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Armenia

Armenia US Consular Information Sheet
January 05, 2009
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Armenia is a constitutional republic with a developing economy. Tourist facilities, especially outside Yerevan, the capital, are not highly developed, and many of
he goods and services taken for granted in other countries may be difficult to obtain. Read the Department of State’s Background Notes on Armenia for additional information.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: A passport and visa are required. U.S. citizens may purchase visas in advance for a stay of up to 120 days online at http://www.armeniaforeignministry.am/ for the fee of USD 60; however, this visa is valid only for entry at Zvartnots airport in Yerevan. At this time a visa valid for 120 days may also be obtained upon arrival at the port of entry for the fee of 15,000 Armenian Drams (approx. USD 50). Visas for up to 120 days may be purchased at the Armenian Embassy in Washington, D.C. or the Consulate General in Los Angeles for the fee of USD 69. For further information on entry requirements, contact the Armenian Embassy at 2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008, tel. (202) 319-1976 and (202) 319-2983; the Armenian Consulate General in Los Angeles at 50 N. La Cienega Blvd., Suite 210, Beverly Hills, CA 90211, tel. (310) 657-7320, or visit the Armenian Embassy’s web site at http://www.armeniaemb.org for the most current visa information.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
A cease-fire has been in effect since 1994 around the self-proclaimed “Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh,” an unrecognized ethnic Armenian enclave within Azerbaijan. However, intermittent gunfire along the cease-fire line and along the border with Azerbaijan continues. Because of the existing state of hostilities, consular services are not available to Americans in Nagorno-Karabakh. Travelers should exercise caution near the Armenia-Azerbaijan border and consult the Country Specific Information for Azerbaijan if considering travel to Nagorno-Karabakh from Armenian territory. Armenia's land borders with Turkey, Azerbaijan, and the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan remain closed and continue to be patrolled by armed troops who stop all people attempting to cross. There are still land mines in numerous areas in and near the conflict zones.

Political rallies in the aftermath of the February 2008 presidential elections turned violent. Clashes between government security forces and opposition demonstrators resulted in dozens of casualties, including 10 fatalities, in early March 2008. While the opposition continued to hold periodic protests over the summer and early fall, there have been no violent confrontations since the March events.
Americans should be mindful that even demonstrations intended to be peaceful could turn confrontational and possibly escalate into violence. American citizens are urged to avoid the areas of demonstrations if possible, and to exercise caution if within the vicinity of any demonstrations.

Armenia is an earthquake- and landslide-prone country. In addition to these natural disasters, there exists the possibility of chlorine gas spills and radiation poisoning due to industrial accidents.
The Soviet-era Armenia Nuclear Power plant is located in Metsamor, approximately 30 kilometers southwest of Yerevan.
Armenia is currently under international pressure to close the plant permanently, due to safety concerns.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State‘s Bureau of Consular Affairs web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, including the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).
The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME: Crime against foreigners is relatively rare in Armenia. Break-ins, particularly of vehicles, and theft are the most common crimes, but there have been instances of violent crime as well.
While the incidence of violent crime remains lower than in most U.S. cities, American citizens are urged to exercise caution and to avoid traveling alone after dark in Yerevan. Several American investors have also reported being involved in disputes over property ownership, and have had to seek legal recourse through a long, and in the majority of cases, unsuccessful court proceeding.
INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the U.S. Embassy. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy for assistance. The Embassy staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed. For information on assistance in the U.S. including possible compensation, see our Victims of Crime.
The local equivalents to the “911” emergency line in Armenia are: 101 - fire emergency; 102 - police emergency; 103 - medical emergency; and 104 - gas leak.
MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Though there are many competent physicians in Armenia, medical care facilities are limited, especially outside the major cities. The U.S. Embassy maintains a list of English-speaking physicians in the area. Most prescription medications are available, but the quality varies. Elderly travelers and those with existing health problems may be at risk due to inadequate medical facilities.
The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Armenia.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en
MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.
TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Armenia is provided for general reference only and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
Travel in Armenia requires caution. Public transportation, while very inexpensive, may be unreliable and uncomfortable. Travel at night is not recommended, and winter travel can be extremely hazardous in mountain areas and higher elevations.
Travelers should avoid the old highway between the towns of Ljevan and Noyemberyan in the Tavush region, as well as the main highway between the towns of Kirants and Baghanis/Voskevan. The U.S. Embassy has designated this portion of the road off-limits to all U.S. Government personnel because of its proximity to the cease-fire line between Armenian and Azerbaijani forces, a line which has seen numerous cease-fire violations over the years.

On weekends, there are an increased number of intoxicated drivers on Armenian roads. American citizens are urged to exercise particular vigilance while traveling on the main highway from Yerevan to the resort areas of Tsaghkadzor and Sevan. Traffic police will attempt to stop individuals driving erratically and dangerously, but police presence outside of Yerevan is limited.

Armenia does have emergency police and medical services, but they may take time to reach remote regions.
With the exception of a few major arteries, primary roads are frequently in poor repair, with sporadic stretches of missing pavement and large potholes. Some roads shown as primary roads on maps are unpaved and can narrow to one lane in width, while some newer road connections have not yet been marked on recently produced maps.
Secondary roads are normally in poor condition and are often unpaved and washed out in certain areas. Street and road signs are poor to nonexistent. Truck traffic is not heavy except on the main roads linking Yerevan to Iran and Georgia, i.e. the roads virtually all travelers need to use when traveling overland to those countries. Minibuses are considered more dangerous than other forms of public transportation. Travelers who choose to ride minibuses should exercise caution because these vehicles are often overcrowded and poorly maintained, commonly lack safety measures including seatbelts, and are frequently involved in accidents.

People driving in Armenia should be aware that “road rage” is becoming a serious and dangerous problem on Armenian streets and highways.
For safety reasons drivers are encouraged to yield to aggressive drivers.
Incidents of physical aggression against drivers and pedestrians have occurred

Though crime along roadways is rare, the police sometimes seek bribes during traffic stops. Drivers in Armenia frequently ignore traffic laws, making roadways unsafe for unsuspecting travelers.
Pedestrians often fail to take safety precautions and those driving in towns at night should be especially cautious. In cities, a pedestrian dressed in black crossing an unlit street in the middle of the block is a common occurrence.

The quality of gasoline in Armenia ranges from good at some of the more reliable stations in cities to very poor. The gasoline and other fuels sold out of jars, barrels, and trucks by independent roadside merchants should be considered very unreliable.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Armenia, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Armenia’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.
Travelers on Armavia International Airways may experience prolonged delays and sudden cancellations of flights. Air travel to Armenia via European carriers is typically more reliable. Ticketed passengers on flights leaving Yerevan should reconfirm their reservations 24 hours prior to departure.
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Armenia remains largely a cash-only economy. Credit cards are accepted at some businesses, including major hotels and restaurants in Yerevan, but rarely outside of the capital. Limited facilities exist for cashing traveler's checks and wiring money into the country. There are a number of ATMs in the center of Yerevan. Dollars are readily exchanged at market rates. Travelers may experience problems with local officials seeking bribes to perform basic duties.

Armenian customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from Armenia of items such as firearms, pornographic materials, medication, and communications equipment. For export of antiquities and other items that could have historical value, such as paintings, carpets, old books, or other artisan goods, a special authorization is required in advance from the Armenian Ministry of Culture. It is advisable to contact the Embassy of Armenia in Washington, DC or Consulate General in Los Angeles for specific information regarding customs requirements.

Please see our Customs Information.

Dual Nationals: Changes to Armenian legislation now permit Armenian citizens to hold dual citizenship. This means that U.S. citizens who emigrated from Armenia to the U.S. and subsequently acquired U.S. citizenship without explicitly giving up their Armenian citizenship may be able to (re)acquire Armenian citizenship along with all the associated rights and duties, e.g. the right to vote in Armenian elections and/or the duty for certain males to perform military service. The new law also means that dual citizens need to enter and leave Armenia on their Armenian passport, i.e. they would no longer need an Armenian visa. U.S. citizens interested in obtaining Armenian citizenship must register their dual citizenship with Passport and Visa Department of the Police of the Republic of Armenia (formerly OVIR) by simply presenting proof of their other citizenship (e.g. passport). For more information, please consult with Passport and Visa Department of the Police (tel.: +37410-501439) and/or http://www.armeniaforeignministry.am.

Compulsory Military Service: In addition to being subject to all Armenian laws affecting U.S. citizens, dual nationals are also subject to other laws that impose special obligations on Armenian citizens. Male U.S. citizens over the age of 18 who are also considered to be Armenian citizens may be subject to conscription and compulsory military service upon arrival, and to other aspects of Armenian law while in Armenia.
Armenian authorities have regularly detained U.S. citizens on these grounds upon their arrival in or departure from Armenia. In most cases, ethnic Armenian travelers who are accused of evading Armenian military service obligations are immediately detained and later found guilty of draft evasion. Penalties for those convicted are stiff and include jail time or a substantial fine. Those who may be affected are strongly advised to consult with Armenian officials and inquire at an Armenian embassy or consulate to their status before traveling. For additional information on dual nationality, see our dual nationality flyer.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offences. Persons violating Armenian laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Armenia are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.
CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.
REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Armenia are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Armenia. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. The American Citizen Services section of the U.S. Embassy in Yerevan maintains a computer terminal in the consular waiting room available to U.S. citizens for registration. The U.S. Embassy provides Internet access to the general public through the American Corners program and through the U.S. Embassy's Information Resource Center. American Corners are located in Yerevan (2 Amiryan Street, tel. +374-10-56-13-83), Gyumri (68 Shirakatsi Street, tel. +374-312-22153), Vanadzor (25, Vardanants Street, tel. +374-322-21672), and Kapan (6, Shahumyan Street, tel. +374-285-22151). By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy in Yerevan is located at 1 American Avenue, tel. +374-10-46-47-00 and fax: +374-10-46-47-42. The Consular Section is open from 9:00 a.m. until 5:00 p.m., with time reserved for American citizen services from 1:30 p.m. until 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, except for official U.S. Embassy holidays. For more information, see the Embassy's web site at http://yerevan.usembassy.gov/
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This replaces the Country Specific Information dated June 9, 2008 to update sections on Entry and Exit Requirements, Safety and Security, Traffic Safety and Road Conditions, and Special Circumstances.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Fri 8 Mar 2019
Source: Nouvelles Armeni Magazine [in French, trans. ProMED Corr SB, abridged, edited]

A 2nd case of measles infection was reported in Armenia on Wednesday [6 Mar 2019], the country's Ministry of Health press office reported. A person infected with this disease arrived on 20 Feb [2019] in Armenia through the territory of Georgia. Clinical symptoms became visible on 25 and 26 Feb [2019], which was initially explained as drug intolerance, but later, on 6 Mar [2019], a laboratory test diagnosed measles disease.

According to the Ministry of Health, the 1st measles infection was reportedly found in Armenia by a Ukrainian citizen who arrived in Yerevan by plane from Kiev on 24 Feb [2019].

The 2 infected people had contact with many people, particularly those in the airport lobby and at the hospital.
17th February 2019

- National. 14 Feb 2019. 57 cases of dengue in Armenia [have been] recorded to date; the figure increased in 2019 compared to the year 2018. The increase in records so far in 2019 is 25.
Date: Sun, 29 Jul 2018 12:23:52 +0200
By Mariam HARUTYUNYAN

Arinj, Armenia, July 29, 2018 (AFP) - When Tosya Gharibyan asked her husband to dig a basement under their house to store potatoes, she had little idea the underground labyrinth he would eventually produce would prove to be one of Armenia's major tourist draws.   Their one-storey house in the village of Arinj outside the capital Yerevan may not look like much but today it brings in visitors from all over the globe after a 23-year labour of love by Tosya's late husband, Levon Arakelyan.   They come to see a twisting network of subterranean caves and tunnels known as "Levon's divine underground."

In the cold and quiet, Tosya leads tourists through corridors that connect seven chambers adorned with Romanesque columns and ornaments like those on the facades of mediaeval Armenian churches.   "Once he started digging, it was impossible to stop him," she said of the project that began in 1995. "I wrangled with him a lot, but he became obsessed with his plan."   A builder by training, Levon would toil for 18 hours a day -- only pausing to take a quick nap and then rush back to the cave, confident that he was being guided "by heaven".   "He never drew up plans and used to tell us that he sees in his dreams what to do next," his widow told AFP.

Over more than two decades he hammered out the 280-square-metre (3,000 square-foot) space, 21 metres deep into strata of volcanic rocks -- only using hand tools.   "My primary childhood recollection is the loud knock of my father's hammer heard at night from the cave," said his 44-year-old daughter Araksya.   At the start he had to break through a surface layer of black basalt, but at the depth of a few metres Levon reached much softer tufa stone and the work progressed.   He pulled out 600 truckloads of rocks and earth, using only hand-held buckets.   Levon died in 2008 at the age of 67 from a heart attack after destroying the last wall that separated two tunnels.

- 'Amazing place' -
A decade on from the project's completion, Tosya also runs a small museum commemorating her husband's work in the village of some 6,000 people.   The underground complex has several analogues in the world.   An eccentric man named William Henry "Burro" Schmidt spent more than three decades digging a half-a-mile tunnel to transport gold through a granite mountain in California, beginning his work in the early 1900s during the state's gold rush.

In Ethiopia a man named Aba Defar began carving churches on a mountainside after claiming divine inspiration from years of dreams.   Today the Armenian cave features prominently in travel brochures, regularly drawing busloads of visitors.   Milad, a 29-year-old Iranian tourist, called the maze an "amazing place".   He said it made him realise just "how boundless the spiritual and physical capabilities of a person can be".
Date: Fri 18 May 2018
Source: Armenpress [edited]

The investigation into a foodborne incident in Armenia's Armavir province continues. The suspected cause -- food poisoning -- has been confirmed through lab tests. Salmonellosis has been discovered in all victims.

63 from the overall 88 victims of the food poisoning have already been treated and discharged. The healthcare ministry says they confirm that the cause was food poisoning. Earlier, the state service for food safety has dispatched agents to Armavir province to probe the suspected food poisoning incident in the plant of Tierras de Armenia, a viticulture and winemaker known for its Karas wines. Earlier, doctors said they suspected the cause of the poisoning to be a lunchtime snack, which all of the employees consumed in the cafeteria of the plant.

Agents have taken samples from the facility and sent them for laboratory analysis. Food safety agents also ceased the operation of a businesswoman's food supply business in relation to the incident as a precaution. The businesswoman, Alvina Melkonyan, supplied Tierras de Armenia with lunch-time food on the day when the incident happened. A company, who in turn is supplying Melkonyan, is also under investigation. All patients are in satisfactory states, doctors say.

The likely cause of the mass poisoning in Armavir province is thought to be lunch-time snacks containing chicken, cheese and potatoes, which the victims have consumed in the cafeteria of the plant, a doctor of the Armavir medical center told Armenpress. Earlier, it was unclear whether the poisoning was food-related.
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[The specific food is not yet stated, but chicken is a common vehicle, either undercooked or cross-contaminated after cooking. - ProMED Mod.LL]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Armavir Province, Armenia: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/46276>]
Date: Tue, 1 May 2018 11:13:05 +0200

Yerevan, May 1, 2018 (AFP) - Armenia's hugely popular protest leader Nikol Pashinyan warned lawmakers of the prospect of major unrest if they did not elect him prime minister during a parliamentary vote on Tuesday.   "There is information that (former presidents) Serzh Sarkisian and Robert Kocharyan -- the famous tandem -- are planning to take back power," Pashinyan said during a nail-biting session of parliament in the capital Yerevan.   "I want to warn them -- gentlemen, the mistaken interpretation of people's leniency as weakness can lead to a genuine political tsunami."

"I call on everyone to take to the streets because once again they want to steal the people's victory," he added.   Pashinyan, the leader of mass protests that forced former president turned prime minister Sarkisian from power in the impoverished South Caucasus nation, is the only candidate for the post of prime minister.   He however is a handful of votes short of a majority and lacks the crucial support of the ruling party to get elected.

Speaking to his supporters in the early hours of Tuesday, Pashinyan said that the ruling party planned to derail the vote and urged hundreds of thousands to take to the streets.   A source familiar with the negotiations told AFP on Tuesday that the situation was febrile, saying Pashinyan could still be elected prime minister if several lawmakers from the Republican Party defected and voted for him.

Pashinyan is six votes short of the 53 he needs from the 105-seat legislature, where the Republican Party has a majority.   Ex-Soviet Armenia has been in the grip of a severe political crisis for the past few weeks, with leader Sarkisian stepping down last week after a decade in power in the face of peaceful protests.
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Bangladesh

Bangladesh - US Consular Information Sheet
June 17, 2008

COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Bangladesh is a democratic republic with a parliamentary form of government.
On January 11, 2007, President Iajuddin Ahmed declared a state of emergenc
.
On May 12, 2008, the Chief Adviser announced that national parliamentary elections would be held in the third week of December, 2008.
Bangladesh remains a developing country with poor infrastructure.
Tourist facilities outside major cities and tourist areas are minimal.
Read the Department of State Background Notes on Bangladesh for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport, visa and onward/return ticket are required.
All travelers to Bangladesh, including American citizens, must have a valid visa in their valid passport prior to arrival.
Although airport visas (landing permits) are available upon arrival by air, the U.S. Embassy in Dhaka does not recommend this option for most categories of travelers as working hours may not coincide with flight arrival times and precise formalities can vary.
Additionally, if issued, landing permit validity is usually limited to a maximum of fifteen days.
A valid visa in an expired or cancelled U.S. passport is not acceptable to the Bangladeshi authorities; if you are issued a new U.S. passport, you will need a new visa.

If you intend to use Dhaka as a hub from which to visit other countries in the region, ensure that you obtain a multiple-entry visa before arrival.
If you intend to work for a non-governmental organization (NGO) in Bangladesh, you should ensure that your sponsor has provided you with up-to-date advice on the kind of visa you must obtain before arrival.
It is difficult and time-consuming to change your immigration status once you have arrived in Bangladesh.

Visas to Bangladesh which are expiring may be extended at the Directorate of Immigration and Passport, located at Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Agargaon, Dhaka.
The phone numbers are (880-2) 913-1891 and 913-4011.

New visa rules, introduced in October 2006, require foreign nationals who come to Bangladesh to work or for long-term visits to have the appropriate work permits and clearances on arrival.
There are increased financial penalties for overstaying visas.
Additionally, those who overstay for more than 90 days face the possibility of being charged with violating the Foreigners Act of 1946.
For further information on these rules, please check with the nearest Bangladeshi Embassy or Consulate (U.S. addresses listed below) before traveling, or visit the Bangadeshi Immigration Police web site at www.immi.gov.bd, which provides further details on rules relating to foreigner registrations.

There are two exit requirements:
A.
When traveling by air, there is a departure tax on all foreigners except children under the age of two.
This tax is often included when air tickets are purchased.
Otherwise, it is collected at the airport at the time of departure.
The amount of the departure tax varies, depending on the destination (e.g., the departure tax for the U.S. is the most expensive, at USD $43).
There is no travel tax for transit passengers transiting Bangladesh without a visa and in country for 72 hours or fewer.
These requirements may be subject to change, and travelers are advised to check with the Embassy of Bangladesh before traveling.

B.
Departing foreign nationals are also required to comply with the income tax ordinance of 1984 and submit an income tax clearance certificate/income tax exemption certificate to local airline offices upon departure from Bangladesh.
More information can be obtained from the Bangladesh Board of Revenue web site at http://www.nbr-bd.org/.

For further information on entry requirements and possible exceptions to the exit requirements, please contact the Embassy of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, 3510 International Drive NW, Washington, DC
20008, telephone 202-244-0183, fax 202-244-5366, web site http://www.bangladoot.org, or the Bangladeshi Consulates in New York at 211 E. 43rd Street, Suite 502, New York, NY 10017, telephone 212-599-6767 or Los Angeles at 10850 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 1250, Los Angeles, CA 90024, telephone 310-441-9399. Visit the Embassy of Bangladesh web site at http://www.bangladoot.org for the most current visa information.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Bangladesh is currently under a state of emergency.
As of May, 2008, national parliamentary elections have been scheduled for the third week of December, 2008.
The security situation in Bangladesh is fluid, and Americans are urged to check with the U.S. Embassy for the latest information.
Spontaneous demonstrations take place in Bangladesh from time to time.
American citizens are reminded that even demonstrations intended to be peaceful can turn confrontational and escalate into violence quickly and unexpectedly.
American citizens are therefore urged to avoid the areas of demonstrations if possible, and to exercise caution if within the vicinity of any demonstrations.
American citizens should stay up-to-date with media coverage of local events and be aware of their surroundings at all times.
Information regarding demonstrations in Bangladesh can be found on the U.S. Embassy Dhaka’s web site at http://dhaka.usembassy.gov/.

A terrorist bombing campaign in the second half of 2005, political violence throughout the country at the end of 2006, and threats to U.S. and Western interests led to increased security around U.S. Government facilities.
On August 17, 2005, a banned Islamist terrorist group, Jamaatul Mujahideen Bangladesh (JMB), claimed responsibility for nearly 500 coordinated small bomb blasts in virtually every part of Bangladesh that killed two persons and injured several dozen.
The most recent JMB bombing occurred on December 8, 2005, and the Bangladeshi government subsequently apprehended the known senior leadership of JMB.
Six JMB leaders convicted of complicity in JMB attacks were executed on March 29, 2007.
JMB and other extremist groups are small in number but remain active and may resume violent activities.

Demonstrations, political activity, and hartals (nationwide strikes) were initially banned during the state of emergency, but the rules restricting political activity have been slightly relaxed as part of the process leading up to the planned elections in the third week of December 2008.
Prior to the state of emergency, rallies, marches, demonstrations and hartals took place frequently.
In August 2007, violent protests involving thousands of demonstrators occurred in several cities in Bangladesh, including Dhaka.
Authorities imposed a curfew to restore calm.
Protests involving workers from the large garment-manufacturing industry are not uncommon.
Visitors to Bangladesh should check with the Consular Section of the U.S. Embassy in Dhaka for updated information on the current political situation.

U.S. citizens are advised against traveling to the Khagrachari, Rangamati and Bandarban Hill Tracts districts (collectively known as the Chittagong Hill Tracts) due to kidnappings and other security incidents, including those involving foreign nationals.
Foreigners traveling in the Chittagong Hill Tracts are required to register with local authorities.
Additionally, the U.S. Embassy has in the past received reports of incidents of kidnapping, arms and narcotics smuggling and clashes between local Bangladeshis and Rohingyan refugees in areas near Rohingyan refugee camps in the Teknaf, Kutupalong, Ukhia, and Ramu areas of the Cox’s Bazar district.
The U.S. Embassy also recommends against travel to these areas.
Individuals who choose to visit these districts are urged to exercise extreme caution.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs web site at http://travel.state.gov where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, including the Worldwide Caution, can be found.
Americans traveling to or living in Bangladesh who are registered at the U.S. Embassy will receive updated security information about Bangladesh via e-mail.
All Demonstration Notices and Warden Messages are posted on the Embassy’s web site at http://dhaka.usembassy.gov/.
Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
Urban crime can be organized or opportunistic, conducted by individuals or groups, and commonly encompasses fraud, theft (larceny, pick-pocketing, snatch-and-grab), robbery (armed and unarmed), carjacking, rape, assault, and burglary (home and auto).
Incidents of crime and levels of violence are higher in low-income residential and congested commercial areas, but are on the rise in wealthier areas as well.
Visitors should avoid walking alone after dark, carrying large sums of money, or wearing expensive jewelry.
Valuables should be stored in hotel safety deposit boxes and should not be left unattended in hotel rooms.
Police are generally responsive to reports of crimes against Americans.
Crimes, however, often go unsolved.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

The local equivalent to the “911” emergency line in Bangladesh is 999.
This connects you to the Dhaka Metro Police Exchange.
There is no guarantee that English will be spoken or understood at the Dhaka Metro Police Exchange.
The Police Exchange can only transfer calls to the appropriate police station within the Dhaka metropolitan area, and then the caller will have to speak with that police station in order to actually have any police services performed.
There is similarly no guarantee that English will be spoken or understood at the local police station.

Outside of Dhaka, the caller will need to add the city code for Dhaka, so dial 02-999.
The caller will again be connected to the Dhaka Metro Police Exchange, which should be able to provide the number of the appropriate police station within Bangladesh, but the Dhaka Metro Police Exchange is unlikely to be able to transfer the call to a police station outside Dhaka.
The caller would have to hang up and dial the number provided by the Dhaka Metro Police Exchange.
The ability to speak and/or understand English is even more unlikely at local police stations outside of Dhaka.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Medical facilities in Bangladesh do not approach U.S. standards, even in tourist areas.
There is limited ambulance service in Bangladesh.
Several hospitals in Dhaka (e.g., Apollo Hospital and Square Hospital) have emergency rooms that are equipped at the level of a community hospital.
Hospitals in the provinces are less well equipped and supplied.
There have been reports of counterfeit medications within the country, but medication from major pharmacies and hospitals is generally reliable.
Medical evacuations to Bangkok or Singapore are often necessary for serious conditions or invasive procedures.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Bangladesh is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
Conditions differ around the country.

The Bangladeshi road network is in poor condition and poorly maintained.
The streets of Dhaka are extremely congested; bicycle rickshaws compete with three-wheeled mini-taxis (CNGs), cars, overloaded buses, and trucks on limited road space.
Also, driving on the left-hand side of the road may be confusing to American visitors.
Inter-city roads are narrow.
Driving at night is especially dangerous.
Streetlights are rare even in cities.
Road accidents are common in Bangladesh.
Fatal head-on collisions on inter-city roads are common.
When vehicle accidents occur, a crowd quickly gathers and violence can occur when the crowd becomes unruly.
Travelers are strongly urged not to use public transportation, including buses, rickshaws, and three-wheeled baby taxis due to their high accident rate and crime issues.
An alternative to consider is a rental car and driver.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
Visit the website of Bangladesh’s National Tourism Organization at http://www.parjatan.org, e-mail bpcho@bangla.net.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Bangladesh is a country crisscrossed with rivers, and thus uses a wide network of water-based public transportation.
Ferries and other boats compete with the railroads as a major means of public transport.
Typically overloaded and top-heavy, ferries do capsize, particularly during the monsoon season from May to October or during unexpected thunderstorms or windstorms.
Every year there are dozens of fatalities resulting from ferry accidents.

Bangladeshi customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from Bangladesh of items such as currency, household appliances, alcohol, cigarettes and weapons.
There is no restriction as to the amount of U.S. currency visitors may bring into Bangladesh; however, they must declare to customs authorities if they are carrying more than USD $5,000 at the time of arrival.
It is advisable to contact the Bangladeshi Embassy or Consulates for specific information regarding customs requirements.

Please see our Customs Information.

Land disputes are extremely common in Bangladesh and are extremely difficult to resolve through legal channels.
Court cases can last for months, and sometimes years, without there ever being a final and accurate determination of which party has legitimate claim to the title.

The U.S. Embassy currently has on file nearly twenty cases of American citizens who claim to be victimized in land-grabbing disputes.
Rarely are these simple cases of a legitimate property owner and an opportunistic land-grabber.
More often, it is a case of disagreement between an owner who believes he has historical ownership of the property and a new owner who has just purchased the same property.
One of them has been swindled, both of them have deeds, and it is next to impossible to determine whose deed is valid.

The dangers in becoming involved in a property dispute range from being threatened by bullies to being involved in a lengthy court dispute.
Those involved in a court dispute run the risk of having cases filed against them, and may be arrested and jailed, sometimes for months.

American Citizens wishing to purchase property in Bangladesh should be thoroughly aware of the risks they take and should only purchase property from a seller whose ownership is beyond doubt.
Additionally, they should recognize the risks associated if they are not physically present to oversee their property.
American Citizens should bear in mind that the U.S. Embassy cannot protect personal property in the absence of owners and cannot take sides in a legal dispute.

A marriage must be entered into with the full and free consent of both individuals.
The parties involved should feel that they have a choice.
If an American citizen is being forced into a marriage against his/her will, help and advice are available.
For more information, please and the U.S. Embassy in Dhaka information on forced marriage at http://dhaka.usembassy.gov/forced_marriage_home.html, or contact the American Citizens Services unit directly at DhakaACS@state.gov, or 011-88-02-885-5500 from the United States, 02-885-5500 from inside Bangladesh, or 885-5500 from anywhere in the city of Dhaka.
All travelers to Bangladesh should retain their passports and their return plane tickets to ensure independence to travel.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Bangladesh’s Civil Aviation Authority as not being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for the oversight of Bangladesh’s air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Bangladeshi laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession or use of, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Bangladesh are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption, international parental child abduction and the U.S. Embassy in Dhaka information on forced marriage at http://dhaka.usembassy.gov/forced_marriage_home.html.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Bangladesh are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Bangladesh.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.

The U.S. Embassy is located approximately four miles south of Zia International Airport, and five miles north of downtown in the Diplomatic Enclave, Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka, telephone (88-02) 885-5500, fax number (88-02) 882-3744.
The workweek is Sunday through Thursday.
The Consular Section is open for American Citizens Services Sunday through Thursday from 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m.
For emergency services and general information during business hours, please call (88-02) 882-3805.
For emergency services after hours, please call (88-02) 885-5500 and ask for the duty officer.
The Embassy's Internet home page is http://dhaka.usembassy.gov/
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information for Bangladesh dated November 23, 2007 to update sections on Country Description, Entry/Exit Requirements, Safety and Security, Crime, Information for Victims of Crime, Traffic Safety and Road Conditions, Special Circumstances, and Children’s Issues.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Fri 15 Mar 2019
Source: Prothom Alo [edited]

The 3 members of a family from Baliadangi upazila's [2nd-lowest tier of regional administration] Ujarmoni village in Thakurgaon [district] are suspected to have been infected with the deadly Nipah virus, reports United News of Bangladesh [apparently later confirmed as Nipah virus; see below. - ProMED Mod.TY].

The victims include a 28 year old mother; her son, aged 8; and her daughter, aged 4. They were taken to Rangpur Medical College Hospital on Thursday [14 Mar 2019], said ABM Maniruzzaman, the resident medical officer of Baliadangi Upazila Health Complex. He said the victims had been suffering from fever for the last 3 days. They also reported headache and vomiting. The trio was 1st taken to Thakurgaon Modern Sadar Hospital and later shifted to RMCH.

Nipah virus is transmitted from animals to humans and can also be transmitted through contaminated food or directly between people, according to the World Health Organisation. There is no vaccine for the virus, which is spread through body fluids and can cause inflammation of the brain.

The mother's husband said his wife and children fell sick after eating jujube [fruit of the _Ziziphus jujuba_ bush] on Wednesday night [13 Mar 2019].

Thakurgaon civil surgeon Abu Mohammad Khairul Kabir said their blood samples had been collected for testing. A medical team from the Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research is scheduled to visit RMCH.

In February [2019], 5 members of a family died mysteriously in Baliadanga upazila. It is unclear what caused their deaths [Nipah virus is suspected]. In 2001, Nipah virus was identified as the causative agent in an outbreak of human disease occurring in Bangladesh. Genetic sequencing confirmed this virus as Nipah virus, according to the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention.
======================
[This is the 2nd family in Bangladesh to have been infected by Nipah virus this year [2019]. Nipah virus infections occur sporadically in Bangladesh. As noted in the previous comment (ProMED-mail archive no. http://promedmail.org/post/20150204.3143251), "Giant fruit bats or flying foxes (_Pteropus_ of several species) are reservoirs of Nipah virus, and . . . they contaminate date palm sap or the fruit. [The above report suggests that the family may have eaten contaminated jujube fruit]. This is the season for cases of Nipah virus infection to occur. The transmission season is usually January to April."

"It is unfortunate that the public awareness efforts have not prevented these cases from occurring. Perhaps because cases are sporadic and geographically scattered there is little public perception of risk of infection and serious disease. Until effective public education to prevent infection by avoiding eating contaminated fruit or date palm sap is implemented, sporadic cases will continue to occur."

An image of a _Pteropus_ fruit bat can be found at

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail maps:
Rangpur Division, Bangladesh: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/16030>]
Date: Mon 4 Mar 2019
Source: The Daily Star [edited]

The Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research (IEDCR) has found the presence of Nipah virus in one of the 5 family members who died in Baliadangi upazila of Thakurgaon early in February [2019; upazilas are the 2nd lowest tier of regional administration in Bangladesh].  "Samples of one of the deceased were collected, and investigators detected presence of Nipah virus there," said IEDCR Director Meerjady Sabrina Flora in a statement yesterday [3 Mar 2019].

IEDCR formed 2 committees, which conducted investigations at Baliadangi Upazila Health Complex, Thakurgaon Sadar Hospital, Rangpur Medical College Hospital and various places of Baliadangi upazila between 25 Feb-1 Mar [2019].

During the time, investigators also collected samples of hospital doctors, nurses, health workers and family members of the victims, neighbours, and villagers. The investigation found that those who died had fever, headache, vomiting, and infection. Nipah virus was not found in samples of living persons of the family.  "In the investigation, it was not known if the deceased had a history of drinking raw date palm sap (a popular drink), but the investigators think 4 of the victims were infected by Nipah virus from the other," said the IEDCR statement.

Nipah virus generally transmits through drinking date palm sap infected by bats carrying the virus. Meerjady has advised all not to drink raw date sap.  If anyone is infected by Nipah virus, health personnel and family members should use masks and gloves when they take care of the patients, and wash hands with soap afterwards. The patients should be kept in isolated environment, she said.
====================
[Nipah virus infections occur sporadically in Bangladesh. As noted in the previous comment (ProMED-mail archive no. http://promedmail.org/post/20150204.3143251) "Giant fruit bats or flying foxes (_Pteropus_ of several species) are reservoirs of Nipah virus, and, as the above report indicates, they contaminate date palm sap or the fruit. This is the season for cases of Nipah virus infection to occur. The transmission season is usually January to April.

As mentioned in comments in a previous post (ProMED-mail archive no. http://promedmail.org/post/20140113.2168940), local residents scarify the upper areas of palm trees to collect sap in large jars. The bats come to drink the sap and defecate and urinate in the sap. If the bats are shedding Nipah virus, it contaminates the sap. If the sap is consumed uncooked, humans that drink it can become infected. Local people say that cooking the sap adversely alters the flavour. However, skirts made of local bamboo can serve as a barrier preventing bats' access to the sap collecting sites. Person to person transmission can occur as well.

It is unfortunate that the public awareness efforts have not prevented these cases from occurring. Perhaps because cases are sporadic and geographically scattered, there is little public perception of risk of infection and serious disease. Until effective public education to prevent infection is implemented, sporadic cases will continue to occur.

An image of a _Pteropus_ fruit bat can be found at

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Date: Thu, 21 Feb 2019 07:20:54 +0100
By Shafiqul ALAM

Dhaka, Feb 21, 2019 (AFP) - At least 70 people were killed when fire tore through crumbling apartment blocks in a historic part of Dhaka, setting off a chain of explosions and a wall of flames down nearby streets, officials said Thursday.    It started in one building where chemicals for deodorants and other household uses were illegally stored and spread at lightning speed to four nearby buildings, the fire service said.    People became trapped by the flames at a nearby bridal party and a restaurant. TV images showed the gates to one building were chained up so residents were unable to escape.

Traffic jams in the clogged narrow streets held up the rescue operation.   Bangladesh fire chief Ali Ahmed said at least 70 people were killed but that the toll would likely rise.    "The number of bodies may increase. The search is still going on," he told AFP.   Doctors said at least 10 of the scores of injured were in critical condition.   Firefighters who took almost 12 hours to bring the fire under control, went through the blackened floors of the building, littered with spray cans, looking for bodies.

The fire started at about 10.40pm (1640 GMT) on Wednesday at Chawkbazar in the old Mughal part of the capital.   Ahmed said it may have been started by a gas cylinder and quickly spread through the building where chemicals were stored in rooms alongside the apartments.   Chemicals used for household products were also stored in the nearby buildings. They exploded as the fire spread, witnesses said.     "There was a traffic jam when the fire broke out. It spread so quickly that people could not escape," the fire chief said.   Another fire official told reporters the blaze was under control but was not extinguished despite the efforts of more than 200 firefighters.   "It will take time. This is not like any other fire," he said, adding that the inferno had been made more devastating by the "highly combustible" chemicals.   Fire trucks had struggled in the narrow streets to reach the scene and there was also a lack of water for the battle, officials said.   The main gate of one five storey building was chained up, trapping residents inside, according to images shown on Bangladesh television.

- 'Flames were everywhere' -
Members of a bridal party in a nearby community centre were also caught in the fire and many were injured. Others were caught in small restaurants.   Dhaka deputy police commissioner Ibrahim Khan said at least two cars and 10 cycle rickshaws were burned in the fire.   "The victims included passersby, some people who were eating food at a restaurants and some members of the bridal party," he told AFP.   "I saw the charred body of a woman who was holding her daughter in her lap as their rickshaw was caught in the fire," said one witness.

Haji Abdul Kader, whose shop was destroyed, said he only survived the blaze as as he had left to go to a pharmacy.   "When I was at the pharmacy, I heard a big bang. I turned back and saw the whole street, which was jam packed with cars and rickshaws, in flames. Flames were everywhere," he told AFP.   "I got burned and rushed to hospital," he said.

Doctors at Dhaka Medical College Hospital said at least 55 people were injured, including 10 in a critical condition.   Hundreds of people rushed to the hospital looking for missing relatives.  However, most of the bodies of the dead were charred beyond recognition.    Sohag Hossain, one of the injured, told the Daily Star that he and two friends were working at a plastic factory in one of the buildings at the time of the fire.    They heard an explosion and could not escape the flames.

A similar blaze in 2010 in an old Dhaka building, which was also used as a chemical warehouse, killed more than 120 people in one of the worst fire disasters in the city of 20 million people.      Dhaka authorities launched a crackdown on chemical warehouses in residential areas following the blaze, but efforts to rein in the practice have waned.   Many buildings in Bangladesh lack adequate fire safety measures and the enforcement of fire regulations in factories and apartment buildings is lax.  
Date: Tue, 8 Jan 2019 09:55:22 +0100

Dhaka, Jan 8, 2019 (AFP) - Bangladeshi police Tuesday fired rubber bullets and tear gas as thousands of striking workers in the South Asian country's huge garment industry staged protests for a third day demanding wage hikes.   Bangladesh's 4,500 textile and clothing factories exported more than $30 billion worth of apparel last year, making clothing for retailers such as H&M, Walmart, Tesco, Carrefour and Aldi.

Police said more than 5,000 workers blocked a national highway at Hemayetpur outside the capital Dhaka and clashed with them for hours after they walked out of their factories.   "At least 12 policemen were injured after they threw rocks at our officers. We fired tear gas and rubber bullets to disperse the protesters. Twelve factories were shut down," police official Sana Shaminur Rahman told AFP.

The online edition of the Manabjamin newspaper said at least 50 protesters were injured in waves of clashes, which also spread to garment factory hubs in Dhaka, Ashulia and Uttara involving thousands more workers.   The protests are the first major test for Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina since winning a fourth term in December 30 elections marred by violence, thousands of arrests and allegations of vote rigging and intimidation.   Bangladesh raised the minimum monthly wage for the garment sector's four million workers by 51 percent to 8,000 taka ($95) from December.

But senior workers say their raise was less than this and unions, which warn the strikes may spread, say the hike fails to compensate for price rises in recent years.   "The wages were hiked after five years. But in the five years the cost of living has increased more than the wage hike," Babul Akhter, head of the Bangladesh Garment and Industrial Workers Federation, told AFP.

Bangladesh is the world's second-largest garment maker after China.  But despite the industry's role in transforming the impoverished nation into a major manufacturing hub, garment workers are some of the lowest paid in the world.   The industry also has a poor workplace safety record with the collapse of a Rana Plaza garment factory complex killing more than 1,130 people in 2013 in one of the world's worst industrial disasters.    Following the disaster, major retailers formed two safety groups to push through crucial reforms in the factories, prompting manufacturers to plough in more than a billion dollars in safety upgrades.
Date: Mon 19 Nov 2018
Source: The New Nation [edited]

[HEV is hepatitis E virus, which causes one of the 5 known viral hepatitis]. HEV spreads usually through faecal contamination of drinking water.

At least 4 people lost their lives due to HEV infection in the last few months and thousands have been infected by HEV in a large part of Chittagong city. This water-borne epidemic has challenged the capacity of supplying safe drinking water and maintaining sewerage system there, which is the second most important metropolis of Bangladesh with a population of more than 2.5 million people.

Hundreds of patients are being diagnosed with HEV infection in different parts of Chittagong. According to the office of the civil surgeon, Chittagong, from 1 May till 2 Jul 2018, the total number of patients infected by HEV was 848.
======================
[Hepatitis E is found worldwide, and different genotypes of the hepatitis E virus determine differences in epidemiology. For example, genotype 1 is usually seen in developing countries and causes community-level outbreaks, whereas genotype 3 is usually seen in developed countries and does not cause outbreaks. Globally, 57 000 deaths and 3.4 million cases of acute hepatitis E are attributable to infection with hepatitis E virus genotypes 1 and 2. Many of the deaths are in pregnant women, characteristic of genotype 1.

The highest seroprevalence rates (number of persons in a population who test positive for the disease) are observed in regions where low standards of sanitation increase the risk for transmission of the virus. More than 60 percent of all hepatitis E infections and 65 percent of all hepatitis E deaths occur in east and south Asia, where seroprevalence rates of 25 percent are common in some age-groups. In Egypt, half the population aged above 5 years is serologically positive for the hepatitis E virus (<http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs280/en/index.html>). - ProMED Mod.LL]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh:
More ...

World Travel News Headlines

Date: Tue, 19 Mar 2019 12:35:15 +0100
Watamu, Kenya, March 19, 2019 (AFP) - If you live in a country with venomous snakes, or are travelling to one, here are a few tips to avoid being bitten.

- Do not provoke -

Snakes usually will not attack unless they feel threatened. In the bush, wear sturdy leather shoes and stomp heavily when walking, striking with a stick on the ground in front of you to warn any reptiles you are coming -- they will most likely just slither away.
Most strikes occur when snakes feel cornered or under threat, or when people accidentally step on them.

- Be alert and prepared -

Outside, have a good look around you for snakes that may hang from tree branches or swim in water, and be careful when turning over rocks or other objects. And remember: snakes are evolved to be well-camouflaged in their environment, whether it be the desert, forest or bush.
Thick, protective gloves are recommended for gardening and farming.
Carry a lamp at night.
Birds can help too: Many species possess an alarm cry to alert others of hidden danger.
Inside, check your bed and dark corners -- snakes can enter homes in pursuit of prey, heat or water.
The neater your home, the more likely you will spot an out-of-place snake. A mosquito net around your bed can be an effective snake repellent.

- Once bitten -
If you or someone else is bitten, try and remember the colour and shape of the snake, and seek immediately medical care at a clinic or hospital.
Remove any bracelets, rings or watches that may hamper blood flow in case of swelling.
Do NOT try and catch the snake, apply a tourniquet, cut the wound, suck out the venom, or drink alcohol or coffee.
Also do not seek to inject your own antivenom, which can induce a violent allergic reaction and needs to be administered in a professional environment with adrenaline and oxygen on hand.

Sources: Doctors Without Borders, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Health Action International, Bio-Ken research centre.

Date: Tue, 19 Mar 2019 08:06:51 +0100

Sentani, Indonesia, March 19, 2019 (AFP) - At least 89 people are known to have died after flash floods and landslides tore through Indonesia's Papua region, with the toll expected to rise further as rescuers hunt for dozens still missing, the national disaster agency said Tuesday.   Scores have also been injured in the disaster, triggered by torrential rain on Saturday, with some 6,800 people evacuated to temporary shelters.   The military has taken up the grim task of putting mud-caked corpses into body bags, with the search hampered by mountains of debris including rocks and fallen trees.

Seventy-four people remain unaccounted for, while around 150 suffered broken bones, cuts and other injuries.   "Many people are choosing to stay at shelters because they're still traumatised and scared of more flash floods, so some evacuation centres are packed," said national disaster agency spokesman Sutopo Purwo Nugroho.

The government has issued a 14-day state of emergency in Papua, which shares a border with independent Papua New Guinea on an island just north of Australia.   Flooding is common in Indonesia, especially during the rainy season which runs from October to April.   In January, floods and landslides killed at least 70 people on Sulawesi island, while earlier this month hundreds in West Java province were forced to evacuate when torrential rains triggered severe flooding.

Meanwhile, three people were killed -- including two Malaysian tourists -- and some 182 were injured after an earthquake Sunday triggered a landslide on the Indonesian tourist island of Lombok, next to Bali.   Lombok was rocked by several earthquakes last summer, killing more than 500 people and leaving over 150,000 homeless.

Last September, the country was hit by an earthquake and tsunami in Palu on Sulawesi island which killed around 2,200 people.    The Southeast Asian archipelago of some 17,000 islands is one of the most disaster-prone nations on Earth, straddling the Pacific Ring of Fire, where tectonic plates collide. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are common.
Date: Mon, 18 Mar 2019 23:35:47 +0100
By Nova SAFO

Chicago, March 18, 2019 (AFP) - The US Midwest struggled Monday with historic flooding that claimed at least three lives, displaced residents and damaged hundreds of homes and businesses.    Swollen waters hit much of Nebraska, as well as parts of Iowa, Wisconsin, and South Dakota, after a major storm last week dumped snow and rain, even as melting snow was already raising the levels of area waterways.   Neighboring states could also be affected as floodwaters drain, officials said.    President Donald Trump on Monday described the floods as "devastating" and said the White House would remain in close contact with state officials.    "Our prayers are with the great people of South Dakota," he said in one tweet.    In another aimed at Iowa residents, he said: "We support you and thank all of the first responders working long hours to help the great people of Iowa!"

- 'Historic' flooding -
The National Weather Service (NWS) described the flooding as "major" and "historic," forecasting that it would continue across large sections of the middle of the country.    "Flood Warnings and Advisories are scattered throughout the Plains, Mississippi Valley, and western parts of the Ohio Valley region, with a focus in Nebraska and western Iowa," the NWS said in an advisory.    "Farther west and north, areal flooding is also possible in the Northwest and Northern Plains as snowmelt continues over frozen ground."   The early damage assessment total for the state of Nebraska was more than $260 million, according to emergency management officials.

Record flooding was reported in 17 locations in the state and 10 American Red Cross shelters were operating for displaced residents.    At its highest point, the Missouri River was expected to crest at 47.5 feet (14.5 meters), beating its 2011 record by more than one foot.    "Comparisons to 2011 were inevitable," the NWS office in Iowa tweeted, "but these floods have resulted in many more rescues and widespread damage in eastern Nebraska and western Iowa."   Failing levees were blamed for flooding in numerous communities -- damaging homes and businesses.    The US Army Corps of Engineers, which maintains federal levee systems, said a majority were compromised along an approximately 100-mile portion of the Missouri River in southeast Nebraska.

- Military base under water -
Hundreds of people were rescued in Nebraska, where 54 cities issued emergency declarations, as did four Native American tribal areas.    Fremont, a city of more than 25,000, was surrounded by floodwaters over the weekend and cut off from aid.    It finally received food and other emergency supplies Sunday after crews managed to clear debris and mud from a road, officials said.    Three dozen Iowa counties were under states of emergency.    Roads were closed throughout Wisconsin and more than 200 people were evacuated, according to officials.

A third of Offutt Air Force Base in Nebraska was overcome with floodwater, and was not expected to be dry again until Thursday.   "It's important to understand that this is going to take weeks and months to recover so this will be a prolonged effort," one of the base's leaders, Kevin Humphrey, said in a statement.    Three people were reported killed.   A Nebraska farmer died Thursday, during the height of the storm, trying to rescue a motorist stranded by floodwaters, the Omaha World-Herald reported.    On the same day, 80-year-old Betty Hamernik died after being trapped by floodwaters in her home in rural Columbus, Nebraska, according to the newspaper.    Aleido Rojas Galan, 55, was killed Friday in Iowa when his vehicle was swept away by floodwaters, TV station KETV said.
Date: Mon, 18 Mar 2019 16:57:59 +0100

Kiev, March 18, 2019 (AFP) - Eleven people have died and more than 30,000 have been infected this year in a major measles outbreak in Ukraine, the European country worst hit by the disease, Kiev said Monday.  The latest victim was a nine-year-old girl who died from complications Saturday after contracting the highly infectious disease, the health ministry said.

Some 30,500 people, including 17,000 children, have been infected so this year.   Authorities said shortages of vaccine in previous years and anti-vaccination sentiment, often driven by online campaigns spreading false information about the alleged risks, were the main reasons behind the outbreak.

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a 95-percent vaccination rate to prevent mass hospitalisations and fatalities.   But in Ukraine, just 42 percent of one-year-olds had been vaccinated as of end-2016, according to the United Nations children's agency UNICEF.   Measles cases more than tripled across Europe in 2018, with Ukraine accounting for most of the gain.

Europe as a whole saw nearly 83,000 cases last year, according to WHO figures.  The Ukrainian government reported 54,000 cases in 2018. There were 16 deaths nationwide.  In 2019, the authorities launched a special campaign including sending mobile vaccination teams to rural schools in two western regions particularly hard hit in the outbreak.   Measles is characterised by high fever and a reddish rash. It usually triggers only mild symptoms but remains one of the leading causes of death among young children globally.
Date: Sun, 17 Mar 2019 16:19:02 +0100

Paris, March 17, 2019 (AFP) - Eurostar trains from Paris to London were hit by cancellations and "severe delays" on Sunday as French customs officers staged work-to-rule industrial action.     The customs officers are demanding higher pay and better working conditions while seeking to demonstrate what might happen if full border controls are put in place once Britain leaves the European Union.

Paris-to-London trains were experiencing "severe delays and lengthy queues for our services," Eurostar said on its website. "We strongly recommend that you do not travel today."   Four trains had been cancelled by lunchtime on Sunday, with another three on Monday and one on Tuesday.   Sunday's work-to-rule was just the latest in a string of strike actions by the French customs officers.

Work-to-rule strikes began in early March, in the Channel ports of Dunkirk and Calais, northern France, leading to long delays for trucks waiting to cross to Britain.   The customs workers want better pay but also more staff to cope with British travellers who will no longer have European passports once the UK leaves the European Union.

Brexit is due to happen on March 29 but looks increasingly likely to be delayed as the British parliament is yet to agree on a divorce plan.   On Wednesday French unions representing the around 17,000 customs workers rejected a government offer of a 14 million euro ($15.8 million) payroll boost, saying it was insufficient.
Date: Sun, 17 Mar 2019 16:15:35 +0100

Mataram, Indonesia, March 17, 2019 (AFP) - At least two people were killed and dozens injured Sunday after an earthquake on the Indonesian tourist island of Lombok triggered a landslide, officials said.    The 5.5-magnitude quake is thought to have caused the landslide at the Tiu Kelep waterfall in the north of the island.   "Two people died in the landslide in the Tiu Kelep waterfall after the earthquake, one of them is a Malaysian," a disaster agency spokesman told AFP.   At least 44 people were injured in the earthquake, according to the agency, including eight Malaysians, while more than 30 houses were destroyed and about 500 others slightly damaged.

Indonesia is one of the most disaster-prone nations on Earth due to its position straddling the so-called Pacific Ring of Fire, where tectonic plates collide.   Lombok was rocked by several earthquakes last summer, killing more than 500 people and leaving over 150,000 homeless.   Last September, the country was hit by an earthquake and tsunami in Palu on Sulawesi island which killed around 2,200 people.
Date: Fri 15 Mar 2019
Source: Prothom Alo [edited]

The 3 members of a family from Baliadangi upazila's [2nd-lowest tier of regional administration] Ujarmoni village in Thakurgaon [district] are suspected to have been infected with the deadly Nipah virus, reports United News of Bangladesh [apparently later confirmed as Nipah virus; see below. - ProMED Mod.TY].

The victims include a 28 year old mother; her son, aged 8; and her daughter, aged 4. They were taken to Rangpur Medical College Hospital on Thursday [14 Mar 2019], said ABM Maniruzzaman, the resident medical officer of Baliadangi Upazila Health Complex. He said the victims had been suffering from fever for the last 3 days. They also reported headache and vomiting. The trio was 1st taken to Thakurgaon Modern Sadar Hospital and later shifted to RMCH.

Nipah virus is transmitted from animals to humans and can also be transmitted through contaminated food or directly between people, according to the World Health Organisation. There is no vaccine for the virus, which is spread through body fluids and can cause inflammation of the brain.

The mother's husband said his wife and children fell sick after eating jujube [fruit of the _Ziziphus jujuba_ bush] on Wednesday night [13 Mar 2019].

Thakurgaon civil surgeon Abu Mohammad Khairul Kabir said their blood samples had been collected for testing. A medical team from the Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research is scheduled to visit RMCH.

In February [2019], 5 members of a family died mysteriously in Baliadanga upazila. It is unclear what caused their deaths [Nipah virus is suspected]. In 2001, Nipah virus was identified as the causative agent in an outbreak of human disease occurring in Bangladesh. Genetic sequencing confirmed this virus as Nipah virus, according to the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention.
======================
[This is the 2nd family in Bangladesh to have been infected by Nipah virus this year [2019]. Nipah virus infections occur sporadically in Bangladesh. As noted in the previous comment (ProMED-mail archive no. http://promedmail.org/post/20150204.3143251), "Giant fruit bats or flying foxes (_Pteropus_ of several species) are reservoirs of Nipah virus, and . . . they contaminate date palm sap or the fruit. [The above report suggests that the family may have eaten contaminated jujube fruit]. This is the season for cases of Nipah virus infection to occur. The transmission season is usually January to April."

"It is unfortunate that the public awareness efforts have not prevented these cases from occurring. Perhaps because cases are sporadic and geographically scattered there is little public perception of risk of infection and serious disease. Until effective public education to prevent infection by avoiding eating contaminated fruit or date palm sap is implemented, sporadic cases will continue to occur."

An image of a _Pteropus_ fruit bat can be found at

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail maps:
Rangpur Division, Bangladesh: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/16030>]
Date: Fri 15 Mar 2019
Source: Le Journal de Mayotte [in French, trans. ProMED B, edited]

The circulation of Rift Valley fever (RVF) continues in Mayotte. An animal disease of viral origin, Rift Valley fever mainly affects domestic ruminants (cattle, sheep, goats), causing abortions and high mortality in young animals. It can be transmitted from the infected animal to humans.

In total, since the beginning of the epidemic (end of November [2018]),
- samples taken by veterinarians from sick animals or during abortions led to the identification of 8 new outbreaks this week [week of Mon 11 Mar 2019], for a total of 60 cases in animals (including 49 cattle). Animal foci are located mainly in the centre and north west of the island;
- a total of 101 human cases of RVF have been reported to the platform/cell watch and health emergencies of the ARS OI (CVAGS) of Mayotte by the CHM laboratory. Of those who could be interviewed, almost 80% report having been in contact with animals;
- since the beginning of the health alert, human cases have been located mainly in the centre and north west of the island, with nearly 60% of cases in Chiconi and Tsingoni.

Since 25 Feb 2019, the weekly number of new human cases has been on the decrease.  [byline: Anne Perzo]
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[This Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreak has been going on since November 2018. The number of human cases of RVF has increased from 82 to 101 in about 2 weeks. However, it is good to learn that the number of new human cases is decreasing. The above report implies that the human infections are the result of contact with infected animals or their products, with fewer from virus transmission by mosquito vectors. The cattle cases certainly are the result of mosquito transmission.

Because RVF virus can be transovarially transmitted in populations of aedes mosquito vectors, and those resulting eggs can persist for a long period of time in nature, cases can occur periodically when the virus-containing eggs hatch, and infected adult females emerge from them. There is a risk that RVF will reappear on the island after the current outbreak has ended.

Recent studies have shown that RVF virus may severely injure human foetuses if contracted by mothers during pregnancy. There is no indication of whether any of the 101 RVF virus-infected people were pregnant. Abortions in infected livestock are common. There is no vaccine available for human use, but there is for livestock. There is no mention of whether the livestock populations in the area have been vaccinated.

The clinical findings related to the above human cases are not mentioned. In an earlier comment, ProMED noted that: "The most common complication associated with RVF is inflammation of the retina. As a result, approximately 1-10% of affected patients may have some permanent vision loss. Approximately 1% of humans that become infected with RVF virus die of the disease." - ProMED

[ealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Region d'outre-mer de Mayotte, France:
Date: Thu 14 Mar 2019
Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]

Tasmania health officials are advising people who live on the east coast, or plan on travelling there, to ensure they protect themselves against mosquitoes following a number of cases of Barmah Forest virus. To date, 5 confirmed cases of the mosquito borne disease have been reported, with 2 additional cases being investigated. Officials note that these cases represent the 1st time the officials have been able to confirm the virus was contracted in Tasmania.

Public Health Services has partnered with University of Tasmania to conduct mosquito trapping in an attempt to learn more about this outbreak. PHS and UTAS staff will volunteer their time this weekend [16-17 Mar 2019] to set a number of traps on the East Coast. The trapping will attempt to confirm the presence of mosquito species known to carry the virus, and also to hopefully trap a mosquito carrying the virus for further research.

Barmah Forest virus is spread by the bite of an infected mosquito. It is related to Ross River virus. Barmah Forest virus is relatively common in mainland states but has not been thought to be present in Tasmania until recently.

Many people may be asymptomatic. If symptoms are present, they can manifest as fever, headache, aches and pains in muscles and joints, tiredness, rash, and swollen or stiff joints. Symptoms usually develop 3-21 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito. Most people recover completely in a few weeks.

Preventing insect bites will also protect against other mosquito borne diseases, such as Ross River virus, and tickborne diseases, such as Flinders Island spotted fever.

To protect against mosquitoes and ticks,
- avoid mosquito-infested areas when possible;
- cover up with a loose-fitting, long-sleeved shirt and long pants when outside;
- apply mosquito repellent to exposed skin;
- take special care during peak mosquito-biting hours, especially around dawn and dusk, and when outdoors or camping; and
- remove potential mosquito-breeding sites from around the home and screen windows and doors.
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[Clearly, Barmah Forest virus (BFV) is currently being transmitted in Tasmania, reportedly for the 1st time. Interestingly, Dr Steve Berger's comment (Barmah Forest virus - Australia (02): (TS) comment http://promedmail.org/post/20190310.6360212) indicated that 19 cases of BFV infections have been reported in Tasmania from 1999-2018, suggesting that these infections were acquired in other Australian states. The previously ProMED-mail-posted cases of BFV infections have been in Queensland state. It will be interesting to learn which mosquito species are transmitting the virus in Tasmania. The Tasmania Public Health Services' advice to prevent mosquito bites should be taken seriously. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Tasmania, Australia:
Date: Fri, 15 Mar 2019 19:08:37 +0100
By Joaquim Nhamirre

Maputo, March 15, 2019 (AFP) - Tropical cyclone Idai battered Mozambican coastal city Beira Friday, leaving half a million people virtually cut off after power lines crashed, airport shut and roads were swamped by flooding that killed 66 people nationwide.   "There is no communication with Beira. Houses and trees were destroyed and pylons downed," an official at the National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) told AFP.   Authorities had to close Beira international airport after the air traffic control tower, the navigation systems and the runways were damaged by the storm.   "Unfortunately there is extreme havoc," said the official.   "Some runway lights were damaged, the navigation system is damaged, the control tower antennas and the control tower itself are all damaged.    "The runway is full of obstacles and parked aircrafts are damaged."

Late on Wednesday, the national carrier LAM cancelled all flights to Beira and Quelimane, which is also on the coast, as well as to Chomoio, which is inland.    Power utility Electricidade de Mocambique said in a statement that the provinces of Manica, Sofala and parts of Inhambane have been without power since Thursday.   Officials did not report any confirmed deaths, but local Beira station STV reported a child had died in Manica province west of the city, apparently the victim of a falling roof.   "There was no tsunami-type storm but Beira and Chinde (400 kilometres, 250 miles northeast of Beira on the coast) were badly hit," added the NIDM official.

Another official, Pedro Armando Alberto Virgula, in Chinde, said a hospital, police station and seven schools there lost their roofs and four houses were destroyed.   Virgula added that efforts were under way to assess the damage caused after Idai made landfall late on Thursday.   Local officials said that this week's heavy rains claimed 66 lives, injured 111 people and displaced 17,000 people.   The World Food Programme (WFP) said it would move 20 tonnes of emergency food aid to the affected areas.   The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) had warned that the storm could pack winds of up to 190 kilometres per hour (118 miles per hour).

- 'Devastation' -
At least 126 people were killed by the downpour that has struck parts of Mozambique, Malawi and South Africa over the past week, officials said.   Heavy rains in neighbouring Malawi have affected almost a million people and claimed 56 lives, according to the latest government toll.   Authorities there have opened emergency relief camps where malaria and shortages of supplies have led to dire conditions, according to AFP correspondents.

Malawian President Peter Mutharika this week declared a natural disaster.   Mozambique's weather service has warned that heavy rain will continue to batter Beira and surrounding areas until Sunday.   The UN warned of damage to crops, "including about 168,000 hectares (415,000 acres) of crops already impacted by flooding in early March, which will undermine food security and nutrition".   Mozambique and Malawi, two of the poorest countries in the world, are prone to deadly flooding during the rainy season and chronic drought during the dry season.   In neighbouring Zimbabwe, weather services have warned that violent thunderstorms, lightning and strong winds will be experienced in the eastern regions of the country.