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Netherlands Antilles

Netherland Antilles US Consular Information Sheet
May 12, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
The five islands of Bonaire, Curaçao, Saba, St. Eustatius (or “Statia”) and St. Maarten (Dutch side) comprise the Netherlands Antilles, an autonomous
art of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Tourist facilities are widely available. Read the Department of State Background Notes on the Netherlands Antilles for additional information.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: All Americans traveling by air outside the United States are required to present a passport or other valid travel document to enter or re-enter the United States. This requirement will be extended to sea travel (except closed loop cruises), including ferry service, by the summer of 2009. Until then, U.S. citizens traveling by sea must have government-issued photo identification and a document showing their U.S. citizenship (for example, a birth certificate or certificate of nationalization), or other document compliant with the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative, such as a passport card for entry or re-entry to the U.S. Sea travelers should also check with their cruise line and countries of destination for any foreign entry requirements.

Applications for the new U.S. Passport Card are now being accepted. Based on current projections, we expect to begin production of the passport card in June 2008 and be in full production in July 2008. The card may not be used to travel by air and is available only to U.S. citizens. Further information on the Passport Card is available at http://travel.state.gov/passport/ppt_card/ppt_card_3926.html and upcoming changes to U.S. passport policy can be found on the Bureau of Consular Affairs web site at http://travel.state.gov/travel/cbpmc/cbpmc_2223.html. We strongly encourage all American citizen travelers to apply for a U.S. passport well in advance of anticipated travel. American citizens can visit travel.state.gov or call 1-877-4USA-PPT (1-877-487-2778) for information on how to apply for their passports.
The U.S. Consulate recommends traveling in the Netherlands Antilles with a valid U.S. passport to avoid delays or misunderstandings. A lost or stolen passport is also easier to replace when outside the United States than other evidence of citizenship. Visitors to the Netherlands Antilles may be asked to show onward/return tickets or proof of sufficient funds for their stay. Length of stay is granted for two weeks and may be extended for 90 days by the head office of immigration. For further information, travelers may contact the Royal Netherlands Embassy, 4200 Linnean Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008, telephone (202) 244-5300, or the Dutch Consulate in Los Angeles, Chicago, New York, Houston or Miami. Visit the web site for the Embassy of the Netherlands at http://www.netherlands-embassy.org/homepage.asp for the most current visa information.

We have more information pertaining to dual nationality and international child abduction. Please refer to our customs information to learn more about customs regulations.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Drug-related organized crime exists within the Netherlands Antilles but has not directly affected tourists in the past.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings, including the Worldwide Caution, can be found.
Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).
The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME: In recent years, street crime has increased, especially in St. Maarten. Valuables, including passports, left unattended on beaches, in cars and hotel lobbies are easy targets for theft, and visitors should leave valuables and personal papers secured in their hotel. Burglary and break-ins are increasingly common at resorts, beach houses and hotels. Armed robbery occasionally occurs. The American boating community has reported a handful of incidents in the past, and visitors are urged to exercise reasonable caution in securing boats and belongings. Car theft, especially of rental vehicles for joy riding and stripping, can occur. Incidents of break-ins to rental cars to steal personal items have been reported by American tourists. Vehicle leases or rentals may not be fully covered by local insurance when a vehicle is stolen. Be sure you are sufficiently insured when renting vehicles and jet skis.
INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.
Please see our information for American Victims of Crime Overseas.
MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Medical care is generally good in Curaçao and St. Maarten, but may be limited on the other three islands. Hospitals have three classes of services i.e.: First Class: one patient to a room, air conditioning etc.; Second Class: two to six patients to a room, no air conditioning; Third Class: 15 to 30 people in one hall. Patients are accommodated according to their level of insurance.
Bonaire: The San Francisco hospital is a medical center (35 beds) with decompression facilities. The hospital has an air ambulance service to Curaçao and Aruba.
Curaçao: St. Elizabeth hospital is a public hospital that may be compared to midrange facilities in the United States. St. Elizabeth's hospital has a decompression chamber and qualified staff to assist scuba divers suffering from decompression sickness. Several private clinics provide good to excellent medical service.
St. Maarten: St. Maarten Medical Center (79 beds) is a relatively small hospital where general surgery is performed. Complex cases are sent to Curaçao.
Statia: Queen Beatrix Medical Center (20 beds) is a medical facility well equipped for first aid. Surgery cases are sent to St. Maarten.
Saba: Saba Clinic (14 beds) is a well-equipped first aid facility. Surgery cases are sent to St. Maarten. The Saba Marine Park has a decompression chamber and qualified staff to assist scuba divers suffering from decompression sickness.
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.
MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.
TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning the Netherlands Antilles is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
Driving in the Netherlands Antilles is on the right hand side. Right turns on red are prohibited, and traffic conditions require somewhat defensive driving. Local laws require drivers and passengers to wear seat belts and motorcyclists to wear helmets. Children under 4 years of age should be in child safety seats; children under 12 should ride in the back seat.
Nonexistent or hidden and poorly maintained street signs are the major road hazard in the Netherlands Antilles. Therefore, drivers should proceed through intersections with caution. Roads in the Netherlands Antilles are extremely slippery during rainfall. Night driving is reasonably safe in the Netherlands Antilles as long as drivers are familiar with the route and road conditions. Most streets are poorly lit or not lit at all. In Curacao, drivers should be aware of herds of goats that may cross the street unexpectedly. In Bonaire, wild donkeys may also cross the road.
Taxis are the easiest, yet most expensive form of transportation on the islands. As there are no meters, passengers should verify the price before entering the taxi. Fares quoted in U.S. dollars may be significantly higher than those quoted in the local currency. Vans are inexpensive and run non-stop during daytime with no fixed schedule. Each van has a specific route displayed in the front of the windshield. Buses, which run on the hour, have limited routes. The road conditions on the main thoroughfares are good to fair.
See road safety information at the following sites; http://www.curacao.com, http://www.statiatourism.com, http://www.sabatourism.com, http://www.infobonaire.com, http://www.st-maarten.com/.
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of the Netherlands Antilles’ Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of the Netherlands Antilles’ air carrier operations. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Dutch law in principle does not permit dual nationality. However, there are several exceptions. For example, American citizens who are married to Dutch citizens are exempt from the requirement to abandon their American nationality when they apply to become a Dutch citizen by naturalization. For detailed and specific information on this subject, contact the Embassy of the Netherlands in Washington or one of the Dutch consulates in the U.S. In addition to being subject to all Dutch laws affecting U.S. citizens, dual nationals may also be subject to other laws that impose special obligations on Dutch citizens.
Time-share buyers are cautioned about contracts that do not have a "non-disturbance or perpetuity protective clause" incorporated into the purchase agreement. Such a clause gives the time-share owner perpetuity of ownership should the facility be sold. Americans sometimes complain that the timeshare units are not adequately maintained, despite generally high annual maintenance fees. Because of the large number of complaints about misuse of maintenance fees, particularly in St. Maarten, prospective timeshare owners are advised to review the profit and loss statement for maintenance fees. Investors should note that a reputable accounting firm should audit profit and loss statements.
Potential investors should be aware that failed land development schemes involving time-share investments could result in financial losses. Interested investors may wish to seek professional advice regarding investments involving land development projects. Real estate investment problems that reach local courts are rarely settled in favor of foreign investors.
An unusually competitive fee to rent vehicles or equipment could indicate that the dealer is unlicensed or uninsured. The renter is often fully responsible for replacement costs and fees associated with any damages that occur during the rental period. Visitors may be required to pay these fees in full before leaving the Netherlands Antilles and may be subject to civil or criminal penalties if they cannot or will not make payment.
Netherlands Antilles customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from the Netherlands Antilles. For example, it is strictly prohibited to export pieces of coral and/or seashells. Please see our information on customs regulations.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offences. Persons violating the laws of the Netherlands Antilles, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in the Netherlands Antilles are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. The Netherlands Antilles has strict gun control laws; even a stray bullet in a suitcase can trigger a fine or time in jail. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.
CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children’s Issues web site.
REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
American citizens residing or traveling in the Netherlands Antilles are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within the Netherlands Antilles. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Consulate General is located at J.B. Gorsiraweg #1, Willemstad, Curaçao, telephone (599-9) 461-3066; fax (599-9) 461-6489; e-mail address: acscuracao@state.gov.
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information dated May 7, 2007, to update the Entry/Exit, Crime, Traffic Safety and Road Conditions, and Registry / Embassy Location sections.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu, 16 May 2019 23:41:35 +0200

Washington, May 16, 2019 (AFP) - The Church of Scientology said Thursday all the passengers from a cruise ship that was quarantined over a measles case had been cleared to leave.    "All passengers and crew (100%) of the Freewinds have been fully cleared of any possible risk of being infected by the measles or infecting others," the organization said in a statement.   "All passengers and crew are free to come and go as they wish," a spokesman added to AFP.

The infected individual was a member of the crew who, according to the Church, had fully recovered and was given a clean bill of health a week ago. She had been earlier confined on the ship.   The ship, which is based in Willemstad on the island of Curacao in the Dutch West Indies, was quarantined after its arrival in Saint Lucia on April 30.   It remained there for two days before returning to Willemstad on May 4 where local authorities ordered a fresh quarantine to give them time to confirm the passengers were either immunized or had no risk of contracting the virus.
Date: Sat, 4 May 2019 20:37:18 +0200
By Sara MAGNIETTE

The Hague, May 4, 2019 (AFP) - The Dutch territory of Curacao said Saturday it would do what is needed to prevent measles spreading from a Scientology cruise ship, after a crew member came down with the disease.   The Freewinds, which left the Caribbean island of St. Lucia on Friday, arrived back in its home port of Curacao at around 9:00 am (1300 GMT) Saturday, according to myshiptracking.com.

The Curacao government said in a statement that it would "take all necessary precautions to handle the case of measles on board of the Freewinds," including vaccinations.   "An investigation will also be done to determine who will be allowed to leave the ship without (posing) a threat to the population of Curacao," it said.   "It is imperative to make all efforts to prevent a spread of this disease internationally."   Dutch broadcaster NOS reported that three health officials had boarded the boat to examine those on board. Only people able to prove that they have been vaccinated against measles or had already had the disease would be able to leave the boat, its correspondent there reported.

- Anti-vaccine movement -
The Church of Scientology says the 440-foot (134-meter) vessel is used for religious retreats and is normally based in Curacao.   The vessel had arrived in St Lucia from Curacao on Tuesday, when it was placed under quarantine by health authorities there because of a measles patient, said to be a female crew member.   According to NOS, the crew member concerned is a Danish national, who arrived in Curacao from Amsterdam on April 17. It was only when the boat was at sea, on route to St Lucia, that a doctor discovered she had measles, their correspondent said.

The resurgence of the once-eradicated, highly contagious disease is linked to the growing anti-vaccine movement in richer nations, which the World Health Organization (WHO) has identified as a major global health threat.   The authorities in Curacao nevertheless urged local people not to panic, as the risk of the disease spreading in this case was fairly low.   Several people did however visit the cruise ship between April 22 and April 28 before it set sail for St Lucia and the authorities asked them to make themselves known to health officials.

Officials said the Freewinds had travelled between Curacao, St Lucia and another Dutch-held island, Aruba, several times towards the end of April.   There were about 300 people aboard the ship, according to Saint Lucia authorities, which placed the vessel in quarantine. They said they provided 100 doses of measles vaccine at no cost.   The Scientology church, founded by science fiction writer L Ron Hubbard in 1953, did not respond to requests for comment.   Its teachings do not directly oppose vaccination, but followers consider illness a sign of personal failing and generally avoid medical interventions.
Date: 4 Jul 2017
From: Harry Vennema <harry.vennema@rivm.nl> [edited]

On several of the Caribbean islands, epidemics of viral conjunctivitis are ongoing. Recently, general practitioners in the overseas territories of the Netherlands reported an increased incidence of this syndrome.

As of 26 May 2017, an outbreak of conjunctivitis occurred in a nursing home on Bonaire. In total, 14 patients and 13 healthcare workers presented with conjunctivitis. Patients were between 71 to 94 years of age. The number of new cases peaked in week 20 through 22. After week 22, a significant reduction was seen (1-3 new cases per week). Initially, conjunctival swabs from 5 patients were tested for the presence of adenovirus by PCR; all 5 were negative.

Subsequently, swabs from 4 patients were analyzed for the presence of enterovirus by RT-PCR, and all 4 were positive. The enterovirus from 3 samples was further characterized by partial VP1 sequence analysis. In all 3 samples, the enterovirus was characterized as Coxsackievirus A24, which belongs to Enterovirus C. Coxsackievirus A24 has been identified frequently as the causative agent of epidemic viral conjunctivitis. The strain from Bonaire is at least 5 percent different from any of the previously isolated and sequenced CV-A24 strains available in Genbank in a 330nt VP1 fragment. The strain involved in the most recent outbreak of CV-A24 conjunctivitis on La Reunion in 2015 is 6 percent different from the Bonaire 2017 strain.

[Andert Rosingh, Yingbin Celestijn-Wu, Fundashon Mariadal Hospital, Clinical Microbiology, Kralendijk, Bonaire, Caribbean Netherlands Annelies Riezebos, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Medical Microbiology, Utrecht, Netherlands Harry Vennema, Kim Benschop, Johan Reimerink, Hans van den Kerkhof, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Centre for Infectious Disease Control, Bilthoven, Netherlands]
--------------------------------------------
Harry Vennema
National Institute for Public Health and the Environment
Centre for Infectious Disease Control
Bilthoven, Netherlands
=========================
[ProMED thanks Harry Vennema and colleagues for this report.  Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) is characterized by sudden onset of painful, swollen, red eyes with subconjunctival haemorrhages and excessive tearing. Most cases are self-limited but highly contagious, with the potential for causing considerable illness. Adenoviruses and picornaviruses can cause AHC outbreaks (1). Among picornaviruses, enterovirus 70 and coxsackievirus A24 variant (CA24v) have caused large outbreaks of AHC[2].

Coxsackieviruses are transmitted primarily via the fecal-oral route and respiratory aerosols, although transmission via fomites is possible. The viruses initially replicate in the upper respiratory tract and the distal small bowel. They have been found in the respiratory tract up to 3 weeks after initial infection and in feces up to 8 weeks after initial infection[3]. The potential for exponential spread is, therefore, quite considerable.

It is important to understand that sequential outbreaks of AHC due to CA24v might occur in the same location after a considerable period, and public health precautions are necessary to control these outbreaks.

References:
1. Hierholzer JC, Hatch MH. Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis. In: Darrell RW, editor. Viral diseases of the eye. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; 1985. p. 165-96.
2. Kono R. Apollo 11 disease or acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis: a pandemic of a new enterovirus infection of the eyes. Am J Epidemiol. 1975;101:383-90.

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
Date: Published ahead of print 7 Dec 2015
Source: American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene Published on line doi:10.4269/ajtmh.15-0308 [edited]

Noellie Gay, Dominique Rousset, Patricia Huc, Severine Matheus, Martine Ledrans, Jacques Rosine, Sylvie Cassadou, and Harold Noel. Seroprevalence of Asian Lineage Chikungunya Virus Infection on Saint Martin Island, 7 Months After the 2013 Emergence.

Abstract
--------
At the end of 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) emerged in Saint Martin Island, Caribbean. The Asian lineage was identified. 7 months after this introduction, the seroprevalence was 16.9 percent in the population of Saint Martin and 39.0 percent of infections remained asymptomatic. This moderate attack rate and the apparent limited size of the outbreak in Saint Martin could be explained by control measures involved to lower the exposure of the inhabitants. Other drivers such as climatic factors and population genetic factors should be explored. The substantial rate of asymptomatic infections recorded points to a potential source of infection that can both spread in new geographic areas and maintain an inconspicuous endemic circulation in the Americas.
--------------------------------
Communicated by:
Roland Hubner
Superior Health Council
Brussels
Belgium
===================
[Asymptomatic or very mild infections may be an important source of infectious blood meals for vector mosquitoes. These infections should not be overlooked in epidemiological assessments of chikungunya virus outbreaks and implementation of control measures in the field. - ProMed Mod.TY]
Date: Wed, 26 Aug 2015 16:43:59 +0200 (METDST)

Miami, Aug 26, 2015 (AFP) - Tropical storm Erika took aim at the Lesser Antilles Wednesday as storm warnings went up there and in Puerto Rico in anticipation of heavy rains, US forecasters said.   With winds of 75 kilometres (45 miles) per hour, Erika was 540 kilometres (335 miles) east of Antigua at 1200 GMT, the Miami-based National Hurricane Center reported.

Advancing at a speed of 28 kilometres (17 miles) per hour, it was expected to sweep over the Lesser Antilles Wednesday night and then head toward Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.   Tropical storm warnings were up in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Antigua and Barbuda, Guadeloupe, Montserrat, St Kitts and Nevis, Anguilla, Saba, St Eustacia and St Maarten.

A US Air Force hurricane hunter aircraft that flew into the storm found it was slightly increasing in strength.   "Some slow strengthening is forecast during the next 48 hours," the hurricane centre said.   According to the NHC's projections, Erika could become a hurricane by the end of the week, or early next, as it nears Florida.   But "the intensity forecast remains very uncertain," it said.

Erika is arriving on the heels of Danny, the season's first hurricane which petered out before reaching the Caribbean.   Experts said earlier this month that there was a 90 percent chance the 2015 hurricane season in the Atlantic would be less active than usual.
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Cameroon

Cameroon - US Consular Information Sheet
April 02, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Cameroon is a developing country in central Africa.
Although there are many natural and cultural attractions in Cameroon, facilities catering to Western-styl
tourism are quite limited.
The capital is Yaoundé, though Douala, the country's largest city, is its main port and commercial center.
Official languages are French and English, though French predominates in most of the country.
English may be used in Cameroon's two Anglophone provinces of Southwest and Northwest, and the larger cities.
The staff of major hotels in Cameroon’s large cities is usually bilingual.
In February 2008, social and political unrest led to civil unrest, although the immediate threat of violence has now receded.
For general information on Cameroon, read the Department of State Background Notes on Cameroon.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A valid passport, visa, evidence of yellow-fever vaccination, and current immunization records are required, and travelers may be denied entry if they lack the proper documentation.
Travelers should obtain the latest information and details from the Embassy of the Republic of Cameroon, 2349 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington D.C. 20008, tel: (202) 265-8790, fax: (202) 387-3826.
Visit the Embassy of Cameroon’s web site at http://www.ambacam-usa.org/ for the most current visa information.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
During the week of February 25, 2008, Cameroon experienced significant civil unrest in half of its ten provinces, most notably in the port city of Douala.
Demonstrators clashed violently with police and then military personnel, resulting in the reported deaths of forty persons and arrest of over 1,600 individuals.
The unrest was marked by widespread road blockages, attacks on public and private vehicles, looting, burning of government and other buildings, and roaming crowds of malcontents.
This disturbance created shortages of fuel, food and other supplies throughout the country, and was ended through the deployment of military units and the use of significant force.

Following the restoration of order, some efforts have been made to address fuel and food prices that were among the key grievances of the demonstrators.
However, economic conditions, notably the high unemployment rate, remain difficult without the prospect for rapid improvement.
Political tensions also remain, particularly over a possible amendment to the Constitution that would allow President Biya to serve again.
Although a rapid resumption of violence is considered unlikely, Americans living in or visiting Cameroon are encouraged to stay abreast of local political and social developments that could signal additional difficulties for the country.

Embassy employees have been instructed to refrain from travel outside of city limits after dusk, and to monitor their movements in centrally located areas within cities and towns.
Private American citizens are urged to follow the same guidelines and are strongly advised against nighttime travel.
Armed highway bandits (most notably in border areas); poorly lit roads; hazardous, poorly maintained vehicles; and unskilled, aggressive and/or intoxicated drivers pose a threat to motorists.
Attacks and accidents are most common outside major towns, especially in the provinces bordering Chad and the Central African Republic but occur in all areas of the country.

The U.S. Department of State continues to warn U.S. citizens against travel to neighboring Central African Republic (CAR).
On occasion, conflict between insurgents and government security forces in CAR has spilled across the border into Cameroon, affecting outposts in both Adamawa and East Provinces.
Humanitarian and religious workers in eastern Cameroon are strongly encouraged to coordinate their efforts with the Embassy and the Office of the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) in Yaoundé.

In February 2008, an attack by rebel insurgents on Ndjamena, the capital of Chad, forced the evacuation of the Embassy in Chad and sent up to 50,000 refugees across the border into the town of Kousseri in Cameroon.
Although the attack was ultimately repelled, the possibility of further military action by the rebel forces remains.

In late 2006, inter-ethnic clashes were reported in the town of Kye-Ossi near the Cameroonian border with Gabon.
These confrontations were a result of a discord between moto-taxi drivers and the security forces, which resulted in demonstrations and roadblocks.
According to security authorities, tensions in the area are still high, despite the deployment of a large security force to the region.

Following a ruling from the International Court of Justice defining a section of the Cameroon-Nigeria border, Cameroon assumed administrative control of most of the Bakassi Peninsula, in August 2006, with Nigerian military forces withdrawing across the border.
Although the transition has generally gone smoothly, there was an attack on Cameroonian military forces in November 2007, reportedly by criminal elements from the Niger Delta not connected to the Nigerian government.
It is very difficult to reach Bakassi, but travelers thinking of going near there should exercise extreme caution as there is the potential for violence if tensions rise.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Worldwide Caution, Travel Warnings, and Travel Alerts can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
Crime is a serious and growing problem throughout Cameroon and U.S. citizens should exercise caution when traveling in Cameroon.
Internet-based crime is escalating rapidly, and Americans should be extremely skeptical of financial
transactions --
e.g. adoptions, hiring a service worker, such as a nanny, to come to the U.S., or purchasing a pet -- that involve sending money for goods or services not yet delivered (see below).
In February 2008, two European nationals were kidnapped by criminals posing as businessmen seeking to establish a palm oil export business. Although several perpetrators were arrested and the individuals were not harmed, the incident highlights a dangerous new confluence of internet-based and violent crime.
If you have concerns about the legitimacy of a transaction, such as adoption, in Cameroon contact the U.S. Embassy in Cameroon – see Registration/Embassy Location section below.
All foreigners are potential targets for theft with possible attendant violence.
Petty crimes, crimes against persons, thefts from vehicles, and of vehicles are the most common criminal activities.
Armed banditry is a growing problem throughout all ten provinces in Cameroon.
Specifically, incidents of armed highway-robbery have been reported in the North West, West, South West and East provinces.
Armed bandits have erected road barricades on major routes that link rural towns to provincial headquarters, and have taken as many as 100 cars in a single attack.
To curb banditry, security personnel may request persons to show their passport, residence card, driver's license, and/or vehicle registration at random checkpoints.
Certified copies of these important documents should be kept in a secure location separate from the originals.
Security personnel have been known to ask for bribes and may hurt citizens who refuse to pay.
The U.S. Government does not condone bribery or corruption of any kind.

Due to the frequency of criminal incidents involving public transportation, American citizens are advised that use of public taxis can be dangerous.
In April 2007, two American women were assaulted and robbed in a taxi.
Public taxis in Cameroon function more like the U.S. bus system with drivers stopping to pick up additional passengers as long as there is space left in the vehicle.
There have been numerous reports of assaults and robberies committed by "passengers" in shared taxis since crimes – rape and robbery being among the most common – are often a collaborative effort between the driver and "passengers."
If a traveler must use a taxi, the use of a private taxi – or a taxi hired for exclusive use by the individual for that particular trip – where the driver is known to the passenger is a better alternative to the use of shared taxis.
Taxi passengers should be particularly vigilant at night.

The risk of street and residential crime is high, and incidents of violent crime are on the rise throughout the country.
During the last year, the number of carjacking and armed burglary incidents in residences and restaurants, particularly in Yaoundé and Douala, continued to increase.
Carjacking and robbery has also been reported on rural highways, especially in the Northern provinces and regions near Cameroon's border with the Central African Republic.

On March 27, 2006, 11 armed men attacked a group of four U.S. citizens in a private residence (adjacent to a hotel frequented by expatriates) in Kribi, located in the Southern province.
A group of five armed bandits held up and robbed staff and guests of a hotel in Ngaoundere (Adamawa Province) on December 20, 2006.
Similar incidents occurred in the middle of the night at hotels in Bertoua (East Province) on April 22, 2007, and in Yaoundé (Central Province) on May 15, 2007 when assailants broke into hotel rooms and robbed the residents.
Americans were among the victims.
Crimes against property, such as carjacking and burglaries, have often been accompanied by violent acts and have resulted in fatalities.
There were four incidents of armed robberies in the month of April 2007, involving American citizens in or near restaurants in Yaoundé and Bertoua.

In January 2007, a French expatriate was fatally shot in the upscale Bastos neighborhood of Yaoundé.
The woman was dropping off a friend to her residence and interrupted an attempted home invasion.
Upon realizing what was happening, the friend returned to the vehicle and both women attempted to flee the scene.
As they were leaving, an armed bandit shot and fatally wounded the driver of the vehicle.

In September 2007, several expatriates suffered armed attacks.
In one incident, an Israeli citizen giving a ride to a friend was attacked in Bastos by two men with knives.
In the ensuing scuffle, the Israeli was critically wounded.
A Moroccan diplomat was fatally injured while walking near his residence.
Found unconscious by security guards, he was taken to a local hospital where he died the following day.
A Chinese business woman was also robbed and killed outside her home in a neighborhood near Bastos.
All incidents occurred late at night.

In December 2007, a police officer was arrested and jailed in Yaoundé after he and his accomplices surprised a couple returning from Europe and stole a briefcase and jewelry.

In January 2008, three bandits posing as passengers on a bus to Douala – and carrying locally made guns - were intercepted at Bafoussam and apprehended.
In Douala, armed bandits robbed a soap company at gun point, surprising the employees.
They attempted to loot the company’s computers, but were intercepted by a SWAT team and ran off.
Also in January, an Embassy employee using public transportation in the Northwest Province was the victim of highway robbers, who robbed the passengers (including a local mayor) and roughed-up those who did not have enough money.
In February 2008, Cameroon experienced a brief period of civil unrest during a taxi strike that involved road blockages, attacks on public and private vehicles, looting, burning of government and other buildings, and roaming crowds of malcontents.
This period was attended by a sharp increase in reported crimes, including the stabbing death of a night watchman at a residence in Yaoundé, an attack at the Brussels Airline travel agency in the Bonapriso district of Douala, an attack by a group of armed bandits on a motorbike rider who suffered a gunshot wound to the head, and numerous reports of rape and armed attacks with firearms and machetes in Douala.

Recently, many American citizens have become victims of Cameroonian advance-fee fraud and other scams offering antiques, exotic and domesticated animals, and even adoption services through the Internet.
Americans should be very cautious about sending money or traveling to Cameroon to meet someone contacted via the Internet.
Commercial scams targeting foreigners, including many U.S. citizens, continue to be a problem.
The scams generally involve phony offers of lucrative sales and repeated requests for additional funds to pay for unforeseen airport and/or customs fees.
No one should provide personal financial or account information to unknown parties.
The ability of U.S. Embassy officers to extricate U.S. citizens from unlawful business deals and the consequences is limited.
For more information on international financial scams, including those involving Internet dating, a promise of an inheritance windfall, a promise of a work contract overseas, overpayment for goods purchased on-line, or money-laundering, see the Department of State's publication International Financial Scams.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime .

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Medical facilities in Cameroon are extremely limited.
Even in large cities, emergency care and hospitalization for major illnesses and surgery are hampered by the lack of trained specialists, outdated diagnostic equipment, and poor sanitation.
Medical services in outlying areas may be completely nonexistent.
Doctors and hospitals often require immediate payment for health services in cash.
Pharmacies in larger towns are well stocked, but in other areas many medicines are unavailable.
Travelers are advised to carry their own supply of needed prescription and anticipated over-the-counter medicines.

Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease.
Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the type that predominates in Cameroon, is resistant to the antimalarial drug chloroquine.
Because travelers to Cameroon are at high risk for contracting malaria, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advises that travelers should take one of the following antimalarial drugs: mefloquine (Lariam™), doxycycline, or atovaquone/proguanil (Malarone™) as prophylaxis to reduce this risk.
Travelers who become ill with a fever or flu-like illness while traveling in a malaria-risk area, and up to one year after returning home, should seek prompt medical attention and tell the physician their travel history and what antimalarials they have been taking.
For additional information on malaria, including protective measures, see the CDC Travelers’ Health web site at http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/.
There are periodic outbreaks of cholera in Cameroon.
Yellow fever can cause serious medical problems, but the vaccine, required for entry, is very effective in preventing the disease.

In March 2006, avian influenza (H5N1) was confirmed in wild ducks in northern Cameroon.
There have been no reports of avian influenza among humans in Cameroon.
Avian influenza has been reported in both birds and humans in neighboring Nigeria.
For additional information on avian influenza as it affects American citizens residing abroad, please visit the U.S. Department of State’s Avian Influenza Fact Sheet.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s website at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) website at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas .

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Cameroon is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Cameroon's road networks, both paved and unpaved, are poorly maintained and unsafe at all times of the year.
Vehicles are poorly maintained and there is no mechanism or requirement to inspect for roadworthiness.
During the rainy season, many roads are barely passable with four-wheel-drive vehicles.
Livestock and pedestrians create constant road hazards (especially at night) and road safety rules are frequently ignored.
There are few road and traffic signs; speed limits are neither posted nor enforced.
Buses and logging trucks travel at excessive speed and are a constant threat to other road traffic.

Travelers on roads near the borders with CAR and Chad should ensure that their vehicles are fully fueled, and that they have adequate cooking fuel, food, and water for several days as well as a reliable means of communication, such as a satellite or cell phone, or radio.

Visitors who are not in possession of a valid passport and a visa may experience difficulties at police roadblocks or other security checkpoints.
It is not uncommon for a uniformed member of the security forces to stop motorists on the pretext of a minor or non-existent violation of local motor vehicle regulations in order to extort small bribes.
Visitors are advised not to pay bribes and to request that the officer provide a citation to be paid at the local court.

Local law states that vehicles involved in an accident should not be moved until the police arrive and a police report can be made.
If an accident results in injury, drivers should be aware of the possibility that a "village justice" mentality may develop.
If an angry crowd forms, drive directly to the U.S. Embassy or another location where you can receive assistance.
Contact the local police once you are safely away from danger.
Cameroon has no real equivalent to 911-type service or roadside emergency telephone numbers, but you can dial 112 in major cities to contact ambulance services.
American citizens should contact the U.S. Embassy (237) 2220-1500 if emergency assistance is needed.
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Cameroon, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Cameroon’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s internet website at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
While visiting game parks and reserves, tourists should bear in mind that they are ultimately responsible for maintaining their own safety.
Tourists should use common sense when approaching wildlife, maintain a safe distance from animals, and heed all instructions given by guides or trackers.
Even in the most serene settings, the animals in Cameroon's game parks are wild and can pose a threat to life and safety.

Cameroonian Customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from Cameroon of items such as large quantities of medicine or wood products.
Customs regulations also restrict the importation of ivory.
Please see our information on customs regulations.

Cash in local currency, the Central African franc (CFA), is the only form of payment accepted throughout the country.
Larger hotels in Yaoundé and Douala will change U.S. dollars and cash traveler's checks, though at a disadvantageous rate.
Credit card cash advances are not available, and most banks do not cash personal or traveler's checks for non-clients.
While credit cards are accepted at some larger hotels and shops in Yaoundé and Douala, caution is urged, as identity theft is endemic in the region.
Some larger banks in Yaoundé and Douala have ATM facilities, and several banks in Cameroon have wire transfer services through Western Union.
The U.S. Embassy does not provide currency exchange, check cashing or other financial services.
Tourists and business travelers should also note that there is an increasing circulation of counterfeit U.S. and Cameroonian currency in the country.
In recent years, business travelers have experienced difficulty in obtaining adequate services from Cameroon's banking sector.
Business travelers are also advised that using the services of a local agent is strongly recommended in establishing a presence in the Cameroonian market.

While photography is not officially forbidden, security officials are sensitive about photographs taken of government buildings, military installations, and other public facilities, many of which are unmarked.
Photography of these subjects may result in seizure of photographic equipment by Cameroonian authorities.
Due to the threat of harassment and the lack of signs designating sites prohibited for photography, photography should be limited to private homes and among friends.
U.S. citizens are advised to seek proper permission before taking a photograph of a specific subject or location.

The government of Cameroon has recently started enforcing laws against homosexuality.
Charges of homosexuality and/or of corruption are also made and enforced indiscriminately in the course of business or personal disputes.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Cameroonian law does not afford many of the protections to which Americans are accustomed, and legal proceedings tend to be complex, lengthy, and subject to inappropriate influence.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Additionally, the condition of detention centers, while improving, is poor.
Persons violating Cameroonian laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
During the February 2008 civil unrest, there were reports that people were arrested arbitrarily by law enforcement officials quelling the civil disorder that ensued.
Although no expatriates were known to have been arrested, the Department of State cautions Americans against venturing out during such periods of unrest.

Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Cameroon are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Cameroon are encouraged to register with the U.S. Embassy through the State Department’s travel registration website so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Cameroon.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the U.S. Embassy.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy in Yaoundé is located on Avenue Rosa Parks in the Mbankolo Quartier, adjacent to the Mount Febe Golf Club; mailing address P.O. Box 817; embassy tel. (237) 2220-1500, fax: (237) 2220-1572.
The Embassy Branch Office in Douala is located on the corner of Rue Ivy and Rue French in the Ecobank Building in Bonanjo, tel: (237) 3342-5331, fax: (237) 3342-7790.
Further information, including the U.S. Embassy's business hours, is available at the U.S. Embassy's web site: http://yaounde.usembassy.gov.
*

*

*
This replaces the Country Specific Information for Cameroon dated 7 June 2007, to update sections on Country Description, Entry and Exit Requirements, Safety and Security, Crime, Aviation Safety Oversight, Criminal Penalties, Children’s Issues, and Registration/Embassy Location.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Wed, 28 Nov 2018 11:40:16 +0100

Yaoundé, Nov 28, 2018 (AFP) - At least 29 people were wounded Wednesday when a women bomber blew herself up in a border town in Cameroon's Far North, a region frequently hit by Boko Haram jihadists, security sources said.    But a second bomber was shot dead by troops deployed in the town before she could detonate her explosives, the source said.    "A suicide bomber blew herself up this morning in Amchide" on the Nigerian border, a regional security source said, speaking on condition of anonymity and giving a toll of 29 wounded.

The attack occurred on market day when the town was filling up with early-morning shoppers, a local civil defence group official said.    "There were many people hurt, I saw about 20," he said. "After the attack, the market emptied."   A once-bustling trade hub, in 2014 Amchide was thrust into the forefront of a major battle between Cameroonian troops and Boko Haram militants who held the nearby Nigerian town of Banki for several months.    The violence forced most residents to flee the town, although some have now begun to return.    After pushing back Boko Haram, the Cameroonian army dug long trenches around Amchide and even inside the town to foil new incursions by the jihadists, with Wednesday's attack the first in many months.
Date: Fri 26 Oct 2018
Source: PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018;12:e0006750 [edited]

Wanji S, Chounna Ndongmo WP, Fombad FF, et al. Impact of repeated annual community-directed treatment with ivermectin on loiasis parasitological indicators in Cameroon: implications for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis elimination in areas co-endemic with _Loa loa_ in Africa. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018;12:e0006750.

Abstract
---------
Background
Loiasis is a filarial infection endemic in the rainforest zone of west and central Africa, particularly in Cameroon, Gabon, Republic of Congo, and Democratic Republic of the Congo. Repeated treatments with ivermectin have been delivered using the annual community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) approach for several years to control onchocerciasis in some _Loa loa_ and _Onchocerca volvulus_ co-endemic areas. The impact of CDTI on loiasis parasitological indicators is not known. Therefore, we designed this cross-sectional study to explore the effects of several rounds of CDTI on parasitological indicators of loiasis.

Methodology/principal findings
The study was conducted in the East, Northwest, and Southwest 2 CDTI projects of Cameroon. Individuals who consented to participate were interviewed for ivermectin treatment history and enrolled for parasitological screening using thick smears. Ivermectin treatment history was correlated with loiasis prevalence/intensity. A total of 3684 individuals were recruited from 36 communities of the 3 CDTI projects, and 900 individuals were from 9 villages in a non-CDTI district. In the East, loiasis prevalence was 29.3% (range, 24.2% to 34.6%) in the non-CDTI district but 16.0% (3.3% to 26.6%) in the CDTI district with 10 ivermectin rounds (there were no baseline data for the latter).

In the Northwest and Southwest 2 districts, reductions from 30.5% to 17.9% (after 9 ivermectin rounds) and from 8.1% to 7.8% (not significantly different after 14 rounds) were registered post-CDTI, respectively. Similar trends in infection intensity were observed in all sites. There was a negative relationship between adherence to ivermectin treatment and prevalence/intensity of infection in all sites. None of the children (ages 10 to 14 years) examined in the East CDTI project harboured high (8000 to 30,000 mf/mL) or very high (more than 30,000 mf/mL) microfilarial loads. Individuals who had taken more than 5 ivermectin treatments were 2.1 times more likely to present with no microfilaraemia than those with fewer treatments.

Conclusion
In areas where onchocerciasis and loiasis are co-endemic, CDTI reduces the number of and microfilaraemia in _L. loa_-infected individuals, and this, in turn, will help to prevent non-neurological and neurological complications post-ivermectin treatment among CDTI adherents.
====================
[Onchocerciasis (African River blindness) is a neglected tropical disease, but the invasive nematode _Loa loa_ is not on the list. The study clearly demonstrates that scheduled regular ivermectin against onchocerciasis also reduced the nematode burden of _L. loa_.

_L. loa_, the African eye worm, is a nematode transmitted by tabanid flies (Order: Diptera; Family: Tabanidae) of the genus _Chrysops_. _L. loa_ may cause skin oedema (Calabar swellings) and may occasionally invade the eye. As far as it is known, there is no animal reservoir. - ProMED Mod.EP]

[HealthMap/ProMED map:
Date: Sat, 6 Oct 2018 04:59:35 +0200
By Gregory WALTON

Buea, Cameroon, Oct 6, 2018 (AFP) - "For the peak season I would have about 280 persons climbing Mount Cameroon," said John Ngomba, a tour guide in the town of Buea, which has been at the forefront of Cameroon's anglophone separatist insurgency.   "But now there are no tourists coming. It's really crazy. The reason tourists are not coming is because of the crisis."

Since an independence declaration a year ago, Buea -- once a tourist hotspot -- has suffered near-daily clashes and visitors have all but disappeared.   The violence has claimed the lives of at least 420 civilians, 175 members of the security forces and an unknown number of separatists, according to the International Crisis Group think-tank.   "Sometimes I would receive 600 Germans a year. They would come through the cruise ships. I could have about 30 to 50 tourists a week who came to visit," said Ngomba in his hut in the town's Bismarck Fountain gardens.

Cameroon was once a German colony but was divided between Britain and France after World War I -- a separation that lies at the heart of the current conflict.   France's colony won independence in 1960, becoming Cameroon, and in 1961 the British-ruled Southern Cameroons was merged into it, giving the new state English-speaking majorities in the northwest and southwest.   "I am a father of five children. How am I living with them? It's impossible," said Ngomba, who has appealed for help from the German embassy, which assists with the upkeep of the garden containing a bust of Bismarck.

- Empty hotels -
"The fountain is not even working," he said, looking out over the restive town below and the former German governor's residence, which is now an army base.   But Ngomba insisted that the foothills above Buea remained safe.   "If the tourists arrive and get to this point, they are safe," he said.   "I tell people: after the election, things will be OK," he added of polls due on unday at which President Paul Biya will seek a seventh term.

But several countries including Germany, Britain, Canada and the United States have issued security advisories to their citizens about the anglophone regions.   "We used to have customers coming from many countries -- America, Europe, Nigeria," said Janet Nkowo, 30, a receptionist at the Eta Palace Hotel in downtown Buea.   "I think it's because of the crisis. The difference is really clear," she said.   "We have one-quarter of what we had, I don't know how the director does it. I think things will hopefully get better on Sunday."

Most of Buea's hotels are sitting empty, the majority of shops are shuttered and only a handful of students queued up at the town's university to register for the new academic term.   A total of 246,000 people have fled their homes in the southwest region that includes Buea -- and 25,000 have left the country altogether for Nigeria, according to UN figures.

At the town's weekly market, one of the few retail outlets still functioning, many stalls sat empty.   A man in a white vest shouted "French bastards" at passers-by, in French.   "Maybe if voting passes well, they will come back," said Fidelis Kum, a stallholder selling hair extensions, as customers haggled over live chickens nearby and women sat shelling snails.
Date: Sun 15 Jul 2018 6:49 PM WAT
Source: The Sun Daily [edited]

The health ministry said 6 people have died in Cameroon from a cholera outbreak that has infected 43 people since May 2018. "Cases of cholera were documented since May 2018 in 4 districts in northern regions," health minister Andre Mama Fouda said in a statement sent late [Sat 14 Jul 2018]. He said one case of the disease had been found in the capital Yaounde. "From the moment the 1st cases were documented in the northern region, every measure was taken to contain the epidemic," Fouda said.

Cholera is caused by a bacterium transmitted through contaminated food or drinking water. It causes acute diarrhoea, with children particularly at risk. In 2010, an outbreak of the disease killed more than 750 people across Cameroon.
Date: Sun, 15 Jul 2018 12:20:59 +0200

Douala, July 15, 2018 (AFP) - Six people have died in Cameroon from a cholera outbreak that has infected 43 people since May, the health ministry said.    "Cases of cholera were documented since May 2018 in four districts in northern regions," health minister Andre Mama Fouda said in a statement sent late Saturday.   He said one case of the disease had been found in the capital Yaoundé.   "From the moment the first cases were documented in the northern region, every measure was taken to contain the epidemic," Fouda said.   Cholera is caused by a bacterium transmitted through contaminated food or drinking water. It causes acute diarrhoea, with children particularly at risk.    In 2010, an outbreak of the disease killed more than 750 people across Cameroon.
More ...

World Travel News Headlines

Date: Tue, 21 May 2019 12:37:30 +0200

Khartoum, May 21, 2019 (AFP) - Sudanese protest leaders called on their supporters Tuesday to prepare for a general strike after talks with the country's military rulers stalled on who will lead an agreed three-year transition.   Protest leaders had reached agreement with the ruling military council on the other main aspects of the transition.   But early on Tuesday, the generals who overthrew veteran president Omar al-Bashir last month baulked at protesters' demands for a civilian head and a civilian majority for an agreed new sovereign council to lead the transition.

"In order to achieve a full victory, we are calling for a huge participation in a general political strike," said the Sudanese Professionals Association, which took the lead in organising the four months of nationwide protests that led to Bashir's ouster.   "The strike is our revolutionary duty and the participation in the sit-in ... is a crucial guarantee to achieve the goals of the revolution."

Protest leader Madani Abbas Madani told AFP the preparations for a "general political strike and civil disobedience" were already under way.   "Whenever we will decide on applying these plans, we will make an announcement," said Madani, a prominent leader of protest umbrella group the Alliance for Freedom and Change.   The two sides launched what had been billed as a final round of talks on the transition late on Sunday.

The military council has faced pressure from Western government and the African Union to agree to a civilian-led transition -- the central demand of the thousands of demonstrators who have spent weeks camped outside army headquarters in Khartoum.   When talks broke up early on Tuesday, neither side said when they would resume.

Protest leader Siddiq Yousef told reporters they had been suspended.   "The main point of dispute that remains is concerning the share of representatives of the military and the civilians in the council and who will be the head of the new body," the two sides said in a joint statement.   The military council has been pushing for its chairman General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan to head the new sovereign council but protest leaders want a civilian.
Date: Tue, 21 May 2019 05:22:30 +0200
By John WESSELS with Samir TOUNSI in Kinshasa

Butembo, DR Congo, May 21, 2019 (AFP) - People in Ebola-hit eastern DR Congo are struggling to come to terms with high-security burials that are part of a hard-pressed strategy to roll back the disease.   Anyone who dies of the highly infectious haemorrhagic fever has to be buried in carefully-controlled conditions designed to minimise the risk of infection from body fluids.   But that means ceremonies are carried out in sanitised conditions, with relatives and friends kept at a distance -- for many, a traumatic break with traditions that demand the body of a loved-one be seen or touched.   "We're astonished she's being buried like this," said Denise Kahambu as she watched the specially-prepared burial in Butembo of her 50-year-old cousin, Marie-Rose.   "They said she died of Ebola," she said sceptically.   First declared last August, the epidemic has now claimed nearly 1,200 lives -- 200 of them in May alone.    The outbreak is the second deadliest on record, after an epidemic that killed more than 11,300 people in West Africa in 2014-16.

The burial in Butembo followed strict precautions. A pick-up truck delivered the coffin to the burial site, where a grave had been prepared, as the family stood by at a distance.   Gloved Red Cross workers handled the burial, which took place in silence and without a religious ceremony.   A family member or loved one was allowed only to place a cross on the tomb, once they too had donned protective gloves.   Half a dozen police officers escorted the convoy and remained on guard throughout.    On Friday, two burial teams from the treatment centres were attacked by stone-throwing crowds at Butembo and Bunia, a little further north in Ituri province, according to the health ministry. One burial worker was injured.

- Culture shock -
"The custom is that the body of the deceased first returns to the home. And once people have mourned, they have the chance to touch the body for the last time," said Seros Muyisa Kamathe, a guide and interpreter in Beni and Butembo.   "Before going to the cemetery, you open the coffin so people can take one last look at the deceased."

And normally it would be the family and neighbours who would take responsibility for digging the grave -- and deciding where if should be.   Ebola experts say denial and resistance were familiar obstacles in the 2014-16 epidemic in the West African states of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone.   The World Health Organization (WHO) has a 12-step protocol for dealing with burials so that handling of the remains is kept to a minimum, but it also emphasises the importance of respect and mourning.   "The burial process is very sensitive for the family and the community and can be the source of trouble or even open conflict," it acknowledges.    No burial should begin until family agreement has been obtained, and workers should engage with the community "for prayers to dissipate tensions
and provide respectful time," it says.

- Armed escorts -
The burial process is part of the notoriously time-consuming and labour-intensive task of combatting Ebola.   And in this troubled region, the challenge has been further complicated by bloody deadly attacks on Ebola treatment centres by local militias.   Suspicion, political infighting in the capital Kinshasa and militia violence provide a fertile breeding ground for the virus.   Sometimes local people cover the graves overnight as a sign of their opposition, the ministry said.   In Butembo, health workers need an armed escort when they go looking for cases of Ebola in some neighbourhoods, an AFP photographer noted during one outing Saturday evening.

WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, at the opening of the organisation's annual assembly on Monday, described the outbreak as "one of the most complex health emergencies any of us have ever faced."   "Unless we unite to end this outbreak we run the risk it will become more widespread and more expansive and more aggressive," he said.   "We are not just fighting a virus," Tedros insisted. "We're fighting insecurity. We're fighting violence. We're fighting misinformation... and we're fighting the politicisation of an outbreak."   On the plus side, health officials are keen to emphasise some important gains. More than 118,000 have been vaccinated against the virus, and no cases have been recorded in neighbouring Rwanda and Uganda.
Date: Mon, 20 May 2019 15:09:54 +0200

Milan, May 20, 2019 (AFP) - Alitalia has scrapped around half its flights scheduled for Tuesday after a call to strike by Italian pilots, cabin crew and ground staff.   The industrial action by employees of Alitalia, Blue Air and Blue Panorama was confirmed Monday over the future of the sector and specifically that of the troubled national carrier.   Alitalia has cancelled around half its flights on Tuesday, as well as some late Monday and early Wednesday. The company said it hoped to get 60 percent of passengers to their destination.

Unions lamented "on the one hand, a rising number of passengers and flights, and on the other a proliferation of bankruptcies", a statement said.   They are worried about Alitalia's future and want their jobs protected.   The Italian government earlier this month extended to June 15 a deadline for the state railway to submit a concrete takeover offer, following a request from Alitalia's administrators for more time.   Italy's state railway Ferrovie dello Stato (FS) floated a bid to buy Alitalia at the end of October, but it does not want to hold more than 30 percent in the airline.   The railway has been discussing a potential partnership with Atlanta-based Delta airlines, which is interested in a 15-percent stake.
Date: Sun, 19 May 2019 21:55:33 +0200

Giza, Egypt, May 19, 2019 (AFP) - A bomb blast hit a tourist bus near Egypt's famed Giza pyramids on Sunday, wounding some of them, including South Africans, in the latest blow to the country's tourism industry.   The roadside bomb went off as the bus was being driven in Giza, also causing injuries to Egyptians in a nearby car, medical and security sources said.   Security and medical sources in Egypt said 17 people were injured, without giving a breakdown of their nationalities. No deaths were reported.   South Africa said in a statement that the "bus explosion" injured three of its 28 citizens who were part of the tourist group.   They would remain in hospital while the rest would return home on Monday, said the statement from the department of international relations.   "A device exploded and smashed the windows of a bus carrying 25 people from South Africa and a private car carrying four Egyptians," the security source said.

Video footage captured by AFP showed the bus and car with broken windows on the side of the road.   According to the security source, the wounded were being treated for scratches caused by the broken glass.   Sunday's incident comes after three Vietnamese holidaymakers and their Egyptian guide were killed when a roadside bomb hit their bus as it travelled near the Giza pyramids outside Cairo in December.   It also comes just little more than a month before the African Cup of Nations hosted by Egypt is to kick off.   Egypt has been battling an insurgency that surged especially in the turbulent North Sinai region following the 2013 military ouster of Islamist president Mohamed Morsi, who was replaced by former army general Abdel Fattah al-Sisi.   In February 2018, the army launched a nationwide operation against militants, focusing mainly on the North Sinai region.

- Tourism recovery -
Some 650 militants and around 45 soldiers have been killed since the start of the offensive, according to separate statements by the armed forces.   Since first being elected in 2014, Sisi has presented himself as a bulwark against terrorism, promising stability and increased security.   Recently, the country's vital tourism industry has started to slowly rebound after suffering strong blows due to deadly attacks targeting tourists following the turmoil of the 2011 uprising that toppled longtime ruler Hosni Mubarak.   Figures by the official statistics agency showed that tourist arrivals reached 8.3 million in 2017, compared with 5.3 million the previous year.    Authorities have gone at great lengths to lure tourists back, touting a series of archaeological finds and a new museum next to the pyramids, as well as enhanced security at airports and around ancient sites.    But that figure was still far short of the record influx of 2010 when more than 14 million visitors flocked to see the country's sites.
Date: Sun, 19 May 2019 05:17:37 +0200

Tegucigalpa, May 19, 2019 (AFP) - Four Canadians and an American pilot died Saturday when their small plane plunged into the sea off the Honduran island of Roatan where they were vacationing, firefighters said.   The plane crashed near the town of Dixon Cove, a few minutes after taking off from the island's airport, rescuers said.   The dead were identified as Bradley Post, Bailey Sony, Tomy Dubler and pilot Patrick Forseth.

The other Canadian pilot, Anthony Dubler, briefly survived the crash but died at the Roatan hospital of his injuries.   The causes of the crash and the registration information for the aircraft were not immediately available.   It occurred as the tourists were headed toward the city of Trujillo, about 77 kilometres (48 miles) from Roatan.
Date: Fri, 17 May 2019 16:32:13 +0200

London, May 17, 2019 (AFP) - London warned British-Iranian dual nationals against all travel to Iran on Friday due to Tehran's "continued arbitrary detention and mistreatment" of such citizens.   The move comes as Britain continues to try to secure the release from jail of dual national Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliffe.   Tehran has also recently sentenced an Iranian British Council employee, Aras Amiri, to 10 years in prison on charges of spying.   In a statement, the Foreign Office said British-Iranian dual nationals faced an "unacceptably higher risk of arbitrary detention and mistreatment" than nationals of other countries.   "The security forces may be suspicious of people with British connections, including those with links to institutions based in the UK, or which receive public funds from, or have perceived links to, the British government," the statement said.   British-Iranian mother Zaghari-Ratcliffe was arrested by Iranian authorities in 2016 as she was leaving Tehran.

Zaghari-Ratcliffe, who worked for the Thomson Reuters Foundation, was put on trial and is now serving a five-year jail sentence for allegedly trying to topple the Iranian government.   "Dual nationals face an intolerable risk of mistreatment if they visit Iran," Foreign Secretary Jeremy Hunt said.   "Despite the UK providing repeated opportunities to resolve this issue, the Iranian regime's conduct has worsened.   "Having exhausted all other options, I must now advise all British-Iranian dual nationals against travelling to Iran.   "The dangers they face include arbitrary detention and lack of access to basic legal rights, as we have seen in the case of Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliffe, who has been separated from her family since 2016."   The Iranian government does not recognise dual nationality, meaning the Foreign Office's ability to provide consular support is limited.   Hunt added: "Regrettably, I must also offer a message of caution to Iranian nationals resident in the UK -- but who return to visit family and friends -- especially where the Iranian government may perceive them to have personal links to UK institutions or the British government."
Date: Fri, 17 May 2019 11:42:01 +0200

Nairobi, May 17, 2019 (AFP) - Flooding in Tanzania has killed five people and forced about 2,500 to flee their homes after a week of torrential rain in the country's south, an official said Friday.   Schools have closed in Kyela, a district on the border of Lake Malawi, and families fled to shelters after losing everything in the rising waters.   "The damage from these floods is enormous," Salome Magambo, the district's administrative secretary, told AFP.   "Since the beginning of the week we have reported five people killed and 2,570 homeless, some of whom are staying with friends or in schools and churches."

Food and medical services have been extended to those stranded, she added.   Farming land in the district known for its rice production has also been inundated, destroying crops and raising fears of food shortages in coming months.   In April 2018 at least 14 people were killed in torrential rains and flooding in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania's economic capital.
Date: Thu, 16 May 2019 23:41:35 +0200

Washington, May 16, 2019 (AFP) - The Church of Scientology said Thursday all the passengers from a cruise ship that was quarantined over a measles case had been cleared to leave.    "All passengers and crew (100%) of the Freewinds have been fully cleared of any possible risk of being infected by the measles or infecting others," the organization said in a statement.   "All passengers and crew are free to come and go as they wish," a spokesman added to AFP.

The infected individual was a member of the crew who, according to the Church, had fully recovered and was given a clean bill of health a week ago. She had been earlier confined on the ship.   The ship, which is based in Willemstad on the island of Curacao in the Dutch West Indies, was quarantined after its arrival in Saint Lucia on April 30.   It remained there for two days before returning to Willemstad on May 4 where local authorities ordered a fresh quarantine to give them time to confirm the passengers were either immunized or had no risk of contracting the virus.
Date: Thu, 16 May 2019 18:37:39 +0200

Bamako, May 16, 2019 (AFP) - Heavy floods claimed 15 lives Thursday in the Malian capital Bamako along with serious property damage, authorities said.   A statement said the flooding claimed a "provisional toll" of 15 dead and two injured.   "Teams are in place to rescue the distressed people," the government said, calling on residents to be "prudent" in the face of the disaster.   Flooding is common in Mali, located in the semi-desert Sahel region.
Date: Thu, 16 May 2019 04:40:13 +0200
By Ashraf KHAN

Rato Dero, Pakistan, May 16, 2019 (AFP) - Parents nervously watch as their children wait to be tested for HIV in a village in southern Pakistan, where hundreds of people have been allegedly infected by a doctor using a contaminated syringe.   Dispatched to keep order, police scan the anxious crowd as families hustle into one of five different screening rooms set up in the last month in the village of Wasayo, on the outskirts of Larkana in Sindh province.

Health officials say more than 400 people, many of them children, have tested HIV positive in recent weeks as experts warn of a surge in infection rates across Pakistan, due to the use of unsanitary equipment and rampant malpractice -- often at the hands of quack doctors.   Anger and fear continue to swell in the desperately poor village hit hard by the epidemic, which authorities say could be linked to either gross negligence or malicious intent by a local paediatrician.   "They are coming by the dozens," says a doctor at the makeshift clinic, beset by a lack of equipment and personnel to treat the surging number of patients.

Mukhtar Pervez waits anxiously to have her daughter tested, worrying a recent fever may be linked to the outbreak. For others, their worst fears have already become a reality.   Nisar Ahmed arrived at the clinic in a furious search for medicine after his one-year-old daughter tested positive three days earlier.   "I curse [the doctor] who has caused all these children to be infected," he says angrily.   Nearby Imam Zadi accompanies five of her children to be examined after her grandson tested positive.   "The entire family is so upset," she tells AFP.   Others worry their children's futures have been irreparably harmed after contracting HIV, especially in a country whose masses of rural poor have little understanding of the disease or access to treatment.   "Who is she going to play with? And when she's grown up, who would want to marry her?" asks a tearful mother from a nearby village, who asked not to named, of her four-year-old daughter who just tested positive.  

- 'Helpless'-
Pakistan was long considered a low prevalence country for HIV, but the disease is expanding at an alarming rate, particularly among intravenous drug users and sex workers.    With about 20,000 new HIV infections reported in 2017 alone, Pakistan currently has the second fastest growing HIV rates across Asia, according to the UN.   Pakistan's surging population also suffers the additional burden of having insufficient access to quality healthcare following decades of under-investment by the state, leaving impoverished, rural communities especially vulnerable to unqualified medical practitioners.    "According to some government reports, around 600,000 quack doctors are operating across the country and around 270,000 are practicing in the province of Sindh," said UNAIDS in a statement.

Provincial health officials have also noted that patients are at particular risk of contracting diseases or viruses at these clinics, where injections are often pushed as a primary treatment option.   "For the sake of saving money, these quacks will inject multiple patients with a single syringe. This could be the main cause of the spread of HIV cases," said Sikandar Memon, provincial programme manager of the Sindh Aids Control Programme.

The large number of unqualified doctors along with the "reuse of syringes, unsafe blood transfusions, and other unsafe medical practices" have all led to the spike in HIV cases in recent years, explains Bushra Jamil, an expert on infectious diseases at the Aga Khan University in Karachi.   "Rampant medical malpractices without any effective checks and balances are causing repeated outbreaks in Pakistan," said Jamil.   Authorities investigating the outbreak in Sindh say the accused doctor has also tested positive for HIV.

From a ramshackle jail cell in the nearby city of Ratodero, he denied the charges and accusations he knowingly injected his patients with the virus, while complaining of being incarcerated with common criminals.   But for the parents of the newly diagnosed, the ongoing investigation means little if they are unable to secure access to better information and the necessary drugs that can help stave off the deadly AIDS virus.   "We are helpless. I have other children and I am afraid they might catch the disease," says another mother whose daughter recently tested positive for HIV.   "[Please] send some medicine for our children so that they can be cured. If not, all of our children will die, right?"