals have died from hepatitis A between 2016 and 2019 out of over 24 000 reported cases. Several states, including Kentucky, Florida, Ohio, and West Virginia, have seen thousands of cases.

In an effort to curb the increase in reported cases of hepatitis A, many local jurisdictions are considering mandatory hepatitis A vaccines for food service workers. For example, Missouri has reported 387 cases of hepatitis A in the past 2 years. Over 50 of these cases are from Franklin County, which has a population of about 100,000 residents. Franklin County officials have imposed mandatory vaccinations for individuals who handle food. Food establishments, including restaurants, have 90 days to ensure their employees are vaccinated. Nearby St Louis County, Missouri enacted a mandatory vaccine requirement nearly 20 years ago. Similar ordinances requiring vaccines for food service workers were enacted in Kentucky's Ashland and Boyd Counties in 2018.  [byline: Tommy Tobin]
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[A campaign to protect the patrons of restaurants from acquiring hepatitis A from the food as being done now in this county in Missouri is more than reasonable, as has been stated here previously. In addition to the recent outbreak of 23 cases of HAV linked to a New Jersey golf club (see alsos below), the following is an only partial list of recent reports of restaurant employees acquiring HAV:

Washington 16 Aug 2019
Hepatitis A forces Lynnwood restaurant to temporarily close

New York 16 August 2019
Confirmed case of hepatitis A in Platinum Pizza employee, vaccines to be made available to patrons

Florida 6 Aug 2019
Ocala restaurant employee infected with hepatitis A, officials say

Tennessee, Ohio 1 Aug 2019
National epidemic of hepatitis A outbreaks puts restaurant customers at risk

Mississippi 24 Jul 2019
Health officials investigating possible hepatitis A exposure at Mississippi restaurant

HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Missouri, United States: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/227>]
Date: Sun 18 Aug 2019
Source: Associated Press [edited]

Health officials in Las Vegas are using the word "outbreak" to describe a sharp spike in hepatitis A cases reported mostly among homeless people and drug users. The Southern Nevada Health District reported on Wednesday [14 Aug 2019] that from November [2018] to June [2019] it tallied 83 cases of the virus that causes liver damage and can lead to death.

That's far more than the 58 cases reported in 2016, 2017, and 2018, combined. The district says more than 80% of reported patients were people without a permanent place to live, and 92% use drugs, whether intravenous or not.

Clinical services chief Dr Fermin Leguen told the Las Vegas Review-Journal recently that the numbers are alarming. He noted that cases are being reported nationwide. Public health emergencies have been declared in cities including Miami and Philadelphia, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is tracking outbreaks in 27 states. An outbreak of hepatitis A among homeless people in San Diego killed 20 in 2017.

Clark County officials announced in July 2019 that during a 2-day count in January 2019, almost 5300 people were tallied living on sidewalks, vacant lots, parks, and drainage tunnels in and around Las Vegas. That was down from about 6100 in 2017. The Southern Nevada Health District said the trend in hepatitis A cases has been upward: 6 reported cases in 2016; 13 cases in 2017; and 39 in 2018.

The Review-Journal accompanied a crisis intervention team visiting hepatitis A "hot spots" in Las Vegas to offer vaccine shots. The vaccine for the hepatitis A virus is effective soon after inoculation, although a 2nd dose is required after 6 months for full coverage.

Fuilala Riley, president of Help of Southern Nevada, told the newspaper that access to running water for people to wash their hands is important in preventing spread of the virus. Hepatitis A is most often transmitted through consumption of water or food contaminated with faeces.
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[Nevada has yet to be listed in the CDC site following this unnecessary outbreak.  As the number of cases continues to rise in a number of states, and news of smaller (so far) outbreaks occur in others, the question at the end of ProMED-mail post http://promedmail.org/post/20190104.6241686 by a Kentucky official -- "This is a disease of developing countries. One has to ask: Why are we seeing it in the USA?" -- is more and more relevant. We are seeing these outbreaks because of the inability to deal with marginalized populations in our midst. The dramatic cutbacks in public health infrastructure in some of these states clearly feed the fire of these outbreaks. They must be addressed by bolstering public health resources and education and directly addressing the needs of these marginalized populations. - ProMED Mod.LL]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Las Vegas, Nevada, United States:
Date: Wed 21 Aug 2019
Source: Bring Me the News [edited]

There have now been 69 people to have fallen sick from the _Escherichia coli_ outbreak at Lake Nokomis. Health officials put out an alert earlier this month [August 2019] after 3 children became sick with the bug after swimming at the lake, prompting the closure of both its beaches.

The Minnesota Department of Health said on Friday [16 Aug 2019] it had received 49 confirmed cases of _E. coli_-related illness since the outbreak, and on Tuesday [20 Aug 2019] revealed that this number had grown to 69. Those affected went swimming at the south Minneapolis lake between 16 Jul and 11 Aug 2019, with the Shiga-toxin producing _E. coli_ taking up to 16 days to show symptoms. [We generally consider 10 days to be the long end of the incubation period. - ProMED Mod.LL]

Both beaches at the lake have been closed and will remain that way for the rest of the season, as part of MDH's response to contain the outbreak. Of the total cases, 20% affected children aged 10 and younger. Fortunately, nobody has required hospitalization.

The Star Tribune reports that with other beach closures at Bde Maka Ska and Lake Hiawatha, among others, this summer, it is the most beach closures seen in the city since it started testing for bacteria in 2003. The MDH advises anyone showing symptoms of a Shiga-toxin _E. coli_ infection -- diarrhea (often bloody), stomach cramps, no or low-grade fever -- should see a healthcare provider.  [byline: Adam Uren]
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[This has become a substantial outbreak.  It is important to understand that there are many different kinds of _E. coli_. The organism is an important component of the human intestinal tract and can perform important functions helpful to its host. These strains can cause human infections if they "escape" from the usual location into the urinary tract, gall bladder, or abdominal cavity. They are also what are mentioned when a beach is closed for _E. coli_ contamination. In this circumstance, officials are measuring the organism or "coliforms" in the water to reflect human sewage contamination.

In addition, some strains of _E. coli_ can produce toxins that can induce diarrhea, and much of so-called travelers' diarrhea is caused by these strains. All of these strains are human bacteria, not zoonotic organisms, that is, not spread from animal hosts. One _E. coli_ group called Shiga toxin producing or enterohemorrhagic _E. coli_ (EHEC), the organism likely to be involved here, is zoonotic. Spread in a number of ways, including via undercooked ground beef, contaminated vegetables, and direct or direct contact with farm animals including contaminated water, EHEC can cause significant disease and even death.

In the spring of 2000, in Walkerton, a town of 5000 in southern Ontario, an outbreak of _E. coli_ O157:H7 infection claimed 7 lives -- 6 adults and a child -- and over 200 were seen at local area hospitals.

Swimming-associated transmission is illustrated in the following references:

1. Keene WE, McAnulty JM, Hoesly FC, et al. A swimming-associated outbreak of hemorrhagic colitis caused by _Escherichia coli_ O157:H7 and _Shigella sonnei_. N Engl J Med. 1994; 331(9): 579-84; available
2. CDC. Lake-associated outbreak of _E. coli_ O157:H7 - Illinois. MMWR 1996; 45(21): 437-9; available at
3. Ackman D, Marks S, Mack P, et al. Swimming-associated hemorrhagic colitis due to _Escherichia coli_ O157:H7 infection: evidence of prolonged contamination of a fresh water lake. Epidemiol Infect. 1997; 119:1-8; available at

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Lake Nokomis, Minnesota, United States:
28 Jul 2019

As many as 13 have died while 6677 have been infected across Tanzania. In Dar es Salaam region alone, 6631 cases and 11 deaths have occurred.

HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Tanzania:
8 Aug 2019

Dengue-type1 outbreak was declared on the 27 Feb 2019 following a laboratory (NZLabPlus) confirmation of 7 dengue type 1 cases. From 28 Jan-4 Aug 2019, a cumulative number of 78 dengue cases have been reported (22 confirmed, and 56 probable-NS1Ag positives). Rarotonga and Aitutaki are the only islands affected and most of the cases have been from the main island of Rarotonga. Aitutaki has managed to contain its number of cases to 3. The last case was reported on 18 Apr 2019. A total of 42 cases have been hospitalised and given free mosquito nets to take and use at home. Apart from some severe cases, the hospitalisation was also an effort to contain and minimise the spread of the infection into the community. Unfortunately, some cases refused to be admitted but were given some health advice and mosquito precautionary measures. No deaths reported.

- Cook Islands. 17 Aug 2019. 78 dengue cases have been reported in Cook Islands since the outbreak began early in the year [2019]. The Cook Islands News reports the Ministry of Health saying 22 were confirmed cases while 56 have been deemed probable positives.

HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Cook Islands:
19 Aug 2019

358 indigenous cases and 2 imported cases of dengue 2 have been confirmed since the beginning of 2019, according to the latest Health Watch bulletin. Tahiti is still in an epidemic phase: all communes are affected except Mahaena, Pueu, and Teahupoo. In the islands, Bora-Bora is in epidemic phase (at least 3 cases without epidemiological link): Vaitape and Faanui are affected. Moorea is in an epidemic phase: The communes of Afareaitu, Haapiti, and Paopao are affected. Six islands are in the alert phase: Nuku-Hiva (Taiohae), Fakarava, Raiatea, Rangiroa, Huahine, and Hiva Oa (Atuona). Since dengue type 2 has not circulated in the country since the year 2000, the population is poorly immunized, and the epidemic may be large. People under 20 or arriving in French Polynesia after 2000 are most at risk of becoming infected.

HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of French Polynesia: