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Albania

Albania US Consular Information Sheet November 04, 2008

 COUNTRY DESCRIPTION

Albania is a parliamentary democracy that is transforming its economy into a market-oriented system. Albania's per capita income is among the lowest in Eu

ope, but economic conditions in the country are steadily improving. Tourist facilities are not highly developed in much of the country, and though Albania's economic integration into European Union markets is slowly underway, many of the goods and services taken for granted in other European countries are not yet available. Hotel accommodations are limited outside of major cities. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Albania for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS

 A passport is required. All travelers entering or exiting Albania must have six months or more validity on their passport. Customs officers strictly enforce this law. U.S. citizens do not require a visa prior to entering Albania, but those traveling without a visa will be charged a fee for an entry stamp at the point of entry, which is valid for a stay of up to 90 days. This fee is currently 10 Euros, or the equivalent in any easily convertible currency, including U.S. dollars. Travelers without a visa who intend to stay in Albania for more than 90 days should be aware that Albanian law allows a traveler without a visa to remain in Albania for 90 days only within a specific 180-day period. That 180-day period is defined from the first day of entry. For example, a traveler entering without a visa on January 1 may remain in Albania for 90 days total during the period of time between January 1 and June 28. Departing Albania during this time period does not "restart the clock." Travelers attempting to reenter Albania without a visa and within 180 days of a previous entry and after an aggregate stay of 90 days may be denied entry. For stays exceeding 90 days within a 180-day period, those interested must apply for a Residency Permit at the police station with jurisdiction over the city of residence. Information on how to apply for a residency permit is available on the Embassy of Albania web site at http://www.embassyofalbania.org/. There is also a departure fee of ten Euros, or the equivalent in any easily convertible currency, including U.S. dollars. Visit the Embassy of Albania web site at http://www.embassyofalbania.org/consular.html#visa for the most current visa information. Dual Nationality: The Albanian government considers any person in Albania of Albanian parents to be an Albanian citizen. In addition to being subject to all Albanian laws affecting U.S. citizens, dual nationals may be subject to Albanian laws that impose special obligations. Male Albanian citizens are subject to compulsory military service regulations. If such persons are found guilty of draft evasion in Albania, they are subject to prosecution by the Albanian court. Those who might be affected should inquire at an Albanian Embassy or Consulate outside Albania regarding their status before traveling. In some instances, dual nationality may hamper U.S. Government efforts to provide protection abroad. Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site. For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY

Although the overall security situation in Albania has improved in recent years, organized criminal activity continues to operate in all regions, and corruption is pervasive. US Government employees need permission to travel to the northern administrative districts of Shkoder, Malesi E Madhe and Tropoje (with the exception of the route along the national road to Montenegro and the city of Shkoder) and to the southern town of Lazarat, with such travel restricted to secure vehicles with escort. Travel restrictions for U.S. Government employees have been lifted for overnight stays in the city of Shkoder. In most cases, police assistance and protection is limited. A high level of security awareness should be maintained at all times. Photographing anything that authorities regard as being of military or security interest may cause travelers problems. All gatherings of large crowds should be avoided, particularly those involving political causes or striking workers. For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found. Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays). The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME

In the latest State Department assessment, Albania’s crime rating is “medium.” Crime against foreigners is rare in Albania, as targeting foreigners is often viewed as too risky. Visitors should maintain the same personal security awareness that they would in any metropolitan U.S. city. Caution should be exercised in bars in Tirana where violent incidents, some involving the use of firearms, have occurred in the past, particularly in the early morning hours. Within the last years there have been fewer cases of carjacking compared with previous years. Anyone who is carjacked should surrender the vehicle without resistance. Armed crime continues to be more common in northern and northwestern Albania than in the rest of the country. Street crime is fairly common in Albania, particularly at night. Criminals do not seem to deliberately target U.S. citizens or other foreigners, but do seek targets of opportunity, and select those who appear to have anything of value. Vehicle theft is still one of the biggest problems in Albania. Pick-pocketing is widespread; U.S. citizens have reported the theft of their passports by pick-pockets. INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed. The local equivalent to the “911” emergency line is 129, though coverage is inconsistent at best. See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION

Medical facilities and capabilities in Albania are limited beyond rudimentary first aid treatment. Emergency and major medical care requiring surgery and hospital care is inadequate due to lack of specialists, diagnostic aids, medical supplies, and prescription drugs. Travelers with previously diagnosed medical conditions may wish to consult their physicians before travel. As prescription drugs may be unavailable locally, travelers may also wish to bring extra supplies of required medications. Recent electricity shortages have resulted in sporadic blackouts throughout the country, which can affect food storage capabilities of restaurants and shops. While some restaurants and food stores have generators to properly store food, travelers should take care that food is cooked thoroughly to reduce the risk of food-borne illness. Water in Albania is not potable. Visitors should plan to purchase bottled water or drinks while in country. The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Albania. Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en

MEDICAL INSURANCE

The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS

While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Albania is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance. Major roads in Albania are often in very poor condition. Traveling by road throughout Albania is the most dangerous activity for locals and tourists. Vehicle accidents are the major cause of death, according to police statistics. Electricity shortages have resulted in sporadic blackouts throughout the country that can happen any hour of the day or night. Such outages affect traffic signals and street lights, making driving increasingly treacherous at any time of day. Travel at night outside the main urban areas is dangerous and should be avoided due to deplorable road conditions. During the winter months, travelers may encounter dangerous snow and icy conditions on the roads throughout mountainous regions in northern Albania. Buses travel between most major cities almost exclusively during the day, but they are often unreliable and uncomfortable. Many travelers looking for public transport prefer to use privately owned vans, which function as an alternate system of bus routes and operate almost entirely without schedules or set fares. Please note that many of these privately owned vans may not have official permission to operate a bus service and may not adhere to accepted safety and maintenance standards. Persons wishing to use privately owned vans should exercise caution. There are no commercial domestic flights and few rail connections. Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. Visit the website of the country’s national tourist office at www.albaniantourism.com.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT

As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Albania, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Albania's Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards. For further information, travelers may visit the FAA's web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: Albania's customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from Albania of some items. It is advisable to contact the Embassy of Albania in Washington, D.C. or one of Albania's Consulates in the United States for specific information regarding customs requirements. As noted previously, the Albanian government considers any person in Albania of Albanian parents to be an Albanian citizen. In addition to being subject to all Albanian laws affecting U.S. citizens, dual nationals may be subject to Albanian laws that impose special obligations. Male Albanian citizens are subject to compulsory military service regulations. See our information pertaining to dual nationality. Albania is a cash economy. Credit cards and travelers checks are not generally accepted, except at the major new hotels in Tirana and some international airline offices. Travelers' checks can be changed at banks in larger towns. Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) are available in most cities. Please see our Customs Information CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Albania’s laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Albania are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties. Under Albanian law, police can detain any individual for up to 10 hours without filing formal charges. U.S. citizens are encouraged to carry a copy of their U.S. passports with them at all times to show proof of identity and U.S. citizenship if questioned by local officials.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES

For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION

 Americans living or traveling in Albania are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Albania. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located at Rruga Elbasanit 103, tel. (355)(4) 2247285; fax (355)(4) 2232222. The U.S. Embassy web site is http://tirana.usembassy.gov/ * * * This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated June 10, 2008, to update sections on Entry and Exit Requirements, Medical Facilities and Health Information, and Traffic Safety and Road Conditions.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Tue, 26 Nov 2019 09:28:12 +0100 (MET)
By Briseida MEMA

Tirana, Nov 26, 2019 (AFP) - Six people died and some 150 were injured in Albania after the strongest earthquake in decades rocked the Balkan country early Tuesday, destroying buildings and burying victims in rubble.

The epicentre of the 6.4 magnitude quake was about 34 kilometres (about 20 miles) northwest of the capital Tirana, at a depth of 10 km, according to the European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre.   "We have victims," Prime Minister Edi Rama wrote on Twitter. "We are working to do everything possible in the affected areas."   The quake struck at 3:54 am local time (0254 GMT) and sent panicked residents running out onto the streets of Tirana, with people huddling in the open, an AFP correspondent said.

The worst damage appeared to be around the coastal town of Durres. The quake was the strongest to hit this region since 1926, Albanian seismologist Rrapo Ormeni told local television.   Three bodies were pulled from the ruins of damaged buildings in the port town, where a three-story hotel collapsed and other buildings were damaged, according to the defence ministry.   The bodies of a man and a woman were uncovered in rubble in the nearby town of Thumane, the ministry said.

A man in his fifties died after he jumped out of his building in panic in the town of Kurbin, the defence ministry said.   Some 300 armed forces personnel have rushed to Durres and Thumane for rescue operations, where "there are people trapped under the ruins", defence ministry spokeswoman Albana Qahajaj said.

In Thumane, around a dozen rescuers used an excavator to dig through a mountain of debris in search of possible victims.   At least 150 people with injuries have sought first aid in Tirana and Durres, Health Minister Ogerta Manasterliu said.

- Trapped under rubble -
In Thumane, soldiers, rescuers and families were sifting through the rubble of a collapsed five-storey building as cries of people trapped under debris were heard, an AFP reporter said.   Thoma Nika, a 58-year-old who lived in the building, said there were at least six people under rubble.    Another man, Arben Allushi said with tears in his eyes, that his wife and niece missing after the building collapsed.

A man in Durres told local television that his daughter and niece were trapped in the rubble of a collapsed apartment building.    "I talked with my daughter and niece on the phone. They said they are well and are waiting for the rescue. I could not talk to my wife. There are other families, but I could not talk to them," the man said.

The tremors were felt across the Balkan region, from Sarajevo to Bosnia and even in the Serbian city of Novi Sad almost 700 kilometres away, according to reports in local media and on social networks.   It was followed by several aftershocks, including one of 5.3 magnitude, the European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre said. It was described by authorities as the strongest earthquake in the last 20-30 years.   The Balkans is an area prone to seismic activity and earthquakes are frequent.
Date: Sat, 21 Sep 2019 20:39:17 +0200 (METDST)

Tirana, Sept 21, 2019 (AFP) - Albania was rattled by its strongest earthquake in decades Saturday, officials said, sending people fleeing into the streets in several cities, damaging buildings and triggering power cuts in the capital.   The epicentre of the shallow 5.6-magnitude quake, was near Durres, less than 40 kilometres (25 miles) west of the capital Tirana, according to the US Geological Survey.

Albania's defence ministry said it was the "strongest earthquake in the country in the last 20 to 30 years".   "There are no deaths," defence ministry spokeswoman Albana Qajaj said.   Some 80 people sought medical help in both Tirana and Durres, 21 of whom were hospitalised due to injuries caused by falling objects or parts of walls as well as for panic attacks, Health Minister Ogerta Manasterilu said.   Qajaj told AFP that houses and buildings in Tirana had been damaged but were still standing and that the ministry was accessing damage in other towns and villages.   Prime Minister Edi Rama cancelled his scheduled trip to the United States following the quake, which cut electricity and telephone lines in Tirana and a number of other towns and villages.

Many people remained outside their homes for several hours in the capital, fearful of aftershocks.   "I fear to return because such a strong earthquake could be followed with others," Drita Lohja, a resident in her fifties, told AFP.    Falling debris pulverised parked cars in parts of the city.   AFP reporters and witnesses saw windows broken and deep fissures in the facades of buildings in Durres, as well as in the capital.   Media reported that a large building in Tirana was seriously damaged and that residents were being evacuated.   A University of Tirana building was also damaged, witnesses said.

According to local media reports, at least two people were lightly injured and a dozen houses collapsed in the village of Helmes, 10 kilometres from Tirana.   Two other earthquakes followed the strong one that occurred at around 4:00 pm (1400 GMT) and was felt in neighbouring Montenegro and Italy, but also on the Greek island of Corfu according to some Twitter users.
Date: Fri, 9 Mar 2018 16:28:50 +0100

Tirana, March 9, 2018 (AFP) - The military has been deployed in northern Albania to help hundreds of people trapped by floods following heavy rainfall, authorities said on Friday.   More than 9,230 hectares (22,800 acres) of agricultural land is underwater in the Shkodra region, including villages where the only means of transport is by boat, the defence ministry said.

Army personnel are evacuating residents and securing food supplies in the affected areas, 100 kilometres (60 miles) north of the capital, Tirana.   The torrential rain in recent days has caused landslides damaging dozens of homes and flooding roads, said the transport ministry.   The rain has also forced the Albanian authorities to release excess water from a hydroelectric plant, which has added to the flooding in northern areas of the country.   Weather forecasters say the rain is likely to ease from Saturday.
Date: Sun, 3 Dec 2017 12:29:40 +0100

Tirana, Dec 3, 2017 (AFP) - Thousands of police and soldiers have been deployed in Albania to rescue stranded residents after heavy rainfall triggered major flooding, and caused the death of a utility worker, officials and the power company said Sunday.   The victim, Sabri Vlinga, died while he was working on a electricity pole at Roskovec in the flooded south of the country, the power company said in statement.   Two other people were injured in similar accidents. it added.   Some 6,400 police and soldiers have been sent to help rescue people stranded by the floods, Prime MInister Edi Rama said Saturday, calling the situation "very critical".

Around 1,500 people in the affected areas have been rescued, while several thousand homes were without electricity as many utility poles have been swept away by mudslides, said Shemsi Prenci, head of civil protection.   More than 7,874 hectares (19,450 acres) of farm land as well as 3,193 homes are under water and several roads in the south remained impassable.

Army forces have built a temporary bridge at Darezeze, about 70 kilometres (44 miles) from the capital Tirana, to come to the aid of 2,000 residents stranded by the floods, the defence ministry said.    In neighbouring Macedonia, the heavy rains have also caused flooding as several rivers include the main Vardar river have burst their banks, the MIA news agency reported.
Date: Sat 5 Aug 2017
From: Edmond Puca <edmond_puca@yahoo.com> [edited]

Here in Albania, we have 2 imported cases of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), one imported from the north of Greece and another from Macedonia in a village near the border with Albania.

The patient from Macedonia is 25 years old. He presented in the emergency room on 31 Jul [2017]. Right now, he is in good condition and will survive. He presented with fever, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, and lower back pain.

The other patient from Greece had been in our service for the previous 2 weeks and now is at home in good condition.

The disease is caused by Dobrava-Belgrade virus infection.
---------------------------------
Dr Edmond Puca
Infectologue
Department of Infectious Disease
UHC "Mother Teresa"
Tirana, Albania
===================
[ProMED-mail thanks Dr Edmond Puca for sending in this report.  This and the previous report are the 1st reports of hantavirus infections in Macedonia that ProMED-mail has posted. There is also evidence of HFRS in Greece, although ProMED-mail has not posted reports previously. Sero-epidemiological investigations conducted in several Balkan countries revealed an overall seroprevalence of 4 per cent in Greece (<http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168170213004887#>). There doubtless have been Dobrava-Belgrade virus infections in Greece and the Balkans over the years, given that this virus is known to circulate widely in the Balkans.

The yellow-necked field mouse (_Apodemus flavicollis_) is the principle vertebrate host for Dobrava-Belgrade virus. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
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French Guiana

French Guiana US Consular Information Sheet
August 14, 2006

COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: French Guiana is an overseas department of France. It is a sparsely populated tropical area located on the northern coast of South America. French is the pred
minant language; English is not widely spoken. Tourist facilities are available, especially in the larger cities such as Cayenne and Kourou, but in some instances are not highly developed.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: Passports are required of U.S. citizens entering French Guiana. Visitors who arrive by land or on a commercial air carrier with a return ticket may enter for up to 90 days without a visa. See our Foreign Entry Requirements brochure for more information on French Guiana and other countries. Visit the Embassy of France web site at for the most current visa information, or contact the Embassy of France at 4101 Reservoir Road N.W., Washington, DC 20007; telephone (202) 944-6000; or the nearest French Consulate in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, New Orleans or San Francisco.

Find more information about Entry and Exit Requirements pertaining to dual nationality and the prevention of international child abduction . For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information .

SAFETY AND SECURITY: For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department's Internet web site , where the current Worldwide Caution Public Announcement , Travel Warnings and Public Announcements can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State's pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad .
CRIME: Petty street crime occurs throughout the major cities. Individuals should make sure to keep valuables out of sight, especially if left unattended in an automobile.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime .
MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Medical care within French Guiana is limited, and hospital facilities are available only in major urban areas. Patients' rooms in hospitals are primarily open-air facilities; instead of glass panes, hospital windows are fitted with wooden slats.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC's Internet site at For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's (WHO) website at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at .

MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas .

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning French Guiana is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Primary roads in French Guiana are well paved and well maintained. Emergency call boxes are available at regular intervals on the main highways. Roads in rural areas are less developed. Roads leading to more remote regions in the interior are often improved dirt roads. French Guiana has a relatively moderate to high volume of traffic and police enforce traffic safety. Night driving can be dangerous, especially in the remote interior regions or on less-developed rural roads. Public transportation in the form of taxis and vans is relatively safe.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. Visit the website of the French National Tourist Organization at http://www.franceguide.com.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of France as being in compliance with ICAO international aviation safety standards for oversight of France's air carrier operations. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA's Internet web site at .
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: In addition to being subject to all French laws affecting U.S. citizens, dual nationals may also be subject to other laws that impose special obligations on French citizens. For additional information, please see our Dual Nationality flyer .
French customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from French Guiana of items such as firearms, medications, animals, etc. It is advisable to contact the Embassy of France in Washington or one of the many French consulates in the United States for specific information regarding customs requirements.
Customs authorities encourage the use of an ATA (Admission Temporaire/Temporary Admission) Carnet for the temporary admission of professional equipment, commercial samples, and/or goods for exhibitions and fair purposes. ATA Carnet Headquarters , located at the U.S. Council for International Business , 1212 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036, issues and guarantees the ATA Carnet in the United States. For additional information call (212) 354-4480, e-mail atacarnet@uscib.org, or visit www.uscib.org for details. Please see our Customs Information .

CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating French laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in French Guiana are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties .

CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children's Issues website.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION: Americans living or traveling in Suriname are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department's travel registration website and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Suriname. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located at Dr. Sophie Redmondstraat 129, telephone (011)(597) 472-900, web site http://paramaribo.usembassy.gov. The Consular Section hours of operation for routine American citizen services are Mondays and Wednesdays from 1:30 pm - 3:30 pm, or by appointment, except on American and Surinamese holidays. U.S. citizens requiring emergency assistance evenings, weekends, and holidays may contact an Embassy duty officer by cell phone at (011)(597) 088-08302.
* * *
This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated November 2, 2005 to update all sections.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Tue 14 Aug 2018
Source: France Guyane [in French, trans. ProMED Corr.SB, edited]
<http://www.franceguyane.fr/actualite/education-sante-environnement/un-cas-de-fievre-jaune-contracte-en-guyane-412398.php>

A 47-year-old man of Swiss nationality contracted yellow fever in French Guiana. He was diagnosed last weekend by the Institut Pasteur. The fact that he had been present in French Guiana for 4 months without having apparently left it makes it very likely that he contracted the virus in the department, and more precisely in the area of the County Bridge.

In a message addressed to certain health professionals, the Regional Health Agency (ARS) details the situation: "A new case of yellow fever was confirmed last weekend by the Pasteur Institute of Guyana, and after that diagnosed in France. After a visit to CHAR, the patient was transferred urgently to a liver resuscitation unit in Paris.

This is a 47-year-old man of Swiss nationality who had returned by land from Brazil but who had been in French Guiana for 4 months and who had not left the territory (of Guyana) since his arrival. Therefore, we can consider that this is a local infection. The patient was not vaccinated. According to information available at this stage, he was working on the marking of forest roads in the County Bridge area, and it can be assumed that he was infected in these areas, and investigations are underway to detect associated cases and to trace more closely the movements of the patient.

This new case confirms that yellow fever is present in Guyana. While awaiting more precise information, this also seems to indicate that the virus is present in the littoral zone and justifies the vaccination of the whole department's population.
========================
[Sylvatic yellow fever (YF) is endemic in areas of 13 countries and territories of the South American region, including Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Panama, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana and the island of Trinidad.

A 20 Mar 2018 PAHO/WHO Epidemiological Update on Yellow Fever stated that there were confirmed cases this year [2018] in several South American countries including French Guiana (see Yellow fever - Americas (22): South America http://promedmail.org/post/20180321.5699760). Individuals traveling, working or residing in these areas should be vaccinated against YF.

Unfortunately, the Swiss worker was not. The patient's condition was not mentioned, other than that he was transferred urgently to a liver resuscitation unit in Paris, but was still alive. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[HealthMap/ProMED maps available at: Switzerland:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/105>

Region d'outre-mer de French Guiana, France:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/577>]
Date: Sun, 26 Mar 2017 22:38:35 +0200
By Marion BRISWALTER

Cayenne, March 26, 2017 (AFP) - French Guiana came to a standstill Sunday on the eve of a major strike which has elbowed its way into France's presidential campaign.   Air France cancelled all flights to the South American territory for Sunday and Monday, when 37 labour unions were to launch a general strike demanding a "Marshall Plan" to improve public services and security.   Barricades have been erected on roads since last week, and the US State Department has warned travellers to stay away, citing the risk of violence.   The protests also led to the indefinite postponement of an Arianespace rocket launch at Europe's Guiana Space Centre in Kourou.

The French government has sent a delegation to negotiate with the strikers, asking them to lay out their demands.   But 13 of the territory's 22 mayors have refused to meet the delegation, demanding along with the strikers that French ministers come in person.   "This has gone on long enough! All we have is plundered, it's time to recognise the people of Guiana," a woman at the barricade blocking access to the airport at Cayenne, the capital, told AFP on Sunday.   "I am listening to the Guianans," said Ericka Bareigts, the minister of overseas territories, though she has ruled out travelling to the territory for now.   "We will be able to go to Guiana once the conditions are right and progress has been made," she said.   The road barricades were temporarily lifted Sunday and some stores opened so that people could stock up on food and other supplies before the strike began.

- 'Failed policies' -
The "Collective to Get Guiana Moving" has called for better access to health services and electricity, economic development and job creation programmes, and renewed efforts to keep children from dropping out of school.   The territory, with about 250,000 inhabitants, relies on huge injections of public funds.   "The government must respond rapidly to these requests," Segolene Royal, the French environment minister, said after a recent visit to the territory.   The visiting delegation has already had a scanner installed at the airport to help stop drug trafficking, and pledged to speed up the arrival of EU aide.   But several of the candidates seeking the French presidency have pounced on the crisis just a month before the first round of voting.   For Francois Fillon, the conservative candidate, "This situation is the consequence of the failed policies of Francois Hollande," the outgoing Socialist president.

Marine Le Pen, the far-right National Front candidate, condemned what she called an "cruel minimum service" of recent governments in Paris toward the territory.   In response, Bareigts, the overseas territories minister, and Interior Minister Matthias Fekl said Sunday after a meeting with Prime Minister Bernard Cazeneuve that "We will not tolerate any exploitation of this social crisis, neither to disrupt public order nor for campaign purposes."   A similar revolt gripped French Guiana in 2008 over soaring fuel prices, shutting down schools and the airport.   The strike ended after 11 days, when the government agreed to cut fuel prices.
Date: Mon, 21 Mar 2016 11:58:00 +0100

Paris, March 21, 2016 (AFP) - Up to a third of flights were cancelled at French airports on Monday as air traffic controllers entered a second day of strikes.    Low-cost airline Ryanair deplored what it said was the 41st strike by French air traffic controllers since 2009.   Around 140 passengers spent the night in Paris's Orly airport where half of flights were cancelled on the first day of strikes on Sunday.

Authorities Monday asked airlines to cut a third of flights at Orly and Marseille airports, and 20 percent at Lyon, Nice and Beauvais near Paris.    The striking union, which represents around a fifth of air traffic controllers, is campaigning against job cuts and the lack of investment in new technology.   Air France said journeys out of Paris's other main airport, Charles De Gaulle, were not facing cancellations, but last-minute delays were possible.    EasyJet said it had cancelled 90 flights and that more disruptions were possible.
Date: Wed 2 Sep 2015
Source: OIE WAHID, weekly disease information 2015; 28 (36) [edited]

Rabies, French Guiana
--------------
Information received on [and dated] 2 Sep 2015 from Dr Loic Evain, Directeur General adjoint, CVO, Direction generale de l'alimentation, Ministere de l'Agriculture, de l'Agroalimentaire et de la Foret, Paris, French Guiana.

Summary:
Report type: Immediate notification
Date of start of the event: 20 Aug 2015
Date of confirmation of the event: 31 Aug 2015
Reason for notification: Reoccurrence of a listed disease
Date of previous occurrence: October 2009
Manifestation of disease: Clinical disease
Causal agent: Lyssavirus (RABV vampire bat rabies types)
Serotype: RABV
Nature of diagnosis: Laboratory (advanced)
This event pertains to a defined zone within the country.

New outbreaks (1)
Summary of outbreaks:
Total outbreaks: 1
Outbreak 1: Cayenne, Cayenne
Date of start of the outbreak: 20 Aug 2015
Outbreak status: continuing (or date resolved not provided)
Epidemiological unit: Not applicable
Affected animals:
Species / Susceptible / Cases / Deaths / Destroyed / Slaughtered
Dogs / 1 / 1 / 1 / 0 / 0

Affected population: On Thu 20 Aug 2015, a 6-month-old dog was taken to the veterinarian since he was showing a decreased appetite without neurological signs and again the next day (Fri 21 Aug) following a deterioration of his general condition with convulsions, aggressiveness, visual loss and difficulties with movement. He was hospitalized and died on the night from Friday to Saturday. A rabies investigation was then launched and the Pasteur Institute confirmed the diagnosis on 31 Aug 2015.

Epidemiology:
Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection: unknown or inconclusive

Epidemiological comment: The virus isolated in the dog is a Lyssavirus of RABV species and of "vampire bat rabies" type. It is estimated that the virus excretion phase started on 5 Aug 2015. During this period, the dog was in a fully fenced house. No runaway was reported during the period. He just went out for some walks on a lead in the neighbourhood and some visits to the veterinarian. The dog did not bite but could have chewed or lick wounds or the face. The epidemiological investigation has identified to date 12 contact people and no contact animals. However, there are stray cats near the house where the rabid dog was. Although the origin of the contamination of the dog is still uncertain, the most likely hypothesis is the contact with a bat, since the dog has eaten dead animals found in the garden several times. Following confirmation of the diagnosis, a regulated zone was put in place in order to limit the movements of domestic carnivores, to establish increased surveillance and to strengthen the capture of stray animals. Carnivores improperly vaccinated that could have had contact with the case will be euthanized. Carnivores properly vaccinated that could have had contact with the case will be under clinical monitoring for 6 months.

Control measures
Measures applied: movement control inside the country; screening; quarantine; zoning; no vaccination; no treatment of affected animals Measures to be applied: No other measures.

Diagnostic test results:
Laboratory name and type:
Institute Pasteur (Paris) (National laboratory)Species / Test / Test date / Result
Dogs / direct fluorescent antibody (FAT) test / 28 Aug 2015 / Positive
Dogs / pathogen isolation on cell culture / 31 Aug 2015 / Positive

Future Reporting: The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.

The location of the outbreak can be seen on the interactive map included in the OIE report at the source URL above.
====================
[This immediate notification officially confirms the information communicated in the ProMED-mail report archive number 20150903.3620512.

"Rabies transmitted by the common vampire bat (_Desmodus rotundus_) is a major public health concern in subtropical and tropical areas of Latin America. Infected vampire bats can transmit rabies to domestic mammals and humans through their haematophagous behavior."  <https://www.aphis.usda.gov/wildlife_damage/nwrc/publications/12pubs/anderson121.pdf>

Pictures of the common vampire bat (_Desmodus rotundus_) can be seen at

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
Date: Tue 1 Aug 2015
Source: France-Guyane [in French, trans. ProMED CopyEd.LMI, edited]

Yesterday [31 Jul 2015], the Pasteur Institute in Paris confirmed a case of rabies in a 6-month old puppy living in Cayenne. The animal was hospitalized on 21 Aug 2015 at a veterinary hospital for nervous symptoms. He died the following night. 16 people in contact with the dog were sent to the anti-rabies center at the hospital in Cayenne.

The Director for Food, Agriculture and Forestry (Daaf) continues to investigate to discover the origin of the infection. He reminds people of the following guidelines:
- any sudden death of a domestic animal with no identified cause should be reported to a veterinarian;
- any dog, cat, monkey, bat, or other animal bite should be reported to the Daaf;
- early vaccination (starting at 3 months) of domestic animals, with a yearly booster shot is required.

As a precaution, a lot more will be done to catch stray animals in the neighbourhood and the entire area comprising the Zephyr bypass, Montabo, and Baduel roads, and Saint-Antoine path.
=================
[Cayenne is the capital of French Guiana (FG), an overseas region of France on the northeast coast of South America, bordering, on the west, Suriname and on the east and south, Brazil (the Amapa State). See maps at <http://geology.com/world/french-guiana-map.gif> and <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/3486>.

According to French Guiana's reports to the OIE, rabies has been absent there in domestic animals since 2003 and in wildlife since 2009.

According to Ref 1 below, on 28 May 2008, the French National Reference Center for Rabies (Institut Pasteur, Paris) confirmed the rabies diagnosis, based on hemi-nested polymerase chain reaction on skin biopsy and saliva specimens from a Guianan, who had never travelled overseas and died in Cayenne after presenting clinically typical meningoencephalitis.

>From the Author Summary:
"Until 2008, rabies had never been described within the French Guianan human population. Emergence of the 1st case in May 2008 in this French Overseas Department represented a public health event that markedly affected the local population, healthcare workers, and public health authorities. The anti-rabies clinic of French Guiana, located at Institut Pasteur de la Guyane, had to reorganize its functioning to handle the dramatically increased demand for vaccination. A rigorous epidemiological investigation and a veterinary study were conducted to identify the contamination source, probably linked to a bat bite, and the exposed population. Communication was a key factor to controlling this episode and changing the local perception of this formerly neglected disease. Because similar clinical cases had previously been described, without having been diagnosed, medical practices must be adapted and the rabies virus should be sought more systematically in similarly presenting cases. Sharing this experience could be useful for other countries that might someday have to manage such an emergence."

Results of the investigation into the source of infection of the 6-month old domestic dog reported above are anticipated with interest.

The increased incidence of rabies transmission to humans by vampire bats in Latin America, specifically in the Amazon region of Brazil, is discussed in Ref 2 below.

References
----------
1. Meynard J-B, Flamand C, Dupuy C, et al: First human rabies case in French Guiana, 2008: PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6(2):e1537. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001537; available at  <http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0001537>.
2. Schneider MC, Romijn PC, Uieda W, et al: Rabies transmitted by vampire bats to humans: an emerging zoonotic disease in Latin America? Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2009; 25(3): 260-9; available at <http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?pid=S1020-49892009000300010&script=sci_arttext>. - ProMED Mod.AS]
More ...

Ukraine

Ukraine - US Consular Information Sheet
March 28, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Ukraine is undergoing profound political and economic change as it moves from its Soviet past toward a market economy, multi-party democracy, and integration into
uro-Atlantic and other international institutions.
In recent years, the availability of goods and services has increased along with increased rates of growth in Ukraine's economy, and facilities for travelers have improved somewhat.
Nonetheless, the availability of travel and tourist services remains uneven throughout the country, and Ukraine still lacks the abundance of many of the goods and services taken for granted in other countries.
Read the Department of State Background Notes on Ukraine for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: Depending on the length and purpose of travel, U.S. citizens may or may not be required to get a Ukrainian visa prior to coming to Ukraine.
A passport valid for six months beyond the planned date of travel is required.
According to Ukrainian Presidential Decree #1008, dated June 30, 2005, U.S. citizens are exempt from the requirement to have a Ukrainian visa as long as the duration of their stay in Ukraine does not exceed 90 days and the purpose of their travel is tourism, private travel, or business. U.S. citizens whose planned stay in Ukraine exceeds 90 days, and so consequently bears the characteristics of a long-term stay, must have visas authorizing their entry into Ukraine. If the purpose of their visit is other than tourism, private travel, or business, an appropriate visa must be obtained. U.S. citizens may apply for all types of visas through Ukrainian Embassies and Consulates overseas. A list of required documents for the visa application will be determined based on the purpose and length of travel on a case-by-case basis. Contact details for Ukrainian Embassies and Consulates are available on the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine web site at http://www.mfa.gov.ua/mfa/en/305.htm.

Visas may be obtained from the Consular Office of the Embassy of Ukraine in Washington, DC, or from Ukrainian Consulates General in New York, Chicago, or San Francisco.
For additional information about Ukrainian visas and related policy, please contact the Ukrainian Embassy or Consulate nearest you.

Embassy of Ukraine
3350 M Street, NW
Washington, D.C. 20007
Tel: (202) 333-0606
Fax: (202) 333-0817
Web site: http://www.mfa.gov.ua/usa/en/
Consulate General of Ukraine in New York
240 East 49th Street
New York, NY 10017
Tel: (212) 371-5690
Fax: (212) 371-5547
Web site: http://www.ukrconsul.org/
Consulate General of Ukraine in San Francisco
530 Bush Street, Suite 402
San Francisco, CA 94108
Tel: (415) 398-0240
Fax: (415) 398-5039
Web site: http://www.ukrainesf.com/
Consulate General of Ukraine in Chicago
10 East Huron St.
Chicago, IL 60611
Tel: (312) 642 4388
Fax: (312) 642 4385
Web site: http://www.ukrchicago.com/
The Government of Ukraine does not issue visas at the point of entry into Ukraine.
Travelers whose purpose of travel puts them in a category that requires a visa must obtain the correct Ukrainian visa prior to arrival; otherwise they will be turned back to the United States or will have to travel to another country to obtain a visa.

Please check your visa carefully upon receipt and pay careful attention to validity dates.
Each traveler is responsible for understanding the type of visa issued and the provisions of the visa.
Frequently, American citizens are refused entry to Ukraine because they thought they possessed a multiple entry visa, but in fact their visa was valid for only a single entry; Americans occasionally try to reenter Ukraine after using their single-entry visa, believing they have unlimited travel for six months.
In some cases, Americans attempt to enter Ukraine before their visa becomes valid.
This is a common mistake, since in Ukraine the date is written day-month-year, not month-day-year.
Thus, a visa issued on 01/05/07 is valid from May 1, 2007 and NOT from January 5, 2007.
Such travelers can be detained at the port of entry, refused admission and sent back to the country from which they traveled.
The U.S. Embassy in Kyiv is unable to assist travelers in these situations.

All foreigners entering or staying in Ukraine must be registered with Ukrainian authorities. American Citizens traveling to or staying in Ukraine are reminded that recent changes to Ukrainian immigration law change the registration procedures for short-term stays. The registration for short-term visits of up to 90 days is completed at the border by the customs offices.
Such registration is valid for 90 days out of each period of 180 days; the calculation of the 90-day period begins from the date of first entry into Ukrainian territory.

The initial registration for both short- and long-term visits to Ukraine, with or without a visa, is accomplished at the border when entering Ukraine.
Future extensions for stays exceeding 90 days are completed through the Ukrainian Ministry of Internal Affairs’ Office of Citizenship, Immigration and Registration (OVIR).
Most cities will have several OVIR offices.
Extensions are not automatic, however, and are valid only for continued presence in the country.
It is not possible to depart Ukraine and return on the extension, nor can an adjustment to visa status be made from within Ukraine. Applications for extension of registration should be submitted at least three days before the current registration expires.

Travelers who intend to visit Russia from Ukraine must also have a Russian visa.
The Consular Section of the Russian Embassy in Ukraine is located at Prospekt Kutuzova 8, tel.: (380-44) 284-6816, fax 284-7936, e-mail: general@rucons.kiev.ua, http://www.embrus.org.ua.

Visitors to Ukraine should also note that Ukrainian law requires them to obtain mandatory health insurance.
For more information see the section on Medical Insurance below.

Visit the Embassy of Ukraine’s web site at http://www.mfa.gov.ua/usa/en/1609.htm for the most current visa information.
Also, see the Ukrainian Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ web site at http://www.mfa.gov.ua/usa/en or http://www.ukraineinfo.org/.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Regulations sheet and visit the Ukrainian State Customs Service web site at http://www.customs.gov.ua/dmsu/control/en/index.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Ukraine is largely free of significant civil unrest or any organized anti-American domestic political movements.
However, occasionally, mass demonstrations occur in larger cities, such as Kyiv, and are usually sponsored by individual political forces.
In 2008, there has been an upsurge in the number of pro-Russian anti-NATO protests.
These protests are likely to increase in size and frequency as Ukraine pursues closer ties to the alliance.
While the majority of these protests are small and peaceful, they can still result in violence and it is best to avoid such gatherings.

There also have been increasing incidents of racially-motivated violence; groups of “skinheads” and neo-Nazis target people of Asian, African, or other non-European descent, as well as religious minorities, in Kyiv and throughout Ukraine (see the section on Crime below).

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, including the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
Ukraine is undergoing a significant economic, political, and social transformation, and income disparities have grown sharply.
As a result, foreign visitors may be perceived as wealthy targets for criminals.
Americans often stand out in Ukraine, and are therefore more likely to be targeted than in Western European countries, where incomes are higher and Americans may blend in better.

Most street crime ranges from various scams, simple pocket picking, purse snatching, and theft of personal items from parked cars, to mugging, armed robbery, or the drugging of unsuspecting victims at nightspots and bars (where they are then robbed).
Cases of assaults in apartment building corridors, elevators, and stairwells, as well as armed break-ins and crimes involving small caliber firearms have also been reported.
Please see the Embassy’s web site for additional security information for Americans at http://kyiv.usembassy.gov/amcit_security_eng.html.

A commonly reported scam in Kyiv is”The Wallet Scam”, which involves a person dropping a wallet or a packet of money near a potential victim. After the victim picks up the wallet and attempts to return it to the individual who “dropped” it, the perpetrator then claims that the wallet is missing money which the victim stole.
The perpetrator either threatens to call the police if the victim does not pay, or asks the victim to show his or her wallet to the perpetrator to ensure that the victim did not take any money.
When the victim produces his or her wallet, the perpetrator grabs the money and flees.
Another variant involves a second person who claims to be a police officer – who is of course involved in the crime – who approaches the victim after the wallet has been picked-up.
This second person also asks to see the wallet, grabbing the money and fleeing or, through sleight-of-hand, stealing the victim’s money.

While most travelers do not encounter problems with crime in Ukraine, there has been an increase in the number of hate crimes directed at ethnic and religious minorities over the past few years. Many of these incidents are conducted by “skinheads” or neo-Nazis in Kyiv, but similar crimes have also been reported throughout the country. In Kyiv, these incidents have occurred without provocation in prominent downtown areas commonly frequented by tourists.
While the majority of people targeted have been of Asian, African, or other non-European descent, all travelers should exercise caution.
In addition to incidents of assault, racial minorities may be subject to various types of harassment, such as being stopped on the street by both civilians and law enforcement officials. Individuals belonging to religious minorities have also been harassed and assaulted in Kyiv and throughout Ukraine.

The police and government’s slow response to hate crimes is a continuing concern.
Although senior Government of Ukraine officials (including the President and Prime Minister) have publicly deplored these hate crimes and groups, Ukrainian street level law enforcement activities are unable to effectively deter hate crimes or adequately protect racial minorities.
The Embassy has received numerous reports from victims of violent hate crimes, as well as from bystanders, stating that uniformed police officers observed the assaults and did nothing to prevent the attacks, to assist the victims afterward, or to investigate and apprehend the attackers.
The Government of Ukraine took initial steps to address the problem in the final months of 2007 with the establishment of special law enforcement units to prevent and investigate hate crimes in Ukraine.
It remains to be seen if these units will be effective.

Credit card and ATM fraud is widespread.
Ukraine operates as a cash economy, and money scams are widespread.
Although credit card and ATM use among Ukrainians is increasingly common, it is nevertheless strongly recommended that visitors and permanent residents of Ukraine refrain from using credit cards or ATM cards except at major international establishments.

Burglaries of apartments and vehicles represent a significant threat to long-term residents.
Although few cars are actually stolen, primarily because of increased use of alarm systems and security wheel locks, vehicular break-ins and vehicular vandalism are common.

Ukraine lacks reliable tourist and travel services for foreign victims of crime.
Transferring funds from the United States, replacing stolen traveler’s checks or airline tickets, or canceling credit cards can be difficult and time consuming.
There are few safe low-cost lodgings, such as youth hostels.
Public facilities in Ukraine are generally not equipped to accommodate persons with physical disabilities.

Over the past several years, the Embassy has received a number of reports of harassment and intimidation directed against foreign businesspersons and interests.
While these reports have become much less frequent in recent years, they have not ended entirely.
Reported incidents range from physical threats (possibly motivated by rival commercial interests tied to organized crime), to local government entities engaging in such practices as arbitrary termination or amendment of business licenses, dilution of corporate stock to diminish U.S. investor interest, delays of payment or delivery of goods, and arbitrary “inspections” by tax, safety or other officials that appear designed to harm the business rather than a genuine attempt at good governance. American business entities are encouraged to read the Corruption, Money Laundering and Organized Crime section of the 2007 Crime Report for Ukraine at http://kyiv.usembassy.gov/amcit_crimereport_eng.html.
American businesses and other private sector organizations are also encouraged to read the most recent Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Annual Crime and Safety Report for Ukraine at https://www.osac.gov/Regions/country.cfm?country=42.

Computer fraud is also becoming more common in Ukraine.
Internet scams appear to be on the rise.
The Embassy suggests refraining from wiring money unless the recipient is well-known and the purpose of business is clear.
American citizens have reported transferring money to Ukraine to pay for goods purchased from residents of Ukraine via online auction sites, but never receiving the goods in return.
The Embassy regularly receives complaints from Americans regarding scams involving marriage and dating services.
Numerous Americans have lost money to agencies and individuals that claimed they could arrange for student or fiancée visas to the U.S.
Additional information is available on our web site in a document titled “Marriage Brokers” at http://kyiv.usembassy.gov/amcit_marriage_eng.html and on the Department of State’s web site under Ukraine: Internet and Other Fraud Schemes.

In many countries around the world, counterfeit and pirated goods are widely available.
Transactions involving such products may be illegal under local law.
In addition, bringing them back to the United States may result in forfeitures and/or fines.
More information on this serious problem is available at http://www.cybercrime.gov/18usc2320.htm.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to provide a list of local attorneys who have informed the Embassy that they are willing to take foreign clients.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
In December 2005, Ukraine reported the first cases of H5N1 (“avian influenza,” "avian flu," "bird flu," "chicken flu") among birds in Crimea.
Further outbreaks followed in 2006.
On January 18, 2008, another outbreak of the H5N1 avian influenza virus was detected at a poultry farm in the Krasnogvardiyskyi Rayon in Crimea. There are no registered human cases of H5N1 in Ukraine.
For detailed information on H5N1, please review the Avian Influenza Fact Sheet.

The U.S. Embassy maintains a list of hospitals and clinics with some English-speaking staff.
Many facilities have only limited English speakers.
There are no hospitals in Ukraine that provide a level of medical care equal to that found in American hospitals, or which accept American health insurance plans for payment (see the section on Medical Insurance below).
Some facilities are adequate for basic services.
Basic medical supplies are available; however, travelers requiring prescription medicine should bring their own.
Elderly travelers and those with existing health problems may be at risk due to inadequate medical facilities.
When a patient is hospitalized, the patient, relative, or acquaintance must supply bandages, medication, and food.
The Embassy recommends that ill or infirm persons not travel to Ukraine.
The Embassy also recommends that travelers obtain private medical evacuation insurance prior to traveling to Ukraine.

Medical evacuation remains the best way to secure western medical care.
This option, however, is very expensive and could take at least several hours to arrange.
Travelers may wish to purchase medical evacuation insurance prior to travel, or have access to substantial lines of credit to cover the cost of medical evacuation.
The Consular Section of the U.S. Embassy has information on various air ambulance companies that perform medical evacuations to Europe or to the U.S.
Serious medical problems requiring hospitalization and/or medical evacuation to other European countries can cost from $25,000 to $50,000, and to the U.S. as much as $70,000 or more.
More information can be found on the U.S. Embassy's web site in the document “Medical Services in Kyiv” at http://usembassy.kiev.ua/amcit_medical_serv_eng.html.

Please note that while the Embassy can help American travelers and their families make contact with a medical evacuation service, the U.S. Government cannot pay for medical evacuation.
Travelers should make sure they have medical evacuation insurance, which is available from many private companies, or have funds available for evacuation, should the need arise.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site, http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
Tuberculosis is an increasingly serious health concern in Ukraine.
For further information, please consult the CDC’s Travel Notice on TB at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/yellowBookCh4-TB.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY:
In 1986, the Chornobyl incident resulted in the largest short-term, unintentional, accidental release of radioactive materials to the atmosphere ever recorded.
The highest areas of radioactive ground contamination occurred within thirty kilometers of the Chornobyl nuclear power station.
The city of Kyiv was not badly affected because of the wind direction, but it was not completely spared.
The last operating reactor at the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant site closed officially on December 15, 2000. All identified stabilization measures on the existing sarcophagus are complete, and preparatory work to start construction of the new shelter is almost nearing completion. The contract for the new Chornobyl shelter was awarded in September 2007 and its construction is projected to be completed in 2012.

The Ukrainian government has an effective program of monitoring fresh foods and meats sold in local markets.
Street purchase of produce should be avoided.
Wild berries, mushrooms, and wild fowl and game should be avoided, as these have been found to retain higher than average levels of radiation.
Background levels of radiation are monitored regularly by the Embassy and, to date, have not exceeded the level found on the Eastern seaboard of the United States. If external radiation levels are high enough to require evacuation, the U.S. Embassy will notify the American community through the Embassy warden e-mail and text messaging system.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

The Ukrainian parliament passed a law in 1997 whereby all visitors to Ukraine are required to obtain mandatory health insurance. According to information from the Ukrainian authorities, the cost of this medical insurance depends on the anticipated length of a foreigner's stay in Ukraine.
The cost for the insurance is approximately 25 cents per day (more for short stays).
This required insurance can be purchased after arrival and covers only the costs of basic medical care inside Ukraine; it does not cover medical evacuation.
Failure to purchase mandatory health insurance often results in refusal of treatment at Ukrainian public hospitals and clinics.
Private clinics do not require Ukrainian public health insurance, but can be as expensive as similar clinics in the United States and may require payment in advance
More information can be found online in Ukrainian at http://www.pro100.com.ua, or by calling +38 (044) 206 2885 from abroad or 8-800-500-1080 from within Ukraine.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Ukraine is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Generally, roads in Ukraine outside major urban areas are in poor condition and are poorly lit.
Visitors should drive defensively at all times, since local drivers often disregard traffic rules.
Drivers are often poorly trained or drive without a valid driver's license.
Drivers can also be very aggressive, and they normally do not respect the rights of pedestrians, even at clearly marked pedestrian crossings.
Pedestrians should also be aware of cars driving or attempting to park on sidewalks.
Many cars do not meet the safety standards common in America.

Due to heavy traffic and congested roads, vehicle accidents are a common occurrence in larger Ukrainian cities, especially in Kyiv. In Ukraine, it is mandatory for motorists involved in vehicle accidents not to remove the vehicle from the site of the accident, unless it presents a clear safety concern. Local police must be notified and will report to the scene to conduct an investigation. Persons should be prepared to wait until the police arrive and complete their report. Due to traffic and slow response, it may take up to several hours for police to arrive. When police arrive, they will ascertain responsibility, take the drivers’ personal information, and file a report of the accident.

Cross-country travel at night and in winter can be particularly dangerous.
The Embassy strongly recommends that visitors and permanent residents of Ukraine refrain from driving their private vehicles after dark outside of major cities.
However, major roads are drivable during daylight hours.
Roadside services such as gas stations and repair facilities are becoming more common, particularly on the main national and regional overland highways and in large and mid-size cities.

Nonetheless, such services are far from American standards, and travelers should plan accordingly.
There have been isolated reports of carjackings of western-made or foreign-registered cars.
There has also been an increase in the number of documented reports of criminal acts (primarily theft) occurring on trains and other modes of public transport.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Ukraine’s Civil Aviation Authority as not being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for the oversight of Ukraine’s air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Ukraine does not recognize dual nationality.
American citizens entering Ukraine with a Ukrainian passport will be treated as Ukrainian citizens by the local authorities.
This may include being required to perform mandatory military service.
Also, Ukrainians who have immigrated to the U.S. without obtaining the proper exit visa from Ukrainian authorities may be subject to civil or criminal penalties, and will be required to obtain an exit visa before returning to the U.S.
For additional information, see the Consular Affairs web site at http://travel.state.gov/index.html for our Dual Nationality flyer.

Ukraine is a cash economy.
Traveler’s checks and credit cards are gaining wider acceptance in larger cities.
Even in Kyiv, however, acceptance of credit cards is not nearly as widespread as in the U.S. or in Western European countries.
Expect credit card use to be limited to major hotels, upscale restaurants, international airlines, and the rapidly growing, but still select number of up-market stores.

Exchanging U.S. dollars into the national Ukrainian currency, hryvnya, is simple and unproblematic, as licensed exchange booths are widespread, and exchange rates are normally clearly advertised.
Currency exchange is only legal at such licensed exchange booths, banks, and currency exchange desks at hotels; anyone caught dealing on the black market can expect to be detained by the local militia.

There are many banks and licensed currency exchange booths located in major cities.
ATMs (a.k.a. bankomats) are becoming more common throughout Ukraine, particularly in Kyiv and in other larger cities.
In smaller cities and towns, ATMs are still virtually non-existent.
Most ATMs disperse cash only in the local currency, hryvnya. The difficulties of a currency shortage can be avoided by coming to Ukraine with a sufficient supply of hard currency to cover necessary obligations during travel.
Funds may be transferred by wire, advances may be drawn on credit cards, and traveler’s checks may be cashed at many locations.
Again, the Embassy emphasizes that the incidence of credit card and ATM bankcard fraud is high, and strongly recommends that visitors and permanent residents of Ukraine refrain from using local ATMs.

Customs regulations prohibit sending cash, traveler’s checks, personal checks, credit cards, passports, or other forms of identification through the international mail system, as well as via courier mail (FedEx, DHL, etc.).
Customs authorities regularly confiscate these items as contraband.
Ukrainian customs authorities may also enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from Ukraine of items such as firearms, antiquities, currency, etc.
It is advisable to contact the Embassy of Ukraine in Washington, or one of Ukraine's consulates in the United States for specific information regarding customs requirements.
As in many countries around the world, counterfeit and pirated goods are widely available.
Transactions involving such products are illegal and bringing them back to the United States may result in forfeitures and/or fines.

Ukrainian law requires that travelers declare all cash and jewelry, regardless of value, upon entering Ukraine.
Travelers should fill out a customs declaration and ask customs officials to stamp it.
According to Ukrainian law, foreign citizens may bring up to $15,000 in cash, or up to $30,000 in traveler’s checks, into Ukraine without a special license.
A traveler must declare the imported currency.
If customs officials determine that a traveler entering or exiting the country is carrying undeclared currency, they can and often do confiscate the undeclared funds.
When leaving the country, foreign travelers are only allowed to take out a maximum of $3,000 in cash, or as much cash as they declared upon their entry into Ukraine.
If a traveler wants to take out more than $3,000, the traveler must have a customs declaration proving that he or she in fact brought the corresponding sum of money into the country.

Travelers desiring to bring more than $15,000 into Ukraine must obtain a special license AFTER entering the country.
Details for obtaining this license are available on the Embassy's web site in the document “Ukrainian Customs: Procedures for Transporting Currencies, Monetary Instruments, or Precious Metals” at http://kyiv.usembassy.gov/amcit_travel_ukrcustoms_eng.html.
Ukraine has strict limitations for the export of antiques and other goods and artifacts deemed to be of particularly important historical or cultural value.
This includes any items produced before 1950.

Ukraine is a developing democratic nation undergoing significant political, economic, and governmental reform.
This includes reform of police and emergency services.
Visitors should be aware that although Ukrainian police and emergency services have made much progress, they still generally remain below Western European and U.S. standards in terms of training, responsiveness, and effectiveness.
American citizens have reported waiting sometimes hours for Ukrainian police and ambulance services to respond to calls for emergency assistance.
Although this may generally be atypical, it does nevertheless occur.

It is advisable to contact the Embassy of Ukraine in Washington, or one of Ukraine's consulates in the United States, for specific information regarding customs requirements.
Please see our information on Customs Regulations.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Ukraine’s laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Ukraine are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information, see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Ukraine are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Ukraine.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.

The Consular Section of the U.S. Embassy is located at #6 Mykoly Pymonenka St., 01901 Kyiv, Ukraine. Telephone: (38-044) 490-4422, fax 486-3393. The American Citizen Services unit is located at the same address and can be reached at (38-044) 490-4445
The Embassy is located at #10 Yuriy Kotsyubynsky St. 01901 Kyiv, Ukraine. Tel.: (38-044) 490-4000.
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information Sheet dated February 15, 2008 to update the sections on Safety and Security and Crime.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Tue, 17 Mar 2020 01:31:17 +0100 (MET)

Kiev, March 17, 2020 (AFP) - Ukraine late on Monday announced shutdowns of public transport, bars, restaurants and shopping malls to stem the spread of the coronavirus after President Volodymyr Zelensky promised to act "harshly, urgently, perhaps unpopularly".   The government supported Zelensky's proposals and introduced restrictions on domestic movement, including full closure of the country's three metro systems -- in Kiev, Kharkiv and Dnipro -- until April 3.   The government also banned mass events with more than ten people participating.   Ukraine has officially confirmed seven cases of COVID-19, the disease caused by the virus, and one death. Two new cases were confirmed in Kiev late Monday.

Ukraine has already implemented drastic preventative measures including banning entry to foreigners, and it will stop all flights to and from the country from Tuesday.    It has also closed schools and universities and banned major public events.   "We need to buy time. We must reduce the chances of the virus spreading through the capital," Kiev Mayor Vitaly Klitschko said in a statement earlier the day.   Ukraine's other major cities, from Lviv in the west to the southern port of Odessa, have closed museums and swimming pools.   The country's parliament is to hold an extraordinary session on Tuesday to consider further steps.
Date: Wed, 26 Feb 2020 19:27:33 +0100 (MET)

Vynnyky, Ukraine, Feb 26, 2020 (AFP) - Ukrainian authorities began the task of destroying 37,000 bottles of illicit adulterated vodka on Wednesday, a national "record" in a country where consumption of illegal alcohol regularly poisons and even kills.    Minister of Justice Denys Malyuska launched the operation in the city of Vynnyky in the central Lviv region where the bottles, holding 14 tonnes of alcohol, have been stored since their seizure in 2014.   "It is difficult to say what is in there but consumption is strictly not recommended," said the minister.    "This adulterated alcohol poses a huge threat to people's health and their lives."    In front of the media, the contents of several bottles were poured into plastic tanks or blue dye was added, to rule out any illegal re-sale of the beverage.

The procedure should last about a week, after which the liquid will be poured into the sewers at a secret location, according to the minister.   "This is the first time this procedure has been used so that everyone can see that the alcohol that has been seized is really destroyed," said Maliouska.   The minister said that in the past there had been "complaints" from the business community that because of corruption within the police, the illicit alcohol had often turned up in shops after being seized.   Cases of poisoning from adulterated drinks are a regular occurence in Ukraine, where the consumption of alcohol, especially spirits, remains high. And they are often fatal.

In 2016, 73 people died from a total of 150 people who were poisoned by adulterated alcohol.    The following year, six poisoning cases killed three people and, according to Ukrainian media, ten poisonings recorded by the authorities in 2018 led to nine deaths.   The tax department of the Lviv region told AFP on Wednesday that the most adulterated alcohol was vodka, which is then sold in shops in small towns or cafes located along the roads.
Date: Mon 18 Nov 2019
Source: 112.UA [edited]

Eight school classes in Odesa [Odessa] have been closed for quarantine. More than 30% of school students in these classes are sick with Coxsackie virus, a highly contagious respiratory disease, said Olena Buynevych, the director of the city hall's department for science and education, as quoted by UNN news agency.

"More than 30% of students in these classes are sick wi h acute
respiratory diseases, which include cases of cases and Coxsackievirus," the official said. She urged the parents to keep the children away from schools in case they have any symptoms of acute respiratory diseases.

The symptoms are basically the same as flu; the key difference is the rash on the palms, in case of the Coxsackievirus.

Coxsackievirus is a member of a family of viruses called enteroviruses. Enteroviruses are made up of a single strand of ribonucleic acid (RNA). The enteroviruses are also referred to as picornaviruses ("pico" means "small," so, "small RNA viruses"). They are present all over the world and spread by fecal-oral route. About 90% of infections don't cause symptoms or present with a fever only. Infants and young kids are particularly susceptible to symptomatic coxsackie.
======================
[Coxsackievirus belongs to a family of nonenveloped, linear, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses, Picornaviridae and the genus _Enterovirus_, which also includes poliovirus and echovirus. Enteroviruses are among the most common and important human pathogens, and ordinarily its members are transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Coxsackieviruses share many characteristics with poliovirus. With control of poliovirus infections in much of the world, more attention has been focused on understanding the nonpolio enteroviruses such as coxsackievirus.

Coxsackieviruses are divided into group A and group B viruses based on early observations of their pathogenicity in neonatal mice. In general, group A coxsackieviruses tend to infect the skin and mucous membranes, causing herpangina, acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, and hand, foot, and mouth (HFM) disease. Both group A and group B coxsackieviruses can cause nonspecific febrile illnesses, rashes, upper respiratory tract disease, and aseptic meningitis.

Group B coxsackieviruses tend to infect the heart, pleura, pancreas, and liver, causing pleurodynia, myocarditis, pericarditis, and hepatitis (inflammation of the liver not related to the hepatotropic viruses). Coxsackie B infection of the heart can lead to pericardial effusion.

The development of insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) has recently been associated with recent enteroviral infection, particularly coxsackievirus B pancreatitis.

It is common for the coxsackievirus to cause a febrile upper respiratory tract infection with sore throat and/or a runny nose. Some patients have a cough resembling bronchitis. Less commonly, coxsackievirus may cause pneumonia. Some people with coxsackievirus have a rash. In many, this is a nonspecific generalized red rash or clusters of fine red spots. The rash may not appear until the infection has started to get better.

Coxsackievirus is spread from person to person. The virus is present in the secretions and bodily fluids of infected people. The virus may be spread by coming into contact with respiratory secretions from infected patients. If infected people rub their runny noses and then touch a surface, that surface can harbor the virus and become a source of infection. People who have infected eyes (conjunctivitis) can spread the virus by touching their eyes and touching other people or surfaces. Conjunctivitis may spread rapidly and appear within one day of exposure to the virus. Coxsackieviruses are also shed in stool, which may be a source of transmission among young children. The virus can be spread if unwashed hands get contaminated with fecal matter and then touch the face. This is particularly important for spread within  day-care centers or nurseries where diapers are handled. Diarrhoea is the most common sign of coxsackievirus intestinal infection.

Most infections are self-limiting, and no specific treatment is required or available. Some options include intravenous immune globulin (IVIG), which contains antibodies and may be somewhat effective.

HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Odesa oblast, Ukraine: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/51897>]
Date: Mon 28 Oct 2019, 12:41 PM
Source: 112 International [edited]

"A total of 15 students of the secondary school No. 7 in Chernihiv were hospitalized with suspicion of hepatitis A on [28 Oct 2019]," the press service of Ukraine's State Emergency Service reports. It is noted that at the moment a complex of epidemic prevention measures are being carried out.

Besides, a 2018 hepatitis outbreak was spotted in Mykolaiv -- 47 people were hospitalized with a confirmed diagnosis.
========================
[With this number of cases admitted with the suspicion of acute hepatitis A on the same day, it is likely that a point-source outbreak related to a food or water source occurred. The definitive test for the disease is the finding of IgM anti-HAV in the blood.

Chernihiv, also known as Chernigov, is a historic city in northern Ukraine, which serves as the administrative centre of the Chernihiv Oblast (province), as well as of the surrounding Chernihiv Raion (district) within the oblast. - ProMED Mod.LL]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Date: Thu 24 Oct 2019 (accessed Mon 28 Oct 2019)
Source: Ministry of Health, Ukraine, press release [in Ukrainian, machine trans., edited]

In Ukraine, the 1st confirmed case of vaccine-associated paralytic polio has occurred in a 2 year old child from Volyn Oblast. The parents deliberately refused the vaccinations provided by medical standards. Recent cases of illness in Ukraine were recorded in 2015 and 2017.

Pathogenesis of the disease
---------------------------
Sources of the disease: a person who is ill or a carrier that carries the virus asymptomatically. Fecal-oral routes (dirty hands, water, contaminated food, excrement) and airborne droplets are considered as transmission routes.

Symptoms: In most cases, the disease first goes unnoticed, which worsens the patient's chances of recovery; then there are signs that are different in nature, depending on the form of the virus. You can learn more about the symptoms on the website of the Public Health Center at <https://old.phc.org.ua/pages/diseases/other_social_diseases/poliomyelitis>  [in Ukrainian]

The incubation period of the disease is 2-35 days, more often 7-14 days. The following types of disease are classified: with and without lesions of the central nervous system (CNS). It should be noted that even atypical poliomyelitis (without lesion of the CNS) is capable of seriously harming the patient. They all pose a significant threat to the unvaccinated person and cause irreversible processes that can lead to death.

Myths and refutations
---------------------
On World Polio Day [24 October], the Ministry of Health of Ukraine dispels myths that provoke refusal of immunization. Common among parents is talk about the dangers of vaccination and the side effects of vaccination. You can read more about refuting these stereotypes at <https://moz.gov.ua/article/health/9-mifiv-pro-vakcinaciju> [in Ukrainian].

Why are vaccines safe?
----------------------
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative is using several vaccines to combat the disease. In Ukraine, there are 2 types -- the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and the oral polio vaccine (OPV). Both vaccines are purchased through the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and have a World Health Organization  ualification that guarantees quality and ongoing monitoring of manufacturers. For more information on vaccine production standards, go to: <https://moz.gov.ua/article/news/nichogo-krim-pravdi-5-faktiv-pro-vakcini>  [in Ukrainian]

The WHO website explains:
- OPV is one of the safest vaccines invented by humanity and used to immunize newborns;
- it is so safe that it can be used even when the baby is sick;
- OPV is used several times to achieve the maximum immunity of the vaccine, but the increase in the number of vaccinations does not increase the risk of side effects.

Where, when, and who should be vaccinated?
------------------------------------------
Polio vaccination is required from the birth of a baby. Vaccination must be carried out in a comprehensive manner, without missing any dose, to increase the body's resistance to the disease.
1st dose - at 2 months of baby's life;
2nd dose - at 4 months;
3rd dose - at 6 months;
4th dose - at 18 months;
5th dose - at 6 years;
6th dose - at 14 years.

Free polio vaccination is available from your family doctor or pediatrician at public health facilities, as well as from private contractors with the National Health Service of Ukraine. More information is available at <https://moz.gov.ua/article/immunization/chomu-v-aptekah-i-privatnih-klinikah-mozhe-ne-buti-vakcin-ta-de-zrobiti-scheplennja-bezoplatno> [in Ukrainian].

The only way to protect yourself and your children from the effects of this disease is vaccination, as there is no specific treatment. The Ministry of Health of Ukraine recommends that you consult the calendar of preventive vaccinations at <https://moz.gov.ua/article/immunization/kalendar-profilaktichnih-scheplen>  [in Ukrainian]
--------------------------------------
communicated by:
Viki Hansen-Landis, RN, MPH
Medical Information and Analysis team, International SOS
======================
[According to information from the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, Ukraine had 2 cases of cVDPV1 confirmed in 2015 (see <http://polioeradication.org/polio-today/polio-now/this-week/circulating-vaccine-derived-poliovirus/> for table of cVDPVs by type and year, and see Poliomyelitis update (05): Ukraine, vaccine-derived, WHO http://promedmail.org/post/20150901.3616558 and Poliomyelitis update (04): Ukraine, 2 cases, RFI http://promedmail.org/post/20150901.3616015 for details on these cases). No additional cases of cVDPV were reported by the Ukraine to WHO in 2017. If there is additional information on case(s) reported in 2017, ProMED-mail would greatly appreciate receiving it, as well as information on the serotype of cVDPV associated with this current case.

The addition of this case will bring the total number of cVDPV associated cases confirmed with date of onset in 2019 to 103, and the number of countries reporting cVDPV associated paralytic cases to 20.

Maps of Ukraine can be seen at
and <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/123>.
Volyn oblast is located in the north west of Ukraine, sharing a border with Poland to the west and Belarus to the north. - ProMED Mod.MPP]
More ...

Burundi

Burundi US Consular Information Sheet
April 21, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
One of the poorest countries in the world, Burundi is a small, densely populated central African nation bordering Lake Tanganyika, Rwanda, Tanzania and the Democrati
Republic of Congo. After more than 12 years of civil and ethnic strife, an electoral process deemed free and fair resulted in the installation of a democratic government in 2005. Years of fighting have devastated a historically fragile economy that depends largely on subsistence agriculture. Poor public health and education, weather disasters such as drought and floods, crop diseases and lack of infrastructure exacerbate the effects of conflict and delay recovery. Facilities for tourism, particularly outside the capital, are limited. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Burundi for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: A passport, visa and evidence of immunization against yellow fever are required for entry. Travelers with an expired visa are not permitted to leave the country without acquiring an exit visa prior to departure. The latest information about visas may be obtained from the Embassy of the Republic of Burundi, Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007, telephone (202) 342-2574, or from the Permanent Mission of Burundi to the United Nations in New York at telephone (212) 499-0001 thru 0006.
For information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction, please refer to related web pages at http://travel.state.gov. For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
See the Department of State’s Travel Warning for Burundi.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or, for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME: Crime, often committed by groups of armed bandits, poses a high risk for foreign visitors to Bujumbura and Burundi in general. Common crimes include mugging, purse-snatching, pick pocketing, burglary, automobile break-ins and carjacking. Many criminal incidents involve armed attackers. Armed criminals often ambush vehicles, particularly on the roads leading out of Bujumbura. Criminals in Bujumbura often operate in pairs or in small groups involving six or more individuals. Due to insufficient resources, local authorities in any part of Burundi are often unable to provide timely assistance in case of need.
U.S. Government personnel are prohibited from walking on the streets during the hours of darkness and using local, public transportation. Foreigners, whether in vehicles or at home, are always potential crime targets. Americans should exercise common sense judgment and take the same precautions as one would in any major city.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to the local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, help you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed. See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Medical facilities in Burundi generally do not meet Western standards of care. Travelers should carry an ample supply of properly-labeled prescription drugs and other medications with them, as certain medications and prescription drugs are unavailable or in short supply. Sterility of equipment is questionable, and treatment is unreliable. Ambulance assistance is non-existent. Hospital care in Burundi should be considered in only the most serious cases and when no reasonable alternatives are available.
Malaria prophylaxis is recommended for travel to all parts of Burundi.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance companies prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policies apply overseas and/or cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: When in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Burundi is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
While travel on most roads is generally safe during the day, travelers must maintain constant vigilance. There have been regular reports of violent attacks on vehicles traveling the roads throughout the country outside of Bujumbura. U.S. Government personnel are required to travel upcountry via two-vehicle convoys and have their trips pre-approved by the Regional Security Officer. The Embassy recommends that Americans not travel on the national highways from dusk to dawn. Drivers without valid permits, and the ease with which a driver's license can be acquired without training, make Burundian drivers less careful, predictable, or mindful of driving rules than Western drivers may expect.
There are no traffic signals in Bujumbura, and virtually nothing of the kind elsewhere in the country. Roadways are not marked, and the lack of streetlights or shoulders makes driving in the countryside at night especially dangerous. Additionally, drivers may encounter cyclists, pedestrians, and livestock in the roadway, including in and around the capital. Mini-vans used as buses for 18 persons should be given a wide berth as they start and stop abruptly, often without pulling to the side of the road.
Large holes or damaged portions of roadway may be encountered anywhere in the country, including in Bujumbura; when driving in the countryside, it is recommended that travelers carry multiple spare tires. During the rainy season, many side roads are passable only with four-wheel drive vehicles. Burundi’s supply of gasoline and diesel fuel are imported predominantly from Kenya and Tanzania, and are relatively expensive due to high transportation costs. Service stations are rare outside of the major cities.

Third-party insurance is required, and it will cover any damages (property, injury, or death). If you are found to have caused an accident, you automatically will be fined 10,000 Burundian francs (approximately $10 U.S.) and your driver's license will be confiscated until the police investigation is completed. Although the law provides for the arrest of drunk drivers, in practice, the police do not act on this law. In the city of Bujumbura, the number for police assistance is 22-22-37-77; there is no comparable number outside the capital. If you are involved in an accident causing death, it is advised that you leave the scene of the accident and proceed to the nearest police station.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Burundi, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Burundi’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
There are no ATMs located in the country and most Burundian hotels and businesses do not accept credit cards. Many hotels in Bujumbura accept payment in U.S. dollars or Euros from non-Burundians. Travelers should be aware that Burundian banking practices prohibit acceptance of U. S. currency printed before the year 2003.
The Embassy recommends that visitors do not photograph airports, military installations, or other government buildings, and obtain permission from individuals before taking their photographs. Please see our Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Burundian laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled from the country, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Burundi are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Burundi are encouraged to register with the U.S. Embassy through the State Department’s travel registration website so that they can obtain updated information on travel within Burundi and the Embassy’s current security policies, including areas that are off-limits to U.S. Government personnel for security reasons. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the U.S. Embassy. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located on Avenue des Etats-Unis, telephone (257) 22-22-34-54, fax (257) 22-22-29-26. The Embassy's web site is http://burundi.usembassy.gov/.
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information for Burundi dated July 18, 2007, to update sections on Country Description, Entry/Exit Requirements, Medical Facilities and Health Information, and Traffic Safety and Road Conditions.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu 8 Jan 2020
Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]

In a follow-up on the malaria situation in Burundi in 2019, the World Health Organization reports a progressive increase in cases in the past year across all 46 districts of Burundi.

Since the beginning of the year [2019], 8 392 921 malaria cases, including 3113 deaths have been reported. The population in the landlocked country in Southeast Africa is estimated at 11.53 million in 2019.

Malaria has been a scourge in Burundi in recent years. In fact, World Vision International reports since 2015, more than 19.7 million cases of malaria have been recorded in Burundi through 2017. With a population of 11.5 million, that's the equivalent of nearly every Burundian getting malaria twice in those 2 years.
=======================
[Please see our extensive comment to the malaria situation in Burundi in the ProMED posting http://promedmail.org/post/20190808.6611871 from the 8 Aug 2019. - ProMED Mod.EP]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Date: Wed, 14 Aug 2019 17:49:51 +0200 (METDST)

Nairobi, Aug 14, 2019 (AFP) - The World Health Organization (WHO) said Wednesday that Burundi had begun vaccinating frontline workers against Ebola at its border with the Democratic Republic of Congo, where an outbreak of the virus has killed close to 1,900 people.   The campaign to vaccinate at-risk staff against the deadly hemorrhagic fever started Tuesday at Gatumba, the main crossing point from Burundi to its much-larger neighbour, WHO said.

Burundi has received doses of the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine, an unlicensed product that has been shown to be effective against the Zairian strain of the virus raging in DR Congo.   It would be administered to those at greatest risk such as health workers along the border, laboratory staff and burial teams, WHO said.   "The vaccination of health and frontline staff is a significant step forward in preparing for the response to this disease," said Dr Kazadi Mulombo, WHO representative in Burundi. 

The vaccine, developed by US pharmaceutical group Merck, proved "highly effective" in a trial conducted in Guinea in 2015 during the Ebola epidemic in West Africa, he added.    The vaccination campaign will be overseen by WHO and Burundi's health ministry.   The Ebola outbreak in eastern DR Congo is the second-worst in history. A total of 1,892 deaths have been recorded since the outbreak began on August 1 2018.   No cases of Ebola have been recorded so far in Burundi, a tiny nation of 11 million.    But its border with DR Congo is 236 kilometres (147 miles) long and considered highly porous, and the whole region is on high alert.

In June, three people from one family died in Uganda from Ebola after returning from DR Congo via an unofficial crossing point.   Burundi also shares a border with Rwanda and Tanzania.   The Congo outbreak is the first where vaccines have been rolled out on a large-scale.   The rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine has already been administered to some 170,000 people, especially frontline workers, in DR Congo.   This week, US researchers announced that two prototype drugs being tested among Ebola patients in eastern DR Congo boost chances of surviving the disease.
Date: Thu 8 Aug 2019 05.00 BST
Source: The Guardian [edited]

A serious outbreak of malaria in Burundi has reached epidemic proportions, killing almost as many people as the Ebola crisis in the nearby Democratic Republic of the Congo.  The outbreak in the tiny Great Lakes country has infected almost half the total population, killing about 1800 people since the beginning of the year [2019].  According to figures gathered by the World Health Organisation, almost 6 million cases have been recorded since the 1st week of January to the end of July [2019], with infections reaching crisis levels in May. The figures look on course to outstrip the epidemic of 2017, when more 6 million cases were recorded for the whole year. The situation has continued to worsen as the government of Burundi has refused to declare an emergency.

The scale of the outbreak was described in the latest report for the UN's office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, which warned that the outbreak had reached "epidemic" proportions.  "The national malaria outbreak response plan, which is currently being validated, has highlighted a lack of human, logistical, and financial resources for effective response," reported the organisation.  The organisation and other experts have blamed a number of issues for the crisis, including low use of preventative measures and a vulnerable population with low levels of resistance. Experts have also noted an increase in drug resistant strains of the disease in common with other parts of the world.

The climate crisis has been cited as a contributing factor. Mosquitoes, which spread the disease, are reaching higher altitudes in the mountainous country, and have displayed behavioural changes including more aggressive feeding habits.  The country's agricultural policies have also encouraged an increase in rice production that has seen farmers encroach on mosquito-infested areas.  While Burundi has long struggled with malaria, the figures for the current outbreak suggest a 50% increase compared to the equivalent period last year [2018]. The UN organisation noted bleakly that the number of health districts that have passed the epidemic threshold had continued to increase.

Although Burundi declared a national health emergency in 2017 after 1.8 million cases and 700 deaths were recorded, it has declined to declare one for the current outbreak, apparently concerned of the potential impact ahead of elections slated for next year [2010]…  [Byline: Peter Beaumont]
========================
[The WHO profile of malaria in Burundi can be found at

In 2017, the entire population of an estimated 10.9 million people lived in _Plasmodium falciparum_ high-endemic areas. In 2017 the annual incidence of _P. falciparum_ was estimated at 800 cases per 1000 population (WHO 2017 as above).

In 2017 there was an estimated 2.1M [range: 1.3M, 3.4M] cases with an estimated number of deaths of 5300 [range: 4300, 6200] (WHO). The 1st line treatment is artesunate-amodiaquine (AS-AQ) introduced in 2003. Malaria control relies on insecticide treated nets (ITN) but only around 30% of the population used a net the previous night one survey found (WHO 2017 as above) and it was also found that 80% of the mosquitoes were resistant to pyrethroids, the usual class of insecticides used for impregnating nets.

In 2005 the annual incidence was estimated at less than 50 cases per 1000 population (WHO 2017 as above) illustrating that since then the national malaria control programme has failed to improve the situation.

It is particularly worrying that the report above mentions treatment failure and possible drug resistance. With artemisinin resistance spreading in southeast Asia (see ProMED post http://promedmail.org/post/20190723.6583616) any signs of a slow parasite clearance need to be followed up by molecular analysis looking for mutations in key genes. No studies have looked at mutations in key genes predicting reduced susceptibility to the artemisinins or the 4-aminoquinolones (amodiaquine).

Since Burundi's independence in 1962, 2 genocides have taken place in the country: the 1972 mass killings of Hutus by the Tutsi-dominated army (<http://www.preventgenocide.org/edu/pastgenocides/burundi/resources/>), and the mass killings of Tutsis in 1993 by the Hutu majority. Both were described as genocides in the final report of the International Commission of Inquiry for Burundi presented in 2002 to the United Nations Security Council (<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burundi>). - ProMED Mod.EP]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Burundi:
Date: Tue, 6 Aug 2019 10:38:45 +0200 (METDST)

Nairobi, Aug 6, 2019 (AFP) - Malaria has killed more than 1,800 people in Burundi this year, the UN's humanitarian agency says, a death toll rivalling a deadly Ebola outbreak in neighbouring Democratic Republic of Congo.   In its latest situation report, the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) said 5.7 million cases of malaria had been recorded in Burundi in 2019 -- a figure roughly equal to half its entire population.   Of those cases, a total of 1,801 died from the mosquito-born disease in Burundi between January 1 and July 21, OCHA said.

The tiny country of 11 million people in the African Great Lakes region has still not declared a national emergency, despite OCHA saying the outbreak crossed "epidemic proportions" in May.   "The national malaria outbreak response plan, which is currently being validated, has highlighted a lack of human, logistical and financial resources for effective response," OCHA said in its latest weekly bulletin on humanitarian emergencies.   "All stakeholders, including the national authorities and partners are called upon to provide the requisite resources to mount a robust response to this event before it escalates."   A lack of preventative measures like mosquito nets, climatic changes and increased movements of people from mountain areas with low immunity to malaria were driving the crisis, OCHA said.

- 'Many crises' -
An OCHA official told AFP that "the decision to declare an epidemic is the sovereignty of the Burundian state".   The country declared a malaria epidemic in March 2017, when the country had recorded 1.8 million cases and 700 deaths, but was resisting doing the same now.   A senior government official, who declined to be named, said the government did not want to admit weakness with elections set for 2020.   "We are less than a year away from the presidential election. (President Pierre) Nkurunziza, who is facing many crises, does not want to recognise what could be considered a failure of his health policy," the official told AFP.   Burundi has been in crisis since 2015, when Nkurunziza ran for a third term and was re-elected in elections boycotted by most of the opposition.

At least 1,200 people were killed and more than 400,000 displaced in violence the UN says was mostly carried out by state security forces.   Nkurunziza announced in 2018 that he would not stand again, confounding critics who accused him of working to extend his grip on power.   UN investigators said in July that "drastic" steps were needed to boost democratic freedoms in Burundi if the government wanted the elections to be considered credible.

Burundi, one of the poorest countries in the region, abuts DR Congo, where the second-worst Ebola outbreak in history has killed more than 1,800 people amid fears the infectious fever could spread beyond its borders.   But malaria is a much bigger killer on the continent.   The World Health Organization recorded nearly 220 million cases of the parasitic illness in 2017, with an estimated 435,000 deaths. More than 90 percent of malaria cases and deaths were in Africa.
Date: Fri, 16 Mar 2018 14:39:07 +0100

Nairobi, March 16, 2018 (AFP) - Nine workers at a construction site outside Burundi's capital Bujumbura were killed in a landslide on Friday, police said.   Heavy seasonal rains caused the hillside next to the Gasenyi river, east of the city, to collapse burying the workers who were building a channel to redirect the river's floodwaters.   Police said in a statement that nine bodies had so far been found, while rescue efforts continue.
More ...

Cuba

General:
**********************************
Cuba is an independent island country situated in the Caribbean. It is the largest of the islands and covers 42,000sq miles. The climate is sub tropical throughout the year with most of the rainfall in
the northern parts of the country. Temperatures of between 20C to 35C are fairly standard throughout the year. Generally the winter effects of the American continent only last for short periods.
Safety & Security:
**********************************
The majority of tourists visiting Cuba will have no difficulty but bag snatching and other street crime appears to be increasing. The old Havana area and other major tourist resorts may be particular areas of concern in this regard. On arrival be careful to only use your recognised tour operator. If you are taking a taxi at any stage make sure it is a registered one and not a private vehicle. It is unwise to carry large quantities of money or jewellery away from your hotel and try not to flaunt wealth with your belongings. Pickpockets are too common an occurrence on buses and trains and at train stations so be careful with your essential documents and credit cards. Valuables should not be stored in suitcases when arriving in or departing from Havana as there have been a number of thefts from cases during the time the cases are coming through baggage handling. There is an airport shrink-wrap facility for those departing Havana which reduces the risk of tampering. Remember to carry a photocopy of your main documents (passport, flight tickets etc).
Road Safety:
**********************************
Following a number of serious road accidents involving tourists, you are advised not to use mopeds for travelling around Cuba or in Havana. Also, if you are involved in any accident a police investigation will be required to clear you and this may significantly delay your travel plans. On unlit roads at night there have been a number of accidents associated with roaming cattle (sounds like Ireland!). The traffic moves on the right side of the roads. There is a main highway running the length of the country but many of the country roads are in poor repair.
Local Laws & Customs:
**********************************
When arriving into Cuba make sure you are not carrying any items which could be considered offensive. Any illicit drug offense is treated very seriously and Cuban law allows for the death penalty to be used under these circumstances. If you require personal medication for your health, make sure it is in original packing and carry a letter from your doctor describing the medication. Never agree to carry any item for another individual and always secure your cases once they are packed. Taking photographs of military or police installations or around harbours, rail and airport facilities is strictly forbidden.

Currency:
**********************************
Since 1993 it is now possible to use US dollars for all transactions within Cuba. Remember, there is a 20$ airport departure tax. Certain travellers cheques and credit cards may not be acceptable within Cuba. This is particularly true of American Express cheques and cards but check your situation with the travel operator before departure.
Health Facilities:
**********************************
Generally healthcare facilities outside of Havana are limited and many standard medications may not be available. It is important to carry sufficient quantities of any medications which may be required for the duration of your time in Cuba.
Food & Water:
**********************************
The level of food and water hygiene varies throughout the country and between resorts. On arrival check the hotel cold water supply for the smell of chlorine. If it is not present then use sealed bottled water for both drinking and brushing your teeth throughout your stay. Cans and bottles of drinks are safe but take care to avoid pre-cut fruit. Peel it yourself to make sure it is not contaminated. Food from street vendors should be avoided in most cases. Bivalve shellfish are also a high risk food in many countries and Cuba is no exception in this regard. (Eg Mussels, Oysters, Clams etc)
Malaria & Mosquito Borne Diseases:
***********************************************
Malaria transmission does not occur within Cuba and so prophylaxis is not required. However, a different mosquito borne disease called Dengue has begun to reoccur in the country over the past few years. This viral disease can be very sickening and even progress to death. It is rare for tourists to become infected but avoiding mosquito bites is a wise precaution.
Swimming, Sun & Dehydration:
************************************
The extent of the Cuban sun (particular during the summer months (April to October) can be very excessive so make sure your head and shoulders are covered at all times when exposed. Watch children carefully as they will be a significant risk. Drink plenty of fluids to replace what will be lost through perspiration and, unless there is a reason not to,
take extra salt either on your food or in crisps, peanuts etc. Take care if swimming in the Caribbean to stay with others and to listen to local advice. Never swim after a heavy meal or alcohol.
Rabies Risk in Cuba:
**********************************
This viral disease does occur throughout Cuba and it is essential that you avoid any contact with all warm blooded animals. Dogs, cats and monkeys are the most commonly involved in spreading the disease to humans. Don't pick up a monkey for a photograph! If bitten, wash out the wound, apply an antiseptic and seek urgent medical attention.
Vaccinations for Cuba:
**********************************
There are no essential vaccines for entry / exit if coming from Ireland. However, for your own personal protection travellers are advised to have cover against the following;
*
Tetanus (childhood booster)
*
Typhoid (food & water borne disease)
*
Hepatitis A (food & water borne disease)
For those planning a longer or more rural trip vaccine cover against conditions like Hepatitis B and Rabies may also need to be considered.
Summary:
**********************************
Cuba is becoming a popular destination for tourists and generally most will stay very healthy. However commonsense care against food and water borne disease is essential at all times. Also take care with regard to sun exposure, dehydration and mosquito bites.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Tue, 24 Mar 2020 00:29:17 +0100 (MET)

Havana, March 23, 2020 (AFP) - Cuba will quarantine foreign tourists from Tuesday to guard against the spread of the new coronavirus, the communist country's Prime Minister Manuel Marrero said Monday.   "All tourists still in hotels will be placed in quarantine... They cannot leave the hotel" until they find a flight home, he said on state TV, adding that there were 32,500 holidaymakers from overseas on the Caribbean island on Monday.
Date: Tue, 28 Jan 2020 21:50:13 +0100 (MET)

Havana, Jan 28, 2020 (AFP) - A major earthquake that hit the Caribbean Tuesday rocked the Cuban capital Havana, causing buildings to be evacuated and sending thousands of people into the streets.  The quake rattled several tall buildings in the city, which were immediately evacuated by authorities.

The earthquake was felt in several provinces including Guantanamo and Santiago de Cuba in the east, Cienfuegos in the centre and Havana in the northwest, the official Cubadebate website reported.   There were no preliminary reports of damage or injuries, however.  The US Geological Survey reported the 7.7 magnitude quake hit at a depth of 10 kilometres (six miles), at 1910 GMT -- 125 kilometres northwest of Lucea, Jamaica.
Date: Fri, 18 Oct 2019 22:45:46 +0200 (METDST)

Washington, Oct 18, 2019 (AFP) - The US moved to further hurt Cuba's vital tourism industry by tightening the ability of the country's airlines to lease aircraft.   The US Department of Commerce said it was revoking existing licenses for US companies leasing aircraft to Cuban carriers, and will deny future applications for aircraft leases.   The move could make it harder for Cuba to service its rapidly growing tourism sector, a key source of foreign revenue for the poor country.

Washington has stepped up pressure on Havana due to its support for the embattled regime of Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro.   "This action by the Commerce Department sends another clear message to the Cuban regime -- that they must immediately cease their destructive behaviour at home and abroad," Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross said in a statement.

It was not immediately clear how many aircraft the move would impact.   Cuba's cash-poor carriers depend on aircraft rented from leasing companies or other airlines, which are often very old.   In May 2018, 112 people died in the crash of a 39-year-old Boeing 737 leased by national carrier Cubana de Aviacion from a small Mexican firm, Global Air.

In June of this year, US President Donald Trump announced a US ban on cruise ship stopovers by Americans on the island, forcing Havana to cut its 2019 tourism target by 15 percent to 4.3 million visitors.   Nearly 900,000 tourists visited the island on cruise ships last year, and almost 40 percent were American, according to official figures.   The announcement Friday also expanded restrictions on imports from Cuba and on products with US content that can be sold to the country.
Date: Wed 3 Jul 2019
Source: 660 City News [edited]

A Newfoundland woman is warning travellers to do their research before adventurous excursions abroad after she and several other Newfoundlanders became ill from a mysterious disease traced back to a cave she visited in Cuba. The illness was eventually identified as a respiratory infection called histoplasmosis, or "cave disease," caused by spores from bird or bat droppings in damp soil. [She] of Paradise, NL, travelled to Cuba with her husband on 27 Apr [2019], but her fever-like symptoms didn't appear until 21 May [2019], weeks after she returned home. X-rays showed nodules in her lungs and tests showed low blood counts. Her condition baffled local doctors, who initially thought her lung infection could be some form of pneumonia. The clue to her illness came from a chance meeting she'd made on the trip with a family of Newfoundlanders who had a mutual friend. [She] and her husband had travelled with the group on a tour that included cave diving in the Matanzas province of Cuba.

Back in Canada, a number of their new friends had also fallen ill. [She] and the travellers informed their doctors that they knew each other and were experiencing the same symptoms, and their illness was identified as a respiratory infection called histoplasmosis, or "cave disease." [She] said pinpointing the source of her condition offered some relief from what she called a terrible, alarming health issue that she feared might have been cancerous. "You didn't want to be too excited about the fact that somebody else was sick, but at least cancer was off the table," [she] said by phone Wednesday [3 Jul 2019].

Eastern Health, [her] local health authority, has issued an advisory for travellers heading to the Americas, Africa, East Asia and Australia to avoid contracting the disease. Histoplasmosis is a treatable disease, contracted by breathing in airborne spores where bird or bat droppings are disturbed in damp soil. Eastern Health described its symptoms as including "cough and chest pain, shortness of breath, fever and chills, headaches and flu-like illness." The disease is treatable and most people who contract it never show symptoms, but it can be serious for infants or people with compromised immune systems. The health authority said the advisory was issued after a low number of histoplasmosis cases were confirmed in the Eastern Health region. An exact number of cases could not be provided for privacy reasons, but [the patient] said she's heard of at least 5 others.

While the disease is treatable, it is rare in Newfoundland, making treatment more complicated. [The patient] said she's waiting to receive an anti-fungal medication that had to be approved from outside of the province, and she's been told she'll have to take the drug for treatment for the next 3 months to a year. [The patent] said she's still experiencing fatigue and a persistent cough, and her voice is still scratchy and strained from an illness she contracted from what was one of the most breathtaking excursions on her vacation. "It was absolutely amazing," she said of the cave. "It was so pristine and so nice-looking when we went in."

[She] said she'd advise other travellers to do a thorough background check on the regions they're visiting and any planned excursions. "It's without a doubt that you have to go and you have to research the excursion that you're going on," she said. "You have to know the region, the areas, 100%. [She] wrote a Facebook post about her experience that's been shared thousands of times, and she said people as far as France have written to her about experiencing similar, undiagnosed symptoms after travelling abroad.  [Byline: Holly McKenzie-Sutter]
====================
[_Histoplasma capsulatum_, a dimorphic fungus that grows in a mycelial form at ambient temperatures and as yeast at body temperature in mammals, is found worldwide in soil enriched by bird or bat droppings. Contaminated soil can be potentially infectious for years. Fungal spores become airborne during activities that disturb the contaminated soil, such as spelunking, mining, construction, excavation, demolition, roofing, chimney cleaning, farming, or gardening, which can lead to clusters of cases of histoplasmosis that follow inhalation of the aerosolized spores. The spores can travel distances downstream from the source in currents of air. Because of the presence of bats in caves, cave exploration is a known risk factor for histoplasmosis, which is sometimes known as "cave fever" (<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10403317>). Physicians should be aware of the association between histoplasmosis and caving when caring for individuals who develop an acute febrile respiratory illness after cave exploration (<http://tinyurl.com/yxjust7x>).

Another disease that has also acquired the name "cave fever" is tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF). See ProMED-mail posts Tick-borne relapsing fever - Israel: spelunkers, tourists http://promedmail.org/post/20180422.5761531 and Tick-borne relapsing fever - USA: (TX) cave workers, 2017 http://promedmail.org/post/20180420.5759542.

Although birds cannot be infected by the _H. capsulatum_ and do not transmit the disease, bats can become infected by _H. capsulatum_ and may harbor the fungus in their gut (<https://academic.oup.com/jtm/article/15/2/133/1801173>).

In the US, histoplasmosis is endemic in the Ohio, Missouri, and Mississippi River valleys, where it is caused by _H. capsulatum_ var. _capsulatum_. Histoplasmosis has also been reported in Mexico, Central and South America, Oceania, Asia, Africa, and Europe (<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4535725/>). In Africa, histoplasmosis occurs most commonly in west and central Africa, where it is caused by the _duboisii_ variety, which has yeast cells that average about twice the size of _H. capsulatum_ var. _capsulatum_  (<http://www.reviberoammicol.com/1997-14/155159.pdf>).

Most individuals with histoplasmosis are asymptomatic. Those who develop clinical manifestations are usually immunocompromised or are exposed to a large number of spores. Disseminated disease is especially more common in HIV/AIDS co-infected cases. - ProMED Mod.ML]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail maps:
Newfoundland, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada:
Date: Wed, 5 Jun 2019 03:22:19 +0200
By Paul HANDLEY

Washington, June 5, 2019 (AFP) - The Trump administration clamped down on US tourist visits to Cuba Tuesday, aiming to cut the flow of dollars to a country that Washington accuses of helping prop up Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro.

The Treasury Department banned group educational travel, cruise ship and private yacht visits by Americans, taking aim at the most common ways US tourists and Cuban-Americans visit the Caribbean island.   The move could constitute a heavy hit on Cuba, which saw more than a quarter-million US visitors in the first four months of 2019, almost double the figure from a year earlier.   "The United States holds the Cuban regime accountable for its repression of the Cuban people, its interference in Venezuela, and its direct role in the man-made crisis led by Nicolas Maduro," the State Department said in a news release.   "Empowered by Cuba, he has created a humanitarian disaster that destabilizes the region."

White House National Security Advisor John Bolton said the aim was to end what the administration considers "veiled tourism" to Cuba.   "We will continue to take actions to restrict the Cuban regime's access to US dollars," Bolton said on Twitter.   The Cuban government condemned the move, which could cost the country's economy tens of millions of dollars a year in lost income.   "They seek to stifle the economy and damage the standard of living of Cubans to wrest political concessions," said Foreign Affairs Minister Bruno Rodriguez in a tweeted statement. "They'll fail again."

- Reverses Obama's historic opening -
American tourism in Cuba took off after then-president Barack Obama moved to ease the half-century trade embargo against the communist government in 2014 -- even though continuing restrictions kept visits nominally in the realm of cultural and artistic exchanges and business dealings.   Cuba and the US restored ties in 2015 and Obama himself visited Havana in a historic presidential trip in March 2016, meeting with then-president Raul Castro. Weeks later, the ban was lifted on US commercial ship visits, opening the door for the Caribbean cruise ship industry to expand stops in Cuba.

But President Donald Trump came into office attacking the Obama opening, and within months began tightening relations, first by banning individual visits and limiting commercial interactions.   The State Department tied the new ban directly to Havana's support for Maduro -- whose embattled regime faces a direct challenge from US-backed opposition leader Juan Guaido, the self-declared acting president of Venezuela.  "Veiled tourism has served to line the pockets of the Cuban military, the very same people supporting Nicolas Maduro in Venezuela and repressing the Cuban people on the island," the State Department said.

- 'Political grandstanding' -
Collin Laverty, president of Cuba Educational Travel, one of the US agencies which arranges visits to Cuba, accused the Trump administration of playing politics by trying to appease conservative anti-Havana Cuban immigrants in Florida, an important election swing state where they carry significant political weight.   "This political grandstanding aimed at Florida in the run up to the 2020 elections is so unfortunate for the millions of Cubans that will feel the crunch from less US visitors," said Laverty.   "This has nothing to do with empowering the Cuban people and has everything to do with empowering a handful of people in Florida that have never even been to Cuba."   Travel industry officials said that people who are booked on tours now will be able to go, ensuring that advanced-booked cruise ships will likely be operating from Florida to Havana throughout this year.   But Royal Caribbean Cruises said ships leaving Wednesday and Thursday of this week will skip previously scheduled stops in Cuba as the company examines the new US policy.

Norwegian Cruise Lines said they are seeking additional information on the new policy to see how it will affect future travel.   Tessia Aral, the owner of ABC Charters in Miami, said it could have a huge impact on her business, which arranged trips to Cuba for about 10,000 people last year.   She said it will hurt not only companies like hers but also those of the many entrepreneurs in Cuba who have built businesses to serve tourists.   "The people making the rules have never been to Cuba. They don't know how things have changed" in recent years, she said.   "What they are doing is counter-productive. I believe it's really going to hurt the private entrepreneurs in Cuba -- all the private restaurants, all the private homes" who serve tourists.
More ...

World Travel News Headlines

Date: Mon, 6 Apr 2020 13:48:38 +0200 (METDST)

Vienna, April 6, 2020 (AFP) - Austria could start easing its coronavirus lockdown measures from next week, Chancellor Sebastian Kurz said Monday, but warned that this depended on citizens abiding by social distancing rules.   "The aim is that from April 14... smaller shops up to a size of 400 square metres, as well as hardware and garden stores can open again, under strict security conditions of course," Kurz said at a press conference.

He said that as of April 14, the current obligation to cover one's mouth and nose in supermarkets will be extended to other shops and on public transport.   He added that if the government's timetable goes to plan, larger shops will reopen on May 1.   From mid-May hotels, restaurants and other services could also start to open their doors again in stages, Kurz said, adding that a decision on this would be taken at the end of April.

- 'Strongest decline in EU' -
However, he said that the restrictions on movement that Austria has introduced to fight the spread of COVID-19 remained in place.   He urged Austrians not to celebrate Easter with people outside their household, adding that he would not be seeing his own parents.   Schools will remain closed until at least mid-May and public events will remain banned until the end of June.

If trends in infection begin to worsen again, the government "always has the possibility to hit the emergency brake" and re-introduce restrictions, Kurz said.   He pointed to the example of Singapore, which initially had managed to contain the spread of the virus but was now facing a second wave of infections.   Kurz also warned that international travel would continue to be severely hampered for the foreseeable future, with discussions ongoing at an EU level as to how restrictions could be eased.   Kurz was speaking alongside several cabinet colleagues who entered wearing face masks before taking them off to speak behind specially erected screens.

- Reopening parks -
Interior Minister Karl Nehammer announced that the government also hoped to re-open public parks on April 14.   He clarified that the punishment for not adhering to mask-wearing in shops and on public transport would be 50 euros ($54).   Health Minister Rudolf Anschober said he was encouraged by the downward trend in the growth rate for infections, adding: "We have the strongest coronavirus decline in the EU".   The country of 8.8 million people currently has 12,058 confirmed infections, with 204 deaths and 2,998 recoveries.   In mid-March the increase in infections was running at around 40 percent, which unchecked would have led to two million people in Austria contracting the virus by now, Anschober said.

The daily rate of increase is now at 1.6 percent with a successful flattening of the curve, Anschober said, although he emphasised the rate must be brought down yet further.   Anschober also welcomed the fact that Austria was "well ahead" of many other countries when it comes to testing, with 111,000 tests carried out so far.   He said that great progress was being made on antibody tests and that he hoped these could be used in infection "hotspots".   Also on Monday authorities in western Tyrol, Austria's worst hit region, said that the quarantine ordered for the region's 750,000 people would be lifted on Tuesday.
Date: Mon, 6 Apr 2020 13:40:30 +0200 (METDST)

Berlin, April 6, 2020 (AFP) - Germany will put all arriving travellers in quarantine for 14 days, the interior ministry said Monday, as Berlin ramps up entry curbs to fight the coronavirus pandemic.   The measure, which will come into force on April 10, is expected to affect mostly German or EU nationals and residents, as the European Union has already banned all arrivals from outside the bloc.

Workers in the health sector living outside Germany in border regions will be exempted from the restriction, which will also not apply for business travellers entering for a short period of time.   Chancellor Angela Merkel's government had decided on the toughened rule during a cabinet meeting focus on the battle against the coronavirus pandemic.

During the same meeting, which is ongoing, ministers agreed that 100 percent of loans made by banks to small- and medium-sized firms will be guaranteed by the state.   The federal government will stand fully behind 500,000 euros ($540,000) of lending to companies with up to 50 employees and 800,000 euros for larger ones, upping its guarantee level from a previous 80 percent for large firms or 90 percent for smaller ones.
Date: Mon, 6 Apr 2020 13:26:30 +0200 (METDST)

Madrid, April 6, 2020 (AFP) - Spain declared Monday a fourth consecutive drop in the number of coronavirus-related deaths with 637 over the past 24 hours, the lowest number in nearly two weeks.   Fatalities, which were sharply down on the record 950 on Thursday, brought the total deaths in the country to 13,055, second only to Italy.   The official figures represent an increase of 5.1 percent over the last 24 hours, compared to a 4.8 percent rise on Sunday and a 32.63 percent leap as recently as March 21.

The number of new infections also slowed, rising 3.3 percent to 135,032, down from a rise of 24.8 percent on March 21.   "These figures confirm again this downwards tendency which we have been observing," said Maria Jose Sierra of the health ministry's emergencies coordination unit.   Over 40,000 coronavirus patients have been discharged from hospital, or nearly 30 percent of all confirmed cases of the disease, she added.   With deaths and new infections falling the Spanish government is studying how to gradually ease the lockdown imposed on the country of 47 million people on March 14. It has been  extended until April 25.

The government plans to ramp up testing to be able to isolate people who are infected but not showing symptoms and is mulling requiring all people to wear face masks in public to curb the spread of the disease.   Four Spanish firms are currently producing 245,000 coronavirus tests per week, Foreign Minister Arancha Gonzalez Laya said during a television interview on Monday.   "During the coming weeks we will multiply by three the capacity of our companies to supply the market" with tests, she added.   As for face masks, the minister said "we will probably all have to learn to use them as a prophylactic, at least until there is a vaccine" against COVID-19.
Date: Mon, 6 Apr 2020 12:53:51 +0200 (METDST)

Kinshasa, April 6, 2020 (AFP) - Kinshasa on Monday closed off its upmarket business district for two weeks and began a large-scale disinfection operation in a bid to clean up DR Congo's main suspected source of coronavirus.   Access to Gombe, which houses the country's main institutions and foreign embassies, was barricaded off to everyone except local residents with a pass, an AFP journalist saw.   "The choice of this district is linked to the fact that it's from Gombe that the virus is spreading little by little to other districts," the health authorities said in a daily statement.   "Massive disinfection has been scheduled during this period. The offices and main buildings in Gombe district are concerned. Once everything has been cleaned in Gombe, other areas will targeted," it said.   On Thursday, Kinshasa Governor Gentiny  Ngobila announced that Gombe, one of the capital's 26 districts, would be "placed in quarantine" from April 6-20.   The district "is considered to be the epicentre of the epidemic in the city," he said.

According to the Democratic Republic of Congo's official figures, the sprawling country has recorded 161 cases of coronavirus, 18 of them fatal.    Almost all have occurred in the capital, with a handful of other cases in the  volatile east.   During the partial lockdown, anti-coronavirus teams in Kinshasa will "look for sick people but also investigate risk contacts and asymptomatic cases" for testing and treatment, the authorities said.   People who go to work in Gombe -- drivers, gardeners and so on -- will be tested in their districts of residence and will be quarantined if they have the virus.
6th April 2020

Twinkling flames from candles and traditional lamps lit up India's night sky Sunday in a nine-minute show to mark the fight against the coronavirus pandemic, which has left the vast nation in lockdown.   Across major cities and towns in the world's second-most populous country of 1.3 billion people, many heeded the call of Prime Minister Narendra Modi to turn off their lights at 9:00 pm local time.
6th April 2020

South Korea reported fewer than 50 new coronavirus cases for the first time in more than six weeks, having once been the hardest-hit country outside China, where the virus first emerged.   The South confirmed 47 new cases on the previous day, the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said, taking its total to date to 10,284. It was the lowest increase since late February.
6th April 2020

The city-state has put nearly 20,000 migrant workers under quarantine for two weeks after a growing number of coronavirus infections were detected in their dormitories.   Authorities reported 120 new virus cases Sunday, the highest jump for the country in a single day, with many linked to foreign workers' dorms.    Many workers from less affluent countries, particularly parts of South Asia, come to Singapore to work in construction and are typically housed in large dormitory complexes.
6th April 2020

The Japanese government may declare a state of emergency this week to contain the coronavirus outbreak, media reports said.    Prime Minister Shinzo Abe is reportedly set to make the declaration for parts of Japan including Tokyo, as the number of people infected with the virus continues to increase.   The news pushed up Tokyo stocks, with investors seeing the move as positive for containing the outbreak, analysts said.
Date: Mon, 6 Apr 2020 09:16:37 +0200 (METDST)
By Philippe Carillo

Port Vila, Vanuatu, April 6, 2020 (AFP) - A deadly Pacific cyclone intensified as it hit Vanuatu on Monday, threatening a natural disaster that experts fear will undermine the impoverished nation's battle to remain coronavirus-free.   Tropical Cyclone Harold, which claimed 27 lives when it swept through the Solomon Islands last week, strengthened to a scale-topping Category 5 superstorm overnight, Vanuatu's meteorology service said.

The cyclone is now packing winds of up to 235 kilometres per hour (145 miles per hour), prompting red alerts across several provinces.   It made landfall on the remote east coast of Espiritu Santo island on Monday morning and was heading directly for Vanuatu's second-largest town Luganville, which has a population of 16,500.   The slow-moving storm is expected to pass north of the capital Port Vila early Tuesday.   "For now, we don't have any reports of injury, but lots of damage," Red Cross Vanuatu secretary general Jacqueline de Gaillande told AFP.

Another concern is the impact a large natural disaster could have on Vanuatu's attempts to remain one of the world's few countries without any reported COVID-19 infections.   The nation has sealed its international borders to avoid the virus but emergency measures including bans on public meetings have been temporarily suspended so people can gather in evacuation centres.   "There have been no confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Vanuatu, but a significant disaster at this time could present serious logistical challenges to delivering life-saving aid," Oxfam's Vanuatu director Elizabeth Faerua said.

- Widespread destruction -
A major international relief effort was needed the last time a Category 5 system, Cyclone Pam, hit Vanuatu in 2015.   If a similar operation were needed in the wake of Cyclone Harold, it would run the risk of importing the virus to a nation that lacks the health infrastructure to deal with even a mild outbreak.

New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern raised concerns about the cyclone and said the Kiwi military was ready to deploy if needed, even though New Zealand is on COVID-19 lockdown.   "(Harold) looks like it's coming into the Pacific with considerable force," she told reporters.   "Our defence force is at the ready, that's the role they play regardless of what's going on in New Zealand."   Cyclone Pam flattened Port Vila, killed 11 people and left a swath of destruction that the World Bank estimated wiped out almost two-thirds of Vanuatu's economic capacity.

De Gaillande said Vanuatu's government could face a balancing act between helping cyclone-devastated communities and potentially importing the virus by allowing in international aid.   "We will need international aid, but we're hoping initially it will be through funding only, so we can buy supplies and help those most in need," she said.   "We have a lot of skilled people on the ground here already (to carry our disaster operations)."   Cyclone Harold has already caused widespread damage in he Solomon Islands, where an inter-island ferry ignored weather warnings and 27 people were washed off its decks.

Solomons police said Sunday that the bodies of five passengers from the MV Taimareho had been recovered and the search would resume the next day.   "I would like to thank everyone... involved in the search for the missing 27 people so far as we try as much as possible to find the bodies so their grieving relatives can give them a proper burial," chief superintendent Richard Menapi said.   The ferry set off from Honiara for Malaita island on Thursday night, packed with more than 700 people as part of a government evacuation programme in response to the virus crisis.
Date: Mon, 6 Apr 2020 01:32:44 +0200 (METDST)

Abidjan, April 5, 2020 (AFP) - Residents in a working-class district of the Ivory Coast city of Abidjan on Sunday destroyed a coronavirus testing centre that was under construction, police and health ministry officials said.   Videos posted on social media, showed several dozen people dismantling the building, some of them shouting: "We don't want it!"

The incident happened in Yopougon district of the city of five million inhabitants, which is the country's commercial capital.   Locals had demonstrated against the centre because they thought it was too close to their homes and right in the middle of a residential district, one police officer told AFP on condition of anonymity.   But the building, which was still under construction, had never been intended as a treatment centre for virus patients -- only as a testing centre, said a health ministry official, who also asked not to be named.

This was the first violent incident connected to the COVID-19 outbreak in the country, which so far appears to have been relatively untouched by the virus, at least according to official figures.   They put the number of cases at 261, with three deaths so far.

Nevertheless, the authorities are trying to increase their capacity to treat the outbreak.   President Alassane Ouattara declared a state of emergency on March 23.   Abidjan has already been placed under quarantine, effectively cut off from the rest of the country, and a nationwide overnight curfew is in force.

Schools, churches and non-essential shops have been closed and gatherings have been banned.   On Saturday, senior health officials recommended that people wear masks in public places to try to slow the spread of the virus.   So far however, the government has not ordered a full lockdown.   Last Tuesday, the government announced a 2.6-billion-euro plan ($2.8 billion) to tackle the economic and social effects of the pandemic, which is forecast to halve the country's growth rate to 3.6 percent in 2020.