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Albania

Albania US Consular Information Sheet November 04, 2008

 COUNTRY DESCRIPTION

Albania is a parliamentary democracy that is transforming its economy into a market-oriented system. Albania's per capita income is among the lowest in Eu

ope, but economic conditions in the country are steadily improving. Tourist facilities are not highly developed in much of the country, and though Albania's economic integration into European Union markets is slowly underway, many of the goods and services taken for granted in other European countries are not yet available. Hotel accommodations are limited outside of major cities. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Albania for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS

 A passport is required. All travelers entering or exiting Albania must have six months or more validity on their passport. Customs officers strictly enforce this law. U.S. citizens do not require a visa prior to entering Albania, but those traveling without a visa will be charged a fee for an entry stamp at the point of entry, which is valid for a stay of up to 90 days. This fee is currently 10 Euros, or the equivalent in any easily convertible currency, including U.S. dollars. Travelers without a visa who intend to stay in Albania for more than 90 days should be aware that Albanian law allows a traveler without a visa to remain in Albania for 90 days only within a specific 180-day period. That 180-day period is defined from the first day of entry. For example, a traveler entering without a visa on January 1 may remain in Albania for 90 days total during the period of time between January 1 and June 28. Departing Albania during this time period does not "restart the clock." Travelers attempting to reenter Albania without a visa and within 180 days of a previous entry and after an aggregate stay of 90 days may be denied entry. For stays exceeding 90 days within a 180-day period, those interested must apply for a Residency Permit at the police station with jurisdiction over the city of residence. Information on how to apply for a residency permit is available on the Embassy of Albania web site at http://www.embassyofalbania.org/. There is also a departure fee of ten Euros, or the equivalent in any easily convertible currency, including U.S. dollars. Visit the Embassy of Albania web site at http://www.embassyofalbania.org/consular.html#visa for the most current visa information. Dual Nationality: The Albanian government considers any person in Albania of Albanian parents to be an Albanian citizen. In addition to being subject to all Albanian laws affecting U.S. citizens, dual nationals may be subject to Albanian laws that impose special obligations. Male Albanian citizens are subject to compulsory military service regulations. If such persons are found guilty of draft evasion in Albania, they are subject to prosecution by the Albanian court. Those who might be affected should inquire at an Albanian Embassy or Consulate outside Albania regarding their status before traveling. In some instances, dual nationality may hamper U.S. Government efforts to provide protection abroad. Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site. For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY

Although the overall security situation in Albania has improved in recent years, organized criminal activity continues to operate in all regions, and corruption is pervasive. US Government employees need permission to travel to the northern administrative districts of Shkoder, Malesi E Madhe and Tropoje (with the exception of the route along the national road to Montenegro and the city of Shkoder) and to the southern town of Lazarat, with such travel restricted to secure vehicles with escort. Travel restrictions for U.S. Government employees have been lifted for overnight stays in the city of Shkoder. In most cases, police assistance and protection is limited. A high level of security awareness should be maintained at all times. Photographing anything that authorities regard as being of military or security interest may cause travelers problems. All gatherings of large crowds should be avoided, particularly those involving political causes or striking workers. For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found. Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays). The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME

In the latest State Department assessment, Albania’s crime rating is “medium.” Crime against foreigners is rare in Albania, as targeting foreigners is often viewed as too risky. Visitors should maintain the same personal security awareness that they would in any metropolitan U.S. city. Caution should be exercised in bars in Tirana where violent incidents, some involving the use of firearms, have occurred in the past, particularly in the early morning hours. Within the last years there have been fewer cases of carjacking compared with previous years. Anyone who is carjacked should surrender the vehicle without resistance. Armed crime continues to be more common in northern and northwestern Albania than in the rest of the country. Street crime is fairly common in Albania, particularly at night. Criminals do not seem to deliberately target U.S. citizens or other foreigners, but do seek targets of opportunity, and select those who appear to have anything of value. Vehicle theft is still one of the biggest problems in Albania. Pick-pocketing is widespread; U.S. citizens have reported the theft of their passports by pick-pockets. INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed. The local equivalent to the “911” emergency line is 129, though coverage is inconsistent at best. See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION

Medical facilities and capabilities in Albania are limited beyond rudimentary first aid treatment. Emergency and major medical care requiring surgery and hospital care is inadequate due to lack of specialists, diagnostic aids, medical supplies, and prescription drugs. Travelers with previously diagnosed medical conditions may wish to consult their physicians before travel. As prescription drugs may be unavailable locally, travelers may also wish to bring extra supplies of required medications. Recent electricity shortages have resulted in sporadic blackouts throughout the country, which can affect food storage capabilities of restaurants and shops. While some restaurants and food stores have generators to properly store food, travelers should take care that food is cooked thoroughly to reduce the risk of food-borne illness. Water in Albania is not potable. Visitors should plan to purchase bottled water or drinks while in country. The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Albania. Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en

MEDICAL INSURANCE

The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS

While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Albania is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance. Major roads in Albania are often in very poor condition. Traveling by road throughout Albania is the most dangerous activity for locals and tourists. Vehicle accidents are the major cause of death, according to police statistics. Electricity shortages have resulted in sporadic blackouts throughout the country that can happen any hour of the day or night. Such outages affect traffic signals and street lights, making driving increasingly treacherous at any time of day. Travel at night outside the main urban areas is dangerous and should be avoided due to deplorable road conditions. During the winter months, travelers may encounter dangerous snow and icy conditions on the roads throughout mountainous regions in northern Albania. Buses travel between most major cities almost exclusively during the day, but they are often unreliable and uncomfortable. Many travelers looking for public transport prefer to use privately owned vans, which function as an alternate system of bus routes and operate almost entirely without schedules or set fares. Please note that many of these privately owned vans may not have official permission to operate a bus service and may not adhere to accepted safety and maintenance standards. Persons wishing to use privately owned vans should exercise caution. There are no commercial domestic flights and few rail connections. Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. Visit the website of the country’s national tourist office at www.albaniantourism.com.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT

As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Albania, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Albania's Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards. For further information, travelers may visit the FAA's web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: Albania's customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from Albania of some items. It is advisable to contact the Embassy of Albania in Washington, D.C. or one of Albania's Consulates in the United States for specific information regarding customs requirements. As noted previously, the Albanian government considers any person in Albania of Albanian parents to be an Albanian citizen. In addition to being subject to all Albanian laws affecting U.S. citizens, dual nationals may be subject to Albanian laws that impose special obligations. Male Albanian citizens are subject to compulsory military service regulations. See our information pertaining to dual nationality. Albania is a cash economy. Credit cards and travelers checks are not generally accepted, except at the major new hotels in Tirana and some international airline offices. Travelers' checks can be changed at banks in larger towns. Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) are available in most cities. Please see our Customs Information CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Albania’s laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Albania are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties. Under Albanian law, police can detain any individual for up to 10 hours without filing formal charges. U.S. citizens are encouraged to carry a copy of their U.S. passports with them at all times to show proof of identity and U.S. citizenship if questioned by local officials.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES

For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION

 Americans living or traveling in Albania are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Albania. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located at Rruga Elbasanit 103, tel. (355)(4) 2247285; fax (355)(4) 2232222. The U.S. Embassy web site is http://tirana.usembassy.gov/ * * * This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated June 10, 2008, to update sections on Entry and Exit Requirements, Medical Facilities and Health Information, and Traffic Safety and Road Conditions.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Sat, 21 Sep 2019 20:39:17 +0200 (METDST)

Tirana, Sept 21, 2019 (AFP) - Albania was rattled by its strongest earthquake in decades Saturday, officials said, sending people fleeing into the streets in several cities, damaging buildings and triggering power cuts in the capital.   The epicentre of the shallow 5.6-magnitude quake, was near Durres, less than 40 kilometres (25 miles) west of the capital Tirana, according to the US Geological Survey.

Albania's defence ministry said it was the "strongest earthquake in the country in the last 20 to 30 years".   "There are no deaths," defence ministry spokeswoman Albana Qajaj said.   Some 80 people sought medical help in both Tirana and Durres, 21 of whom were hospitalised due to injuries caused by falling objects or parts of walls as well as for panic attacks, Health Minister Ogerta Manasterilu said.   Qajaj told AFP that houses and buildings in Tirana had been damaged but were still standing and that the ministry was accessing damage in other towns and villages.   Prime Minister Edi Rama cancelled his scheduled trip to the United States following the quake, which cut electricity and telephone lines in Tirana and a number of other towns and villages.

Many people remained outside their homes for several hours in the capital, fearful of aftershocks.   "I fear to return because such a strong earthquake could be followed with others," Drita Lohja, a resident in her fifties, told AFP.    Falling debris pulverised parked cars in parts of the city.   AFP reporters and witnesses saw windows broken and deep fissures in the facades of buildings in Durres, as well as in the capital.   Media reported that a large building in Tirana was seriously damaged and that residents were being evacuated.   A University of Tirana building was also damaged, witnesses said.

According to local media reports, at least two people were lightly injured and a dozen houses collapsed in the village of Helmes, 10 kilometres from Tirana.   Two other earthquakes followed the strong one that occurred at around 4:00 pm (1400 GMT) and was felt in neighbouring Montenegro and Italy, but also on the Greek island of Corfu according to some Twitter users.
Date: Fri, 9 Mar 2018 16:28:50 +0100

Tirana, March 9, 2018 (AFP) - The military has been deployed in northern Albania to help hundreds of people trapped by floods following heavy rainfall, authorities said on Friday.   More than 9,230 hectares (22,800 acres) of agricultural land is underwater in the Shkodra region, including villages where the only means of transport is by boat, the defence ministry said.

Army personnel are evacuating residents and securing food supplies in the affected areas, 100 kilometres (60 miles) north of the capital, Tirana.   The torrential rain in recent days has caused landslides damaging dozens of homes and flooding roads, said the transport ministry.   The rain has also forced the Albanian authorities to release excess water from a hydroelectric plant, which has added to the flooding in northern areas of the country.   Weather forecasters say the rain is likely to ease from Saturday.
Date: Sun, 3 Dec 2017 12:29:40 +0100

Tirana, Dec 3, 2017 (AFP) - Thousands of police and soldiers have been deployed in Albania to rescue stranded residents after heavy rainfall triggered major flooding, and caused the death of a utility worker, officials and the power company said Sunday.   The victim, Sabri Vlinga, died while he was working on a electricity pole at Roskovec in the flooded south of the country, the power company said in statement.   Two other people were injured in similar accidents. it added.   Some 6,400 police and soldiers have been sent to help rescue people stranded by the floods, Prime MInister Edi Rama said Saturday, calling the situation "very critical".

Around 1,500 people in the affected areas have been rescued, while several thousand homes were without electricity as many utility poles have been swept away by mudslides, said Shemsi Prenci, head of civil protection.   More than 7,874 hectares (19,450 acres) of farm land as well as 3,193 homes are under water and several roads in the south remained impassable.

Army forces have built a temporary bridge at Darezeze, about 70 kilometres (44 miles) from the capital Tirana, to come to the aid of 2,000 residents stranded by the floods, the defence ministry said.    In neighbouring Macedonia, the heavy rains have also caused flooding as several rivers include the main Vardar river have burst their banks, the MIA news agency reported.
Date: Sat 5 Aug 2017
From: Edmond Puca <edmond_puca@yahoo.com> [edited]

Here in Albania, we have 2 imported cases of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), one imported from the north of Greece and another from Macedonia in a village near the border with Albania.

The patient from Macedonia is 25 years old. He presented in the emergency room on 31 Jul [2017]. Right now, he is in good condition and will survive. He presented with fever, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, and lower back pain.

The other patient from Greece had been in our service for the previous 2 weeks and now is at home in good condition.

The disease is caused by Dobrava-Belgrade virus infection.
---------------------------------
Dr Edmond Puca
Infectologue
Department of Infectious Disease
UHC "Mother Teresa"
Tirana, Albania
===================
[ProMED-mail thanks Dr Edmond Puca for sending in this report.  This and the previous report are the 1st reports of hantavirus infections in Macedonia that ProMED-mail has posted. There is also evidence of HFRS in Greece, although ProMED-mail has not posted reports previously. Sero-epidemiological investigations conducted in several Balkan countries revealed an overall seroprevalence of 4 per cent in Greece (<http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168170213004887#>). There doubtless have been Dobrava-Belgrade virus infections in Greece and the Balkans over the years, given that this virus is known to circulate widely in the Balkans.

The yellow-necked field mouse (_Apodemus flavicollis_) is the principle vertebrate host for Dobrava-Belgrade virus. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
Date: Mon, 6 Feb 2017 04:30:32 +0100
By Briseida MEMA

Tirana, Feb 6, 2017 (AFP) - Emira Sela covers her face with her hand to hide a disfiguring abscess, the traumatic result of unregulated cosmetic treatments now rampant across Albania.   The 31-year-old began to worry when wrinkles appeared on her face. Sela's hairdresser told her that a simple injection, costing around 60 euros ($65), would banish the signs of ageing.   "She assured me that I would not risk anything. She even listed well-known names" of women who had undergone such treatment, said Sela.   "I did not think twice, I trusted her without asking questions," said the blonde woman with green eyes, her voice trembling.

Albanian hair and beauty salons lacking expertise and medical supervision are offering such cosmetic treatments, unregulated in a legal vacuum, much to the alarm of qualified doctors.   A single injection of a product whose content and dosage Sela knew nothing about was enough to ruin her life in late August.    Despite antibiotics she has permanent pain, fever and nausea, while the abscess on her right cheek forces her eye to half-close and her face is nearly paralysed.   "I am so disfigured that I tried to commit suicide," said Sela, who lost her job in a bank. Her only hope now is corrective surgery at an Italian hospital, scheduled for this month.

- Desiring Kardashian look -
"There are more and more impostors with syringes," said Panajot Papa, a plastic surgeon at a private clinic in Tirana.   "The problem is also the products... Forbidden in Europe, they enter illegally from Turkey or China."    Eriona Shehu, a dermatologist at Tirana's university hospital, said these unregulated synthetic products, such as injected liquid silicone and acrylamide, were being offered at temptingly low prices.

"Cosmetic interventions have become a lucrative industry. The patient is only a customer, exposed to a number of risks."   Shehu said the desire to look like voluptuous US reality television star Kim Kardashian was "destroying the lives of young Albanian girls looking for beauty".   Albanian doctors say the typical age of clients for such procedures is between 16 and 28.    In the country of about three million people, the demand for cosmetic interventions rose more than 50 percent in 2015, according to a study published by Albania's economic magazine Monitor.

Promotional offers can be seen everywhere, such as a beauty salon advertising 20 percent reductions for three people coming together for treatment during the holiday season.   Papa says he has treated a dozen young women aged between 20 and 27 who suffered complications after having their lips and cheekbones swollen with injected liquid silicone for 40 to 50 euros.    The product has been banned for cosmetic use in countries such as Italy and France for more than 15 years.   Papa said such botched interventions left these women prone to particularly bad swellings during their menstrual period, requiring further treatment -- and he warned they may suffer such symptoms for life.

- Closing legal gap -
Albanian doctors are worried about foreign practitioners who come from Italy, Turkey and Greece to work just for a weekend.   "They may not have a diploma, qualification or licence for these kind of interventions or for assuming the responsibility of a patient's medical follow-up," said Besim Boci, head of the otolaryngology department at Tirana's university hospital.   Due to legal loopholes, the judiciary cannot step in.    A spokesman at Tirana's tribunal, Alba Nikolla, admits that it is currently impossible to "open investigations and prosecute based only on complaints" against practitioners.

But authorities are set to tackle this with a draft law to control cosmetic products and beauty salons, which is due to be introduced in parliament in the next few months.   The law complies with the requirements of the European Union, which Albania aspires to join, and will enable authorities to shut down rogue establishments using synthetic products.    When health is adversely affected, practitioners could be imprisoned for three to 10 years.    Such regulations could go some way to easing the trauma of women like Elisa Lura, a 22-year-old economics student.   She underwent a laser treatment to restore her natural look after paying 50 euros to a neighbourhood salon for permanent eyebrow tattoos, which went wrong. But the laser made things much worse.   "Everything is spoiled!" she said of her face now covered with painful scars.
More ...

Seychelles

General:
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This group of islands are situated off the eastern coast of Africa in the Indian Ocean. The main Island is Mahe and it has a population of under 100,000. The other two islands with significant popula
ions are Praslin and La Digue. Generally, tourist facilities are well developed throughout these main islands. Elsewhere facilities are poor. The islands enjoy an oceanic tropical climate with only mild variations throughout the year. Rainfall fluctuations do occur with more rainfall occurring between October to April each year.
Safety and Security:
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The majority of tourists visiting the Seychelles will have a very peaceful time and the rate of crime throughout the country is small. However, like many other destinations this situation is changing and there are increasing numbers of reports of petty crime - even on the more popular beaches. Generally it is unwise to leave valuables unattended while you bathe and walking around the main streets in Victoria after dark is not recommended especially for women. All money exchanges must be transacted with official designated dealers and a receipt obtained. Otherwise strict penalties may be enforced.
Health Facilities:
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The level of healthcare in the main tourists resorts is perfectly adequate for most situations but outside these regions the level of care is significantly less. On isolated islands doctors are often unavailable and it may take many hours before you could move to a better equipped location. Always make sure your travel and health insurance is up to date before you leave home.
Food & Water Facilities:
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The level of food and water preparation in the main tourist resorts is excellent but when travelling to isolated regions the standards drop considerably. Consuming foods cooked in local homes will be a significant risk in many circumstances and usually best avoided. However, well cooked fresh fish and other well prepared local delicacies should not present any particular difficulty. As always it is wise to avoid all under cooked bivalve shellfish such as oysters, mussels and clams. Unprepared cold foods like lettuce are also better left untasted and fruit which has been previously peeled will be potentially contaminated. If you peel it yourself it should be fine. Check the tap water smells of chlorine and if not, do not use it for drinking or even brushing your teeth.
Insect Bites and Malaria:
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No malaria risk occurs throughout the Seychelles so prophylaxis will not be required. This is excellent news but you should be aware that mosquitoes can still be a problem and so careful avoidance techniques are required - particularly between dusk and dawn. Dengue Fever has been found on the Islands through there has been no epidemic of the disease for some years.
The risk of Rabies:
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The Seychelles are rabies free but obviously care should still be taken to avoid any contact with warm-blooded animals such as dogs, cats and monkeys. With the difficulties in patrolling the extensive coastline of the Seychelles it is always possible that the disease will be introduced at some stage in the future.
Swimming:
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Take care to listen to local advice before swimming in the sea. Strong currents and various marine life may lead to a severely spoiled holiday. Never swim after a heavy meal or significant intake of alcohol and always swim in the company of others.
Sun Exposure:
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The strength of the sun in the Seychelles throughout the year is significant and this can cause both sunburn and serious dehydration. After a long haul flight it may be tempting to fall asleep beside the hotel pool but this may cause dreadful sunburn and can easily ruin a holiday. Children need to be watched carefully as they are more liable to the effects of the sun, particularly on any fair skinned child. Wearing a light good fitting t-shirt and Increasing their salt intake may be very beneficial.
Road Safety:
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In the Seychelles they drive on the left side of the road but outside the main tourist resorts the roads tend to be very narrow with often shear drops. Barriers are rare and accidents can easily occur. The speed limits are between 25 to 50 mph and both drivers and front seat passengers are required to wear safety belts at all times. There is an ambulance service on the islands of Mahe, Praslin and La Digue which is summonsed by ringing 999.
Local Laws and Customs:
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There are strict regulations regarding import and export of firearms, spear-fishing equipment, fruit and vegetables. When paying for your hotel expenses a credit card must be used in most circumstances. If you have cash you must provide a receipt showing how it was obtained. A casino receipt would be adequate if you have been lucky enough!
Vaccinations for the Seychelles:
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Unless you are entering the islands from tropical Africa there are no essential vaccines for entry or exit. However for your own personal health it is recommended that travellers are covered against the following diseases;
*
Poliomyelitis (childhood booster)
*
Tetanus (childhood booster)
*
Typhoid (food and water borne disease)
*
Hepatitis A (food and water borne disease)
For those undertaking a longer more rural trip other vaccines may need to be considered including Hepatitis B.
Summary:
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Generally most tourists who maintain the usual commonsense rules stay perfectly healthy while in the Seychelles. Just remember the different climate conditions to your home situation and take care with food and water consumption. Further information is available from the Tropical Medical Bureau.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

18th Oct 2017
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2017/seychelles-plague-negative/en/ 

Samples from patients in Seychelles suspected to be ill with pneumonic plague tested negative at a World Health Organization (WHO) partner laboratory in Paris, France on Tuesday (17 October).
 
The ten samples were shipped by the Seychelles Ministry of Health and WHO to the collaborating centre for Yersinia at the Institut Pasteur to confirm the status of several suspected and one probable case – a 34-year-old Seychelles national who had returned from Madagascar with plague-like symptoms.

WHO is working with the Seychelles health authorities to reduce the risk of plague spreading from neighbouring Madagascar, which faces an unprecedented outbreak that has killed more than 70 people since August. No plague cases have been confirmed in the Seychelles.
Alongside support for laboratory testing, WHO has deployed experts and medical supplies to the 115-island country. The Organization is also providing guidance for the tracing and treatment of contacts of people who are suspected to have been infected.

“We are working with health authorities to reduce the risk of the spread of plague in the Seychelles by improving surveillance and preparedness,” said Dr. Ibrahima Soce Fall, WHO Regional Emergencies Director for the Africa region.

WHO is advising the Government of Seychelles on the implementation of public health measures that are in line with the WHO International Health Regulations, such as enhanced surveillance, isolation and treatment of suspect cases, contact tracing and prophylactic treatment of potential contacts.

WHO currently assesses the risk of spread of plague in the Seychelles to be low.
Date: Fri 13 Oct 2017
Source: Medical Xpress [edited]

The Seychelles government ordered schools to close [Fri 13 Oct 2017], after the discovery of 2 suspected cases of plague thought to have been brought from Madagascar where the disease has killed scores. The health ministry has also put under surveillance 320 people who have come into contact with the 2 patients. A total of 12 people showing plague-like symptoms have been admitted to hospital and given antimicrobials.

Panic gripped parents on the Indian Ocean archipelago after some students developed fevers in recent days, leading to the school closures.

"We made this decision as a precautionary measure to reassure parents," said Merida Delcy, an adviser to the education ministry, noting that they would not reopen until [Wed 18 Oct 2017], at the earliest.

Preliminary tests on the 2 people, including a Seychellois who returned from Madagascar a week ago, showed they could have plague, the health ministry said.

"It has not yet been confirmed that the 2 people are sick due to plague, samples will be sent this weekend to the Institut Pasteur (in France)," said public health commissioner Jude Gedeon. The results are expected next week [week of Sun 15 Oct 2017].

The sick include a student at Anse Boileau Elementary School on the main island of Mahe where all students have since been given antimicrobials.

As fear of plague spreads, there has been a run on surgical masks which people hope will offer protection against the highly infectious disease. Plague outbreaks are common on Madagascar, 1800 kilometres (1120 miles) to the south, where the disease is endemic. But this year [2017] both bubonic plague, spread by infected rats via flea bites, and the pneumonic type, spread person-to-person, have hit urban areas, including the capital Antananarivo, leaving at least 54 dead.

A Seychellois basketball coach who was visiting Madagascar is among the victims. The Seychelles government has begun to quarantine people who have arrived from Madagascar in the last week [week of Sun 1 Oct 2017]. The latest Madagascar health ministry report this week says 500 cases and 54 deaths [now 561 and 57 - ProMED Mod.LL] have so far been recorded, with around half of each occurring in the capital.
=====================
[There is no confirmation about any cases acquired on Seychelles on the Ministry of Health facebook page <https://www.facebook.com/mohseychellesofficial/>. ProMED awaits confirmation of additional cases of _Y. pestis_ infection on Seychelles in addition to the imported case from Madagascar. - ProMED Mod.LL]

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
Date: Wed 11 Oct 2017
Source: Seychelles Ministry of Health [summ., edited]

Dr Jude Gedeon met with the media on Wed 11 Oct 2017, to give an update on the pneumonic plague situation in Seychelles. Speaking to several media houses, he addressed the case of pneumonic plague that was confirmed yesterday, 10 Oct 2017. He also stressed on current and additional measures being taken by the Ministry of Health to prevent this from spreading.

New measures being implemented against pneumonic plague:
- everyone entering Seychelles from Madagascar will immediately be referred to the isolation centre in Perseverance [Perseverance Island is an artificial island in Seychelles, lying 2 km (1.3 mi) from the capital Victoria]. - ProMED Mod.LL]
- no foreigners coming to Seychelles from Madagascar will be granted entry. Only Seychelles citizens will be allowed to enter the country.
- a Travel Advisory has been issued, in collaboration with Seychelles Tourism Board requesting all transiting points (Mauritius, Kenya, and Reunion) to redirect all passengers who are not a citizen of Seychelles.
- cargo ships will continue to be monitored as before. If anyone presents with symptoms within less than 7 days of leaving Madagascar, the ship will remain in isolation at sea. If anyone on board is sick, they will receive treatment;
- cruise ships are advised to remain at sea for at least 7 days before entering the port after visiting Madagascar. If it is less than 7 days (incubation period) all passengers and crew will remain under surveillance for the recommended time before entering the country.
*******************************
Date: Wed 11 Oct 2017 12:59 SCT
Source: Seychelles News Agency [edited]

Visitors to Seychelles who have visited Madagascar or transited through that island nation in the last 7 days will be placed under observation by health officials upon arrival to Mahe.

The Minister of Health, Jean-Paul Adam, made the statement in the National Assembly on [Wed 11 Oct 2017] when answering an urgent question from the Leader of the Opposition, Wavel Ramkalawan. Adam was called to the National Assembly after the 1st case of pneumonic plague in Seychelles was confirmed on Tue 10 Oct 2017. The patient is a man who returned to Mahe, the main island, last [Fri 6 Oct 2017], on board the last Air Seychelles flight from Madagascar.

The health minister also confirmed that 258 people are currently under observation and receiving treatment after the case of pneumonic plague was detected. "The 258 includes 41 passengers and 7 crew from the flight, 12 close family members, and 18 staff and patients from the Anse Boileau health centre where the man went when he fell ill."

The man disobeyed instructions given upon his arrival to remain at home for a period of time and attended a party that same evening. The minister explained that the result of the tests conducted on the infected man was sent to the Pasteur Institute in Paris, which confirmed the pneumonic plague.

Adam said that "all the 170 people who were at the party including the 13 staff working at the venue are also under passive surveillance. We were already putting Seychellois and tourists under active observation at their homes or at hotels. But as from today [11 Oct 2017], all those arriving from Madagascar will be put in isolation for 6 days," the Minister said.

Adam added that the authority will be using the Seychelles Coast Guard military academy as the isolation centre located at Perseverance, a reclaimed island on the outskirts of Victoria.

The national airline -- Air Seychelles -- had suspended all flights to Madagascar, following guidance and requests of the Seychelles' Public Health Authority amid concerns over the outbreak of the plague in Madagascar. To date, there are 449 cases confirmed in Madagascar and 48 people have died [now 500 cases and 54 deaths - ProMED Mod.LL]. Air Seychelles is the only airline in the region to suspend all its flights to the island.

The health ministry has also liaised with the Seychelles Fishing Authority to get fishermen who may have travelled to Madagascar recently to report their trips and if necessary to seek advice from health professionals. "We are also in contacts with boats, and we want to urge those who may have travelled to Madagascar informally to stop this practice and to report to their nearest health centres." Adam said this is important for assessment and also "for us to decide if they need to be placed under surveillance for treatment. We are also liaising with travel agents to discourage people from visiting the island."

Seychelles, a group of 115 islands in the western Indian Ocean, is on high alert ever since it was confirmed that a Seychellois basketball coach, who died in a hospital in Madagascar in September 2017, had contracted the plague.
====================
[Seychelles seems to have responded in appropriate ways related to the single importation (so far) of a person who developed pneumonic plague after returning from Madagascar. It is not clear if this case had any relationship to the basketball tournament that had occurred on Madagascar. Since there is no comment in this report regarding institution of antimicrobial prophylaxis to any of the contacts. - ProMED Mod.LL]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail maps can be accessed at
Date: Sat, 14 Oct 2017 16:49:58 +0200

Mogadishu, Oct 14, 2017 (AFP) - More than 20 people were killed when a car bomb exploded on a busy street in Somalia's capital Mogadishu on Saturday, a police official said.   "Initial reports from emergency departments indicate more than 20 bodies picked up off the street and many more are under the wreckage of buildings destroyed by the blast", said Ibrahim Mohamed, a senior police officer.   Government security official Mohamed Aden said that bombing took place in a busy part of the city.    "There was a huge blast caused by a truck loaded with explosives. It went off at the entrance of a hotel alongside the K5 intersection," he said.   There was no immediate claim of responsibility, but the Al-Qaeda aligned Shabaab carries out frequent suicide bombings in the capital and elsewhere as it fights to overthrow the internationally-backed government.
Date: Fri, 13 Oct 2017 16:03:29 +0200

Victoria, Seychelles, Oct 13, 2017 (AFP) - The Seychelles government ordered schools to close Friday, after the discovery of two suspected cases of plague thought to have been brought from Madagascar where the disease has killed scores.   The health ministry has also put under surveillance 320 people who have come into contact with the two patients.

A total of 12 people showing plague-like symptoms have been admitted to hospital and given antibiotics.   Panic gripped parents on the Indian Ocean archipelago after some students developed fevers in recent days, leading to the school closures.   "We made this decision as a precautionary measure to reassure parents," said Merida Delcy, an adviser to the education ministry, noting that they would not reopen until Wednesday at the earliest.
 
Preliminary tests on the two people, including a Seychellois who returned from Madagascar a week ago, showed they could have plague, the health ministry said.   "It has not yet been confirmed that the two people are sick due to plague, samples will be sent this weekend to the Institut Pasteur (in France)," said public health commissioner Jude Gedeon.   The results are expected next week.   The sick include a student at Anse Boileau Elementary School on the main island of Mahe where all students have since been given antibiotics.

As fear of plague spreads, there has been a run on surgical masks which people hope will offer protection against the highly infectious disease.   Plague outbreaks are common on Madagascar, 1,800 kilometres (1,120 miles) to the south, where the disease is endemic. But this year both bubonic plague, spread by infected rats via flea bites, and the pneumonic type, spread person-to-person, have hit urban areas, including the capital Antananarivo, leaving at least 54 dead.

A Seychellois basketball coach who was visiting Madagascar is among the victims. The Seychelles government has begun to quarantine people who have arrived from Madagascar in the last week.   The latest Madagascar health ministry report this week says 500 cases and 54 deaths have so far been recorded, with around half of each occurring in the capital.
More ...

Rwanda

Rwanda US Consular Information Sheet
May 19, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Rwanda is a landlocked developing country in central Africa which has made considerable progress in rebuilding its infrastructure and establishing security since the 19
4 civil war and genocide in which at least 800,000 people were killed. Economic activity and tourism are on the rise in Rwanda. Hotels and guesthouses are adequate in Kigali, the capital, and in major towns, but are limited in remote areas. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Rwanda for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: A passport and evidence of yellow fever immunization are required. Visas are not required for American citizens entering Rwanda for less than 90 days. U.S. citizens planning on working in Rwanda should apply for a work permit at the Directorate of Immigration as soon as possible after arrival in Rwanda. Detailed entry information may be obtained from Rwanda’s Directorate of Immigration at: http://www.migration.gov.rw/ or from the Embassy of the Republic of Rwanda, 1714 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20009, telephone 202-232-2882, fax 202-232-4544, web site http://www.rwandaembassy.org. Overseas, inquiries may be made at the nearest Rwandan Embassy or Consulate.
Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site. For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
There are currently no travel restrictions in place within Rwanda, but travelers should use caution when traveling near or crossing the border into Burundi, eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and Uganda.

In March 2005, the Congo-based Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR), comprising ex-Rwandese Armed Forces, Interahamwe, and other extremists, announced it would end its armed struggle against the Government of Rwanda, but thousands of combatants are estimated to remain in eastern Congo. The combatants currently are not well-organized or funded, nor do they pose a serious threat to Rwandan security. However, in early March 2007, in Gisenyi Province (near the Volcanoes National Park in northwestern Rwanda) they launched a mortar round and rocket into Rwandan territory. There were no casualties, and it appears to have been an isolated incident. While visitors may travel freely to Volcanoes National Park, they are not permitted to visit the park without permission from Rwanda's Office of Tourism and National Parks (ORTPN). ORTPN stipulates that the park can only be used for gorilla tours and nature walks. Since December 2006, all restrictions have been lifted in the Nyungwe Forest near the Burundian border in southwestern Rwanda. In the past, the FDLR infiltrated Rwanda from Burundi through the Nyungwe Forest, but the last reported incident in the park was in November 2003. However, FDLR rebel factions are known to operate in northeastern DRC, Burundi, Tanzania, and Uganda, including near the popular tourist area of Bwindi Impenetrable Forest National Park. For information on travel to those and other countries, and for the latest security information, American citizens traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.
From time to time, travel by U.S. Embassy personnel may be restricted based on changing security conditions. Visitors are encouraged to contact the appropriate U.S. Embassy Regional Security Office or Consular Section for the latest security information, including developments in eastern Congo, Uganda and Burundi. (See Registration/Embassy Location section below.)

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME: Pick-pocketing in crowded public places is common, as is petty theft from cars and hotel rooms. Although violent crimes such as carjacking, robbery, and home invasion occur in Kigali, they are rarely committed against foreigners. Americans are advised to remain alert, exercise caution, and follow appropriate personal security measures. Although many parts of Kigali are safe at night, walking alone after dark is not recommended since foreigners, including Americans, have occasionally been the targets of robbery.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime. The U.S. Embassy provides some information on its web site about criminal justice in Rwanda at http://rwanda.usembassy.gov/criminal_justice_in_rwanda.html.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Medical and dental facilities are limited, and some medicines are in short supply or unavailable. Travelers should bring their own supplies of prescription drugs and preventive medicines. In Kigali, Americans may go to King Faisal Hospital, a private facility that offers limited services and dental facilities. There is also a missionary dental clinic and a few private dentists. American-operated charitable hospitals with some surgical facilities can be found in Kibagora, in southwestern Rwanda, in Ruhengeri, near the gorilla trekking area, and in Rwinkavu, near the entrance to Akagera National Park. The U.S. Embassy maintains on its website a current list of healthcare providers and facilities in Rwanda at http://rwanda.usembassy.gov/medical_information.html; this list is also included in the Consular Section’s welcome packets for American citizens. There are periodic outbreaks of meningitis in Rwanda. Yellow fever can cause serious medical problems, but the vaccine, required for entry, is very effective in preventing the disease. Malaria is endemic to Rwanda. All visitors are strongly encouraged to take prophylactic medications to prevent malaria. These should be initiated prior to entry into the endemic area. Because of possible counterfeit of antimalarial medications, these should be obtained from a reliable pharmaceutical source. Multiple outbreaks of ebola have been reported in neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda in the past year, but none within Rwanda.
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s website at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.
TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Rwanda is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
Due to safety concerns, the use of motorbikes or van taxis for transportation is not recommended. Regulated orange-striped (along the base of the vehicle) sedan auto taxis are safer, but be sure to agree on a fare before beginning the trip. Public transportation can be dangerous due to overloading, inadequate maintenance, and careless drivers.
While the main roads in Rwanda are in relatively good condition, during the rainy season many side roads are passable only with four-wheel drive vehicles. Nighttime driving, particularly outside major cities, is hazardous and is discouraged. Often, roadways are not marked and lack streetlights and shoulders. Many sections have deteriorated surfaces. Due to possible language barriers and lack of roadside assistance, receiving help may be difficult. Travelers may be stopped at police roadblocks throughout the country, where their vehicles and luggage may be searched. Service stations are available along main roads.
In Rwanda, as in the U.S., traffic moves on the right-hand side of the road. Cars already in a traffic circle have the right of way. Until 2004, cars entering traffic circles had the right-of-way. Drivers should exercise caution at traffic circles, since some drivers might forget this change. Excessive speed, careless driving, and the lack of basic safety equipment on many vehicles are hazards on Rwanda's roads. Many vehicles are not well maintained, and headlights are either extremely dim or not used. Drivers also tend to speed and pass other cars with little discretion. Some streets in Kigali have sidewalks or sufficient space for pedestrian traffic; others do not, and pedestrians are forced to walk along the roadway. With the limited street lighting, drivers often have difficulty seeing pedestrians. Drivers frequently have unexpected encounters with cyclists, pedestrians and livestock.
Third-party insurance is required and will cover any damages from involvement in an accident resulting in injuries, if one is found not to have been at fault. The driver’s license of individuals determined to have caused an accident may be confiscated for three months. Causing a fatal accident could result in three to six months' imprisonment. Drunk drivers are jailed for 24 hours and fined Rwandan Francs 20,000 (approximately $35). In the city of Kigali, contact the following numbers for police assistance in the event of an accident: Kigali Center, 08311112; Nyamirambo, 08311113; Kacyiru, 08311114; Kicukiro, 08311115; Remera, 08311116. Ambulance assistance is very limited. Wear seat belts and drive with care and patience at all times. In case of an emergency, American citizens can contact the Embassy duty officer at 0830-0345.
For specific information concerning Rwandan driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax, and mandatory insurance, please contact the Rwandan Office of Tourism and National Parks, B.P. 905, Kigali, Rwanda, telephone 250-76514, fax 250-76512.
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. Visit the web site of the country’s national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at http://www.gov.rw/.
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Rwanda, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Rwanda’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

In recent months, Rwandair, which charters aircraft to fly its routes, has had difficulties maintaining its schedule, resulting in delayed and cancelled flights which have left passengers stranded for extended periods.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Telephone communication to and from Rwanda is generally reliable. Cellular telephones and Internet connections are available in Kigali and large towns.
Non-biodegradable plastic bags have been banned in Rwanda, and travelers carrying them upon arrival at the Kayibanda International airport may have them confiscated and have to pay approximately $4 for a reusable cloth replacement.
International ATMs are not available in Rwanda. The Rwandan franc is freely exchangeable for hard currencies in banks and the Bureaux de Change. Several Kigali banks can handle wire transfers from U.S. banks, including Western Union. Credit cards are accepted at only a few hotels in Kigali and only to settle hotel bills. Hotels currently accepting credit cards for payment include the Kigali Serena (formerly Intercontinental) Hotel, the Hotel des Mille Collines, the Novotel Umubano, Stipp Hotel and the Kivu Sun Hotel. Note that there may be an added fee for using a credit card. Travelers should expect to handle most expenses, including air tickets, in cash.

Traveler's checks can be cashed only at commercial banks. Because some travelers have had difficulty using U.S. currency printed before the year 2000, the Embassy recommends traveling with newer U.S. currency notes.
Please see our Customs Information.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Rwandan laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Rwanda are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.
The U.S. Embassy provides some information on its website about criminal justice in Rwanda.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction. Both foreigners and Rwandans taking Rwandan children to live outside Rwanda, e.g., after adoption, must obtain an exit permission letter from the Ministry of Family and Gender located within the Primature complex at P.O. Box 969, Kigali, Rwanda; Tel: 011-250-587-128; Fax: 011-250-587-127.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Rwanda are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration website so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Rwanda. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located at 2657 Avenue de la Gendarmerie; the mailing address is B.P. 28, Kigali, Rwanda; tel. (250) 596-400,; fax: (250) 596-591. The Consular Section’s email address is consularkigali@state.gov. The Embassy's web site is http://rwanda.usembassy.gov/. American Citizen Services hours are Tuesdays from 9:00 -17:00 and Fridays from 9:00 - 12:00 except on U.S. and Rwandan holidays.
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information for Rwanda dated October 4, 2007, to update sections on Country Description, Entry/Exit Requirements, Safety and Security, Information for Victims of Crime, Medical Facilities and Health Information, Traffic Safety and Road Conditions, Aviation Safety Oversight, Criminal Penalties, Children’s Issues, and Registration/Embassy Location.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Tue 6 Aug 2018
Source: New Times (Kigali, Rwanda) [summ., edited]
<https://www.newtimes.co.rw/news/livestock-vaccinations>

Livestock farmers have appealed to the government to ensure that cows get timely vaccination in order to effectively control deadly epidemics in cattle. The appeal comes after an outbreak of Rift Valley Fever [RVF] -- a deadly and infectious viral disease -- killed 154 cows countrywide since May [2018], according to figures from Rwanda Agricultural Board (RAB). Gahiga Gashumba, the chairman of Rwanda National Dairy Farmers' Federation, told The New Times that in their performance contracts, districts set themselves targets to inoculate cows, which leaves a gap in achieving effective vaccination.

Efforts to contain the recent outbreak of RVF included vaccinating 257 902 cows countrywide of which 119 520 were from Ngoma, Kirehe, and Kayonza -- the hardest hit by the disease. "All cows should be vaccinated at least in areas prone to given diseases," Gashumba said adding, "We need a clear vaccination calendar detailing the cows that should be immunised in a given period of time. When there are heavy rains, we should be prepared of [immunising cows against] East Coast fever."

Also known as theileriosis, East Coast fever is a deadly tickborne disease in cattle. Ngoma district vice mayor for Finance and Economic Development, Jean Marie Vianney Rwiririza, said that this year [2018], they want many cows to get vaccines against different diseases, including RVF and foot and mouth disease [FMD]. "With using funds from the district's budget alone, we cannot manage to give vaccines to all cows.

We request farmers' cooperatives and the farmers themselves to partake in the activity so that all the cows can be inoculated," he told The New Times. In Kirehe district, there are over 52 000 cows and over 30 000 of them were vaccinated against different diseases, including Rift Valley fever in the 2017/2018 financial year, according to Jean Damascane Nsengiyumva, Kirehe district vice mayor for Finance and Economic Development. "We have increased funding for the vaccination activity so that we inject all cows which we should vaccinate because we do not want the recurrence of such a problem," he said referring to RVF.

Rwanda Agriculture Board (RAB) said that they do not vaccinate all the cows because it can be wastage of resources or poor management when vaccination is done in areas where a disease has not been reported while it can be contained by vaccinating livestock in the risk zone. Instead of spending money on vaccinating all cows, currently estimated at over a million countrywide, appropriate strategies are devised to control the spread of outbreaks, said RAB director general Dr Patrick Karangwa. "We give more attention to diseases that spread faster than others. We do impact assessment based on spread pattern of a disease.

If a disease can be transmitted through air, measures taken to prevent its spreading should be different from the disease that cows or people catch through contact," Karangwa said. He cited FMD which often affects cattle on areas bordering Tanzania, such as Gatsibo, Kayonza, and Nyagatare, observing that when the disease has been checked in those areas, it dose spread elsewhere, pointing out that if all cows in the country are vaccinated, all the funds used [for the development of the livestock] sector might be consumed by such a single activity. Some vaccines are given free of charge, while others have to be paid for by farmers with government subsidy. [byline: Emmanuel Ntirenganya]
=======================
[RVF has become, according to local media, active in Rwanda in April 2018, as reported from the districts of Ngoma, Kirehe, and Kayonza, in the south west of the Eastern province. It was expressed mainly by cattle death and abortions. Later, Kamonyi, a southern province was added. The Rwandan Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources announced on [Mon 30 Jul 2018] the lifting of the ban imposed since mid-June [2018] on the movement of cattle in several parts of Eastern province. According to the ministry, 99 of the 147 604 cows in the affected districts died, and 452 aborted. This differs from other statistics from various sources, including the 154 deaths in cattle, as mentioned in the above media report, quoting the Rwanda Agricultural Board.

Official statistics are expected to be included in Rwanda's RVF report to the OIE, which all member countries are obliged to submit. In the absence of data on the number of susceptible animals on the affected holdings, the mortality rate in cattle is not known. Based on accumulated field observations and experimental RVF infection trials, the mortality in adult cattle would, generally, not exceed 10 per cent. No human cases have been reported in Rwanda during the recent event. Vaccination of livestock against RVF can be applied either with a live attenuated (Smithburn) vaccine (relatively cheap, several years immunity rendered, but may cause foetal abnormalities or abortion in pregnant animals).

Alternatively, particularly in pregnant animals, an inactivated (formalin-killed) RVF vaccine can be selected (more costly, safer in all breeds/ages/reproductive stages of cattle, sheep, and goats, but requires a booster 3-6 months after the initial vaccination, then followed by yearly boosters). For the considerations related to vaccine policies, vaccines to be selected, and other tools for the prevention and control of RVF under various epidemiological situations, please refer to references 1-3.

References
------------------------------
1. Consultative Group for RVF Decision Support. Decision-support tool for prevention and control of Rift Valley fever epizootics in the Greater Horn of Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010. 83(2 Suppl): 75-85. DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.2010.83s2a03; <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2913494/>.

2. Anonymous. Risk-based decision-support framework for prevention and control of Rift Valley fever epidemics in eastern Africa. EU Collaborative Project, Seventh Framework Programme. 2015. (Grant Agreement no. 266327); <http://www.healthyfutures.eu/images/healthy/deliverables/d5.4%20risk-based%20decision-support%20framework.pdf>.

3. Mariner J. Rift Valley fever surveillance. FAO animal production and health manual no. 21. Rome: FAO. 80 pages; <http://www.fao.org/3/i8475en/I8475EN.pdf>. - ProMED Mod.AS]

[Maps of Rwanda: <http://www.geographicguide.com/pictures/map-rwanda.jpg>
and <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/173>.]
Date: Mon 30 Jul 2018
Source: Journalducameroun.com, APA News report [summ., edited]
<https://www.journalducameroun.com/en/rift-valley-fever-rwanda-lifts-quarantine-on-cattle-movement/>

The Rwandan Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources, on [Mon 30 Jul 2018] announced it was lifting the quarantine on the movement of cattle that was imposed to control the deadly Rift Valley fever [RVF] in several parts of Eastern province. A quarantine on cattle in the country's 4 affected eastern districts has been imposed since mid-June [2018] after about 100 heads of cattle were killed by the virus. In a notice issued [Mon 30 Jul 2018], the minister Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources, Gérardine Mukeshimana, said the quarantine is no longer serving the purpose of slowing the spread of the deadly Rift Valley fever.

Reports indicate that the outbreak was first detected on 18 May 2018 in 4 districts in Eastern Rwanda including Ngoma, Kirehe, Rwamagana, and Kayonza. Of the 147 604 cows in the affected districts, the ministry says 99 died while 452 aborted. The ministry says it has treated 1638 cows, with 36 930 sheep and 245 goats vaccinated against the disease. To combat further deaths among animals, the ministry says it has dispatched veterinary doctors across the affected districts. Official reports indicate that no human case has been reported so far in Rwanda, yet the number of affected livestock is thought to be much higher.

According to the Director General of Rwanda Agriculture Board (RAB), Dr Patrick Karangwa, the cause of the outbreak is unusually heavy rains, which have created ponds and lakes where mosquitoes can breed, in this region which is normally dry. "Most human infections result from contact with the blood or organs of infected animals", Dr Karangwa said.
========================
[RVF, expressed mainly by cattle death and abortions, became active in Rwanda in April 2018, in the districts of Ngoma, Kirehe and Kayonza, in the southwest of the Eastern Province. Later, Kamonyi, a southern province was added.

An administrative map of Rwanda and detailed districts maps are available at
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Districts_of_Rwanda#Eastern_Province>.

In the absence of data on the number of susceptible animals on the affected holdings, the mortality rate in cattle is not known. Based on accumulated field observations and experimental RVF infection trials, the mortality in adult cattle would, generally, not exceed 10 percent. No human cases have been reported in Rwanda during the recent event. The tests upon which RVF, an OIE-listed disease, has been confirmed and statistics pertaining to the number, locations, morbidity, and mortality rates in Rwanda's animal population, are expected to be included in an official report to the OIE, as anticipated from all OIE member countries. - ProMED Mod.AS]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Eastern Province, Rwanda:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/15277>]
Date: Sun, 11 Mar 2018 11:43:19 +0100

Kigali, March 11, 2018 (AFP) - At least 16 people were killed and dozens more injured after lightning struck a Seventh-Day Adventist church in Rwanda, a local official said Sunday.   Fourteen victims were killed on the spot as lightning hit the church in the Nyaruguru district in the Southern Province on Saturday, local mayor Habitegeko Francois told AFP over the phone.

Two others died later from their injuries, he said.   He added that 140 people involved in the incident had been rushed to hospital and district health centres, but that many had already been discharged.   "Doctors say that only three of them are in critical condition but they are getting better," he said.   According to the mayor, a similar accident took place on Friday when lightning struck a group of 18 students, killing one of them.
Date: Wed, 26 Jul 2017 11:31:06 +0200
By Fran BLANDY

Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda, July 26, 2017 (AFP) - Nicaraguan singer Hernaldo Zuniga brought his entire family to trek through the lush forests and mist-shrouded volcanoes of northwestern Rwanda in search of mountain gorillas.   He described their encounter with the critically endangered primates as "an almost spiritual" experience, and said it was the only reason they made Rwanda a stop on a trip taking in a safari in Kenya, and a tour of South Africa.

But Rwanda is no longer content with being a whirlwind stop on a tourist's itinerary, and is working hard to broaden its appeal beyond its world-famous mountain gorillas while narrowing its niche market to the wealthiest of visitors.   Zuniga counts himself lucky that his family of five scored their permits to see the gorillas before Rwanda's eyebrow-raising move to double the cost to $1,500 (1,300 euros) per person in May.   "I think that is going to be a drawback for many people. It is just going to be an elite group of people who can pay that," said Zuniga, a well-known star in Latin America.

For Rwanda however, the price hike is part of a careful strategy to boost conservation efforts while positioning itself as a luxury tourist destination.   "The idea behind (the increase) is that it is an exclusive experience which also needs to be limited in numbers. Our tourism is very much based on natural resources and we are very serious about conservation," said Clare Akamanzi, the chief executive of the Rwanda Development Board.   It is a high-value, low-impact strategy that has worked well for countries such as Botswana and Bhutan.

- Safe and clean -
The remote, mountainous border area straddling Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda is the only place in the world where one can see the gorillas, whose numbers have slowly increased to nearly 900 due to conservation efforts.   Permits in the DRC ($400) and Uganda ($600) are far cheaper, but Rwandan officials are not concerned that they will lose tourists to their neighbours, arguing the country offers an experience that is rare in the region.   Ever since the devastating 1994 genocide in which 800,000 mainly Tutsis were killed, the country has been praised for a swift economic turnaround.   "When you come to Rwanda it is a clean, organised, safe country with zero tolerance for corruption. We have concentrated on creating a good experience," said Akamanzi, also highlighting a quick visa process.

The challenge is getting tourists to make Rwanda their main destination, and spend more than the usual four days it takes to visit the gorillas and maybe the genocide museum before heading elsewhere.   "We want to keep it high-end as an anchor for tourism but provide other offerings," said Akamanzi. She said tourism is already the country's top foreign exchange earner, but believes they "have only scratched the surface".   So the country, known as the Land of a Thousand Hills is looking into sports tourism such as cycling, cultural tourism and becoming a Big Five safari destination in its own right.   In the past two years Rwanda has re-introduced both lions and rhino to its Akagera National Park -- which had gone extinct due to poor conservation -- and visitor numbers to the reserve have doubled, said Akamanzi.

- 'There will be an impact' -
However gorillas remain the main lure, and industry players are concerned about the impact the price increase could have on the whole tourism chain.   "We risk losing substantial revenue for the industry and government as a whole. Currently a number of gorilla permits are already not sold in the low season," the Rwanda Tours and Travel Association (RTTA) said in a statement after the decision was announced.   Mid-range hotels around the Volcanoes National Park say it is too soon to tell what the fallout will be, but several managers expressed concerns they would lose their main clientele.   "Either way there will be an impact," said Fulgence Nkwenprana, who runs the La Palme hotel.

Aloys Kamanzi, a guide with Individual Tours, acknowledged there has been an initial slowdown in reservations, but is convinced people will keep coming, adding his clients are mostly "retired tourists who have saved their whole lives", some of whom come three or four times.   The singer Zuniga said coming to Rwanda was a hard decision, as he had not heard much about what the country was like today from Mexico, where he lives with his family.   "Rwanda has a lot of sensitive echoes in my generation, the genocide ... we had to cross over all these personal obstacles to make the decision to come here," he said.   "They have to do better in promoting their tourism. Once you are here it is amazing, the people are unique, the country is beautiful. I would like to stay longer."
Date: Tue, 2 May 2017 16:29:01 +0200
By Cyril BELAUD

Kigali, May 2, 2017 (AFP) - Around 20 of Africa's endangered Eastern black rhinos are returning in an "extraordinary homecoming" to Rwanda after the species disappeared there 10 years ago, the African Parks organisation said Tuesday.   The rhinos are being moved from South Africa to the Akagera national park in eastern Rwanda, according to the non-profit group that manages protected areas for African governments.   "This extraordinary homecoming will take place over the first two weeks of May," it said in a statement.   The Eastern black rhino, one of the sub-species of the rhinoceros, is in critical danger of extinction, according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).   Back in the 1970s, more than 50 black rhinos thrived in the savannah habitat of the Akagera park, but their numbers declined due to wide-scale poaching and the last confirmed sighting was in 2007.

- 'Great symbol of Africa' -
"Rhinos are one of the great symbols of Africa yet they are severely threatened and are on the decline in many places across the continent due to the extremely lucrative and illegal rhino horn trade," said African Parks CEO Peter Fearnhead.    According to the conservationists, there are fewer than 5,000 black rhino in the wild worldwide, with only about 1,000 of the Eastern sub-species.

Since 2010 African Parks has boosted security at  Akagera and has prepared to accept the rhinos with financial help from the Howard Buffett Foundation, headed by the son of US billionaire Warren Buffett.   The measures taken include deploying a helicopter for air surveillance and an expert rhino tracking and protection team as well as a canine anti-poaching unit.   "We are fully prepared to welcome them (rhinos) and ensure their safety for the benefit of our tourism industry and the community at large," said Clare Akamanzi, chief executive of the Rwanda Development Board.

In July 2015, Rwanda had reintroduced lions in the Akagera park, 15 years after they had disappeared. The lions were decimated in the years after Rwanda's genocide in 1994 as Rwandans who had fled the slaughter returned and occupied the park killing the lions to protect their livestock.   The park, which takes its name from the nearby Kagera river, is located near the border with Tanzania.   With the reintroduction of the rhinos, Akagera, which welcomed more than 36,000 visitors last year, will now boast being home to Africa's "big five" -- rhino, lion, elephant, leopard and buffalo.
More ...

Croatia

Croatia US Consular Information Sheet
January 16, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Croatia is an increasingly well-developed nation in the process of accession to the EU. Facilities for tourism are available throughout the country, and the Adriat
c coast is an increasingly popular tourist destination. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Croatia for additional information or go to http://www.hr/english.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport is required for travel to Croatia. A visa is not required for U.S. passport holders for tourist or business trips of fewer than 90 days within a six-month period. All foreign citizens must register with the local police within 24 hours of arrival and inform the office about any change in their address. Registration of foreign visitors staying in hotels or accommodations rented through an accommodation company is done automatically by the hotelier or accommodation company. Failure to register is a misdemeanor offense; some Americans have been fined as a result of their failure to register. U.S. citizens already in Croatia who wish to remain in Croatia for more than 90 days must obtain a temporary residence permit from the local police having jurisdiction over their place of residence in Croatia. With their residency application, applicants will need to provide a copy of their birth and marriage certificates (obtained within 90 days before application) and a police report authenticated for use abroad from their state of residence in the U.S. or from the country where they permanently reside. All documents should have an “apostille” stamp certifying their authenticity. Information regarding apostilles and authentication of documents is available at http://travel.state.gov/law/info/judicial/judicial_701.html.

For information on obtaining FBI or local police reports, please see http://travel.state.gov/tips/emergencies/emergencies_1201.html.
If an extension of the approved temporary stay is needed, the request should be submitted no later than 30 days in advance of the last day of authorized stay. For more information on obtaining residence or work permits, please see http://www.usembassy.hr/acs/entry.htm.

For further information on entry requirements for Croatia, including information regarding requirements for residency and work permits, travelers may contact the Embassy of Croatia at 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008, tel. (202) 588-5899, the Croatian Consulates in New York City, Chicago, and Los Angeles or the Croatian Ministry of Internal Affairs/Office for Foreigners, tel. (385) (1) 4563-111 or http://www.mup.hr and http://www.mvpei.hr/MVP.asp?pcpid=1123. Visit the Embassy of Croatia web site at www.croatiaemb.org for the most current information.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site. For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet or visit www.carina.hr for specific information about Croatian customs regulations.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Although hostilities in all parts of the country ended in 1995, de-mining of areas along former confrontation lines is not complete. It is estimated that de-mining operations will continue at least until 2010. Mine-affected areas are well-marked with the Croatian-language warning signs using the international symbol for mines. Travelers in former conflict areas, including Eastern Slavonija, Brodsko-Posavska county, Karlovac county, areas around Zadar, and in more remote areas of the Plitvice Lakes National Park should exercise caution and not stray from known safe roads and areas.
Mine clearance work may lead to the closure of roads in former conflict areas. For more information about mine-affected areas and de-mining operations in Croatia, please see the Croatian Mine Action Center’s web site at www.hcr.hr/en/minskaSituacija.asp.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
Croatia has a relatively low crime rate, and violent crime is rare. Foreigners do not appear to be singled out. However, in tandem with increased numbers of American tourists visiting Croatia, the Embassy is receiving increased reports of thefts. Travelers are advised to safeguard their belongings in public areas, especially in bus or railroad stations, airports and on public transportation. As in many countries, outward displays of wealth may increase a traveler’s chances of being targeted by thieves.

While violent crime is rare, there have been isolated attacks targeted at specific persons or property, which may have been racially motivated or prompted by lingering ethnic tensions from Croatia’s war for independence.

Additionally, American citizens are cautioned to be mindful that Croatia is predominantly Catholic and, in some regions, quite conservative. Behavior that may be generally acceptable by American standards may offend local sensitivities and be met with hostility and, in a few cases, even violence.

American citizens are urged to be cautious when frequenting so called "gentlemen's clubs." A few such establishments have presented foreign patrons with grossly inflated bar bills, sometimes in the thousands of dollars, and threatened those customers who refuse to pay.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Health facilities in Croatia, although generally of western caliber, are under severe budgetary strains. Some medicines are in short supply in public hospitals and clinics. The number of private medical and dental practitioners is substantial, and private pharmacies stock a variety of medicines not readily available through public health facilities. Croatian health care facilities, doctors and hospitals may expect immediate cash payment for health services and generally will not accept credit cards. Tick-borne encephalitis, a disease preventable with a three-shot vaccination series, is found throughout inland Croatia but is not prevalent along the coast. Travelers to Croatia may obtain a list of English-speaking physicians and dentists at the Embassy’s web site at www.usembassy.hr/acs/medical.htm or by calling: (385) (1) 661-2376 during working hours, or (385) (1) 661-2400 after working hours. Ambulance services can be reached by dialing 94. Ambulance services are effective; however, response times may be longer to more isolated areas.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad, consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Americans who plan to stay in Croatia for more than 90 days may be required by Croatian authorities to pay into the Croatian health insurance system for the period of their stay in Croatia, regardless of whether they hold private American insurance or not.

Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Croatia is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Road conditions and maintenance in Croatia vary widely. Two modern highways linking Zagreb with Rijeka and Split opened in 2004. Construction is complete between Zagreb and Split and Zagreb and Rijeka, but work is still ongoing between Split and Dubrovnik; This work may cause delays and road closures. Additionally, there are stretches of highway, with average travel speeds up to 130km/hour, which are still only one lane in each direction. Opposing traffic may not be separated by a divider. Highway tolls are higher than in the United States. Primary roads, including roads along the coast, are generally adequate, but most have only one lane in each direction. Coastal roads are narrow and congested, and tend to be slippery when wet. Rock slides are also possible on roads along the coast as well as through the mountain regions of Lika and Gorski Kotar. There is heavy congestion on major routes on weekends (towards the coast, for example) and in major cities during rush hours. Congestion on coastal routes, at border crossings and at tunnels is especially heavy in the summer months. Drivers should be prepared for sudden slowdowns when approaching tunnels at any time of year. Drivers tend to be aggressive in Croatia. Passing on curves or in oncoming lanes is common on highways and poses a higher risk of accidents. Drivers traveling though former conflict areas should stay on paved roads to reduce the risk of encountering unmarked mines and unexploded ordnance left over from the 1991-1995 war. In Zagreb, motorists and pedestrians alike should also pay special attention to trams (streetcars), which in downtown areas may travel at a high rate of speed through the narrow, congested streets.

Right turns on red lights are strictly forbidden in Croatia, unless an additional green light (in the shape of an arrow) allows it. At unmarked intersections, right of way is always to the vehicle entering from the right. The use of front seat belts is obligatory and passengers in vehicles equipped with rear seat belts are required to use them. Special seats are required for infants, and children under age 12 may not sit in the front seat of an automobile. The use of a cellular phone while operating a motor vehicle is prohibited unless the driver is using a hands-free device. Cars must have headlights on while in operation.

Croatia has adopted a policy of zero tolerance to driving under the influence of alcohol. It is illegal for a driver to have blood alcohol level greater than 0.00. Police routinely spot-check motorists for drinking and driving and will administer breath-analyzer tests at even the most minor accident. Drivers who refuse to submit to a breath-analyzer are automatically presumed to have admitted to driving while intoxicated. In case of accidents resulting in death or serious injury, Croatian law requires police to take blood samples to test blood alcohol levels.

Within Croatia, emergency road help and information may be reached by dialing 987, a service of the Croatian Automobile Association (HAK), staffed by English speaking operators. The police can be reached by dialing 92 and the ambulance service by dialing 94. Additional road condition and safety information may be obtained from HAK at tel. (385-1) 464-0800 ext. 0 (English speaking operators available 24 hours), or (385-1) 455-4433 or (385-1) 661-1999, or via their web site, www.hak.hr. During the tourist season, traffic information in English is also available at 98.5 FM on Croatian radio thirty minutes past the hour between 6:30 a.m. and 8:30 p.m.

According to Croatian law, U.S. citizens in Croatia for tourism or business may use a U.S. driver’s license for up to three months. U.S. citizens in Croatia with an approved extended tourist visa or permit for permanent residence may continue to use a U.S. driver’s license for up to twelve months, after which a Croatian driver’s license must be obtained. Please see http://www.usembassy.hr/acs/driver_license.htm for more information on obtaining a Croatian driver’s license. For specific information concerning Croatian driver’s permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, please contact the Croatian National Tourist Office, 350 Fifth Avenue, Suite 4003, New York, NY 10118; phone 1-800-829-4416 or 212-278-8672; fax 212-279-8683.

In cases of traffic accidents involving a foreign-registered vehicle, the investigating police officer on the scene is required to issue a vehicle damage certificate to the owner of the foreign-registered vehicle. This certificate is necessary to cross the state border. Upon written request, the police station in the area where the accident occurred will issue a Traffic Accident Investigation Record. For further information, please visit http://www.mup.hr/1266.aspx.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.

For travelers arriving by private marine craft, please refer to the nautical information and regulations available at www.mmtpr.hr.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by Croatian carriers, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed the Government of Croatia’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Croatia’s air carrier operations. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
With numerous automated teller machines and ever-wider acceptance of credit cards in Croatia, traveler’s checks are accepted less frequently or exchanged at an unfavorable rate. Western Union money transfer is available. For information on money transfers, call (385)(1) 4839-166 or fax (385)(1) 4839-122.

Recreational Boating:
The Government of Croatia adopted a law (effective January 1, 2006) requiring all recreational skippers chartering Croatian flagged vessels to have a certificate of competence. Under the law, the Ministry of Sea, Tourism and Transport will only recognize licenses issued by national authorities of other states. As no such national licensing regime exists in the U.S., Americans wishing to charter and pilot a Croatian-flagged vessel may be required to pass a certification test at the Ministry in Zagreb or a designated harbormaster's office on the coast.

Tourists can be certified in Croatia at harbormasters' offices in Pula, Rijeka, Senj, Zadar, Sibenik, Split, Ploce and Dubrovnik, as well as at the Ministry in Zagreb. Candidates need to contact the harbormaster's office or the Ministry to schedule the test. Please note that the test will be administered only to groups, so individuals may need to wait until a sufficient number of interested applicants apply. The certification costs 850 kuna (roughly $165) and is valid indefinitely. A study guide is available and the test can be taken in Croatian, English, German, and Italian.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Croatian laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Croatia are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable also in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION/EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Croatia are encouraged to register with the U.S. Embassy through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Croatia.Americans withoutInternet access may register directly with the U.S. Embassy. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy in Zagreb is located at ul. Thomasa Jeffersona 2, 10010 Zagreb, tel. (385) (1) 661-2200. The Embassy is located in the southern outskirts of Zagreb near the airport. For emergencies on weekends, holidays and after hours, an embassy duty officer can be reached at tel. (385) (1) 661-2400 or (385) (91) 455-2247.
* * *
This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated July 6, 2007, to update sections on Traffic and Road Conditions.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Tue, 16 Jul 2019 10:44:51 +0200

Zagreb, July 16, 2019 (AFP) - Some 10,000 tourists were evacuated from a popular party beach on a Croatian island after a forest fire erupted early Tuesday, police said.

Police ordered visitors to night clubs on Zrce beach on the northern island of Pag to leave after the blaze erupted in a pine forest at around 1:00 am (2300 GMT Monday), a police statement said.   No one was injured in the fire which was brought under control, the mayor of the nearby town of Novalja, Ante Dabo, told national radio.  The cause was not immediately known.   Three firefighting planes were rushed to the scene to help extinguish the blaze which spread to a local road that had to be closed.

The island of Pag and its Zrce beach are popular with young tourists, notably British, who party there.  Tourism is a pillar of Croatia's economy, with visitors flocking to hundreds of islands and islets along its stunning Adriatic coast.   Last year the country of 4.2 million people welcomed more than 19 million tourists.
Date: Tue, 25 Sep 2018 19:50:04 +0200

Zagreb, Sept 25, 2018 (AFP) - A forest fire erupted Tuesday in Croatia's southern Peljesac peninsula, prompting the evacuation of dozens of villagers and tourists and destroying four houses, officials said.   The blaze broke out near the town of Orebic. It threatened the hamlet of Mokalo whose 40 inhabitants were evacuated, the national rescue and protection directorate (DZUS) said.   Tourists from two nearby camps were also evacuated, it added.

Meanwhile, strong winds hampered firefighting efforts and prevented the use of two water-bombing planes, they said.   "The situation in the Orebic area is pretty serious," national firefighting commander Slavko Tucakovic told state-run television.   "Unfortunately four houses were burned down but there are no casualties," he said.   This summer Croatia did not see major forest fires which mainly namely threaten its Adriatic coast.   But in 2017, summer fires were among the worst in several years, with 83,000 hectares (205,000) of forests damaged.
Date: Mon 3 Sep 2018, 11:43 PM
Source: Xinhua [edited]

A total of 26 people in Croatia have been diagnosed with the West Nile virus (WNV) this year [2018] and one has died, the Croatian Institute of Public Health announced on [Mon 3 Sep 2018].

Since last week, the institute has received 10 new reports of the disease, which is most often transmitted by infected mosquitoes and birds. The victims all came from the northwest and eastern parts of the country.

According to the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control, by [30 Aug 2018] there were 710 cases of WNV infections in Europe. Most of them in were in Italy (327), Serbia (243) and Greece (147).

Croatian news portal index.hr reported on [Mon 3 Sep 2018] that at least 20 people in Croatia who have been diagnosed with the virus were infected in Croatia.

WNV can cause neurological disease and death. The virus 1st appeared in Croatia in 2012 and since then 38 people have been infected. However, only a small percentage of the infected has been recorded, as the disease is usually mild and goes without any symptoms.

It is estimated that 80 percent of infected people have no symptoms while others develop a disease with flu-like symptoms such as high temperature, headache, sickness, and vomiting. Only 1 percent of infected people are hit by a heavy fever that usually leads to meningitis or encephalitis.  [Byline: Mu Xuequan]
======================
[In 2012, the 1st outbreak of human WNV neuroinvasive disease was reported in Croatia with 7 confirmed cases in 3 north-eastern counties [1]. In addition, acute asymptomatic infections in horses were noted in the same counties where human cases occurred [2].

All the cases of the West Nile virus infection in 2018 have been reported in the north-western and eastern regions of the country [3]

Vector surveillance and control measures can be helpful in reducing the burden of WNV and other vector borne diseases such as Dengue and Chikungunya.

References
1. Pem-Novosel, Vilibic-Cavlek T, Gjenero-Margan I, et al. First outbreak of West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease in humans, Croatia, 2012. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2014 Jan;14(1):82-4. doi: 10.1089/vbz.2012.1295, available at:

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Date: Thu, 28 Jun 2018 12:57:23 +0200

Zagreb, June 28, 2018 (AFP) - Croatian authorities arrested a young British man Thursday on suspicion of stabbing to death another Briton on a popular party island in the Adriatic, in what local media said was a drug-related brawl between British gangs.   "We have identified the person suspected of committing the killing ... and the suspect was arrested this morning at the airport in Split", on the central Adriatic coast, Interior Minister Davor Bozinovic told reporters.   A police statement identified the suspect as a 25-year-old British man.   The victim was a 26-year-old British tourist who was killed at dawn Wednesday on the resort island of Pag.   Two other Britons were hurt in the alleged brawl on a beach, famous for parties. One of them suffered life-threatening stab wounds and was hospitalised while a third British tourist sustained minor injuries, hospital sources said.

The Jutarnji List paper -- which identified the victim as Ugo W. and said surveillance cameras recorded the fight -- reported Thursday that the "young men clashed over an area where they were selling drugs."   Croatia's northern island of Pag, particularly the town of Novalja and Zrce beach, is well known as a summer party destination for young tourists, many of them British.   Tourism is a major industry for Croatia where visitors flock to its stunning Adriatic coast, with more than 1,000 islands and islets.   Last year the country of 4.2 million people welcomed more than 17 million tourists. Among them were more than 750,000 British visitors.
Date: Wed, 27 Jun 2018 18:12:03 +0200

Zagreb, June 27, 2018 (AFP) - A British tourist was stabbed to death outside a nightclub on a popular Croatian party island at dawn on Wednesday in what the local media said was a brawl between British gangs.

Two other Britons were hurt in the fight on a beach on the Adriatic resort island of Pag, one of them suffering life threatening injuries.   Police said they were questioning several people over the incident, which occurred on Zrce beach at around 05:35 am (0335 GMT).   Surveillance cameras recorded the "fight between two British gangs" and police have identified those involved, the Jutarnji List paper reported online.

Police did not give further details about the brawl or the British tourists, although the state-run HINA news agency reported that the dead man was 26 years old.   "Unofficially, it was a fight between a group of young Brits," it said.   Another 26-year-old Briton suffered several stab wounds.   "He is stable now but his life is still in danger," said Edi Karuc, deputy head of a hospital in the coastal town of Zadar, quoted by HINA.    A third British tourist sustained minor injuries.

The northern island of Pag, particularly the town of Novalja and Zrce beach, is well known as a summer party destination for young tourists, many of them British.   Tourism is a major industry for Croatia where visitors flock to its stunning Adriatic coast, with more than 1,000 islands and islets.   Last year the country of 4.2 million people welcomed more than 17 million tourists. Among them were more than 750,000 British visitors.
More ...

World Travel News Headlines

Date: Mon, 14 Oct 2019 11:08:10 +0200 (METDST)

Manila, Oct 14, 2019 (AFP) - Parents lined up from sunrise holding sleeping infants as the Philippines launched a campaign on Monday to vaccinate millions of children against polio, which has re-emerged nearly two decades after the nation's last cases.   Years of falling vaccination rates, made worse by the botched rollout of a dengue vaccine, culminated in an outbreak of the preventable disease in September.   "This is for the welfare of my child," Ruth Miranda told AFP after the vaccine was squirted into her child's mouth at the Manila slum they call home.

Miranda's child is among scores who are unprotected in the capital of about 13 million people, where vaccination rates of young children plunged from 77 percent in 2016 to a mere 24 percent in June.   The atmosphere at the event in Manila was festive -- with ice cream vendors and music -- but the stakes for the campaign are high.

Polio, which can cause paralysis and can be fatal in rare cases, has no cure and can only be prevented with several doses of oral and injectable vaccines.   Two cases were detected in September, the first polio infections in the Philippines since 2001, adding to the woes of a country already hit by deadly measles and dengue epidemic.   The risk of the disease spreading within the Philippines is high, according to World Health Organization, due to low immunisation coverage partly blamed to a dengue vaccine scandal.

The Philippines was the first nation to use Dengvaxia in a mass programme in 2016, but a botched rollout led to claims that children had died after being vaccinated.   A dramatic drop in vaccine confidence followed, with trust plunging from 93 percent in 2015 to 32 percent in 2018, according to a study led by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.   The Philippines polio outbreak has been traced back to the weakened form of the virus used in vaccines, which is excreted by people for a time after they receive it.   According to the WHO, that form can mutate and spread in the surrounding community when immunisation rates get too low.
Date: Mon, 14 Oct 2019 10:25:38 +0200 (METDST)
By Shingo ITO, Sara HUSSEIN

Tokyo, Oct 14, 2019 (AFP) - Tens of thousands of rescue workers in Japan battled on Monday to find survivors of a powerful typhoon that killed at least 43 people, as fresh rain threatened to hamper efforts.   Typhoon Hagibis crashed into the country on Saturday night, unleashing high winds and torrential rain across 36 of the country's 47 prefectures, and triggering landslides and catastrophic flooding.   "Even now, many people are still unaccounted for in the disaster-hit area," Prime Minister Shinzo Abe told an emergency disaster meeting on Monday.   "Units are trying their best to search for and rescue them, working day and night," Abe said.

But even as rescuers, including troops, combed through debris, the country's weather agency forecast rain in central and eastern Japan that it warned could cause further flooding and new landslides.   "I would like to ask people to stay fully vigilant and continue watching for landslides and river flooding," Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga told a news conference.   In Nagano, one of the worst-hit regions, rain was already falling and was expect to intensify.   "We are concerned about the impact of the latest rain on rescue and recovery efforts," local official Hiroki Yamaguchi told AFP.   "We will continue operations while watching out for secondary disasters due to the current rain."

- 43 dead, 16 missing: NHK -
By late Monday afternoon, national broadcaster NHK said the toll had risen to 43 dead, with 16 others missing and over 200 people injured. The government gave lower figures but was continuing to update its information.   The dead included a municipal worker whose car was overcome by floodwaters and at least seven crew from a cargo ship that sank in Tokyo Bay on Saturday night, a coast guard spokesman said.   Four others, from China, Myanmar and Vietnam, were rescued when the boat sank and the coast guard was still searching for a last crew member.   While Hagibis, one of the most powerful storms to hit the Tokyo area in decades, packed wind gusts of up to 216 kilometres (134 miles) per hour, it was the heavy rains that caused most damage.

A total of 142 rivers flooded, mainly in eastern and northern Japan, with river banks collapsing in two dozen places, local media said.   In central Nagano, a levee breach sent water from the Chikuma river gushing into residential neighbourhoods, flooding homes up to the second floor.   As water slowly receded Monday, television footage showed patients being transferred by ambulance from a Nagano hospital where some 200 people had been cut off by flooding.   Elsewhere, rescuers used helicopters to winch survivors from roofs and balconies, or steered boats through muddy waters to reach those trapped.

- Japan dedicates rugby win to victims -
By Monday afternoon, some 75,900 households remained without power, with 120,000 experiencing water outages.   The disaster left tens of thousands of people in shelters, with many unsure when they would be able to return home.   "Everything from my house was washed away before my eyes, I wasn't sure if it was a dream or real," a woman in Nagano told NHK.   "I feel lucky I'm still alive."   The storm brought travel chaos over the holiday weekend, grounding flights and halting commuter and bullet train services.

By Monday, most subway trains had resumed service, along with many bullet train lines, and flights had also restarted.   The storm also brought havoc to the sporting world, forcing the delay of Japanese Grand Prix qualifiers and the cancellation of three Rugby World Cup matches.   But a crucial decider pitting Japan against Scotland went ahead, with the hosts dedicating their stunning 28-21 win to the victims of the disaster.   "To everyone that's suffering from the typhoon, this game was for you guys," said Japan captain Michael Leitch.
Date: Sun, 13 Oct 2019 23:31:57 +0200 (METDST)

Kinshasa, Oct 13, 2019 (AFP) - Doctors will use a second Ebola vaccine from November in three eastern provinces in the Democratic Republic of Congo to fight the deadly virus, medical officials said Sunday.   "It's time to use the new Ad26-ZEBOV-GP vaccine, manufactured by Johnson & Johnson's Belgian subsidiary," said Dr. Jean-Jacques Muyembe, who leads the national anti-Ebola operation in the DRC.    It will arrive in the eastern city of Goma, in North Kivu province, on October 18 and be used from the beginning of next month, he added.   DRC's latest Ebola epidemic, which began in August 2018, has killed 2,144 people, making it the second deadliest outbreak of the virus, after the West Africa pandemic of 2014-2016.

Muyembe said the communes of Majingo and Kahembe had been selected to receive the vaccine as they were considered the epicentres of the epidemic.   "We will extend this vaccination to our small traders who often go to Rwanda to protect our neighbours," he added.   "If it works well, we will expand vaccination in South Kivu and Ituri."   DR Congo's eastern provinces of Ituri, North Kivu and South Kivu sit on the borders with Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi.   The Belgian laboratory will send a batch of 200,000 doses to neighbouring Rwanda and 500,000 doses in the DRC, Muyembe said.   More than 237,000 people living in active Ebola transmission zones have received a vaccination produced by the pharma company Merck Sharpe and Dohme since August 8, 2018. 

The J&J vaccine had been rejected by DRC's former health minister Oly Ilunga, who cited the risks of introducing a new product in communities where mistrust of Ebola responders is already high.   But Ilunga's resignation in July appears to have paved the way for approval of the second vaccine. He currently faces charges that he embezzled funds intended for the fight against Ebola.   In his letter of resignation Ilunga said "actors who have demonstrated a lack of ethics" want to introduce a second vaccine, but did not elaborate.    Muyembe, who took over the Ebola fight in the DRC in July, said "The Johnson & Johnson vaccine has the most science-based data."
Date: Thu, 10 Oct 2019 20:02:59 +0200 (METDST)
By Robbie COREY-BOULET

Addis Ababa, Oct 10, 2019 (AFP) - A palace that once housed Ethiopia's emperors and also served as a torture site under the communist Derg regime is to open to the public in a controversial government tourism project.    The palace compound in Addis Ababa, which Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed's government has rebranded "Unity Park", was formally launched Thursday and will be open from Friday.    Abiy's office said on Twitter Thursday that the project "symbolises our ability to come together".

But critics have dismissed it as vanity project for Abiy that could prove divisive.   Backed by the United Arab Emirates, the project cost more than $160 million (145 million euros), Ethiopian officials told reporters at a briefing earlier this week.    Built in the late 1800s by Emperor Menelik II, who founded Addis Ababa, the palace was the residence of Ethiopia's rulers for more than a century.   Abiy himself does not live there, and it has seen little activity in recent years.    Abiy's advisers say he has taken a keen interest in transforming the palace into a tourist attraction since coming to power in April 2018 -- visiting the site every day in recent weeks to monitor progress.

The government's "Home-Grown Economic Reform" agenda, unveiled last month, describes tourism as a primary engine of potential job creation.    On Thursday, government officials and the diplomatic corps toured the expansive site before attending a banquet that was expected to draw five regional heads of state and other dignitaries.    The restored rooms feature items like Menelik's sword and a life-size wax replica of former Emperor Haile Selassie, who lived at the palace and was then etained there after the Derg overthrew him in 1974.

The site also includes a sculpture garden with installations representing Ethiopia's nine regions, and a zoo is expected to open by the end of the year.    Aklilu Fikresilassie, an Ethiopian employee of the United Nations who attended the launch Thursday, said he was "really fascinated" to set foot inside a place that had been closed to the public his entire life.    "For us it's like a government house, so now when you enter that palace it tells you that we are getting somehow closer to our leaders," he said.

But not everyone is convinced the palace will succeed in bringing Ethiopians together.   In a country grappling with ethnic divisions, some worry that the palace could alienate ethnic Oromos who contend that their ancestors were forced off their land when Addis Ababa was built.    Journalist and former political prisoner Eskinder Nega said the renovations were undertaken "without consultation from the public", which he called "a huge mistake."    "This is all about heritage, about preserving heritage. The people should have had a say in it," he said.    "Like everything else this was decided from the top and implemented only by the decision of the prime minister."
Date: Thu, 10 Oct 2019 13:13:57 +0200 (METDST)

Hanoi, Oct 10, 2019 (AFP) - Selfie-snapping tourists railed against the closure of Hanoi's 'train street' on Thursday after police blocked off the Instragram-famous tracks for safety reasons.   The narrow railway corridor in central Hanoi has become a hotspot among visitors seeking the perfect holiday snap on the tracks -- often dodging trains that rumble through daily.    But Hanoi authorities said this week they would block people from the tracks to avoid accidents, and police on Thursday erected barricades to keep out disappointed visitors.    "I'm very frustrated because today I can't go in and take a picture," Malaysian tourist Mustaza bin Mustapha told AFP, vowing to come back later.

Dozens of other tourists were turned away, though some managed to get onto still-open sections of the railway, moving out of the way as an afternoon train chugged past.    Built by former colonial rulers, the railway once shipped goods and people across France's former Indochina colony and remains in use today by communist Vietnam's state-run railway company.    The stretch of the tracks was once known as a rough part of town, occupied by drug users and squatters until their recent discovery by camera-wielding holidaymakers who have splashed images of the area across social media.

Cafe owners complained that business would be hurt thanks to the new regulations, and that tourists always moved out of the way for oncoming trains.   "There has never been any regretful accidents here," said Le Tuan Anh, who runs a cafe from his home along the tracks.   "Compared to traffic density elsewhere in the city, this is much safer," he said, referring to Hanoi's chaotic, motorbike-clogged streets.   New signs were installed in the area Thursday, warning passersby not to take photos or videos in the "dangerous area", much to the chagrin of British tourist Harriet Hayes.   "People come from all over the world to Hanoi just to see the train go past," she told AFP.   "It's such a shame that we come and have been told that we have to leave."
Date: Thu, 10 Oct 2019 06:51:42 +0200 (METDST)
By Holly ROBERTSON

Sydney, Oct 10, 2019 (AFP) - Large numbers of tourists are rushing to scale Uluru -- also known as Ayers Rock -- ahead of a looming ban on climbing a site sacred to indigenous Australians.   Photographs of hundreds of people clambering up the giant red monolith have provoked a social media backlash, with critics lashing as "ignorant" those going against the wishes of the traditional Aboriginal owners of the land, the Anangu.   "A mass of morally and ethically bankrupt people," indigenous woman Laura McBride tweeted alongside an image showing a queue of people snaking up the side of Uluru.    "One even hiking a toddler up, teaching the next generation how to be ignorant."   "Imagine rushing to climb Uluru before it closes just so you could brag about disrespecting the oldest living culture in the world," tweeted National Indigenous Television journalist Madeline Hayman-Reber, who called the scenes "embarrassing".

Officials say the ban, which comes into effect on October 26, is intended to show respect for cultural practices, protect the site from further environmental damage and to ensure visitors' safety.    More than 395,000 people visited the Uluru-Kata National Park in the 12 months to June 2019, according to Parks Australia, about 20 percent more than the previous year. Around 13 percent of those who visited during that period made the climb, park authorities said.    More recent figures are not available but Tourism Central Australia CEO Stephen Schwer said there had been a "significant jump" in the number of people visiting in recent weeks, with the period leading up to the ban coinciding in part with school holidays.   "Its been very busy, particularly down in the national park precinct itself," he told AFP.   "We've had quite an issue with accommodation availability, because there's a lot of people want to climb Uluru before it closes. It's been a busier than normal holiday period."   Japanese visitors and Australians on driving holidays were most likely to want to scale Uluru, Schwer said, though he urged them not to do so.

Australian tourist Belinda Moore, 33, drove to Uluru from her home in central Queensland state to ascend the rock, an experience she said she "absolutely loved".   "It's always been something to tick off the bucket list and when we heard it was closing, we knew it was now or never," she told AFP.   Moore said she did not think her climb was disrespectful to traditional owners as she was not Aboriginal.    "It may be for their own people, because it's their sacred site," she said.   "I'm pretty sad that they're closing it, but it's still amazing just to see it. I would still recommend it."   The climb will be permanently closed as of October 26, the anniversary of ownership being handed back to the Anangu people.

Uluru has great spiritual and cultural significance to indigenous Australians, with their connection to the site dating back tens of thousands of years.   Though visitor numbers were expected to decline once the ban was in place, Schwer said local tourism operators were "not particularly concerned" as it would return the area to normality.   "People need to remember that in central Australia we're a very interconnected community," he said. "The people who are requesting the climb closure are our friends and colleagues.   "We're just looking forward to being able to have the climb consigned to the annals of history."
Date: Wed, 9 Oct 2019 22:01:17 +0200 (METDST)

Kinshasa, Oct 9, 2019 (AFP) - Six people were killed in the Democratic Republic of Congo after torrential rains hit the capital Kinshasa, flooding several neighbourhoods. a local official said.    The bodies were found between Tuesday night and Wednesday morning.    Five people were killed in the capital's Selembao municipality where around 30 houses collapsed, local mayor Augustin Mankesi told Top Congo radio station.   One woman died in the Pelende district after she was electrocuted, he added.    "Our community is stricken," Mankesi added, calling on the Congolese authorities for help.   Fatal floods and rains are frequent in Kinshasa. In January last year 48 people were killed in landslides, floods and after houses collapsed, according to authorities.    Residents told AFP the road from the sea port district of Matadi to the Kinshasa turnoff has been closed due to erosion caused by the rain.    The passage is Kinshasa's main supply route for imported goods and also serves as an exit point for exports.
Date: Tue, 8 Oct 2019 04:13:25 +0200 (METDST)
By Margioni BERMÚDEZ

Caracas, Oct 8, 2019 (AFP) - The small waiting room at the home of self-styled healer "Brother Guayanes" in Caracas' rundown Petare district fills up quickly with patients -- business has never been better.   With Venezuela's chronic medicine shortages and hyperinflation, more and more people are turning to alternative medicine to treat common ailments in the crisis-wracked South American country.   "We go to the hospital and there's nothing there. They don't have medicines, or they're too expensive, what are we to do?" said Rosa Saez, 77, who has come to get treatment for a painful arm.   Carlos Rosales -- he uses the more ceremonious "Brother Guayanes" for his business -- is finishing up a "spiritual intervention" on a patient in what passes for his surgery.   The patient lies, eyes closed, on a cot as, in a series of swishes and clicks, the healer waves five pairs of scissors one after another over his prone body.    The healer says he performs 200 such interventions a week in a dim, candle-lit room that features two camp beds and an array of plaster statues that Rosales says represent "spiritual entities".   A regular visitor to the spiritual center, Saez says she has faith in Rosales' methods: "He healed my kidneys."

- Natural healing -
All across Venezuela, but particularly in poor areas like Petare, patients cannot hope to afford the price of medicines that due to the economic crisis, have become exceedingly rare.  Venezuela's pharmacists' federation say pharmacies and hospitals have on average only about 20 percent of the medicine stock needed.   Rosales' clinic is muggy with the smell of tobacco. A crucifix suspended from a chain around his neck, he practices a seeming mixture of smoke-blowing shamanism, plant-based medicine and mainstream religion.    Posters hung near the entrance remind clients to arrive with a candle and tobacco and "Don't forget that payment is in cash".   Much like a general practitioner, Rosales spends time consulting with his patients, examining them with a stethoscope, before offering a diagnosis. Often he prescribes potions based on plants and fruit, such as pineapple and a type of local squash known as chayote.   "We know medicines are necessary," he says. "I'm not against medicine, but my medicine is botany."

- Plants replace drugs -
At her stall in a downtown Caracas market, 72-year-old Lilia Reyes says she has seen her trade in medicinal plants flourish.   "I can't keep up with the demand," she said at her stall, bathed in the aroma of camomile, one of the 150 plants she sells.   Careless consumption of some herbs can be deadly, warns Grismery Morillo. A doctor at a Caracas public hospital, she says she has seen many cases of acute liver failure in people who have eaten certain roots.   According to Venezuela's opposition parties, some 300,000 chronically ill people are in danger of dying from the shortages of medicines.

But despite the risks, people like Carmen Teresa say they have no alternative.    In the kitchen of her restaurant which closed down three years ago as the economic crisis took hold, the 58-year-old Colombian prepares an infusion of fig leaves to treat "diabetic neuropathy".   The painkillers needed for the condition are "too expensive" and prices are going up due to hyperinflation, so she is cutting back on the pills and supplementing her treatment with herbal infusions.   She needs at least four tablets a day to keep her diabetes at bay. Her mother, bedridden since breaking a leg a year ago, suffers from Alzheimer's disease and needs five pills a day for hypertension.   "I'm still taking my pills, but I reduced the dose," says Teresa, who is also replacing cholesterol pills with lemon juice.
Date: Sun, 6 Oct 2019 12:04:37 +0200 (METDST)

Riyadh, Oct 6, 2019 (AFP) - Saudi Arabia announced Sunday it would allow unmarried foreign couples to rent hotel rooms together as the ultraconservative kingdom begins offering up tourist visas for the first time.   The tourism authority said in a statement published on Twitter that Saudi women travelling alone would also be able to check into a hotel by presenting valid ID.

In the past, couples wanting to stay in a hotel had to prove they were married.    "This is no longer required for tourists," the statement said.   Saudi Arabia announced on September 27 it was opening its doors to holidaymakers with the goal of diversifying its oil-dependent economy.   The kingdom had previously only issued visas to Muslim pilgrims, foreign workers, and recently to spectators at sporting or cultural events.

Kickstarting tourism is one of the centrepieces of Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman's Vision 2030 reform programme to prepare the biggest Arab economy for a post-oil era.   Citizens from 49 countries are now eligible for online e-visas or visas on arrival, including the United States, Australia and several European nations.   On September 28, Saudi authorities warned that tourists who violated "public decency", including with immodest clothing and public displays of affection, would be subject to fines.
Date: Sat, 5 Oct 2019 03:30:17 +0200 (METDST)
By Giovanna FLEITAS

Petorca, Chile, Oct 5, 2019 (AFP) - For Erick Hurtado, the worst thing about the drought that has devastated his family farm in Chile is the dead animals.   "Going out and seeing the animals dead on the ground is so horrible," Hurtado says as he gazes across the dusty paddocks of his farm in Petorca, near the coastal city of Valparaiso.

Farmers are counting the cost of one of the driest austral winters in six decades, which has destroyed crops and left tens of thousands of farm animals dead in the fields of central Chile.   Hurtado's farm, owned by his grandfather, has lost half its 60 head of cattle.   So far, 106,000 animals have died due to lack of water and fodder, mostly goats, cattle and sheep, according to the agriculture ministry.   President Sebastian Pinera, who last month announced a $5 billion plan to improve water distribution, this week set up a crisis group of government agencies to tackle the water crisis, which he said had become "more extensive and more intense."

In Colina, north of the capital Santiago, the drought has been hard on small farmers. Scrawny cattle pick at sprigs of strawy grass on pastures that have turned to dust. Cows, goats and horses roam hungry on hills have turned to a dry muddy brown.   "The drought has been disastrous for us," said Sandra Aguilar. Her family owned about a hundred head of cattle. Today, only half survive thanks to a trickle of water provided by a neighbor who still has some reserves.   "The situation is complicated," said Javier Maldonado, governor of the province of Chacabuco, where several agricultural areas have been hit particularly hard by the drought.    "We have to be realistic, climate change is here to stay," he said.

- Water shortages -
Dominga Mondaca points out the deep fissures that run through the garden behind her house in the village of La Ligua near Valparaiso. The garden used to be full of strawberries and citrus trees; now it's cracked earth.    "We have had many years with little water. But the last year, it didn't rain at all," said the 73-year-old, one of more than 600,000 people the government is supplying by tanker trucks as part of emergency measures.   She says she has had to give up raising chickens, in order to keep what little water she and her husband receive for their own consumption, washing and cleaning. Whatever is left, she uses to sprinkle on herbs in a small kitchen garden.   The agriculture ministry says 37,000 family farms need assistance in the central Chile.

- Thirsty avocados? -
In Petorca, some rivers have run dry, and the landscape has been left parched, but lush avocado and citrus plantations are nevertheless thriving.   Locals in Petorca say the real, long-term problem is the mismanagement of water resources.    "There is an excess of monoculture plantations that consume all the water," said Diego Soto of the Movement for the Defense of Access to Water, Land and Environmental Protection (MODATIMA) told AFP.   Avocados need a lot of water to grow, said Soto.   "An avocado tree needs 600 liters of water per week, whereas humans consume 50 liters a day, or 350 liters a week," he said.   Producers refute these figures and say the real problem is a lack of infrastructure to store water, both above and below ground.    "The avocado is not a crop that needs more water," insisted Francisco Contardo, chairman of the local producers' committee.   Avocados are a key export for Chile, mostly to the US and China, but drought has reduced exports by 25 percent.

- Less snow -
For many though, the changes being wrought by climate change are overwhelmingly obvious. Snow in the highlands of central Chile was relatively scarce this year.    Scientists predict an average decrease of between five and 10 percent snowfall every 10 years in almost the entire Andes mountains, one of the country's main sources of water.   "The central zone of Chile is highly dependent on the summer melt season, its snow and glaciers, which means that if the snow cover is reduced, there is also a reduction in the availability of water resources," said Paul Cordero, climate change expert at the University of Santiago.   Weak snowfall forced the country's main ski resorts to use artificial snow machines much earlier and more often this season than in previous years.    "Chile has been living as if it were a country with an abundance of water," said Pinera.   "Climate change and global warming have changed this situation probably forever."