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Anguilla

Anguilla US Consular Information Sheet
March 03, 2009
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: Anguilla is a British overseas territory in the Caribbean, part of the British West Indies. It is a small but rapidly developing island with particularly well-developed
ourist facilities.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 requires all travelers to and from the Caribbean, Bermuda, Panama, Mexico and Canada to have a valid passport to enter or re-enter the United States. U.S. citizens must have a valid U.S. passport if traveling by air, including to and from Mexico.
If traveling by sea, U.S. citizens can use a passport or passport card. We strongly encourage all American citizen travelers to apply for a U.S. passport or passport card well in advance of anticipated travel.
American citizens can visit travel.state.gov or call 1-877-4USA-PPT (1-877-487-2778) for information on how to apply for their passports.

In addition to a valid passport, U.S. citizens need onward or return tickets, and sufficient funds for their stay.
A departure tax is charged at the airport or ferry dock when leaving. For further information, travelers may contact the British Embassy, 19 Observatory Circle NW, Washington, DC
20008; telephone (202) 588-7800; or the nearest consulate of the United Kingdom in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Los Angeles, New York, Denver, Houston, Miami, Orlando, Seattle, or San Francisco. Visit the British Embassy web site for the most current visa information.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
While Anguilla's crime rate is relatively low, both petty and violent crimes
do occur. Travelers should take common-sense precautions to ensure their personal security, such as avoiding carrying large amounts of cash or displaying expensive jewelry. Travelers should not leave valuables unattended in hotel rooms or on the beach. They should use hotel safety deposit facilities to safeguard valuables and travel documents. Similarly, they should keep their lodgings locked at all times, whether they are present or away, and should not leave valuables in their vehicles, even when locked.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

The local emergency line in Anguilla is 911.
See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
There is only one hospital, Princess Alexandra Hospital (telephone: 264-497-2551), and a handful of clinics on Anguilla, so medical facilities are limited.
Serious problems requiring extensive care or major surgery may require evacuation to the United States, often at considerable expense.

There are no formal, documented HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to and foreign residents of Anguilla, but there have been anecdotal reports of exclusion.
Please verify this information with the British Embassy before you travel.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad, consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site.
Further health information for travelers
is available from the WHO.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Anguilla is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Unlike the U.S., traffic in Anguilla moves on the left. The few roads on the island are generally poorly paved and narrow. While traffic generally moves at a slow pace, with the increasing number of young drivers in Anguilla, there are occasional severe accidents caused by excessive speed. Although emergency services, including tow truck service, are limited and inconsistent, local residents are often willing to provide roadside assistance. For police, fire, or ambulance service dial 911.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
Visit the Government of Anguilla web site for further road safety information.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
Civil aviation operations in Anguilla fall under the jurisdiction of British authorities. The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of the United Kingdom’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Anguilla’s air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA web site.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Anguilla laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Anguilla are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Anguilla are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department's travel registration web site and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Anguilla. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy with consular responsibility over Anguilla is located in Bridgetown, Barbados in the Wildey Business Park in suburban Wildey, southeast of downtown Bridgetown.
The main number for the Consular Section is (246) 431-0225; after hours, the Embassy duty officer can be reached by calling (246) 436-4950.
Visit the U.S. Embassy Bridgetown online for more information.
Hours of operation are 8:30 a.m. – 4:30 p.m. Monday through Friday, except Barbadian and U.S. holidays.
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information for Anguilla dated April 2, 2008, to update sections on Country Description, Entry/Exit Requirements, Information for Victims of Crime, and Medical Facilities and Health Information.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Sat, 9 Sep 2017 19:31:32 +0200

Paris, Sept 9, 2017 (AFP) - France's meteorological agency on Saturday issued its highest warning for the Caribbean islands of St Martin and St Barts as Hurricane Jose bore down, three days after they were hit by Hurricane Irma.   The alert warned of a "dangerous event of exceptional intensity," with winds that could reach 120 kilometres (75 miles) per hour, and strong rains and high waves.

St Barts is a French overseas territory, as is the French part of St Martin, which is divided between France and the Netherlands.   Twelve people were killed on the two islands by Hurricane Irma, thousands of buildings were flattened and the authorities are struggling to control looting.   The French state-owned reinsurer CCR on Saturday estimated the damage at 1.2 billion euros ($1.4 billion).   Irma is now heading for Florida, where a total of 6.3 million people have been ordered to evacuate, according to state authorities.
Date: Tue 29 Apr 2014
Source: National Institute for Public Health and the Environment [edited]

1 Oct 2013-29 Apr 2014 (week 18) St Maarten - Since the last report (week 15 [17?]) 52 new cases have been confirmed among St Maarten residents. Up to 29 Apr 2014, now a total of 343 confirmed cases have been reported. One of these confirmed cases was hospitalized.

The median age of the confirmed patients was 44 years, range 4-92 years. Of those cases for which gender was available, 201 were female and 130 were male.

- On 6 Dec 2013, the 1st indigenous chikungunya [virus infection] case of St Maarten was reported. Retrospectively, the 1st patient with suspected complaints was reported in mid-October 2013 in St Martin.
------------------------------------
Communicated by:
Roland Hubner
Superior Health Council
Brussels
Belgium
=====================
[The report also has graphs showing case numbers over time.

Maps of St Martin/St Maarten can be accessed at
Date: 5-11 May 2014
Source: Institut de Veille Sanitaire (French Institute for Public Health Surveillance, InVS) [edited]

Cases since the beginning of the outbreak in December 2013:
- St Martin: (susp) 3240 cases; deaths 3; stable.
- St Barthelemy: (susp) 500 cases; stable.
- Martinique: (susp) 24 180; deaths 3; increasing.
- Guadeloupe: (susp) 13 600 cases; deaths 1; increasing.
- French Guiana: (susp) not available; (probable or confirmed) 122 cases with 83 locally acquired; increasing, with a new cluster in Kourou and 2 near Cayenne.
======================
[The 16 May 2014 report from Guyaweb (<http://www.guyaweb.com/actualites/news/sciences-et-environnement/le-chik-revient-kourou-setend-cayenne-desormais-saint-laurent/>) states that there are 2 new cases in Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, overlooking the Suriname River, of which one is certainly autochthonous, and a new focal point occurred in Kourou with 4 cases.

Maps of the area can be seen at
and <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/35574>. - ProMed Mod.TY]
Date: 7-13 Apr 2014
Source: INVS Point Sanitaire No. 14 [in French, trans. ProMed Mod.TY, edited]

Cases since the beginning of the outbreak in December, 2013:
- St. Martin: (susp.) 2980 cases, (probable and conf.) 793 cases; Deaths 3; Decreasing.
- Saint Barthelemy: (susp.) 460 cases, (probable or confirmed) 135 cases; Decreasing.
- Martinique: (susp.) 16 000, (probable or confirmed) 1473 cases; Deaths 2; Increasing.
- Guadeloupe: (susp.) 4710 cases, (probable or confirmed) 1261 cases; Deaths 1; In epidemic status.
- French Guiana: (susp.) 7 cases with 4 locally acquired, (probable or confirmed) 39 cases with 26 locally acquired) 30 cases; (imported) 16 cases; Moderate to increasing; Half of probable and confirmed cases are located in Kourou; however indigenous cases have also been recorded from the Cayenne Matoury, Remire and Macouria communities.
=================
[Maps showing case distributions on each island can be accessed at the above URL. - ProMed Mod.TY]
Date: Thu 27 Mar 2014
Source: The Daily Herald [edited]

As St. Maarten continues to take measures to combat the spread of the chikungunya virus, the number of cases continues to climb.

Health Minister Cornelius de Weever announced on Wednesday [26 Mar 2014], that the total number of confirmed chikungunya cases thus far stood at 224.

De Weever also announced that government will be signing a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with French St. Martin as a means of collectively responding to the mosquito threat that puts the population at risk. He said both sides have been working closely together to address the dengue and chikungunya threats.

The MOU will cover, amongst other things, a regular exchange of epidemiological information on vector-borne diseases and collectively publishing and representing data collected under the agreement.

The need for collective information campaigns and enhancement of the mosquito vector-control programme will also be included in the MOU. The MOU also describes the need for planning execution and evaluation of collective responses to the chikungunya threat.
=========================
[The increase in the number of chikungunya virus infections over the past week in St. Maarten is of concern, rising from 123 cases to 224 cases. This number is confirmed in another report that also indicates that there are an additional 325 suspected cases (<http://www.rivm.nl/dsresource?type=pdf&disposition=inline&objectid=rivmp:239786>).  - ProMed Mod.TY]

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/35574>.]
More ...

Tunisia

General Information
************************************
Tunisia is situated in Northern Africa and is a common tourist destination for Irish travellers. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the south east and the Medite
ranean Sea to the east and north. It has a Mediterranean climate with mild rainy winters and hot dry summers. Costal temperatures are less extreme than the inland regions ranging from an average daily low in January of 70C to an average daily high in August of 320C. Rainfall throughout the country varies considerably from about 40" in the northwest down to only 4" in the southwest.
Safety & Security
************************************
Most tourists will not have any significant difficulties in this regard but criminals have targeted tourists and business travellers for thefts, pickpocketing, and scams.
Care should be taken with wallets and other valuables kept in handbags or backpacks that can be easily opened from behind in crowded streets or marketplaces.
Harassment of unaccompanied females occurs rarely in hotels, but more frequently elsewhere.
Health Facilities
************************************
The level of health care facilities in Tunisia will usually be found to be below that normally accepted at home in Ireland. In general the larger hotels will have English speaking doctors in attendance. Unfortunately the hospital/clinic backup for these practitioners is usually very limited.
Food & Water Facilities
************************************
The World Health Organisation statistics suggest that close to 35% of all travellers to these regions will develop significant diarrhoea during their stay. In almost all cases this can be traced back to unwise eating and drinking habits by tourists not taking sufficient care. Most significantly, travellers should stay away from cold foods (especially lettuce) and also all undercooked shell fish (mainly prawns, oysters, mussels and shrimps).
Hotel tap water will frequently not be potable and should not be used for drinking or brushing teeth. Sealed mineral water should be used at all times.
Fruit juice drinks sold by street traders should always be avoided as frequently the drink will have been supplemented with straight tap water.
Malaria in Tunisia
************************************
It is fortunate that this disease is not endemic in Tunisia and so travellers do not require to take prophylactic tablets. Nevertheless there are plenty of mosquitoes and sandflys during the hotter summer months and travellers will need to use insect repellents to protect against these uncomfortable bites. (see Protection against Insect Bites - Tropical Medical Bureau )
Jiggers & Chiggers
************************************
These are uncomfortable parasitic diseases which usually occur on the feet and often present looking like an ingrown toenail. Travellers returning home with unexplained skin rashes should always attend for medical assessment.
Rabies
************************************
This viral disease occurs throughout Africa and is evident in Tunisia. The disease can be transmitted by the bite (or lick or scratch) of any infected warm-blooded animal. Dogs will be the main risk animal but cats and monkeys can also transmit the disease. Any contact must be treated seriously and washed out immediately. An antiseptic should then be applied and further medical attention must always be sought.
Leishmaniasis
************************************
This is a parasitic disease transmitted by the bite of an infected sandfly. The disease occurs in Tunisia mainly during the summer and autumn months. Sandflys are much smaller than mosquitoes and are mainly found hovering around your ankles usually first thing in the morning or during the cooler evening hours. In most cases the bites cause little harm but occasionally deep infection can occur with more serious consequences. Again, travellers should wear sensible clothing and use adequate insect repellent. A bite which is slow to heal needs to be medically checked.
Sunbathing
************************************
One of the common health complaints associated with Tunisia relates to travellers becoming sun burnt while there on holidays. This is particularly the case with smaller children and toddlers. It is essential that travellers use high factor protection creams to lessen the risk of burning and to remember that skin cancer is commonly associated with burnt skin.
Anthrax from Leather Goods
************************************
This bacterial disease has been reported in Tunisia and travellers need to be aware that the disease can be transmitted through unprepared leather goods usually bought in the local market places. Even though this will be rare, any unusual sore should be medically checked after you return home.
Vaccinations for Tunisia
************************************
There are no essential vaccinations for Tunisia but travellers from Ireland are strongly recommended to have vaccination cover against
*
Poliomyelitis (childhood booster)
*
Typhoid (food & water borne disease)
*
Tetanus (childhood booster)
*
Hepatitis A (food & water borne disease)
Those spending longer periods in the country, or trekking, may need to consider vaccination cover
against
Rabies
and
Hepatitis B.
Summary
************************************
Be careful of the intense sun during the summer months. Care with food and water consumption will also be essential at all times.
Further Information
************************************
If you require any further information on staying healthy while overseas please contact either of the help lines at the numbers below.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu, 27 Jun 2019 14:23:48 +0200

Tunis, June 27, 2019 (AFP) - Two suicide bombers attacked security forces in the Tunisian capital on Thursday, killing a police officer and wounding at least eight people including several civilians, the interior ministry said.   One attack on the main street of Tunis wounded three civilians and two police personnel, the interior ministry initially said.   "Five (are) wounded -- three civilians and two police officers", Interior Ministry spokesman Sofiene Zaag told AFP, before later saying that a police officer had died of his wounds.

Body parts were strewn in the road around a police car on Habib Bourguiba avenue near the old city, according to an AFP correspondent.   "It was a suicide attack, which took place at 10:50 (0950 GMT)," Zaag said.   The second attack targeted a base of the national guard in the capital and wounded four security personnel, the ministry said.   "At 11:00 am (1000 GMT) an individual blew himself up outside the back door" of the base, wounding four security personnel, Zaag said.   Civil protection units and police rapidly deployed to Habib Bourguiba avenue, where the interior ministry is located.    People initially fled in panic, before some crowded around the scene of the attack, expressing anger against the authorities. Shops and offices were closed by police.

Tunisia, the cradle of the Arab Spring uprisings, has been hit by repeated Islamist attacks since the 2011 overthrow of longtime dictator Zine El Abidine Ben Ali.   On October 29, 2018 an unemployed graduate blew herself up near police cars on Habib Bourguiba, killing herself and wounding 26 people, mostly police officers, according to the interior ministry.   The Tunisian authorities said the suicide bomber had sworn allegiance to IS.

The attack was the first to rock the Tunisian capital for over three and a half years.   In March 2015, jihadist gunmen killed 21 tourists and a policeman at the National Bardo Museum in Tunis.   And in June that year, 30 Britons were among 38 foreign holidaymakers killed in a gun and grenade attack on a beach resort near the Tunisian city of Sousse.
Date: Thu, 9 May 2019 17:43:55 +0200
By Caroline Nelly Perrot

Tunis, May 9, 2019 (AFP) - As holidaymakers flock to Tunisia once more following a series of attacks, the country's tourism minister has his sights set on diversifying the industry and taking visitors beyond the beach.   "Practically all the big tour operators here have returned," said Rene Trabelsi, six months into his ministerial post.   He credits "huge efforts" for making the country safe for visitors again, after attacks in 2015 targeting tourists.   Gunmen killed 21 foreign visitors and a Tunisian security guard at the capital's Bardo National Museum, followed by a shooting rampage at a Sousse beach resort which left 38 people dead -- mostly British tourists.

Britain, France and other countries have recently eased their travel warnings, deeming most of Tunisia now safe.   Two million holidaymakers have visited Tunisia so far this year, according to government figures touted by the tourism minister.   That marks a 24 percent jump on the same period last year, and a 7 percent increase compared to the 2010 industry reference point.   But despite tourists returning, revenue has so far failed to reach that of nearly a decade ago.

The indebted industry is heavily reliant upon cheap "all-inclusive" holidays and the government is trying to diversify the tourism sector, which accounts for around 7 percent of GDP.   "During the high season, Tunisia will be packed, but we're interested in the low season, from September to March," said Trabelsi, sitting behind his large desk in the capital Tunis.   The minister wants to attract tourists over the winter months who are also interested in activities away from the beach.   "We're negotiating with the tour operators" to offer charter flights after the summer, said Trabelsi who hopes visitors will sign up for golf, spa treatments and cultural activities.   "This year already, a lot of hotels which closed during winter after the crisis, want to stay open," he said.   An electronic music festival in southern Tunisia is due to take place in September, while a jazz festival is planned in Tabarka near the Algerian border.

- No 'right to fail' -
Whereas half the holidaymakers in 2010 were European, they now make up less than a third of visitors amid an increasing number of tourists from other North African countries and further afield.   The government aims to welcome nine million visitors this year, but Trabelsi said Tunisians still need to tackle "environmental terrorism" to avoid scaring tourists away.   "I'm using that word to shock and alert," said the minister, warning that poor environmental standards can put tourists off "like when there's an attack".

Following Tunisia's 2011 revolution, authorities failed to keep atop of waste management. Municipal councils were elected for the first time a year ago but the clean-up is far from complete.   "We also have a cultural problem," said Trabelsi. "If each person swept outside their front door, that would already be huge."   Trabelsi has for years been co-organiser of an annual Jewish pilgrimage to Djerba, where his father is president of the island's synagogue, and in the 1990s he set up his own travel agency.   But months into his first political post, he said he has no intention of staying in government long-term.   "I want to make a mark, and Tunisians expect a lot from me. I come from the private sector, I have a different religion, so I don't have the right to fail," Trabelsi said.   "But once my mission is accomplished, I'll return to my own affairs."
Date: Sun 16 Feb 2019
Source: Realites Online [in French, trans. ProMED Corr.SB, edited]
<https://www.realites.com.tn/2019/02/tunisie-1318-cas-de-leishmaniose-enregistres-a-gafsa>

As of Sat 15 Feb 209, the Metlaoui Regional Hospital in Gafsa governorate has hosted 1318 patients with leishmaniasis, following the proliferation of mosquitoes [actually leishmania is transmitted by sandflies] near the lakes and wastewater. According to Shems Fm, citing its correspondent in the region, the number of leishmaniasis cases has tripled compared to the year 2017.
============================
[We presume these cases are cutaneous leishmaniasis. Cutaneous leishmaniasis, CL, caused by _Leishmania major_ is a major public health problem in Tunisia. It occurs mainly in central and southwestern Tunisia (semi-arid and arid areas), with thousands of cases. There are foci with a permanent active transmission, so, from time to time, outbreaks occur, related to new agricultural projects or large population movements (introduction to a non-immune population).  In some villages, up to 60 percent of the population is infected.

For a detailed discussion of _Leishmania_ in Tunisia please see Alvar J, Valez ID, Bern C, et al. Leishmaniasis worldwide and global estimates of its incidence.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(5): e35671; <https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671> - ProMED Mod.EP]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Gafsa, Tunisia:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/8782>]
Date: Thu, 17 Jan 2019 17:26:14 +0100
By Aymen Jamli

Tunis, Jan 17, 2019 (AFP) - A public sector strike brought Tunisia to a standstill Thursday as workers heeded calls from a powerful trade union to stay home over demands for wage hikes and economic reforms.   Across the country, schools were closed, public offices shuttered and transport paralysed after calls for a 24-hour strike by the Tunisian General Labour Union (UGTT).   The international airport in Tunis was hit hard, with thousands of travellers stranded without flights or information.   The UGTT had addressed its call to the country's 677,000 civil servants and 350,000 employees of state-owned companies, who make up nearly a quarter of the Tunisian workforce. 

Protesters took to the streets of the capital chanting "the Tunisian people do not accept humiliation", criticising Prime Minister Youssef Chahed's for bowing to reforms dictated by the International Monetary Fund (IMF).    Some held portraits of IMF chief Christine Lagarde, with a bright red X painted over her face.    Tunisia is seen as having had a relatively smooth democratic transition since the January 14, 2011 toppling of president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali after 23 years in power.

But price hikes fuelled by the fall of the Tunisian dinar, combined with tax increases and stubborn unemployment, have spurred social discontent.   In 2016, the IMF granted Tunisia a 2.4-billion-euro loan over the span of four years in exchange for a promise to carry out economic reforms and to control civil service salaries to avoid pushing up the public deficit.   "The UGTT will oppose the failure of the liberal choices of these leaders," UGTT head Noureddine Taboubi told the crowd, speaking from a balcony at the union's headquarters.   In Sfax, the second largest city in the country, thousands of demonstrators took to the streets.    The union has called for wage hikes for public sector employees to counter the decline in purchasing power due to inflation, which stands at 7.5 percent.

In a televised speech Wednesday, Prime Minister Chahed said public finances meant he could not accept the union's demands, adding that dialogue would continue after the strike.   "It is the wage increases conceded after the revolution in the absence of real growth that have led to inflation, debt and declining purchasing power," he argued.    Economist Ezzedine Saidane blamed Tunisia's economic problems on a long-term "lack of overall vision".    He told AFP structural reforms rather than a wage hike were needed "to limit inflation and boost job-creating growth".   Thursday's strike was the first to bring together employees from both the public sector and state-owned companies.    In November, Tunisian civil servants staged the biggest general strike in years.
Date: Mon, 14 Jan 2019 18:49:43 +0100

Tunis, Jan 14, 2019 (AFP) - Tunisia's powerful UGTT trade union on Monday called for a strike as the country, grappling with economic hardships, marked the eighth anniversary of the 2011 revolution that toppled its longtime dictator.   The Tunisian General Labour Union, the UGTT, called on public sector employees to observe the strike on Thursday -- the second since November -- to demand a wage rise and economic reforms.   In a speech at the union's headquarters, secretary general Noureddine Taboubi said the strike should go ahead as talks between the UGTT and the government on social and economic reforms remained deadlocked.

Civil servants represent a sixth of Tunisia's workforce and in November the UGTT said it was demanding 673,000 state employees receive salary hikes equal to those granted in 2018 to public companies, which range from 15 to 30 euros ($17-34) a month.   But President Beji Caid Essebsi has urged a boycott of the strike.   "It is necessary to stop or limit" strikes, he said, during a visit at the Bardo National Museum where an exhibit was on display to pay tribute to Tunisian revolution which sparked the 2011 Arab Spring uprisings.   Essebsi added, however, that "we must take into consideration the deteriorating purchasing power of citizens".

The North African country is seen as having had a relatively smooth democratic transition since the January 14, 2011 toppling of president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali after 23 years in power.   At the same time, price hikes fuelled in particular by the fall of the Tunisian dinar, combined with tax increases and stubborn unemployment, have spurred social discontent that escalated into riots across several cities in January last year.

In 2016, the International Monetary Fund granted Tunisia a 2.4-billion-euro loan over the span of four years in exchange for a promise to carry out economic reforms.   The country is grappling with an inflation rate of 7.5 percent and unemployment stands at more than 15 percent, with those worst hit being young university graduates.

Many Tunisians hope there will be change in 2019 when presidential and legislative elections are due to take place.   Meanwhile on Monday, hundreds of Tunisians, including politicians, took to the streets of the capital to celebrate the ousting eight years ago of strongman Ben Ali, gathering in the landmark Habib Bourguiba Avenue in central Tunis.
More ...

Niger

Niger US Consular Information Sheet
March 03, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: Niger is a developing, landlocked African nation whose northern area includes the Sahara Desert. Tourism facilities are minimal, particularly outside the capital city, Niam
y, and the ancient caravan city of Agadez. Ecotourism and adventure tourism opportunities are plentiful. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Niger for additional information.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: A passport, visa, and proof of yellow fever inoculation are required. Travelers from countries without a Nigerien Embassy may be able to obtain a visa at the airport. Travelers from the United States should obtain a visa before arriving in Niger. Failure to do so could result in being denied entry to Niger. Travelers should obtain the latest information on entry/exit requirements from the Embassy of the Republic of Niger, 2204 R Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone: (202) 483-4224.
Visit the Embassy of Niger web site at http://www.nigerembassyusa.org/ the most current visa information. Outside the U.S., inquiries should be made at the nearest Nigerien embassy or consulate.
See our information about dual nationality and the prevention of international child abduction. Please refer to our Customs Information to learn more about customs regulations.
SAFETY AND SECURITY:
U.S. citizens are advised to avoid street demonstrations and maintain security awareness at all times.
Large and small street demonstrations occur regularly in Niger. These demonstrations tend to take place near government buildings, university campuses, or other gathering places such as public parks. Although demonstrations can occur spontaneously, large student demonstrations typically begin in January and February and continue through May. American citizens are, therefore, urged to be particularly vigilant at these times. During previous student demonstrations, NGO and diplomatic vehicles bearing "IT"or "CD" plates have been targeted by rock throwing demonstrators. Many past demonstrations have featured rock throwing and tire burning, especially at key intersections in the city of Niamey.

Due to the abrupt nature of street demonstrations, it is not possible for the U.S. Embassy to notify American citizens each time a demonstration occurs. Consequently, Americans are reminded to maintain security awareness at all times and to avoid large public gatherings and street demonstrations. Americans are reminded that even demonstrations intended to be peaceful can turn confrontational without much advanced warning. While the U.S. Embassy will endeavor to inform citizens of ongoing demonstrations through the warden system when possible, local radio and television stations are good sources for information about local events.

As of May 17, 2007, the U.S. Embassy in Niamey prohibits official personnel from traveling into areas of Niger to the north of Abalak.
All American citizens are strongly urged to follow the same guidelines due to the escalation of violence by the local rebel group, Movement for Justice in Niger (MNJ). Northern Niger, particularly in and around the cities of Iferouane, Arlit, and Agadez, is affected by MNJ activities. In July 2007, MNJ ambushed a convoy in the Agadez region, kidnapping a Chinese citizen and holding him for ten days. Futhermore, landmines have been placed in the region and several have exploded killing military and civilian personnel.
There were several landmine incidents in the south of Niger with the most recent on January 9, 2008 in Niamey.
They are disturbing because they were the first to occur outside the northern region where MNJ has operated. MNJ did not take responsibility for these landmines.
Most recently, MNJ attacked the town of Tanout, killing several troops and capturing arms and several people, including the prefet.
Several international organizations, including private and nongovernmental groups, have temporarily relocated personnel from these areas. On August 27, 2007, the President of Niger declared a State of Alert for the region of Agadez, to include the cities of Agadez, Arlit, and Iferouane. This State of Alert means that all travelers in and around these cities are liable to be stopped and held for questioning.
Moreover, the Nigerien military now has the authority to hold individuals for questioning, without cause, for more than the standard 48-hours.
Foreigners who elect to travel in northern Niger despite the current security situation must submit an approved travel plan through the office of the Governor of Agadez. Travelers should first contact the Syndicat de Tourisme in Agadez (telephone: 96 98 78 81) to enlist the services of a registered tour operator, who will formally coordinate with Nigerien government and security officials on tourist safety and security in the North and who can facilitate the submission of the required itinerary and intended route.
For travel in any remote area of the country, the Department of State urges U.S. citizens to use registered guides, to travel with a minimum of two vehicles equipped with global positioning systems (GPS) and satellite phones. Travelers are advised to avoid restricted military areas and to consult local police authorities regarding their itinerary and security arrangements.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Public Announcements, including the Worldwide Caution , can be found.
Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).
The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.
NOTE TO NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION (NGO) WORKERS: Following the murder of a French tourist in the region of Agadez in December 2005, the Government of Niger (GON) began requiring that NGOs not only be registered and officially recognized but that they inform the GON of each mission they plan to undertake in Niger. To avoid detainment and/or expulsion by Nigerien authorities, Embassy Niamey strongly recommends that NGO workers:
* Make sure that their NGO has registered and received official recognition from the Government of Niger. For details on how to do this please visit the Managing Office of Decentralised Cooperation and Non Governmental Organizations (Direction De La Cooperation Decentralisee Et Des Organisations Non Gouvernementales) in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Ministre des Affaires Etrangères).
* Carry with them a copy of the official recognition (Arrêté) of the right of their NGO to operate in Niger.
* If their international NGO sponsor is without a permanent presence in Niger, American citizens should verify that their NGO group has informed the Ministry of Foreign Affairs at least two weeks prior to the start of a mission in Niger. This notice should be in written form and should include the purpose of the mission, names of the individuals who will be working for the NGO on the mission, the dates of the mission, where the mission will take place and the types & license plate numbers of the vehicles involved in the mission. The Ministry of the Interior should be copied on this notice of mission.
* If their NGO is a national NGO, i.e., has a headquarters operation in Niger, the American citizens should verify that their group has informed the Ministry of Territorial and Community Development (Minstre de l’Aménagement du Territoire et du Développement Communautaire) at least two weeks prior to the start of a mission in Niger. This notice should be in written form and should include the purpose of the mission, the names of the individuals who will be working for the NGO on the mission, the dates of the mission, where the mission will take place and the types & license plate numbers of the vehicles involved in the mission. The Ministry of the Interior should be copied on this notice of mission.
* NGOs should ask for receipt of their notification provided to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of the Interior and Ministry of Territorial and Community Development.
Embassy Niamey strongly recommends that in addition to the above, NGO workers present themselves at the Regional Governor’s office prior to beginning their mission in a particular portion of Niger. Again, NGO workers should ask for receipt of their presentation to the Regional Governor. It would also be wise to provide the Regional Governor with the same written notification that was provided to the Ministries listed above.
CRIME: Crime is at a critical level due primarily to thefts, robberies, and residential break-ins. Foreigners are vulnerable to attempts of bribery and extortion by law enforcement authorities. Thefts and petty crimes are common day or night. However, armed attacks are normally committed at night by groups of two to four persons, with one assailant confronting the victim with a knife while the others provide surveillance or a show of force. Tourists should not walk alone around the Gaweye Hotel, National Museum, and on or near the Kennedy Bridge at any time, or the Petit Marche after dark. These areas are especially prone to muggings and should be avoided. Walking at night is not recommended as streetlights are scarce and criminals have the protection of darkness to commit their crimes. Recent criminal incidents in Niger have included carjackings, sexual assaults, home invasions, and muggings. In December 2000, an American was killed in a carjacking incident in Niamey, and another American was gravely wounded in a carjacking incident outside of Niamey in 2004. In 2007, two American citizens were raped and two others attacked with a machete. Travelers should always keep their doors locked and windows rolled up when stopped at stoplights.
In August 2004, an attack against 2 buses on the Agadez-Arlit road left 3 dead and numerous persons wounded. A French tourist was murdered by bandits in the Agadez region in December 2005 during a robbery attempt. In August 2006, several Italian tourists were abducted near the Niger-Chad border. They were robbed of some of their possessions and later released. Due to continued sporadic incidents of violence and banditry and other security concerns, the Department of State urges U.S. citizens visiting or residing in Niger to exercise caution when traveling within the northern and eastern parts of the country, especially along the borders of Mali, Libya, Algeria and Chad. Given the insecurity along these border regions, the Department of State recommends that American citizens in Niger avoid traveling overland to Algeria and Libya.
In previous attacks, groups of foreign travelers, including Americans, have been robbed of vehicles, cash and belongings. The government of Niger is taking steps to address crime/banditry but operates under severe resource constraints.
Use caution and common sense at all times to avoid thieves and pickpockets. An information sheet on safety and security practices is available from the Consular Section of the U.S. Embassy in Niamey.
INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and provide an attorney list if needed.
See our information on Victims of Crime.
MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Health facilities are extremely limited in Niamey and urban centers, and completely inadequate outside the capital. Although physicians are generally well trained, even the best hospitals in Niamey suffer from inadequate facilities, antiquated equipment and shortages of supplies (particularly medicine). Emergency assistance is limited. Travelers must carry their own properly labeled supply of prescription drugs and preventative medicines.
Malaria is prevalent in Niger. Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the serious and sometimes fatal strain in Niger, is resistant to the anti-malarial drug chloroquine. Because travelers to Niger are at high risk for contracting malaria, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advises that travelers should take one of the following antimalarial drugs: mefloquine (Lariam™), doxycycline, or atovaquone/proguanil (Malarone™). The CDC has determined that a traveler who is on an appropriate antimalarial drug has a greatly reduced chance of contracting the disease. Other personal protective measures, such as the use of insect repellents, also help to reduce malaria risk. Travelers who become ill with a fever or flu-like illness while traveling in a malaria-risk area and up to one year after returning home should seek prompt medical attention and tell the physician their travel history and what antimalarials they have been taking. For additional information on malaria, protection from insect bites, and antimalarial drugs, please visit the CDC travelers’ health web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/contentDiseases.aspx#malaria.
Tap water is unsafe to drink throughout Niger and should be avoided. Bottled water and beverages are safe, although visitors should be aware that many restaurants and hotels serve tap water. Ice made from tap water is also unsafe to consume.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.
MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.
TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Niger is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
Road safety throughout Niger is a concern, and visitors are strongly urged to avoid driving at night outside of major cities. The public transportation system, urban and rural road conditions, and the availability of roadside assistance are all poor. U.S. travelers should exercise caution on Niger's roads, as traffic accidents are frequent. The main causes of accidents are driver carelessness, excessive speed, poorly maintained vehicles, and poor to non-existent road surfaces. Other factors include the hazardous mix of bicycles, mopeds, unwary pedestrians, donkey carts, farm animals, and buses on roads that are generally unpaved and poorly lighted. Overloaded tractor-trailers, "bush taxis," and disabled vehicles are additional dangers on rural roads, where speeds are generally higher. Travel outside Niamey and other cities often requires four-wheel-drive vehicles, which creates an additional security risk since these vehicles -- especially Toyota Land Cruisers — are high-theft items. Driving at night is always hazardous and should be avoided. Banditry is a continuing problem in northern and eastern Niger. There have been occasional carjackings and highway robberies throughout the country.
While taxis are available at a fixed fare in Niamey, most are in poor condition, and do not meet basic U.S. road safety standards. Inter-city "bush-taxis" are available at negotiable fares, but these vehicles (minibuses, station wagons, and sedans) are generally older, unsafe models that are overloaded, poorly maintained, and driven by reckless operators seeking to save time and money. A national bus company (SNTV) operates coaches on inter-city routes and, since being reorganized in 2001, has provided reliable service and experienced no major accidents. Air Transport, Rimbo and Garba Messagé are private bus companies operating in Niger. There is some concern regarding the youth of drivers and the speed with which the private bus companies travel the Nigerien roads.
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. Visit the National Tourism Office on Rue de Grand Hotel in Niamey.
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: As there is no direct commercial air service between the United States and Niger, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Niger’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: Dress Restrictions - Local culture and Islamic tradition encourage conservative dress for both men and women. There have been incidents of groups of men assaulting women who are, or appear to be, African and who are wearing other than traditional garments.
Photography Restrictions - Tourists are free to take pictures anywhere in Niger, except near military installations, radio and television stations, the Presidency Building, airport, or the Kennedy Bridge. Tourists should not photograph political and student demonstrations.
Currency Regulations - The West African Franc (FCFA) is the currency Niger shares with several other West African francophone countries, and is fully convertible into Euros. Foreign currency exchange over 1 million CFA (about $2,000 at 500 CFA/$1) requires authorization from the Ministry of Finance (available from all major banks).
Telephone Service - Due to poor line quality, callers often experience delays in getting a telephone line, and faxes are often garbled. Cellular phone service is available in Niamey and in many major cities.
Please see our Customs Information.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Nigerien laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Niger are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.
CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.
REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Niger are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Niger.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located on Rue des Ambassades, Niamey, Niger.
The U.S. Embassy mailing address is B.P. 11201, Niamey, Niger.
Telephone numbers are: (227) 20-72-26-61 through 64 and fax numbers (227) 20-73-31-67 or 20-72-31-46. The Embassy’s after hours emergency number is (227) 20-72-31-41. Embassy’s Internet address is http://niamey.usembassy.gov.
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information dated September 6, 2007 to update the section on ”Safety and Security.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Sun, 20 Oct 2019 06:45:19 +0200 (METDST)

Niamey, Oct 20, 2019 (AFP) - Floods in southeast Niger have forced 23,000 people to flee their homes since early October, officials said Saturday, threatening a new humanitarian crisis in a region already wracked by Boko Haram Islamist violence.   Heavy rains have caused the Komadougou Yobe river that flows through the semi-desert Diffa region into Lake Chad to burst its banks, inundating villages, flooding fields and damaging crops.   Two villages near the city of Diffa were "completely submerged" and 2,500 households have been forced to move, according to national radio the Voice of the Sahel.

Some 400 families were sheltering in a gym in the city, it added.   "We have been fighting for days to stop the water rising, but it's not working," Amadou Issa, a rice farmer, told AFP. "The sandbags we've been using to keep the water out are completely under water."   Extreme weather events are common in Niger, one of the world's poorest countries.   Between June and September 57 people were killed and more than 130,000 affected by flooding according to government figures.

The capital Niamey was hit badly in September, with the waters of the Niger river -- the third biggest in Africa -- rising to a level not seen in more than 50 years and swamping parts of the city.   Last year, drought and flooding led to food shortages in a crisis which, exacerbated by jihadist violence, left more than 10 percent of the population needing humanitarian aid.   Niger, along with neighbouring Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali and Mauritania is also struggling against escalating attacks by armed Islamists.   According to the UN's human rights agency UNHCR, the Diffa region is home to almost 120,000 refugees and 109,000 internally displaced people.
Date: Mon, 16 Sep 2019 16:24:55 +0200 (METDST)
By Boureima HAMA

Niamey, Sept 16, 2019 (AFP) - "At last, we're here!" Amina and Halima, who live in Niger's capital Niamey, exulted after reaching high ground following the worst floods to hit the city in 50 years.   Two weeks ago, authorities in Niamey declared a red alert when the waters of the Niger river -- the third biggest in Africa -- rose to a level "not seen in more than 50 years".

The floods have affected more than 6,300 people in the traditionally dusty city.   Nearly 60 have been killed and 130,000 displaced across the nation this rainy season, officials say.    Amina and Halima are among those who have been evacuated to tent shelters at Saguia in the highlands overlooking Niamey.   The women travelled in a van, but officials have been chartering all kinds of transport to move people in trouble, while others hire taxis, ride motorbikes and even walk.

Saguia is a patch of land owned by the army and usually off limits to the public.    In 2012, it was used to house about 400 soldiers from neighbouring Mali who had fled an offensive by Tuareg rebels.   For access to the site, people need "tickets" that are distributed in schools serving as transit centres for flood victims, according to the armed paramilitary police checking new arrivals.   The heights give a panoramic view of the homes and rice paddies largely submerged by the water.

- 'Surprised in our sleep' -
Inside the camp, the fire brigade and municipal employees have put up dozens of white tents supplied by the Red Cross and the United Nations.   "When people arrive here, they are installed in tents (...) and we have enough food for them all," Niamey governor Issaka Assane Karanta told AFP.   A generator and a fresh-water well have both been repaired, lamp posts will soon be installed and a medical centre is open "for the treatment of emergency cases", the governor said.

Some 122 households, comprising 854 people, have been allocated tents and the site can take in a total of 1,200 flood victims, he added.   "They gave us rice, millet, mosquito nets, blankets and drinking water," said Aissa Salifou, putting on makeup in her tent, her head and shoulders covered in a broad veil.   "The water surprised us in our sleep," added the woman from one of Niamey's hardest-hit districts, Kirkissoye. "We had to demolish the walls in neighbouring houses to scramble out."   "We live on the low ground where we were trapped by the water, but this place is spacious, well-aired and above all safe," said Fatouma Boubacar, another Kirkissoye resident, watching her cooking pot on the fire.

- 'I was lucky' -
Though Boubacar arrived only two days earlier, she has resumed her customary job, selling vegetables.   "I was lucky," said Ramatou Abdou, reclining in an armchair with a toothpick stuck between her teeth.   "I barely got out of the house before the roof fell in. I'm expecting my first baby in a month and I shall call it Saguia."    In the shade of a huge tree, a dozen new arrivals awaited the completion of their shelters before moving in.    Barefoot children meanwhile made up football teams and chased a rag ball on a makeshift pitch in the baking heat.

On the far side of the camp, a policeman with a gun slung over his shoulder watched over a bunch of children carrying plates and queuing for a hot meal provided by an NGO.   "We're trying to live here and waiting to see what Allah has in store for us," Boubacar said.    The level of the Niger has fallen slightly after bursting its banks, but governor Karanta is urging people from affected areas to be watchful and "to keep well away from the bed of the river".   Upstream in Mali, technicians have opened floodgates on a major dam and the extra water is "slowly but surely" flowing down to Niger, Karanta said.
Date: Fri, 13 Sep 2019 16:44:33 +0200 (METDST)

Niamey, Sept 13, 2019 (AFP) - Niger launched a campaign on Friday to vaccinate more than four million children against measles, one of the biggest causes of child mortality in the country, the health ministry said.

The one-week nationwide vaccination programme aims to "eliminate measles by the end of 2020", Health Minister Illiassou Mainassara said, adding, it "will reach 4.254 million children" aged from 9 months up to the age of five.   "Despite all the efforts made in the fight against communicable diseases, we still note the persistence of localised measles epidemics (in Niger)," Mainassara said on his way to the capital Niamey to launch the campaign.    But some experts say the vaccination programme should have kicked in sooner    "The delay of this campaign which should have happened in 2018 has resulted in ...the emergence of epidemics in several health districts," said Niger's UNICEF representative, Felicite Tchibindat.

Since January this year, 9,741 suspected cases have been documented in Niger resulting in 53 deaths, she said.   "Measles is a serious and extremely contagious viral disease and remains one of the leading causes of early childhood death, while it can be prevented by vaccination," TchibiNdat said.    She believes the children of migrants, refugees and displaced people will especially benefit from the campaign.    Niger's vaccination programme is supported by the World Health Organization (WHO), UNICEF (United Nations Children's Fund) and the Gavi vaccine Alliance.
Date: Wed, 4 Sep 2019 21:12:00 +0200 (METDST)
By Boureima HAMA

Niamey, Sept 4, 2019 (AFP) - "That's it, time to go!" As a rising swell of muddy water creeps towards his house in Niger's capital Niamey, Mamoudou Barkire is finally leaving.   Deadly floods have swamped several parts of the city and the rest of the country, forcing thousands to flee as it demolished homes and turned streets into rivers.   And the 63-year-old retiree, propped on crutches, is joining them.   But leaving was not an easy choice. Barkire, whose neighbours left weeks ago, spent the past two days piling sandbags onto a clay wall he built in a futile bid to keep the water away.   "I barely have enough to feed my family on this measly pension, and now I risk losing my home".

Extreme weather is an all-too-common phenomenon in Niger. Last year, drought and flooding led to food shortages in a crisis which, exacerbated by jihadist violence, left over 10 percent of the population needing humanitarian aid.   But the World Health Organisation (WHO) has warned that the current floods -- sparked by exceptionally high water levels in the river Niger -- could lead to a cholera epidemic.   The waterborne disease killed dozens last year in the southern Maradi region, currently the worst-hit by floods.

- Red alert -
The disaster has already claimed 42 lives. Only 25,000 of the 70,000 people affected by the crisis have received aid, said Lawan Magadji, Niger's minister for humanitarian affairs.   Niger, one of the world's poorest countries, is in the midst of its annual rainy season, which lasts three to four months over summer.   At the start of the week, water rose to 6.38 metres (21 feet) in Niamey, levels "not seen in more than 50 years", the city's governor Assane Issaka Karanta said.

It prompted authorities to trigger a "red alert", which they renewed on Wednesday.   Even the arid Agadez region -- home to a UNESCO-protected historic centre -- has been hit.   In Niamey inhabitants have clubbed together in the struggle to save their neighbourhoods.   Children drag carts piled with dam-building materials through the streets, while women try their best to clean up courtyards brimming with water.    With more heavy rain predicted in coming weeks, authorities have asked humanitarian agencies for help.   The vast majority of the city's inhabitants live on the banks of the river Niger, and some even built their homes on the river bed.   But "the worst has been avoided" for now, as dams surrounding the city "are holding up", Niamey's Mayor Mouctar Mamoudou said.

- Sleepless nights -
Watching over the city, a "brigade" of locals are tasked with keeping an eye on the river banks at night.   "We haven't been sleeping. If the water levels rise again, we'll let people know," says Ali, who hasn't slept for two nights.   And in the capital's Kirkissoye district -- one of the worst affected -- firefighters patrol the streets, assessing damage and registering victims on a list.   Saouda Abdoulaye is one of those who decided to stay, despite authorities warning residents to pack their bags and ration food and water.    Abdoulaye says she had underestimated the damage the flooding would cause.   "Kirkissoye has suddenly turned into a swamp. At night, it's a ghost town," she says.
Date: Sun 31 Mar 2019
Source: BrandSpur Ng [edited]

The National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) [Nigeria] alerts the public, especially the health care providers, on the circulation of fake MencevaxTM ACWY and MencevaxTM ACW vaccines circulating in the Niger Republic. The Health Authorities of the Republic of Niger issued an alert on the fake vaccines discovered during routine inspections of the pharmacies in Niamey, the Niger Republic on [14 Mar 2019].

The lot number of the fake MencevaxTM ACW vaccine is AMEN A020 AA while the Lot number of the fake MencevaxTM ACWY is AMEH A020 AA. The fake MencevaxTM ACWY vaccine has a manufacturing date of December 2016 and an expiring date of November 2021.

Genuine MencevaxTM ACW and MencevaxTM ACWY vaccines are used to control the outbreak of meningococcal infection. The genuine vaccines were registered by NAFDAC [Nigeria] in favour of Glaxo SmithKline Beecham (GSK). Pfizer acquired the vaccines from GSK in 2015.

Pfizer Specialties Limited, 7th Floor, Heritage Place, 21 Lugard Avenue, Ikoyi Lagos discontinued commercialization of Mencevax Vaccines in Nigeria in June 2018. As a result of the discontinuation of commercialization of the vaccines, Pfizer Specialities Limited no longer import the vaccines into Nigeria.

NAFDAC implores all importers, wholesalers, and retailers not to illegally import, distribute and sell the fake Mencevax vaccines. Surveillance has been strengthened by NAFDAC at all ports of entry to prevent importation of the fake vaccines from the Niger Republic. The agency has also heightened surveillance to prevent distribution and sales of the fake vaccines.

Health care providers and other members of the public are advised to be vigilant and contact the nearest NAFDAC office with any information on the fake vaccines. Anybody in possession of the fake vaccines should submit it to the nearest NAFDAC office.

Consumers are advised to report adverse events related to the use of vaccines to the nearest NAFDAC office, NAFDAC PRASCOR (20543 TOLL-FREE for all Network) or via pharmacovigilance@nafdac.gov.ng.  [Byline: Bolaji Samuel]
===========================
[The genuine meningococcal vaccine manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline, Mencevax ACWY, is a lyophilized preparation of purified polysaccharides from _Neisseria meningitidis_ (meningococcus) of serogroups A, C, W and Y, that must be reconstituted with the sterile diluent that is supplied in another glass vial or pre-filled syringe for subcutaneous injection  (<http://www.gsk.com.au/resources.ashx/vaccineproductschilddataproinfo/114/FileName/0D20DC52BDDA8B361FA1AA0D654B93C5/PI_Mencevax.pdf>).

The previous ProMED-mail post said that a fake meningococcal vaccine, Mencevax ACWY, marked as having been manufactured in December 2016, with an end-date for use by November 2021, was being distributed in Niger (See Meningitis, meningococcal - Niger: counterfeit vaccine http://promedmail.org/post/20190317.6372003.) The news report above adds that the fake meningococcal meningitis vaccines include both the quadrivalent Mencevax ACWY (lot number AMEH A020 AA) and a trivalent Mencevax ACW (lot number also AMEN A020 AA). However, we are not told how these fake vaccines differ from the genuine meningococcal vaccine products in Niger.

WHO issued a report in May 2015 for Niger of falsified Mencevax ACWY, 50 doses per vial, with false batch number (AMEHA020AA), manufacturing date (December 2013) and expiry date (November 2016); falsified Mencevax ACW, 50 doses per vial, with a genuine batch number (AMENA020AA), but with false manufacturing date (December 2014) and expiry date (November 2017) - the genuine version of this batch expired in 2011; and falsified diluent, 50 doses, with false batch number (A003B128AA), manufacturing date (February 2013) and expiry date (January 2019)  (<https://www.who.int/medicines/publications/drugalerts/AlertWHO2.2015MENCEVAX_EN.pdf>).

Use of fake vaccines will leave a substantial portion of the population susceptible to meningococcal disease and engender further loss of confidence in the utility of vaccines. It will also undermine public confidence in the ability of government to safeguard the public. - ProMED Mod.ML]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
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Saint Helena

No Profile is available at present

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Wed, 22 Nov 2017 14:01:02 +0100
By Beatrice DEBUT

Jamestown, Nov 22, 2017 (AFP) - Cut off from the rest of the world for centuries, St. Helena, which lies isolated in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, is now reachable by plane for the first time.   The aviation breakthrough promises to lift the British-run territory from obscurity and bring it within reach of international tourists.   The arrival of the first commercial flight was also a relief for islanders frustrated by a delay to the opening because of high winds.

After years of procrastination, London gave the green light in 2011 a full runway on the island.    The ambition was to bring it within six hours of mainland Africa instead of the five days previously needed to make the ocean voyage from Cape Town.   British officials hoped that 30,000 tourists a year would visit the island, which is home to just 4,500 residents -- known as "Saints".   Just don't expect white sandy beaches and palm trees.

Rather, the island is known as a paradise for hikers and divers with dramatic scenery and its volcanic origins, and boasts history as rich as its flora and fauna.   The British have detained various opposition forces on the island over the centuries, including the defeated Napoleon after the Battle of Waterloo who died in exile on St. Helena in 1821.   It was also temporarily home to 25,000 former slaves after they were released in the 19th century on the island, which lay on the slave-trading route from Africa to America and the Caribbean.

- 'We had already invested' -
Encouraged by London's upbeat estimates, islanders began investing in tourism, sensing an opportunity in an economy where the average annual salary is just £7,280 (8,150 euros, $9,600).   Local businessman Johnny Herne runs a pleasure boat that he imported from Scotland 8,000 kilometres (5,000 miles) away on which guests can spot humpback whales and dolphins along the craggy coastline.   He has so far invested £182,000 in his business but now is drowning in debt as a result of the airport delay, which he says contributed to his divorce.   "It ruined my life," he said.

Entrepreneur Paul Hickling produces a cactus liqueur and a local coffee and has invested more than £100,000.   "The government said: 'Invest because the airport is coming... all these people are going to come'," he said.   "Unfortunately the airport got delayed -- but we had already invested the money."   In April 2016, just three weeks before the £285-million airport's grand opening, disaster struck.   Unforeseen winds meant that takeoffs and landings were ruled too dangerous, leaving islanders dismayed.

- 'Big relief' -
Hazel Wilmot, a hotelier in the capital Jamestown, had had large quantities of food and drink shipped to St. Helena and her property was fully booked.   But with the delay, tourists cancelled their trips.   "I had four containers at sea full of food, full of booze that I could not use," she said. In 2016 she says she lost at least £200,000.    Local officials set up a scheme to help businesses affected by the delay -- but no one has yet claimed, according to the island's trade board.

But overly strict criteria and a complex claiming process have deterred claimants, locals say.   After the 18-month delay, the first commercial flight finally touched down on October 14 this year.   A sense of euphoria swept through the cabin as champagne was served and the island edged into view. On the ground, islanders celebrated the long-awaited arrival.   "It was a big relief when the airport finally opened. It has not been easy," said Craig Yon, a manager of a hotel that opened in 2012.

- 'Not going to stop' -
But the island may never experience a tourism boom on the scale that was promised.   For safety reasons, the passenger capacity of the aircraft serving the island is far smaller than planned.   And the single weekly flight from Johannesburg will serve the island at a cost of about £800 return.   "South Africans would prefer to go for three weeks in Thailand than to go to St. Helena," said one South African travel agent, who organises trips to the island.   For this Christmas, Wilmot has just five bookings so far.    "Where are all these tourists we were told were going to swamp the island?" she said.   Tourism chief Helena Bennett now thinks the goal of 30,000 visitors was "unrealistic" -- indeed the small plane can bring less than 4,000 people, including residents, to the island each year.

Even today, the island has just 121 guest beds including a new hotel funded by the local government.   None of the properties have a website, while roads are so small that often only one car can pass.    But with the air link, the flow of tourists will at least be more constant.    "During the two-week period when the Royal Mail Ship is away, the island is dead," said Bennett, referring to the passenger and cargo vessel that calls at the island.   "With the plane, we are going to have visitors every week. The island is not going to stop anymore."
Date: Sat, 14 Oct 2017 22:35:34 +0200
By Beatrice DEBUT

Jamestown, Oct 14, 2017 (AFP) - The first regular commercial flight landed at St. Helena Saturday, opening the small British island in the South Atlantic to the world after centuries of isolation.   Around 100 islanders came out to the airport to watch the historic landing of the Embraer 190 jet which came from Johannesburg.   On the tarmac, some 60 incoming passengers were welcomed by the island's smiling governor, Lisa Phillips.   "It is connecting us to the world and it is opening us to the world," said Niall O'Keeffe, in charge of economic development on the island.

St. Helena, with just over 4,000 residents known as "Saints", is best known as the rocky outcrop where French emperor Napoleon Bonaparte saw out his final days.   After five years of construction, controversy and embarrassing delays due to high winds, the airport built at a cost of £285 million (318 million euros) finally opened for business.   "It will bring in tourists and we will be able to get a better standard of living," said Phillips.

The volcanic tropical island itself measures just 122 square kilometres (47 square miles) and is located almost exactly halfway between Africa and South America.   Its isolated location meant it was chosen as a place of exile for those who suffered defeat at the hands of the British,  with Napoleon held there from 1815 until his death in 1821.

Several thousand Boer prisoners of war were also detained there at the start of the 20th century.   Until Saturday, St. Helena was one of the world's most inaccessible locations.   It has been only reachable by sea, a five-day voyage from Cape Town aboard a Royal Mail vessel that chugs along at a speed of just 15 knots (28 kilometres an hour).   Every three weeks, the RMS St. Helena has been the islanders' link to the outside world, bringing a cargo of food, post, visitors and vehicles.

- Major engineering challenge -
The new flight route, via Windhoek in Namibia, makes the island reachable by air from South Africa in just six hours.   The airport has been a colossal civil engineering challenge.   The island had no suitable flat surface to construct the necessary 1,950 metre-long airstrip.   Engineers were forced to chip away a mountain peak and fill in a valley to create enough of an even surface.   The runway is located on a breathtaking mountain just 300 metres from the sea.   Because of high winds, Comair abandoned plans to operate the route with a Boeing 737, paving the way for AirLink's smaller Embraer 190 jet.

- High winds setback  -
The winds meant that the airport could not be opened in 2016 as originally planned with a ribbon-cutting by Prince Edward, Queen Elizabeth II's youngest son.   The conditions made take-offs and landings much more difficult than expected and just weeks before the scheduled ceremony, it was cancelled and the airport became practically unused.   After more than a year of test flights and studies, the decision was taken to use the Embraer 190.   The island will be served by a weekly service from Johannesburg costing about £800 return ($1,060). The average salary on St. Helena is just £7,280.   "It's more expensive that a flight to London" from South Africa, said
Jacqui Wilson, who saved up to take the "historic" flight.

But on the personal side people are just so glad there is an airport.   "Now we will be able to go home more often. Our family and friends will be able to visit, which is very great," said Catherine Man, the only veterinarian on the island.:   It is also hoped that the air link will help reduce the island's dependence on aid from London which cost the British taxpayer £53.5 million in 2015 alone.   When the RMS St. Helena is retired from service next year, the island will become almost completely dependent on its airport.   But with its Napoleonic heritage, rare birds and exotic plant life, hopes are high that the island will become a nirvana for curious travellers.
Date: Mon 19 Sep 2016, 9:23 AM
Source: Today [edited]

There has been a noticeable increase in cases of hand foot and mouth disease, the Collective Prevention Services (CPS) says in a press release and urges parents and guardians, day care centres and play schools to be on alert for an increase in clusters of the disease amongst the school population. CPS advises to take extra measures to prevent outbreaks by washing of hands often with soap and water.

Hand foot and mouth disease is a common viral illness that usually affects infants and children who are 10-years of age or younger. It can sometimes occur in adults. There is no vaccine to protect against the viruses that cause it.

People with symptoms should consult their family physician and take measures to mitigate an increase in the number of cases.

Symptoms include cold-like conditions, fever, mouth sores, loss of appetite, cough, and a skin rash; a non-itchy red rash that develops on the hand and the feet, and sometimes the rash can develop into painful blisters; painful mouth ulcers.
=====================
[The causative agent for hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is an enterovirus. It is not the same as other diseases that have similar names: foot-and-mouth disease (sometimes called hoof-and-mouth disease). See previous ProMED post Hand, foot & mouth disease - USA (04): (CA) http://promedmail.org/post/20160505.4204778 for a discussion of HFMD.

[A map of St. Maarten in the Caribbean can be accessed at
Date: Fri, 15 Jul 2016 16:14:56 +0200

Johannesburg, July 15, 2016 (AFP) - The mail boat that is the only link to St Helena, one of the world's most remote islands, has had its retirement delayed after a new airport failed to open due to dangerous winds.   The airport, constructed between soaring mountains and the South Atlantic Ocean, was designed to boost tourism and revive the community on the British territory where Napoleon was exiled and died in 1821.

But the 250-million-pound ($330 million) facility has been closed indefinitely for more data to be gathered after the first test flights in April measured severe air turbulence.   The RMS St Helena mail boat, which was due to be decommissioned this year after the airport's scheduled opening, takes about five days to reach the island from Cape Town.

The St Helena government said Friday that the boat would be kept in service until at least July 2017.   "Intensive work continues to mitigate wind conditions experienced at St Helena Airport," it added in a statement. "Getting this right will take some time."   Located nearly 2,000 kilometres (1,200 miles) from the African coast, St Helena has about 4,200 residents, one bank, and no cash machines.   A mountain ridge had to be lowered and a small valley filled in during the construction of the airport.
Date: Thu, 28 Apr 2016 14:25:36 +0200

Johannesburg, April 28, 2016 (AFP) - The opening of an airport on St Helena, one of the world's most remote islands, has been postponed indefinitely after test flights revealed dangerous wind conditions, officials said Thursday.   The airport, constructed between soaring mountains and the South Atlantic Ocean, was designed to boost tourism and revive the community on the British territory where Napoleon was exiled and died in 1821.   An opening ceremony to be attended by Prince Edward, the Earl of Wessex, had been scheduled for next month to mark the start of weekly commercial flights from Johannesburg, four and half hours away.   But the 250-million-pound ($360 million) airport will remain closed after a test flight last week measured severe turbulence and wind data.

The only way to reach the island is a five-day journey by sea from Cape Town by a mail boat that is due to be decommissioned this year.   "It is quite a disappointment, but when you are talking about airports, everything revolves around safety," Ian Jones, the St Helena government spokesman, told AFP, speaking from the island's capital Jamestown.   "There are some side winds and wind shear that we knew about, but it is not until you land a full-size aircraft that you fully understand the conditions.   "We did not realise how serious it was."   Jones said the airport had no new opening date, but analysis of wind data, new observational equipment and adjustments to the approach route would be considered to enable the runway to open.

An amateur video on the Internet showed the Boeing 737 test flight aborting its first landing attempt seconds before touchdown and climbing steeply back into the air.   "Difficult wind conditions, including turbulence and windshear, are encountered and safely managed at many airports around the world," the island's government said in a statement.   "Everyone involved remains committed to commencing commercial flights to and from St Helena at the earliest possible opportunity."   A mountain ridge had to be lowered and a small valley filled in during the construction of the airport, which has a 1,950-metre long runway.   It was first due to open in February, but building work was not yet completed.   Located nearly 2,000 kilometres (1,200 miles) from the African coast, St Helena has about 4,200 residents, one bank, and no cash machines.
More ...

World Travel News Headlines

Date: Tue, 22 Oct 2019 13:43:23 +0200 (METDST)

Capriata d'Orba, Italy, Oct 22, 2019 (AFP) - A taxi driver has drowned in Italy during violent storms in the north which flooded towns and destroyed a bridge, the fire service said Tuesday.   Farmers in the sweltering south meanwhile sounded the alarm over a draught expected to hit crops hard.   Over 100 people were evacuated Monday across the Alessandria province in the Liguria region, while firefighters carried out 900 operations across the north from Milan to Genoa, as rising waters surged across roads and railways.

The taxi was swept away in the town of Capriata d'Orba, where a bridge had also given way as the river burst its banks.   "There's water everywhere", driver Fabrizio Torre, 52, told his bosses before his phone line cut out, media reported.   His passenger managed to escape the vehicle and survived by clinging to a tree, the reports said.   Two men, aged 61 and 84, were found alive by firefighters after going missing in another part of the storm-hit region.   Rescue workers also pulled young children, their grandmother and the family's dog out of a house submerged by a landslide.   The Po river rose by more than 3.5 metres (11 feet) over a 24-hour period, according to Coldiretti, Italy's main agricultural association.   Lake Maggiore was also nearing a historic level.

Italy has seen "over three storms a day since the start of autumn, 18 percent more than the same period last year," it said.   "And while the north is under rain clouds... in the south, record heat and lack of rainfall has triggered a drought alarm."   Italy was seeing "the effects of climate change, with exceptional weather events becoming the norm".   It noted a "clear endency to tropicalisation" in the Mediterranean country, which was experiencing "a crazy autumn that ranks in the top ten of the hottest since 1800, with a temperature of 1.27 degrees above the average".   The high frequency of violent events was expected to continue, with the north pummelled by rains while farmers in the south risk losing crops.
Date: Tue, 22 Oct 2019 09:57:15 +0200 (METDST)
By Tupad POINTU

La Paz, Oct 22, 2019 (AFP) - Bolivia braced for a general strike on Tuesday hours after violence broke out in several cities when the main opposition candidate rejected presidential election results that seemed set to hand a controversial victory to long-time incumbent Evo Morales.   Opposition supporters reacted with fury, torching electoral offices in the southwestern cities of Sucre and Potosi, while rival supporters clashed in the capital La Paz.    Incidents were reported in cities across the South American country.   Carlos Mesa, who came a close second to Morales in Sunday's polls -- forcing a run-off, according to preliminary results -- denounced revised results released by election authorities as a "fraud."   "We are not going to recognize those results that are part of a shameful, consumated fraud, that is putting Bolivian society in a situation of unnecessary tension," said Mesa.

International monitors from the Organization of American States voiced "deep concern" at sudden changes to the election count to show Morales closing in on an outright victory in the first round.   Preliminary results released late Sunday showed neither Morales, 59, nor 66-year-old Mesa with a majority and "clearly indicated a second round," the OAS mission said.   The partial results put Morales in the lead with 45 percent of the votes, with Mesa on 38 percent, meaning Morales would have to contest a run-off for the first time.   But results released late Monday, after a long and unexplained delay, showed Morales edging towards an outright victory with 95 percent of the votes counted.   Mesa, a former president of the country between 2001-2005, accused Morales of colluding with the Supreme Electoral Tribunal (TSE) to tweak delayed results and avoid a run-off.

- Opposition call general strike -
The call for a general strike was issued by Fernando Camacho, head of an influential civil society organization in Bolivia's biggest city, Santa Cruz, where transport and businesses were expected to shut down from noon.   "Tomorrow we start at 12:00 to block this country," Camacho told opposition demonstrators late Monday, before holding talks with leaders from other regions.   Long lines formed at gas stations amid fears of shortages.   Riot-police dispersed a crowd who tried to storm the electoral offices in the Andean city of Oruro, south of La Paz.    Clashes were also reported in Tarija in the south, Cochabamba in the center and Cobija in the north.

- 'Subverting democracy' -
The United States' top diplomat for Latin America said the Electoral Tribunal was attempting "to subvert Bolivia's democracy by delaying the vote count and taking actions that undermine the credibility of Bolivia's elections."   "We call on the TSE to immediately act to restore credibility in the vote counting process," the official, Michael Kozak, said on Twitter.   The OAS observer mission in the country expressed "surprise at the drastic and hard-to-explain change in the trend of the preliminary results revealed after the closing of the polls," it said in a statement.   It urged the election authority to "firmly defend the will of the Bolivian people" and called for calm on the streets.   "It is extremely important that calm is maintained and any form of violence is avoided in this delicate situation."

- Longest serving president -
Morales, Latin America's longest-serving president, is controversially seeking a fourth term.   He obtained Constitutional Court permission in 2017 to run again for president even though the constitution allows only two consecutive terms.   The former coca farmer and leftist union leader has led the poor but resource-rich Latin American country for the past 13 years, though his popularity has waned amid allegations of corruption and authoritarianism.   He has led the country since taking office in 2006, when he became its first indigenous president.

A new mandate would keep him in power until 2025.   As leader of his Movement for Socialism Party (MAS), Morales points to a decade of economic stability and considerable industrialization as his achievements, while insisting he has brought "dignity" to Bolivia's indigenous population, the largest in Latin America.   He has come under severe criticism this year as wildfires in August and September ravaged Bolivia's forests and grasslands, with activists saying his policies encouraged the use of blazes to clear farmland.
Date: Tue, 22 Oct 2019 06:44:29 +0200 (METDST)

Papeete, Oct 22, 2019 (AFP) - A French tourist has been seriously injured in a rare shark attack in the palm-fringed Pacific islands of Polynesia, emergency services said Tuesday.   The 35-year-old woman was swimming during a whale-watching trip on Monday in the French overseas territory when the oceanic whitetip shark tore into her chest and arms.   "Luckily for her, there were two nurses on the scene who could deliver first aid," firefighter Jean-Jacques Riveta told AFP.   The woman lost both hands and a lot of blood in the attack and was airlifted to hospital, he said.
Date: Tue, 22 Oct 2019 05:13:16 +0200 (METDST)

Wellington, Oct 22, 2019 (AFP) - A huge fire at a construction site sent clouds of acrid black smoke billowing over Auckland on Tuesday, forcing large parts of the downtown area to be cordoned off as firefighters battled the blaze.   The fire broke out on the roof of the SkyCity convention centre site shortly after 1:10pm (0010 GMT) and quickly spread, Fire and Emergency NZ said.   Office workers were warned to stay inside and turn off air conditioning as a thick pall of smoke engulfed the centre of New Zealand's largest city, but there were no reports on injuries.   Unconfirmed reports said the fire was started by a construction worker using a blowtorch on the building, which is one of the venues for the 2021 APEC summit being held in Auckland.
Date: Mon, 21 Oct 2019 18:48:23 +0200 (METDST)

Harare, Oct 21, 2019 (AFP) - At least 55 elephants have died in a month in Zimbabwe  due to a lack of food and water, its wildlife agency said Monday, as the country faces one of the worst droughts in its history.   More than five million rural Zimbabweans -- nearly a third of the population -- are at risk of food shortages before the next harvest in 2020, the United Nations has warned.

The shortages have been caused by the combined effects of an economic downturn and a drought blamed on the El Nino weather cycle.   The impact is being felt at Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe's largest game reserve.   "Since September, we have lost at least 55 elephants in Hwange National Park due to starvation and lack of water," Zimbabwe National Parks spokesman Tinashe Farawo told AFP.   Farawo said the park was overpopulated and that food and water was scarce "due to drought".

Africa's elephant numbers have dropped from around 415,000 to 111,000 over the past decade, mainly due to poaching for ivory, according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).   But Zimbabwe, like other countries in the southern African region, is struggling with overpopulation.   "Hwange was meant for 15,000 elephants but at the moment we are talking of more than 50,000," Farawo said.   "The situation is dire. We are desperately waiting for the rains."   An adult elephant drinks 680 litres (180 gallons) of water per day on average and consumes 450 kilogrammes (990 pounds) of food.

Hungry elephants have been breaking out of Zimbabwe's game reserves and raiding human settlements in search for food, posing a threat to surrounding communities.   Farawo said 200 people have died in "human-and-animal conflict" in the past five years, and "at least 7,000 hectares (17,300 acres) of crop have been destroyed by elephants".   The authorities took action earlier this year by selling nearly 100 elephants to China and Dubai for $2.7 million.   Farawo said the money had been allocated to anti-poaching and conservation projects.   Botswana, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe have called for a global ban on elephant ivory trade to be relaxed in order to cull numbers and ease pressure on their territories.
Date: Mon, 21 Oct 2019 13:34:35 +0200 (METDST)

Santiago, Oct 21, 2019 (AFP) - Chile, reeling from its worst social unrest in decades, has since the 1990s been considered a Latin American hub of political stability and economic growth after 17 years of dictatorship.   Here is some background.

- From dictatorship to democracy -
In 1973 General Augusto Pinochet toppled Socialist President Salvador Allende in a military coup. Allende committed suicide in the presidential palace as troops closed in.   Pinochet imposed a right-wing dictatorship that lasted for 17 years, during which at least 3,200 people were killed or disappeared as a result of political repression. Around 38,000 were tortured.   In 1988 he lost a plebiscite on remaining in power and handed over to democratically elected Patricio Aylwin in 1990, remaining head of the armed forces until 1998.    Pinochet died in 2006 without standing trial for atrocities under his regime.   In 2006 Socialist Michelle Bachelet became Chile's first female president. Re-elected in 2013, she was barred constitutionally from standing again immediately and appointed UN right commissioner in 2018.   The 2017 elections were won by conservative billionaire Sebastian Pinera, who had already been president in 2010-2014.

- Model economy -
Pinochet applied neo-liberal free-market methods, privatising healthcare, education and pensions.   Chile turned to exports and in the 1980s became the preferred Latin American host for foreign investors.   With this economic model still largely in place, growth reached a strong 4% in 2018. The country of 18 million people also has the highest per capita income of Latin America at $20,000.   GDP, however, fell to 1.8% in the first half of 2019 -- due to a challenging external context, adverse climatic conditions and a delay in reforms -- and is expected at 2.5 percent for the year.   Despite slashing poverty from 30% in 2000 to 8.6% in 2019, the country has high social inequalities including in healthcare, education and pensions.   It is the world's biggest producer of copper, with lithium, timber, fisheries, gold, silver, avocados and oil also driving exports.

- Paedophile priests scandal -
The staunchly Roman Catholic country has been rocked by allegations of sexual abuse within the church going back decades.   In May 2018 Pope Francis summoned all 34 Chilean bishops to Rome over the crisis and all tendered their resignations, although only a handful have been accepted.   Since 2000 about 80 priests have been reported to authorities in Chile for alleged sexual abuse, including of children and adolescents.   Prosecutors said in August 2018 they were investigating 158 members of the church, both priests and lay people.   Ultra-conservative Chile allowed divorce only from 2004 and legalised abortion in certain cases in 2017.

- World's most seismic -
Bordered by the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Andes mountain range to the east, long and narrow Chile is the world's most seismic country.   In 1960 it was struck by the most powerful earthquake ever registered which measured 9.5 and struck at Valdivia. More than 5,700 people were killed.   In 2010 a 8.8-magnitude quake in the south and centre unleashed a tsunami that swept away entire villages, leaving around 520 people dead.

- Astronomy heaven -
Benefitting from a totally clear sky for most of the year, northern Chile is home to some of the world's most powerful telescopes.   The construction of the planet's biggest telescope was launched in May 2017 in the Atacama desert by ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere.
Date: Sun 20 Oct 2019
Source: Pakistan today [edited]

The death toll from a mysterious throat virus has reached 9 children in Seerani and its surrounding localities in Badin district as one more child infected by the virus died, affected people said on [Sun 20 Oct 2019].

A child, R, son of RM, died after contracting the disease. The most affected areas are reported to be Seerani and its surrounding localities. Teams of the health department and other organizations reached Seerani and took blood samples of at least 30 children who were infected by the virus. The blood samples will be sent to Islamabad for the tests.

The people of the area are worried about this new throat viral disease and have demanded authorities to provide immediate health cover to them.
====================
[There is little information to go on other than the throats of children are affected and the case fatality rate is high (10 of at least 30). No other symptoms are provided, nor is the basis for concluding that a virus is involved or what the epidemiological data are (dates, ages, sex of children involved, and local conditions). ProMED-mail would welcome additional information. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Date: 21 Oct 2019
Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]
<http://outbreaknewstoday.com/polio-cases-reported-in-zambia-chad-and-togo-73820/>

Circulating vaccine-derived polio virus (cVDPV) type cases have been confirmed in 10 African countries through [16 Oct 2019] this year [2019]. Now, the World Health Organization (WHO) is reporting 3 additional countries from the continent that more recently reported circulating vaccine-derived polio virus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases: Zambia, Chad and Togo.

Zambia
The Ministry of Health of Zambia reported last week on a confirmed case of circulating vaccine-derived polio virus type 2 (cVDPV2) in a 2-year-old child in Chienge district, Luapula province on the border with Democratic Republic of the Congo. This is the 1st case of cVDPV2 reported from Zambia in 2019. [Date of onset of paralysis reported to be 16 Jul 2019 according to another media report <https://www.lusakatimes.com/2019/10/21/polio-case-has-been-recorded-in-zambias-luapula-province/>.

In addition to the initial case-patient, 34 stool samples were collected from healthy contacts, and 2 samples tested positive for VDPV2, which were genetically linked to the case-patient. No established links have so far been found with the ongoing outbreak of cVDPV2 in Democratic Republic of the Congo, where 37 cases have been reported in 2019. The last recorded case of indigenous polio in Zambia was in 1995, while between 2001 and 2002, 5 cases of wild polio virus were identified among Angolan refugees in the Western province of the country.

Chad
Last week, WHO was informed about cVDPV2 in Chad. A cVDPV2 was isolated from a 13-month-old case of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), with onset of paralysis on [9 Sep 2019] in Chari Baguirmi province, bordering Cameroon. The isolated virus has 32 nucleotide changes from Sabin 2, and is genetically linked to a cVDPV2 detected in Borno, Nigeria and is part of the Jigawa emergence. The last indigenous wild poliovirus cases were reported in 2000 in Chad.

Togo
In addition, last week WHO was informed about cVDPV2 in Togo. A cVDPV2 was isolated from a 30-month-old case of AFP with onset of paralysis on [13 Sep 2019] in Plateaux province, bordering Benin and Ghana. The isolated virus has 32 nucleotide changes from Sabin 2 and is genetically linked to a cVDPV2 detected in Irewole state, Nigeria and is part of the Jigawa emergence as well. The last indigenous wild poliovirus case was reported in 1999 in Togo.
======================
[Three more countries are joining the list of cVDPV outbreak countries, all with cVDPV2 isolates. Two of the 3 countries (Togo and Chad) have viruses related to the Jigawa, Nigeria cVDPV2 outbreak. The case in Zambia is suspected to be associated with the ongoing cVDPV2 transmission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo), but genetic testing is presumably still pending or has been negative. See my comments below after the following section, as they are relevant to what is ongoing globally with respect to cVDPVs.

Below are the HealthMap/ProMED map links to countries where cVDPV cases/outbreaks have occurred in the past 12 months, a total of 20 countries.

Angola: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/165>
Benin: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/59>
Cameroon: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/65>
Central African Republic: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/66>
Chad: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/57>
China: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/155>
Democratic Republic of the Congo: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/194>
Ethiopia: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/95>
Ghana: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/53>
Indonesia: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/184>
Kenya: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/174>
Mozambique: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/177>
Myanmar: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/148>
Niger: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/58>
Nigeria: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/62>
Papua New Guinea: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/188>
Philippines: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/158>
Somalia: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/125>
Togo: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/64>
Zambia: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/170> - ProMED Mod.MPP]
Date: Fri 18 Oct 2019 07:32 PM EDT
Source: WSPA [edited]

North Carolina health officials say a 4th person has died from an outbreak of legionnaires' disease linked to a hot tub display at the North Carolina Mountain State Fair, which is held at the Western North Carolina Agricultural Center.

We've also learned another person, who did not attend the NC Mountain State Fair, was diagnosed with legionnaires' after attending a quilt show that was held inside the same building as the hot tub exhibit. That building is the Davis Event Center.

7 News spoke with folks who have been impacted by the outbreak. "We were like 'Oh no, I hope nobody gets sick,'" [LP] said. He attended the North Carolina Mountain State Fair-an event tied to at least 140 cases of legionnaires'. He said 2 people he knows, including his uncle, got sick after the fair. "They didn't actually have legionnaires', but they had respiratory problems that did come out of it," he said. [Perhaps Pontiac fever?] Even so, [LP] was back at the WNC Agricultural Center on [Fri 18 Oct 2019] to help host his club's annual Antique Tractor Show.

And while everything appeared to be business as usual, [LP] was concerned as another person was just diagnosed with the disease and didn't attend the fair. Instead, they were at a quilt show held at the WNC Agricultural Center 2 weeks later. "Anytime there's an outbreak of something, it's always going to have a thing in the back of your mind that says, 'I don't know if I want to do this or not,'" he said.

The Davis Event Center has since been closed; but health officials say it's possible the source for the newest case of legionnaires' may not have been at the WNC Agricultural Center. "There are other possible exposures that this person had, so it's hard. At this point, we can't pinpoint," Jennifer Mullendore with Buncombe County Health and Human Services said.

According to a statement by the WNC Agricultural Center, the hot water system in the Davis Event Center, and every other building on the grounds, went through a disinfecting process as a precautionary measure. "They did some cleaning and doing some real hot high-powered water through the water system here, and so we do have a clean bill of health," Phillips said.  It's unclear at this time when the Davis Event Center will re-open.  [Byline: Scottie Kay]
========================
[The latest status, as of 18 Oct 2019, of the legionellosis outbreak associated with the Mountain State Fair that was held in western North Carolina between 6 and 15 Sep 2019 at the Western North Carolina Agricultural Center (WNC Ag Center) in Fletcher, a town in Henderson County, can be found at <https://epi.dph.ncdhhs.gov/cd/legionellosis/outbreak.html>.

The source of the outbreak has still not as yet been confirmed. However, hot tub displays in one of the buildings (Davis Event Center) has been linked to the outbreak. A site map of the WNC Ag Center that shows the location of the Davis Event Center building can be found at <https://www.wncagcenter.org/p/mountainstatefair/competitions/map>.

One more case and an additional death have been reported since the last ProMED-mail post on this outbreak, but no cases linked to the outbreak had a symptom onset date more than 2 weeks after the end of the fair, that is, within the incubation period for legionnaires' disease (<https://www.cdc.gov/legionella/clinicians/clinical-features.html>). The latest case of legionnaires' disease didn't attend the fair, but instead attended a quilt show held 2 weeks later at the Davis Event Center, but the source for this case is thought possibly to have not been at the WNC Agricultural Center. The Davis Event Center has since been closed.

The number of confirmed cases of legionellosis by county are as follows: Buncombe, 49; Burke, 1; Caswell, 1; Cherokee, 1; Gaston, 1; Granville, 1; Haywood, 12; Henderson, 34; Jackson, 3; Madison, 6; McDowell, 5; Mecklenburg, 5; Mitchell, 2; Polk, 1; Rutherford, 3; Transylvania, 3; Union, 1; Watauga, 1; and Yancey, 1. 10 cases occurred out of state (in South Carolina). Total cases: 141. A map showing the location of the North Carolina counties can be found at <https://geology.com/county-map/north-carolina.shtml>.

Male, 82 (59%)*; female, 58 (41%)*. Median age in years (range): 61 (24-91). Hospitalizations: 94 (69%)*; deaths 4. *Some cases reported with unknown gender or hospitalization status.

A total of 133 (94%) have legionnaires' disease, the pneumonic form of the infection, and 8 (6%) have Pontiac fever, the non-pneumonic form of the infection.

The species of _Legionella_ detected in patients is not specified; however, the usual pathogen in the USA is _L. pneumophila_ serogroup 1 and one sample of water collected from the women's restroom in the Davis Event Center was previously reported to be positive for _L. pneumophila_. Genotyping clinical and environmental isolates will help identify clusters of cases with a common source and identify the source responsible for infection in these clusters. - ProMED Mod.ML]
 
[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of North Carolina, United States:
Date: Sun 20 Oct 2019 12:52 AM IST
Source: Deccan Chronicle [edited]

The respite from cases of dengue, notwithstanding, the city [Hyderabad] is now caught in the grip of viral encephalitis, or brain fever. There is an alarming increase in the number of viral encephalitis cases being reported across city hospitals. This is ironic as October is medically termed as 'fair-weather' season. The rise in the number of cases has been worrisome and those getting inflicted include children and elders.

Many are complaining of fever of the brain with body temperature touching [106-107 deg F/41.1-41.6 deg C].

According to doctors, at least 3 cases are reported each week in the tertiary hospitals of which 7 major ones are in the city.

Dr Shyam Jaiswal, neurologist at Care Hospitals, explains, "Of late, we have been admitting viral encephalitis-affected children in the hospital. Most fall sick because of the body's low immunity. Immediate hospital care is a must as most complain of severe headache, delirium, and in some cases even loss of memory. The treatment takes between 2-3 days."

It is a medical nightmare that some elders are suffering from both chikungunya and viral encephalitis.

Dr Hari Kishan B, general physician with Apollo Hospitals, explains, "The combination of chikungunya and viral encephalitis has been noted earlier too. These are rare cases but do occur from time to time. The viral infections have been very high this year [2019] and those suffering from diabetes, hypertension, and other cardiovascular ailments, will suffer more when infected with these viruses."  [Byline: Kaniza Garari]
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[This report does not provide total case numbers, nor indicate how long 2-3 cases per week have been occurring. The virus suspected or confirmed as the etiology of these cases is not mentioned, but the comment that October is termed "a fair weather season" suggests that Japanese encephalitis virus may be involved with the usual transmission season declining in October. No mention is made of acute encephalitis syndrome, a clinical designation with a variety of suggested Aetiologies in other cases in north-eastern India. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[Maps of India: