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Netherlands Antilles

Netherland Antilles US Consular Information Sheet
May 12, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
The five islands of Bonaire, Curaçao, Saba, St. Eustatius (or “Statia”) and St. Maarten (Dutch side) comprise the Netherlands Antilles, an autonomous
art of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Tourist facilities are widely available. Read the Department of State Background Notes on the Netherlands Antilles for additional information.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: All Americans traveling by air outside the United States are required to present a passport or other valid travel document to enter or re-enter the United States. This requirement will be extended to sea travel (except closed loop cruises), including ferry service, by the summer of 2009. Until then, U.S. citizens traveling by sea must have government-issued photo identification and a document showing their U.S. citizenship (for example, a birth certificate or certificate of nationalization), or other document compliant with the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative, such as a passport card for entry or re-entry to the U.S. Sea travelers should also check with their cruise line and countries of destination for any foreign entry requirements.

Applications for the new U.S. Passport Card are now being accepted. Based on current projections, we expect to begin production of the passport card in June 2008 and be in full production in July 2008. The card may not be used to travel by air and is available only to U.S. citizens. Further information on the Passport Card is available at http://travel.state.gov/passport/ppt_card/ppt_card_3926.html and upcoming changes to U.S. passport policy can be found on the Bureau of Consular Affairs web site at http://travel.state.gov/travel/cbpmc/cbpmc_2223.html. We strongly encourage all American citizen travelers to apply for a U.S. passport well in advance of anticipated travel. American citizens can visit travel.state.gov or call 1-877-4USA-PPT (1-877-487-2778) for information on how to apply for their passports.
The U.S. Consulate recommends traveling in the Netherlands Antilles with a valid U.S. passport to avoid delays or misunderstandings. A lost or stolen passport is also easier to replace when outside the United States than other evidence of citizenship. Visitors to the Netherlands Antilles may be asked to show onward/return tickets or proof of sufficient funds for their stay. Length of stay is granted for two weeks and may be extended for 90 days by the head office of immigration. For further information, travelers may contact the Royal Netherlands Embassy, 4200 Linnean Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008, telephone (202) 244-5300, or the Dutch Consulate in Los Angeles, Chicago, New York, Houston or Miami. Visit the web site for the Embassy of the Netherlands at http://www.netherlands-embassy.org/homepage.asp for the most current visa information.

We have more information pertaining to dual nationality and international child abduction. Please refer to our customs information to learn more about customs regulations.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Drug-related organized crime exists within the Netherlands Antilles but has not directly affected tourists in the past.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings, including the Worldwide Caution, can be found.
Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).
The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME: In recent years, street crime has increased, especially in St. Maarten. Valuables, including passports, left unattended on beaches, in cars and hotel lobbies are easy targets for theft, and visitors should leave valuables and personal papers secured in their hotel. Burglary and break-ins are increasingly common at resorts, beach houses and hotels. Armed robbery occasionally occurs. The American boating community has reported a handful of incidents in the past, and visitors are urged to exercise reasonable caution in securing boats and belongings. Car theft, especially of rental vehicles for joy riding and stripping, can occur. Incidents of break-ins to rental cars to steal personal items have been reported by American tourists. Vehicle leases or rentals may not be fully covered by local insurance when a vehicle is stolen. Be sure you are sufficiently insured when renting vehicles and jet skis.
INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.
Please see our information for American Victims of Crime Overseas.
MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Medical care is generally good in Curaçao and St. Maarten, but may be limited on the other three islands. Hospitals have three classes of services i.e.: First Class: one patient to a room, air conditioning etc.; Second Class: two to six patients to a room, no air conditioning; Third Class: 15 to 30 people in one hall. Patients are accommodated according to their level of insurance.
Bonaire: The San Francisco hospital is a medical center (35 beds) with decompression facilities. The hospital has an air ambulance service to Curaçao and Aruba.
Curaçao: St. Elizabeth hospital is a public hospital that may be compared to midrange facilities in the United States. St. Elizabeth's hospital has a decompression chamber and qualified staff to assist scuba divers suffering from decompression sickness. Several private clinics provide good to excellent medical service.
St. Maarten: St. Maarten Medical Center (79 beds) is a relatively small hospital where general surgery is performed. Complex cases are sent to Curaçao.
Statia: Queen Beatrix Medical Center (20 beds) is a medical facility well equipped for first aid. Surgery cases are sent to St. Maarten.
Saba: Saba Clinic (14 beds) is a well-equipped first aid facility. Surgery cases are sent to St. Maarten. The Saba Marine Park has a decompression chamber and qualified staff to assist scuba divers suffering from decompression sickness.
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.
MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.
TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning the Netherlands Antilles is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
Driving in the Netherlands Antilles is on the right hand side. Right turns on red are prohibited, and traffic conditions require somewhat defensive driving. Local laws require drivers and passengers to wear seat belts and motorcyclists to wear helmets. Children under 4 years of age should be in child safety seats; children under 12 should ride in the back seat.
Nonexistent or hidden and poorly maintained street signs are the major road hazard in the Netherlands Antilles. Therefore, drivers should proceed through intersections with caution. Roads in the Netherlands Antilles are extremely slippery during rainfall. Night driving is reasonably safe in the Netherlands Antilles as long as drivers are familiar with the route and road conditions. Most streets are poorly lit or not lit at all. In Curacao, drivers should be aware of herds of goats that may cross the street unexpectedly. In Bonaire, wild donkeys may also cross the road.
Taxis are the easiest, yet most expensive form of transportation on the islands. As there are no meters, passengers should verify the price before entering the taxi. Fares quoted in U.S. dollars may be significantly higher than those quoted in the local currency. Vans are inexpensive and run non-stop during daytime with no fixed schedule. Each van has a specific route displayed in the front of the windshield. Buses, which run on the hour, have limited routes. The road conditions on the main thoroughfares are good to fair.
See road safety information at the following sites; http://www.curacao.com, http://www.statiatourism.com, http://www.sabatourism.com, http://www.infobonaire.com, http://www.st-maarten.com/.
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of the Netherlands Antilles’ Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of the Netherlands Antilles’ air carrier operations. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Dutch law in principle does not permit dual nationality. However, there are several exceptions. For example, American citizens who are married to Dutch citizens are exempt from the requirement to abandon their American nationality when they apply to become a Dutch citizen by naturalization. For detailed and specific information on this subject, contact the Embassy of the Netherlands in Washington or one of the Dutch consulates in the U.S. In addition to being subject to all Dutch laws affecting U.S. citizens, dual nationals may also be subject to other laws that impose special obligations on Dutch citizens.
Time-share buyers are cautioned about contracts that do not have a "non-disturbance or perpetuity protective clause" incorporated into the purchase agreement. Such a clause gives the time-share owner perpetuity of ownership should the facility be sold. Americans sometimes complain that the timeshare units are not adequately maintained, despite generally high annual maintenance fees. Because of the large number of complaints about misuse of maintenance fees, particularly in St. Maarten, prospective timeshare owners are advised to review the profit and loss statement for maintenance fees. Investors should note that a reputable accounting firm should audit profit and loss statements.
Potential investors should be aware that failed land development schemes involving time-share investments could result in financial losses. Interested investors may wish to seek professional advice regarding investments involving land development projects. Real estate investment problems that reach local courts are rarely settled in favor of foreign investors.
An unusually competitive fee to rent vehicles or equipment could indicate that the dealer is unlicensed or uninsured. The renter is often fully responsible for replacement costs and fees associated with any damages that occur during the rental period. Visitors may be required to pay these fees in full before leaving the Netherlands Antilles and may be subject to civil or criminal penalties if they cannot or will not make payment.
Netherlands Antilles customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from the Netherlands Antilles. For example, it is strictly prohibited to export pieces of coral and/or seashells. Please see our information on customs regulations.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offences. Persons violating the laws of the Netherlands Antilles, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in the Netherlands Antilles are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. The Netherlands Antilles has strict gun control laws; even a stray bullet in a suitcase can trigger a fine or time in jail. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.
CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children’s Issues web site.
REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
American citizens residing or traveling in the Netherlands Antilles are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within the Netherlands Antilles. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Consulate General is located at J.B. Gorsiraweg #1, Willemstad, Curaçao, telephone (599-9) 461-3066; fax (599-9) 461-6489; e-mail address: acscuracao@state.gov.
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information dated May 7, 2007, to update the Entry/Exit, Crime, Traffic Safety and Road Conditions, and Registry / Embassy Location sections.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu, 16 May 2019 23:41:35 +0200

Washington, May 16, 2019 (AFP) - The Church of Scientology said Thursday all the passengers from a cruise ship that was quarantined over a measles case had been cleared to leave.    "All passengers and crew (100%) of the Freewinds have been fully cleared of any possible risk of being infected by the measles or infecting others," the organization said in a statement.   "All passengers and crew are free to come and go as they wish," a spokesman added to AFP.

The infected individual was a member of the crew who, according to the Church, had fully recovered and was given a clean bill of health a week ago. She had been earlier confined on the ship.   The ship, which is based in Willemstad on the island of Curacao in the Dutch West Indies, was quarantined after its arrival in Saint Lucia on April 30.   It remained there for two days before returning to Willemstad on May 4 where local authorities ordered a fresh quarantine to give them time to confirm the passengers were either immunized or had no risk of contracting the virus.
Date: Sat, 4 May 2019 20:37:18 +0200
By Sara MAGNIETTE

The Hague, May 4, 2019 (AFP) - The Dutch territory of Curacao said Saturday it would do what is needed to prevent measles spreading from a Scientology cruise ship, after a crew member came down with the disease.   The Freewinds, which left the Caribbean island of St. Lucia on Friday, arrived back in its home port of Curacao at around 9:00 am (1300 GMT) Saturday, according to myshiptracking.com.

The Curacao government said in a statement that it would "take all necessary precautions to handle the case of measles on board of the Freewinds," including vaccinations.   "An investigation will also be done to determine who will be allowed to leave the ship without (posing) a threat to the population of Curacao," it said.   "It is imperative to make all efforts to prevent a spread of this disease internationally."   Dutch broadcaster NOS reported that three health officials had boarded the boat to examine those on board. Only people able to prove that they have been vaccinated against measles or had already had the disease would be able to leave the boat, its correspondent there reported.

- Anti-vaccine movement -
The Church of Scientology says the 440-foot (134-meter) vessel is used for religious retreats and is normally based in Curacao.   The vessel had arrived in St Lucia from Curacao on Tuesday, when it was placed under quarantine by health authorities there because of a measles patient, said to be a female crew member.   According to NOS, the crew member concerned is a Danish national, who arrived in Curacao from Amsterdam on April 17. It was only when the boat was at sea, on route to St Lucia, that a doctor discovered she had measles, their correspondent said.

The resurgence of the once-eradicated, highly contagious disease is linked to the growing anti-vaccine movement in richer nations, which the World Health Organization (WHO) has identified as a major global health threat.   The authorities in Curacao nevertheless urged local people not to panic, as the risk of the disease spreading in this case was fairly low.   Several people did however visit the cruise ship between April 22 and April 28 before it set sail for St Lucia and the authorities asked them to make themselves known to health officials.

Officials said the Freewinds had travelled between Curacao, St Lucia and another Dutch-held island, Aruba, several times towards the end of April.   There were about 300 people aboard the ship, according to Saint Lucia authorities, which placed the vessel in quarantine. They said they provided 100 doses of measles vaccine at no cost.   The Scientology church, founded by science fiction writer L Ron Hubbard in 1953, did not respond to requests for comment.   Its teachings do not directly oppose vaccination, but followers consider illness a sign of personal failing and generally avoid medical interventions.
Date: 4 Jul 2017
From: Harry Vennema <harry.vennema@rivm.nl> [edited]

On several of the Caribbean islands, epidemics of viral conjunctivitis are ongoing. Recently, general practitioners in the overseas territories of the Netherlands reported an increased incidence of this syndrome.

As of 26 May 2017, an outbreak of conjunctivitis occurred in a nursing home on Bonaire. In total, 14 patients and 13 healthcare workers presented with conjunctivitis. Patients were between 71 to 94 years of age. The number of new cases peaked in week 20 through 22. After week 22, a significant reduction was seen (1-3 new cases per week). Initially, conjunctival swabs from 5 patients were tested for the presence of adenovirus by PCR; all 5 were negative.

Subsequently, swabs from 4 patients were analyzed for the presence of enterovirus by RT-PCR, and all 4 were positive. The enterovirus from 3 samples was further characterized by partial VP1 sequence analysis. In all 3 samples, the enterovirus was characterized as Coxsackievirus A24, which belongs to Enterovirus C. Coxsackievirus A24 has been identified frequently as the causative agent of epidemic viral conjunctivitis. The strain from Bonaire is at least 5 percent different from any of the previously isolated and sequenced CV-A24 strains available in Genbank in a 330nt VP1 fragment. The strain involved in the most recent outbreak of CV-A24 conjunctivitis on La Reunion in 2015 is 6 percent different from the Bonaire 2017 strain.

[Andert Rosingh, Yingbin Celestijn-Wu, Fundashon Mariadal Hospital, Clinical Microbiology, Kralendijk, Bonaire, Caribbean Netherlands Annelies Riezebos, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Medical Microbiology, Utrecht, Netherlands Harry Vennema, Kim Benschop, Johan Reimerink, Hans van den Kerkhof, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Centre for Infectious Disease Control, Bilthoven, Netherlands]
--------------------------------------------
Harry Vennema
National Institute for Public Health and the Environment
Centre for Infectious Disease Control
Bilthoven, Netherlands
=========================
[ProMED thanks Harry Vennema and colleagues for this report.  Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) is characterized by sudden onset of painful, swollen, red eyes with subconjunctival haemorrhages and excessive tearing. Most cases are self-limited but highly contagious, with the potential for causing considerable illness. Adenoviruses and picornaviruses can cause AHC outbreaks (1). Among picornaviruses, enterovirus 70 and coxsackievirus A24 variant (CA24v) have caused large outbreaks of AHC[2].

Coxsackieviruses are transmitted primarily via the fecal-oral route and respiratory aerosols, although transmission via fomites is possible. The viruses initially replicate in the upper respiratory tract and the distal small bowel. They have been found in the respiratory tract up to 3 weeks after initial infection and in feces up to 8 weeks after initial infection[3]. The potential for exponential spread is, therefore, quite considerable.

It is important to understand that sequential outbreaks of AHC due to CA24v might occur in the same location after a considerable period, and public health precautions are necessary to control these outbreaks.

References:
1. Hierholzer JC, Hatch MH. Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis. In: Darrell RW, editor. Viral diseases of the eye. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; 1985. p. 165-96.
2. Kono R. Apollo 11 disease or acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis: a pandemic of a new enterovirus infection of the eyes. Am J Epidemiol. 1975;101:383-90.

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
Date: Published ahead of print 7 Dec 2015
Source: American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene Published on line doi:10.4269/ajtmh.15-0308 [edited]

Noellie Gay, Dominique Rousset, Patricia Huc, Severine Matheus, Martine Ledrans, Jacques Rosine, Sylvie Cassadou, and Harold Noel. Seroprevalence of Asian Lineage Chikungunya Virus Infection on Saint Martin Island, 7 Months After the 2013 Emergence.

Abstract
--------
At the end of 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) emerged in Saint Martin Island, Caribbean. The Asian lineage was identified. 7 months after this introduction, the seroprevalence was 16.9 percent in the population of Saint Martin and 39.0 percent of infections remained asymptomatic. This moderate attack rate and the apparent limited size of the outbreak in Saint Martin could be explained by control measures involved to lower the exposure of the inhabitants. Other drivers such as climatic factors and population genetic factors should be explored. The substantial rate of asymptomatic infections recorded points to a potential source of infection that can both spread in new geographic areas and maintain an inconspicuous endemic circulation in the Americas.
--------------------------------
Communicated by:
Roland Hubner
Superior Health Council
Brussels
Belgium
===================
[Asymptomatic or very mild infections may be an important source of infectious blood meals for vector mosquitoes. These infections should not be overlooked in epidemiological assessments of chikungunya virus outbreaks and implementation of control measures in the field. - ProMed Mod.TY]
Date: Wed, 26 Aug 2015 16:43:59 +0200 (METDST)

Miami, Aug 26, 2015 (AFP) - Tropical storm Erika took aim at the Lesser Antilles Wednesday as storm warnings went up there and in Puerto Rico in anticipation of heavy rains, US forecasters said.   With winds of 75 kilometres (45 miles) per hour, Erika was 540 kilometres (335 miles) east of Antigua at 1200 GMT, the Miami-based National Hurricane Center reported.

Advancing at a speed of 28 kilometres (17 miles) per hour, it was expected to sweep over the Lesser Antilles Wednesday night and then head toward Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.   Tropical storm warnings were up in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Antigua and Barbuda, Guadeloupe, Montserrat, St Kitts and Nevis, Anguilla, Saba, St Eustacia and St Maarten.

A US Air Force hurricane hunter aircraft that flew into the storm found it was slightly increasing in strength.   "Some slow strengthening is forecast during the next 48 hours," the hurricane centre said.   According to the NHC's projections, Erika could become a hurricane by the end of the week, or early next, as it nears Florida.   But "the intensity forecast remains very uncertain," it said.

Erika is arriving on the heels of Danny, the season's first hurricane which petered out before reaching the Caribbean.   Experts said earlier this month that there was a 90 percent chance the 2015 hurricane season in the Atlantic would be less active than usual.
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Ireland

Ireland US Consular Information Sheet
December 2, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Ireland is a highly developed democracy with a modern economy. Tourist facilities are widely available.
Read the Department of State Background Notes on Irela
d for additional information.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport is necessary, but a visa is not required for tourist or business stays of up to three months.
Visit the Embassy of Ireland web site (www.irelandemb.org/) for the most current visa information, or contact the Embassy at 2234 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC
20008, tel: 1-202-462-3939, or the nearest Irish consulate in Boston, Chicago, New York or San Francisco.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.
SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Ireland remains largely free of terrorist incidents.
While the 1998 ceasefire in Northern Ireland is holding, there have been incidents of violence in Northern Ireland associated with paramilitary organizations.
These have the potential for some spillover into Ireland.
Travelers to Northern Ireland should consult the Country Specific Information sheet for the United Kingdom and Gibraltar.

Several Americans have reported incidents of verbal abuse, apparently in reaction to U.S. policy on the war on terrorism.
As elsewhere in Europe, there have been public protests, which for the most part were small, peaceful and well policed.
Americans are advised, nonetheless, to avoid public demonstrations in general and to monitor local media when protests occur.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.
Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the United States and Canada, or for callers outside the United States and Canada, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME:
Ireland has a low rate of violent crime.
There have been a limited number of incidents in which foreigners and tourists have been victims of assault, including instances of violence toward those who appear to be members of racial minority groups.
In addition, there have been several reported assaults in Dublin by small, unorganized gangs roaming the streets in the early morning hours after the pubs close.
There is a high incidence of petty crime – mostly theft, burglary and purse snatching – in major tourist areas.
Thieves target rental cars and tourists, particularly in the vicinity of tourist attractions, and some purse and bag snatching incidents in these areas have turned violent, especially in Dublin.
Travelers should take extra caution to safeguard passports and wallets from pickpockets and bag snatchers.

Crimes involving credit and debit cards and automated teller machines (ATMs) are also a concern.
Travelers should protect their PIN numbers at all times and avoid using ATM machines that appear to have been tampered with.
There has been an increase in Ireland of the use of “skimmers” on ATM machines, especially in tourist areas.
Skimmers are usually small electronic devices that are attached to the outside of an ATM machine in order to “skim” the ATM or credit card data for later criminal use.
Most ATMs in Ireland now have electronic warnings about their use and advise customers to look closely at the ATM before using it.


INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime in Ireland, in addition to reporting to local police (Gardai), please contact the U.S. Embassy in Dublin for assistance.
The Embassy staff can, for example, assist you in finding appropriate medical care, contacting family members or friends, and learning how funds can be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime are solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.
The Irish Tourist Assistance Service (ITAS) is a free nationwide service offering support and assistance to tourists who are victimized while visiting Ireland. If you are a tourist victim of crime, report the incident to the nearest Garda Station (police station), which will contact ITAS.
All tourist victims of crime are referred to ITAS by the Gardai. To learn about possible compensation in the United States if you are a victim of a violent crime while overseas, see our information on Victims of Crime
The local equivalent to the “911” emergency line in Ireland is 999 or 122.
MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Modern medical facilities and highly skilled medical practitioners are available in Ireland.
Because of high demand, however, access to medical specialists can be difficult and admissions to hospitals for certain non-life-threatening medical conditions may require spending significant periods of time on waiting lists.
Those traveling to or intending to reside in Ireland who may require medical treatment while in the country should consult with their personal physicians prior to traveling.
Over-the-counter medication is widely available.
Irish pharmacists may not be able to dispense medication prescribed by your U.S. physician and may direct you to obtain a prescription from an Irish doctor before providing you with your required medication.
A list of Irish general practitioners in each area of Ireland may be obtained from the web site of the Irish College of General Practitioners at http://www.icgp.ie/go/find_a_gp. Emergency services usually respond quickly.
The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Ireland.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad, consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.
FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE: The Irish Department of Agriculture and Food advises all incoming passengers to Ireland that the current foot and mouth situation in Great Britain represents a high risk of the spread of disease to Ireland.
If you are traveling from Great Britain to Ireland and have visited a farm with cattle, sheep, goats or pigs on your travels, you must report to the Irish Department of Agriculture and Food office at the port of entry.
Fresh meat or unpasteurized milk products purchased in Great Britain may not be brought into Ireland.
If you are carrying any of these products, they must be disposed of in the bins provided at the port of entry.
For further information, please visit the Irish Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food at www.agriculture.gov.ie.
MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The following information concerning Ireland is provided for general reference only and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
As driving is on the left side of the road in Ireland, motorists without experience in left-drive countries should be especially cautious.
Tourists driving on the wrong side of the road are the cause of several serious accidents each year.
Turning on red is not legal in Ireland.
The vast majority of rental cars are manual transmission; it can be difficult to find automatic transmission rental cars.
Road conditions are generally good, but once travelers are off main highways, country roads quickly become narrow, uneven and winding.
Roads are more dangerous during the summer and on holiday weekends due to an increase in traffic. As in the United States, police periodically set up road blocks to check for drunk drivers.
Penalties for driving under the influence can be severe.
More information on driving in Ireland can be found on the U.S. Embassy in Dublin‘s web site at http://dublin.usembassy.gov/service/other-citizen-services/other-citizen-services/driving.html.

For specific information concerning Irish driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, please visit the official tourism guide for Ireland at http://www.tourismireland.com.

Taxis are reasonably priced but availability varies with time of day and where you are in the country.
Bus service in the cities is generally adequate, although many buses are overcrowded and frequently late.
Intercity bus and train services are reasonably good.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Ireland’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Ireland’s air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Most Irish banks will not accept U.S. $100 bills.
ATMs are widely available, but some, particularly in rural areas, may not accept cards from U.S. banks.
Credit cards are widely accepted throughout Ireland.
A number of travelers have been told by their airline that their passport must remain valid for six months after their entry into Ireland.
The Government of Ireland has advised that this is a recommendation of the airline industry and is not an Irish legal requirement. Travelers must be in possession of a valid passport to travel.
Please see Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Ireland’s laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use or trafficking in illegal drugs in Ireland are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Ireland are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Ireland.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the Embassy in Dublin.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy is located at 42 Elgin Road, Ballsbridge, Dublin 4.
The Embassy can be reached via phone at 353-1-668-8777, after hours number 353-1-668-9612, fax 353-1-668-8056, and online at http://dublin.usembassy.gov
*

*

*
This replaces the Country Specific Information for Ireland dated May 12, 2008, and updates sections on Information for Victims of Crime, Medical Facilities and Health Information, and Special Circumstances.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Fri 17 Jan 2020
Source: RTE [abridged, edited]

Outbreaks of mumps have become widespread around the country, the Health Service Executive (HSE) has said. There were 132 cases of mumps reported to the Health Protection Surveillance Centre last week.

Mumps is a highly contagious viral infection, and the most common symptom of mumps is a swelling of the parotid glands. The glands are located on both sides of the face, and the swelling gives a person a distinctive "hamster face" appearance.

Speaking on RTE's Morning Ireland, Dr. Kevin Kelleher, the HSE's Assistant National Director of Public Health, said it is happening because a large portion of 15- to 30-year-old people [do not have] full protection against mumps. He said not all of them are getting the MMR [measles, mumps, rubella] vaccine or are getting only one dose, when people need at least 2 doses to be fully protected.

The HSE is warning schools, colleges and universities about the outbreak.
Date: Sat 4 Jan 2020
Source: The Irish Sun [edited]

People have been banned from visiting patients at the Mercy University Hospital (MUH) in Cork after an outbreak of influenza. Visitor restrictions are also in place at Cork University Hospital, The Mater Hospital and University Hospital Waterford.

A Mercy University Hospital spokesman said: "The risk is to patients from visitors, because of the virulence of flu in the community." All visitors have been banned [except] for in exceptional circumstances. The notice came into effect at 8:30 pm on Friday [3 Jan 2020], and the situation being reviewed on a daily basis.

The ban does not include people visiting young patients, those who are critically ill or those being treated in the intensive care unit. The MUH said: "Visiting is prohibited to the hospital in the interest of patient safety and the hospital is seeking the public's co-operation with the restrictions."

In September [2019], the HSE [Ireland's national health service] had urged people to the get seasonal flu jab, which protects against 4 strains of the flu virus. The health service [recommends] that people get the new vaccine each year because the flu viruses which affect people change each year.

The flu vaccine works by helping the immune system produce antibodies to fight the influenza virus. If a person has been vaccinated and they come into contact with the virus, these antibodies will attack it and stop the person from getting sick. The flu vaccine doesn't contain any live viruses and therefore it cannot give people the flu. [Byline: Danny De Vaal]
Date: 27 Dec 2019
Source: Cork Beo [edited]

Four Cork hospitals have been forced to put visiting restrictions in place after a high volume of patients were confirmed with the flu.  Cork University Hospital, Bantry General Hospital, Mallow General Hospital, and Mercy University Hospital have all been affected by the outbreak. They are asking patients with flu symptoms to see their local GP instead of heading straight to the emergency department.  The situation is currently being monitored, and the hospitals will release further updates in the coming days.

A spokesperson for the hospitals said: "Due to a high volume of patients confirmed with influenza in Cork University Hospital, Bantry General Hospital, Mallow General Hospital, and Mercy University Hospital, strict visiting restrictions have been put in place. The hospital would also like to remind the public of the importance of performing hand hygiene when visiting hospitals and would like to thank the public for their cooperation.

It is also important to note that it is not too late to get the flu vaccine, and it is provided free of charge for people in at risk groups, which include everyone aged 65 years and over, pregnant women, anyone over 6 months of age with a long term illness requiring regular medical follow-up such as chronic lung disease, chronic heart disease, diabetes, cancer, or those with lower immunity due to disease or treatment."  [Byline: Cormac O'Shea]
Date: Mon 9 Dec 2019
Source: Irish Times [abridged, edited]

The biggest mumps outbreak in a decade shows no sign of abating, with 103 new cases reported last week. So far this year [2019], 2458 cases of mumps have been reported, compared to 563 notified in all of 2018, according to the latest figures.

With the current outbreak mostly affecting teenagers and young adults, scores of schools and colleges have been affected. The Health Service Executive advises those diagnosed with the disease to stay at home for at least 5 days after their salivary glands swell in order to prevent the infection spreading.

The worst-affected part of the state is the greater Dublin area, which accounted for 1126 of the cases so far this year [2019], according to the HSE's Health Protection Surveillance Centre. In contrast, just 84 cases have been recorded in the Southern Health Board area.

Men are slightly more affected than women, and 869 cases have been recorded among 15-19-year-olds alone.

Public health officials have blamed the current outbreak on a dip in the MMR (measles/mumps/rubella) vaccination rates 20 years ago. This resulted from publicity surrounding the since-discredited claims by Dr Andrew Wakefield linking the vaccine to a rise in autism cases.

Doctors say the MMR vaccine is the best way to prevent the disease and its complications, though it is estimated to be only 88% effective in preventing mumps, and effectiveness wanes over time.

Since 1988 when MMR was 1st introduced, the largest outbreak of mumps was reported in 2009 when more than 3600 cases were notified.

Fortunately, there is no sign of a measles outbreak this year [2019]. Some 75 cases have been reported in the 1st 11 months of 2019, 40 of them in the greater Dublin area.  [Byline: Paul Cullen]
Date: Thu 10 Oct 2019
Source: Vax-Before-Travel [edited]

The Health Protection Surveillance Centre in Ireland reported an increase in typhoid fever notifications in travellers returning from Pakistan [<http://ndsc.newsweaver.ie/epiinsight/1npbbpsg5wm>]. According to the Irish authorities on [9 Oct 2019], there have been 23 cases of _Salmonella enterica_ serovar Typhi (_S._ Typhi) in 2019. This is the 1st time that cases of XDR typhoid fever have been identified by the national reference laboratory in Ireland.

The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) reported 12 of these cases had a recent travel history to Pakistan [see item [2] below]. Unfortunately, 3 of these 12 cases of typhoid fever with travel history in Pakistan were infected with extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains.

According to the WHO/EMRO bulletin, Pakistan is experiencing a continuous surge of XDR _S._ Typhi since 2016. As of August 2019, 10 365 cases of XDR typhoid fever were reported from 23 districts in Sindh province, with the Karachi district being the most affected, having 67 percent of the cases. Pakistan is the world's 6th-most populous country with a population exceeding 210 million people, located in South Asia.

The XDR _S._ Typhi strain acquired a plasmid that confers resistance to multiple antibiotics, including the 1st-line antibiotics chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, as well as fluoroquinolones and 3rd-generation cephalosporins, says the ECDC. The strain remained susceptible to azithromycin and carbapenems. The increased resistance in typhoid fever limits treatment options and poses a threat to international spread.

In response, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a Level 1 Travel Alert regarding traveling to Pakistan in 2019 [<https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/notices/watch/xdr-typhoid-fever-pakistan>]. This 'Practice Usual Precautions' Travel Alert published on [30 Sep 2019], is very important since, in rare cases, typhoid fever can be fatal.

According to the Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation, about 1.75 million tourists visited Pakistan in 2017 alone.

The CDC says 'if you are going to South Asia, including Pakistan, protect yourself against typhoid infection by getting a typhoid fever vaccination.' The CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends 2 typhoid fever vaccines, an oral vaccine, Vivotif, and an injectable vaccine, Typhim VI. The oral vaccine Vivotif is approved for people 6 years of age or older and should be taken as directed, at least one week before departure. The injectable vaccine is approved for people 2 years of age or older. Travelers should receive the injectable vaccine Typhim VI at least 2 weeks before departure. Neither vaccine is 100 percent effective, so travellers should also practice safe eating and drinking while traveling abroad, says the ACIP.

Typhoid fever is a serious disease caused by the bacterium _Salmonella_ Typhi, spread by contaminated food and water. Humans are the only source of these bacteria. The incubation period of typhoid and paratyphoid infections is 6-30 days, says the CDC. Symptoms of typhoid fever often include high fever, weakness, stomach pain, headache, cough, and loss of appetite. People may have diarrhoea or constipation.

If you travel abroad and get sick while traveling, seek medical care ASAP. If you get sick after returning to the United States, seek medical care and tell your health care provider where and when you traveled. Do not prepare food for other people, says the CDC.

An estimated 26 million cases of typhoid fever and 5 million cases of paratyphoid fever occur worldwide each year, causing 215,000 deaths.

Also, the CDC says to ensure you are up-to-date on several vaccinations before visiting Pakistan. These vaccines and related medications can be found at most travel pharmacies in the USA.

Travel Alert news is published by Vax-Before-Travel
More ...

Mauritius

General:
************************************
Mauritius is a Republic island nation situated in the southwestern Indian ocean towards Madagascar. There are excellent tourist facilities and English is well understood throughout the country. The c
imate is subtropical and quite humid. This is particularly the case between December to March each year and cyclones occasionally occur at this time also.
Security Situation:
************************************
The security situation within the country is very
good but petty crime can be a problem against tourists. At night, it is probably unwise to venture alone outside the grounds of your hotel. The central market place in Port Louis is known to be a site for pickpockets so remember to take care. Grand Baie and Flic en Flac are also known concerns for petty crime. Those having a self-catering holiday should be aware that house breaking is becoming more common and so make sure any valuables are well hidden away and not left out on view.
Health Facilities:
************************************
Generally the level of health care is reasonable throughout the main tourist areas and hospital care may be provided free of charge. However, many tourists choose to obtain private medical care while in Mauritius. Make sure your travel and health insurance is up to date before you leave home.
Food & Water Facilities:
************************************
In the main hotels the level of food hygiene is good and with care tourists should be well able to stay perfectly healthy during their time in the country. However, like many other destinations, it is wise to maintain certain commonsense rules regarding what you eat and drink. All food should be freshly prepared and it is much wiser to avoid bivalve shellfish altogether. These include mussels, oysters and clams. Fried prawns are usually okay and boiled crab and lobster should be fine. Cold unprepared vegetables such as lettuce is best avoided. Tap water should be checked for a smell of chlorine and if it is not present that it should not be used for either drinking or brushing your teeth. Brucellosis is a small risk so avoid any unpasteurized milk products.

Insects Bites & Malaria Risks:
************************************
The risk of malaria throughout Mauritius is extremely small and currently (2001) the World Health Organisation does not recommend routine prophylaxis for tourists. However, there is a small amount of transmission in the northern part of the country away from the normal tourist routes. Rodrigues Island is free of this disease. Nevertheless, mosquitoes do occur and can transmit other conditions such as Dengue Fever apart from their rather unpleasant bite. Thus avoid mosquito bites is excellent advice and should be followed at all times.
The mosquitoes mainly bite in the evening out of doors and so at these times wear sensible pale coloured clothing to cover your exposed arms and legs,
don't use perfumes and after shaves and apply plenty of good insect repellent. Ones containing high concentrations of DEET are usually recommended.
The risk of Rabies:
************************************
Mauritius is currently regarded as being free of Rabies but tourists are strongly advised to avoid all contact with warm-blooded animals such as dogs, cats and monkeys. Any close contact (bite, lick, scratch) should be immediately reported to see if treatment may be recommended.
Swimming in Mauritius:
************************************
There have been a number of reports of those swimming in the sea being hit by speedboats while close to the hotel beaches. Take care to swim in recognised safe zones and remember to watch out for warning signs of strong currents etc. The risk from sharks etc is small but never swim alone or far out from the shore. Listen to the local advice and stay safe. If swimming in some of the rivers and lakes throughout the country there is a risk of a fresh water disease known as Schistosomiasis. This disease is mainly found in Port Louis, Pamplemousses and Grand Port.
If you have been at risk remember to contact your travel health advisor on return to talk this through.
Sun Exposure:
************************************
The level of sunshine in Mauritius can be significant so take care not to get over exposed. The main strength of the sun will be between 11am to 4pm and it is probably unwise to sunbathe during these times.
Road Safety:
************************************
In Mauritius they drive on the left side of the road and the conditions are quite variable throughout the country. Hiring cars or motorbikes abroad is one of the most significant risk factors for tourists and generally should be avoided. Hiring a cab to drive you to your destination is usually a safer option but always pick a good quality car and fix your price before leaving.
Local Laws and Customs:
************************************
Always carry photocopies of your passport and other essential travel documents. These may be required by customs and so you can then keep the originals in a safe location. The carrying of pharmaceutical drugs into Mauritius can cause difficulties. In certain cases the customs officials have been known to confiscate drugs which tourists are using for their own personal health. Under these circumstances it is wise to carry any medications in their original packing and also to have a letter from the prescribing doctor outlining your requirements for the medication in question. This is mainly a problem with some of the higher dose painkillers and general asthma, diabetes, blood pressure or heart medication should not present difficulties. The importation of spear-fishing equipment into Mauritius is prohibited.
Vaccinations for Mauritius:
************************************
Providing you are not arriving into Mauritius from a destination in Africa there will be no vaccines required for entry/exit purposes. However, for your own protection it is usually wise to consider cover against the following;
*
Poliomyelitis (childhood booster)
*
Tetanus (childhood booster)
*
Typhoid (food and water borne disease)
*
Hepatitis A (food and water borne disease)
For those undertaking a longer more rural trip other vaccines may need to be considered including Hepatitis B.
Summary:
************************************
Staying healthy and enjoying your time in Mauritius is perfectly possible so long as some commonsense rules are followed at all times. Further information is available through the Tropical Medical Bureau

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

12th May 2019

Mauritius - National.
22 Apr 2019. In total, there are 75 people infected with the dengue virus. During the weekend, a 1st case of dengue fever type 2 was recorded in a 3-year-old child. He is currently hospitalized in a Plaines-Wilhems clinic. "We have not yet done any analysis to find out how this type 2 dengue case happened in Mauritius. It will be done in the coming days," says the Ministry of Health.

What is certain, however, is that of the 75 cases identified, at least 4 cases were imported. At the Ministry of Health, it is said to be certain that these people were infected in India and Reunion. "Moreover, the dengue virus type 2 is prevalent in Reunion," says one.

- National. 29 Apr 2019. Port Louis 37 cases with 29 of those in Roche-Bois. Cases rise to 115.

- National. 9 May 2019. Mauritius passes 127 cases, including one in Grand Bay and one in Trou aux Biches
Mauritius - Residence La Cure. 12 Apr 2019

A 3rd case of dengue was detected this Friday [12 Apr 2019] at Residence La Cure. The 3 victims are from the same family. According to a source from the Ministry of Health, this family was visited by infected people of Vallee-des-Pretres some time ago.
[in French, trans. Corr.SB]
Date: Mon 23 Jul  2018
Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]

The World Health Organization (WHO) says 3 people have died while 453 cases of measles have been confirmed since the latest outbreak hit Mauritius late in March [2018].

According to the WHO African weekly outbreaks bulletin for the week ending 20 Jul, Mauritius has reported measles cases since 21 Mar [2018]. Infections peaked in the week ending 18 Jun, with more than 80 cases confirmed. All came from 9 districts, while the case fatality ratio averaged 0.7 percent.

"The 3 deaths have been in young women with unknown vaccination status, all between the ages of 29 and 31 years. All were immuno-deficient, resulting in the disease being complicated by encephalitis or septicaemia.

"The incidence rate was highest in those aged 0--9 years of age,followed by those aged 20--39 years. The incidence rate of the disease was highest in the districts located in the west of the island including Port Louis, Black River and Plaines Wilhems," the WHO said.

The confirmed cases were notified to the Communicable Disease Control Unit (CDCU) in the Mauritian capital Port Louis. The government has concluded a case analysis which found that 45 percent of the infected people were never vaccinated for measles.

Only 29 percent have previously received at least one dose of some measles-containing vaccine (MCV1), while 26 percent are of unknown vaccination status. Most of the patients are being isolated at home and a public call has been made to limit travels to avoid spreading the disease.

A total of 10 health teams are operating across the island, screening for fever/rash and checking public vaccination status for MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) in all schools in the affected areas.

The WHO said the current outbreak of measles in Mauritius demonstrates the importance of maintaining high levels of vaccination coverage against the disease.

"Prior to this current outbreak, the last detected case of measles in Mauritius was in 2009 and the country consistently had one of the highest (measles) vaccination rates in the WHO African region.

However, the vaccination coverage dropped in the past 2 years, leading to the current outbreak. Supplementary immunisation activities are being planned to halt the spread of the disease.  [Byline: Oscar Nkala]
=======================
[Healthmap/ProMED map of Mauritius:
Date: Thu 16 Oct 2014
Source: International SOS [edited]

"The authorities in several countries have implemented entry restrictions to curtail the spread of Ebola from countries that have Ebola cases...."

Entry restrictions
------------------
Kenya on 10 Oct [2014] announced that it had closed the Suam border crossing (Trans-Nzoia county) with Uganda due to reports of an Ebola-related death in Bukwo district (Uganda). Earlier, the Kenyan authorities on 19 Aug [2014] suspended entry of passengers travelling from and through Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, excluding health professionals supporting efforts to contain the outbreak and Kenyan citizens.

Cape Verde on 9 Oct [2014] announced that it would now deny entry to non-resident foreigners coming from countries with 'intense Ebola transmission' -- Sierra Leone, Guinea and Liberia -- or who have been to those countries in the previous 30 days.

Mauritius on 8 Oct [2014] banned entry to all travellers who have visited Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, Senegal and Congo (DRC) in the last 2 months, rather than just citizens of those countries, as was the case previously. The authorities have announced that entry restrictions for travellers from Senegal and Nigeria will be lifted on 10 Oct & 17 Oct [2014] respectively, if no further cases of Ebola infection are reported [from them].

Seychelles on 8 Oct [2014] suspended entry to travellers who have visited Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Nigeria or Congo (DRC) 28 days prior to their journey, with the exception of Seychellois citizens.

Cote d'Ivoire has reopened in early October [2014] its borders with Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia.

Equatorial Guinea is denying entry to travellers whose journeys originated in countries affected by Ebola.

Cameroon on 17 Sep [2014] reopened its borders to travellers from Senegal. An 18 Aug [2014] ban remains in place on travel from Nigeria, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone.

Southern African Development Community (SADC) member states -- Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe -- have stated that travellers coming from Ebola-affected countries (according to the World Health Organisation, WHO) would be monitored for 21 days and that travel to member countries for any gatherings would be discouraged. The SADC provided no details as to how member countries will carry out the associated screening and follow-up and it is likely that countries will have individual processes. There are also reports that some countries require health documentation for entry. Travellers are advised to contact the embassy or health ministry of their destination country to clarify their individual circumstances and prepare their trips accordingly.

South Sudan has placed a ban on travellers coming from Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia or Congo (DRC), or those who have travelled to those countries in the preceding 21 days. According to the health ministry, entry of travellers from Nigeria depends on their travel history in that country and whether they have visited Ebola-affected areas.

Namibia's foreign ministry on 11 Sep [2014] announced that foreigners travelling from countries affected by Ebola would be prohibited from entering the country.

Gambia on 1 Sep [2014] suspended entry of persons who have visited Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone or Nigeria in the 21 days prior to travel. Those travelling indirectly from any of the aforementioned countries to Gambia via another country also come under this measure.

Cote d'Ivoire announced on 23 Aug [2014] that it had closed its land borders with Guinea and Liberia.

Gabon stated on 22 Aug [2014] that it was restricting the issuance of entry visas to travellers from Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria on a case-by-case basis.

Rwanda, according to the US Department of State on 22 Aug [2014], has banned entry to travellers who have visited Guinea, Liberia or Sierra Leone in the 22 days prior to travel.

Senegal on 21 Aug [2014] closed its land border with Guinea, while the country's sea and air borders will also be closed to vessels and aircraft from Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone.

Chad on 21 Aug [2014] closed its land border with Nigeria at Lake Chad. The country previously reportedly banned the entry of any travellers originating or transiting through Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria or Sierra Leone, with airlines serving the country reportedly rerouting flights.

South Africa on 21 Aug [2014] restricted entry for all non-citizens travelling from Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. The government subsequently clarified that this was not a blanket ban and could be waived for 'absolutely essential travel'.

Flights and other transport
---------------------------
Countries that have implemented Ebola-related travel restrictions:

Gambia has banned the entry of flights from Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone.

Gabon has banned the entry of flights and ships from countries affected by Ebola.

Senegal has banned flights from Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone.

Cameroon has banned flights to and from Nigeria.

Chad has suspended all flights from Nigeria.

Nigeria has suspended flights to the country operated by Gambian national carrier Gambia Bird.

Cote d'Ivoire has now lifted the ban on passenger flights from Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone.

Details of airlines that have restricted flights to Ebola-affected countries
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Air France suspended flights to Sierra Leone from 28 Aug [2014].

The Togo-based carrier Asky Airlines has suspended flights to and from Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone.

Arik Air (Nigeria), Gambia Bird and Kenya Airwayshave suspended services to Liberia and Sierra Leone.

British Airways has extended their suspension of flights to Liberia and Sierra Leone until 31 Dec [2014].

Emirates Airlines has suspended flights to Guinea.

Korean Air suspended flights to and from Kenya from 20 Aug [2014].

Senegal Airlines has suspended flights to and from Conakry (Guinea) until further notice.

Other airlines have modified their routes but are still operating regular scheduled services. These include:
- Royal Air Maroc
- Brussels Airlines

Medical screening
-----------------
Entry and exit health screening is now in place in numerous countries throughout West Africa and is being introduced in Europe and North America countries as well; related measures can include the partial closure of land borders, ports and river crossings in an effort to restrict cross-border travel. Members should allow additional time to pass through medical screening and not travel if they are sick. Staff should continue to monitor local media and this website for developments.

[Land and sea border "closures" in Africa -- and elsewhere in the world are likely to be ineffective. Smugglers have always been able to largely circumvent them -- I'm willing to bet even the 3 hermit kingdoms (q.v.) also have smuggling routes -- including international colleagues resident in Switzerland bringing in cases of fine wine bought for less across the border  n France. Every so often, one was caught and fined.... (Like many other internationals, I lived in France, where the cost of living was lower, while working in Geneva, so had no incentive to do that.) - ProMed Mod.JW]
-----------------------------
Communicated by:
Jonathan Ezekiel
<jezekiel@his.com>
Date: Sun, 31 Mar 2013 14:09:00 +0200 (METDST)

PORT LOUIS, Mauritius, March 31, 2013 (AFP) - Ten people were killed in floods caused by sudden rains in Port Louis, the capital of the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius, the police information centre said Sunday.   Police said six bodies were found in a pedestrian subway. One body was found near the port and two more in an underground carpark, while one victim reportedly died of a heart attack as the flood waters rose.   "152 millimetres (six inches) of rain were recorded in the country in less than an hour and a half" on Saturday afternoon, a statement from the island's meteorological services said Sunday.

Average rainfall for the entire month of March, the wettest month of the year, in Port Louis is around 220 millimetres.   "We had forecast bad weather and rain, but not on that scale and not in such a short period of time," said Balraj Dumputh, the head of the meteorological service.   People have been advised to stay at home Sunday as further torrential rain is expected.

There has so far not been any official government reaction. Patrick Assirvaden, head of the ruling labour party, said: "It's unprecedented." He put the torrential rain down to "climate change" and said: "We have to adapt to this situation and to the damage caused by nature."   The head of the opposition Alan Ganoo for his part said the government had not been up to dealing with the situation.   Mauritius, with its palm-fringed white sand beaches, is best known as a top-end holiday and honeymoon destination.
More ...

Syria

Syria US Consular Information Sheet
August 13, 2008

COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Since March 1963, the Syrian Arab Republic has been ruled by an authoritarian regime dominated by the Socialist Ba'ath Party.
While the ruling Ba'ath party
spouses a largely secular ideology, Islamic traditions and beliefs provide a conservative foundation for the country's customs and practices.
Syria has a developing, centrally-planned economy with large public (30%), agricultural (25%), and industrial (20%) sectors.
Tourist facilities are available, but vary in quality depending on price and location.
Read the Department of State Background Note http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3580.htm on Syria for additional information.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport and a visa are required.
Visas must be obtained prior to arrival in Syria from a Syrian diplomatic mission located in the traveler’s country of residence, although the Syrian visa policy with respect to American diplomats and citizens is currently under review.
Foreigners who wish to stay 15 days or more in Syria must register with Syrian immigration authorities by their 15th day.
Syrian-American men or American men of Syrian origin, even those born in the United States, may be subject to compulsory military service unless they receive a temporary or permanent exemption from a Syrian diplomatic mission abroad prior to their entry into Syria.
(Please see the section on Special Circumstances below.)
Syria charges a departure tax for all visitors except those on diplomatic passports.
As of July 1, 2008, the tax is 1,500 Syrian Pounds if departing from the airport; 500 Syrian Pounds if departing via one of the land borders.

The Syrian government rigidly enforces restrictions on prior travel to Israel, and does not allow persons with passports bearing Israeli visa or entry/exit stamps to enter the country.
Syrian immigration authorities will not admit travelers with Israeli stamps in their passports, Jordanian entry cachets or cachets from other countries that suggest prior travel to Israel.
Likewise, the absence of entry stamps from a country adjacent to Israel, which the traveler has just visited, will cause Syrian immigration officials to refuse admittance.
Entry into Syria via the land border with Israel is not possible.
American-citizen travelers suspected of having traveled to Israel have been detained for questioning.

Syrian security officials are also sensitive about travel to Iraq.
There have been instances in which Americans, especially those of Arab descent, believed to have traveled to Iraq were detained for questioning at ports of entry/exit.
Americans seeking to travel to Iraq through Syria have also on occasion been turned around and/or detained.
On a number of occasions the border between Iraq and Syria has been closed without notice, stranding Americans on either side of the border.
Children under the age of eighteen whose fathers are Syrian or of Syrian descent must have their fathers' permission to leave Syria, even if the parents are separated or divorced and the mother has been granted full custody by a Syrian court.
Women in Syria are often subject to strict family controls.
On occasion, families of Syrian-American women visiting Syria have attempted to prevent them from leaving the country.
This can be a particular problem for young single women of marriageable age.
Although a woman does not need her husband's explicit consent every time she wishes to leave Syria, a Syrian husband may take legal action to prevent his wife from leaving the country, regardless of her nationality.
Once such legal orders are in place, the U.S. Embassy cannot help American citizens leave Syria.
Visit the Embassy of the Syrian Arab Republic, 2215 Wyoming Ave. NW, Washington, DC
20008, telephone (202) 232-6313 or check the Syrian Embassy's home page at http://www.syrianembassy.us for the most current visa information.
Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.
SAFETY AND SECURITY: Syria is included on the Department of State's List of State Sponsors of Terrorism.
A number of the terrorist groups that have offices in Syria oppose U.S. policies in the Middle East.
On September 12, 2006, the U.S. Embassy in Damascus was attacked by assailants using improvised explosives, gunfire, and two vehicles laden with explosives.
On February 4, 2006, mobs protesting caricatures of the Prophet Mohammed destroyed the Norwegian and Chilean embassies and severely damaged the Danish and Swedish diplomatic missions.
On April 27, 2004 there was a violent clash in which three people died in an area of Damascus where many foreign citizens reside.
It has never been clear whether the shootout with Syrian security forces involved common criminals or terrorists.
In 1998 and 2000, mobs attacked the U.S. Ambassador’s Residence and the U.S. Embassy, respectively.
In 1997, twenty-two people were killed when a public bus was bombed in downtown Damascus.
All of these attacks serve as reminders that Syria is not immune from political or purely criminal violence.
Americans traveling through the area should remain aware that U.S. interests and citizens might be targeted.
Security personnel may at times place foreign visitors under surveillance.
Hotel rooms, telephones, and fax machines may be monitored, and personal possessions in hotel rooms may be searched.
Taking photographs of anything that could be perceived as being of military or security interest may result in problems with authorities.
Additionally, Americans should be aware that conversations on the topics of political, religious and other freedoms are not seen as merely healthy debate in Syria and could lead to arrest.
Note that possession of specific-use electronic devices including GPS, short-wave or handheld radio equipment, or similar devices in Syria is illegal.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ website at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings, including the Travel Warning for Syria, Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada or, for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME:
While a few cases of theft, burglary and assault have been reported to the Embassy, crime is generally not a serious problem for travelers in Syria.
It is important to note, however, that Syria is not crime free. Specifically, incidents of credit card and ATM fraud, and physical harassment of women, are on the rise.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to the local police, please contact the U.S. Embassy for assistance.
The Embassy staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

The local equivalents for the “911” emergency line in Syria are:
110 for ambulance, 113 for fire and 112 for the police.
See our information on Victims of Crime.
MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Basic medical care and medicines are available in Syria's principal cities, but not necessarily in outlying areas.
Serious illnesses and emergencies may require evacuation to a Western medical facility.
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.
Some HIV/AIDS entry restrictions exist for visitors to or foreign residents of Syria.
There are no special immunizations required for entry to Syria.
AIDS tests are mandatory for foreigners’ ages 15 to 60 who wish to reside in Syria.
The AIDS test must be conducted in Syria at a facility approved by the Syrian Ministry of Health.
A residence permit will not be issued until the absence of the HIV virus has been determined.
Foreigners wishing to marry Syrian nationals in Syria must also be tested for HIV.
Syria usually will not give visas or residency permits to students wishing to study religion or Arabic in private religious institutions.
Please verify this information with the Embassy of Syria at http://www.syrianembassy.us/ before you travel.
MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.
TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Syria is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
Driving in Syria is hazardous and requires great caution.
Although drivers generally follow traffic signs and signals, they often maneuver aggressively and show little regard for vehicles traveling behind or to the sides of them.
Lane markings are usually ignored.
Vehicles within Syrian traffic circles must give way to entering traffic, unlike in the United States.
At night, it is very hard to see pedestrians, who often walk into traffic with little warning.
Outside major cities it is common to find pedestrians, animals and vehicles without lights on the roads at night.
Pedestrians must also exercise caution.
Parked cars, deteriorating pavement, and guard posts obstruct sidewalks, often forcing pedestrians to walk in the street.
Vehicles often do not stop for pedestrians, and regularly run red lights or “jump” the green light well before it changes.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
For specific information concerning Syrian driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, contact the Syrian Embassy in Washington, D.C. at 2215 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC
20008, tel. 202-232-6313.
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
Sanctions resulting from the passage of the Syria Accountability Act prohibit aircraft of any air carrier owned or controlled by the Syrian government to take off from or land in the United States.
As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Syria, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Syria's Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.
The U.S. Embassy in Damascus has advised its employees to avoid travel on Syrian Arab Airlines (Syrian Air or SAA) whenever possible due to concerns regarding the airline's ability to maintain its airplanes.
SAA has, on its own initiative, grounded individual aircraft with significant maintenance or service issues; however, concerns persist that some planes still being flown may lack certain safety equipment or may have undergone repairs that have not been reviewed by the manufacturer.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Syrian customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from Syria of items such as weapons, narcotics, alcohol, tobacco, cheese, fruits, pharmaceuticals, modems, cosmetics, and some electrical appliances.
It is advisable to contact the Embassy of Syria in Washington, D.C. for specific information regarding customs requirements.
Please see our Customs Information.
U.S. citizens are encouraged to carry a copy of their U.S. passports with them at all times so that, if questioned by local officials, they will have proof of identity and U.S. citizenship readily available.
Although Syria is a signatory to the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, Syrian officials generally do not notify the American Embassy when American citizens are arrested. When the American Embassy learns of arrests of Americans and requests consular access, individual police officials have, on their own initiative, responded promptly and allowed consular officers to visit the prisoners.
However, security officials have also in the past denied Embassy requests for consular access, especially in the case of dual citizens.
Foreign currencies can be exchanged for Syrian pounds only at government-approved exchange centers and licensed private banks.
Syrian pounds cannot be changed back into foreign currency.
Very few places in Syria accept credit cards.
Foreigners visiting Syria are required to pay hotel bills in US dollars or Euros.
Travelers’ checks are not accepted for payment in Syria, and banks will not cash them unless the traveler has an account at the bank in question.
There are no US-based banks operating in Syria.
There are six private banks operating in Syria, with branches and ATMs in most major cities.
These ATMs usually honor major debit/credit systems.
Funds may be transferred into Syria through Western Union.
Wiring of funds through private banks is possible only if the traveler already holds an account with the bank in Syria;, transferring funds through the Commercial Bank of Syria is not possible due to U.S. sanctions.
Syrian-American and Palestinian-American men who have never served in the Syrian military and who are planning to visit Syria are strongly urged to check with the Syrian Embassy in Washington, D.C. prior to traveling concerning compulsory military service. American men over the age of 18, even those who have never resided in or visited Syria, whose fathers are of Syrian descent, are required to complete military service or pay to be exempted.
Possession of a U.S. passport does not absolve the bearer of this obligation.
The fee for exemption from military service ranges from $5,000 to $15,000 USD, depending upon circumstances, for Syrian-American and Palestinian-American men who live abroad.
In January 2005 the Syrian government reduced mandatory military service from 30 months to 24 months.
It also announced that Syrians born outside of Syria and residing abroad until the age of 18 have the option of being exempted from their service by paying $2,000 USD.
Those born in Syria who left the country before reaching the age of 11, and have resided abroad for more than 15 years can be exempted by paying $5,000 USD.
Contact the Syrian Embassy in Washington, DC, for more information (See Entry/Exit Requirements section above).
President Bush signed an executive order on May 11, 2004, implementing sanctions in accordance with the Syria Accountability Act.
These sanctions prohibit the export to Syria of products of the United States other than food or medicine, and prohibit any commercial aircraft owned or controlled by the Syrian government from taking off from or landing in the United States.
Under the authority provided in Section 5(b) of the Act, the President has determined that it is in the national security interest of the United States to waive the application of these sanctions in certain cases and for certain products, as specified in the Department of Commerce's General Order No. 2.
For additional information about implementation of the Syria Accountability Act, consult the Department of Commerce web site at (http://www.bis.doc.gov/).
Since 1979, the United States has designated Syria a State Sponsor of Terrorism due to its support for groups such as Hizbollah and Palestinian terrorist groups.
The Terrorism List Government Sanctions Regulations prohibit U.S. persons from receiving unlicensed donations from the Syrian government.
Additionally, U.S. persons are prohibited from engaging in financial transactions which a U.S. person knows or has reasonable cause to believe pose a risk of furthering terrorists' acts in the United States.
For additional information about the Terrorism List Government Sanctions Regulations, consult the terrorism brochure on the U.S. Department of the Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) home page on the Internet at http://www.treas.gov/offices/enforcement/ofac/ or via OFAC's info-by-fax service at (202) 622-0077.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Syrian laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Syria are strict and convicted offenders can expect prison sentences and heavy fines.
Penalties for possession of even small amounts of illegal drugs for personal use are severe in Syria.
Persons convicted in Syria for growing, processing, or smuggling drugs face the death penalty, which may be reduced to a minimum of 20 years’ imprisonment.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.
CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.
REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Syria are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department's travel registration web site, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Syria.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy is located at 2 Al-Mansour St., Abu Roumaneh, Damascus.
The international mailing address is PO Box 29, Damascus.
Mail may also be sent via the U.S. Postal Service to: American Embassy Damascus, Department of State, Washington, DC
20521-6110.
Telephone numbers are (963) (11) 3391-4444, fax number is (963)(11) 3391-3999, e-mail: acsdamascus@state.gov.
The government workweek in Syria is Sunday through Thursday; the private sector generally works Saturday through Thursday.
The U.S. Embassy is open Sunday through Thursday.
Additional information may be found on the Embassy web site at http://damascus.usembassy.gov
*

*

*
This replaces the Country Specific Information dated November 20, 2007 to update the sections on Entry/Exit Requirements, Safety and Security, Crime, Information for Victims of Crime, Medical Facilities and Health Information, Special Circumstances, and Registration/Embassy Location.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu, 20 Feb 2020 16:20:39 +0100 (MET)

Damascus, Feb 20, 2020 (AFP) - A bomb explosion wounded two people in Damascus Thursday, the state news agency reported, the latest of several such attacks in the Syrian capital.   "An explosive device planted on a pickup truck went off in the Marjeh area" in central Damascus, SANA said, adding that two civilians were wounded by the blast.

The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights war monitor said the device was a "sticky bomb" planted on a military vehicle, although it was not immediately clear what the target was.   There was no immediate claim of responsibility for the blast, nor for a similar explosion that wounded five people in another neighbourhood of Damascus on Tuesday. The Syrian capital was routinely targeted by major car bomb attacks in the course of the nine-year-old conflict but blasts have been less frequent since regime forces reclaimed full control of the Damascus region in 2018.
Date: Thu 5 Dec 2019 6:11 PM EET
Source: Enab Baladi [edited]

[Leishmaniasis] is spreading widely among residents of Deir ez-Zor, and especially children. Some of the areas affected are controlled by the Kurdish self-administration while others are under the control of the Syrian regime. Medical sources counted hundreds of infected civilians and confirmed the disease's rapid spread.

According to Atef al-Tawil, a manager of the Leishmania & Environmental Health Programme at the Syrian regime's Ministry of Health, most infections in eastern Deir ez-Zor are spread among school children.

In a Facebook comment on a post by Twasol agency, al-Tawil claimed that cases of leishmaniasis were detected, at the end of November [2019], in primary schools in eastern Deir ez-Zor and its surrounding villages (al-Jalaa, al-Salihiyah, al-Tawtha, al-Abbas, al-Mujawdeh, al-Hasarat, al-Saial, al-Ghabrah).

According to al-Tawil, 455 infections of children were detected. A treatment team of 10 members was formed in the affected locations, to help control the disease to aid in early detection.

The Syrian Ministry of Health acted after several appeals by civilians residing in the area as they noticed the disease spreading among their children. Al-Tawil said that this rapid spread was due to the fact that all the infected people have lately returned to their original areas which lack medical centers.

Autonomous administration areas
-------------------------------
According to Euphrates Post network, leishmaniasis is also widely spread in areas controlled by the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF). In its post on [Sun 1 Dec 2019], the network claimed that the spread of leishmaniasis is mostly concentrated in the eastern countryside of Deir ez-Zor.

According to the network, unofficial statistics by the SDF-affiliated local council shows more than 7000 leishmaniasis infections among children in al-Baghouz, Hajin, Diban, al-Sha'afa, al-Kishkiye, Abu Hamam, and Gharanij. The local councils' attempts of controlling the disease are still substandard, according to the Euphrates Post.

The network also quoted doctors and nurses calling for international organizations to interfere and provide hospitals and clinics with the required vaccine [there is no vaccine for leishmaniasis; ed.], and to train specialized medical staff in each clinic to deal with the disease.

The autonomous-administration-affiliated media center in Deir ez-Zor also confirmed the spread of leishmaniasis and pointed out that the authorities took actions, by the end of November [2019], to provide treatments.

According to the media center, special medical teams and cadres were distributed among the clinics to provide 12,000 ampoules of the required [medicine] to treat leishmaniasis with the support of the World Health Organization.

Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease transmitted by the bite of infected female phlebotomine sandflies -- a very small yellow fly that is active at night and makes no sound when it bites -- and the main cause for its spread is dirt and lack of hygiene.  [Byline: Enab Baladi]
========================
[Deir ez-Zor is east and south of the locations in the previous ProMED reports (see below), indicating further increase in cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis beyond its historical concentration in western Syria (<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4861536/>) and beyond the area of the MENTOR initiative in northern Syria (<https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/24/11/17-2146_article>).

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Syria with its reservoir in rodents. It has been a problem throughout the Syrian civil war and in ISIS controlled areas during the war due to a breakdown in rodent and vector control. - ProMED Mod.EP]

[Maps of Syria:
Date: Mon, 2 Dec 2019 11:19:53 +0100 (MET)

Beirut, Dec 2, 2019 (AFP) - Regime air strikes Monday killed 10 civilians in Syria's last major opposition bastion, where deadly clashes between regime forces and armed groups have escalated in the past two days, a monitor said.   The raids also wounded 15 civilians in a market in the town of Maaret al-Numan in the jihadist-run province of Idlib, the Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human rights said.
Date: Fri 21 Jun 2019
Source: WHO/EMRO (Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean) [edited]

Situation reports on Al-Hol camp, Al-Hasakah
--------------------------------------------
- Over the past 2 weeks, a total of 633 people have left the camp. This number includes 107 people who returned to their homes in north-east Syria. There were no new arrivals during the reporting period.
- 9 medical points are reporting regularly to the disease Early Warning And Response System (EWARS). Leishmaniasis, acute diarrhoea, bloody diarrhoea, and severe acute malnutrition (SAM) remain the most commonly reported diseases.
- 38 new cases of leishmaniasis were detected. All patients are being treated by a WHO-supported mobile team in coordination with the Al-Hasakeh Directorate of Health.
- 7 suspected cases of measles were reported. No new cases of tuberculosis were detected during the reporting period.
- 30 children with severe acute malnutrition with medical complications were admitted to Al-Hikmah hospital during the reporting period, of whom 22 were discharged, one died, and the remainder are still under treatment. Mortality rates related to severe acute malnutrition remain below the emergency threshold.
- 2 new static health care points have been established, bringing the total number to 12. There is still an acute shortage of health care points in the Foreign Annex.
- 35 water sources were tested for microbial contamination in Al-Hasakeh water national laboratory during the reporting period. All 35 samples tested negative for contamination. WHO continues to test the quality of water from different sources in the camp.
- Stool samples from patients with diarrhoea were tested for
_Salmonella_, _E. coli_, and cholera, with all samples testing negative. Blood samples from patients with suspected measles were also sent for testing, and all samples tested negative.
- Following intensive negotiations by WHO, the local authorities have given their approval in principle to evacuate a patient requiring advanced mental health treatment
===================
[Leishmaniasis has surged throughout Syria during the civil war on all sides and continues to be a health problem in the refugee population. - ProMED Mod.EP]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Syria:
Date: Wed, 22 May 2019 16:52:39 +0200
By Nazeer al-Khatib with Hashem Osseiran in Beirut

Maaret al-Numan, Syria, May 22, 2019 (AFP) - Syrian government air strikes killed 18 civilians, including a dozen people at a busy market, as fierce fighting raged for the jihadist-held northwest, a war monitor said on Wednesday.   Regime forces battled to repel a jihadist counteroffensive around the town of Kafr Nabuda that has left 70 combatants dead in 24 hours, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said.   The Hayat Tahrir al-Sham alliance, led by Syria's former Al-Qaeda affiliate, controls a large part of Idlib province as well as adjacent slivers of Aleppo, Hama and Latakia provinces.   The jihadist-dominated region is nominally protected by a buffer zone deal, but the government and its ally Russia have escalated their bombardment in recent weeks, seizing several towns on its southern flank.   At least 12 people were killed and another 18 wounded when regime warplanes hit the jihadist-held Idlib province town of Maarat al-Numan around midnight (2100 GMT) on Tuesday, the Observatory said.

The market was crowded with people out and about after breaking the daytime fast observed by Muslims during the holy month of Ramadan.   The bombardment blew in the facades of surrounding buildings, and ripped through the flimsy frames and canvas of stalls in the market square, an AFP photographer reported.    The bodies of market-goers were torn apart.   "Residents are still scared," stallholder Khaled Ahmad told AFP.   Three more civilians were killed on Wednesday by air strikes in the nearby town of Saraqib, the Observatory said.    Two others were killed in strikes on the town of Maaret Hermeh, it added.    Another civilian was killed in air raids on the town of Jisr al-Shughur, the monitor said.   The Britain-based Observatory relies on a network of sources inside Syria and says it determines whose planes carried out strikes according to type, location, flight patterns and munitions.

- 'Worst fears'-
The strikes came as heavy clashes raged in neighbouring Hama province after the jihadists launched a counterattack on Tuesday.   Fresh fighting on Wednesday took the death toll to 70 -- 36 regime forces and militia and 34 jihadists, the Observatory said.   It said the jihadists had recaptured most of Kafr Nabuda from government forces, who had taken control of the town on May 8.   State news agency SANA on Wednesday however said the army repelled a jihadist attack in the area, killing dozens of insurgents.

Russia and rebel ally Turkey inked the buffer zone deal in September to avert a government offensive on the region and protect its three million residents.   But President Bashar al-Assad's government upped its bombardment of the region after HTS took control in January.   Russia too has stepped up its air strikes in recent weeks.   The Observatory says nearly 200 civilians have been killed in the flare-up since April 30.   The United Nations said Wednesday that Idlib's civilian population once again faced the threat of an all-out offensive.   "A full military incursion threatens to trigger a humanitarian catastrophe for over 3 million civilians caught in the crossfire, as well as overwhelm our ability to respond," said David Swanson, a spokesman for the UN humanitarian office.   Swanson said more than 200,000 people have been displaced by the upsurge of violence since April 28.   A total of 20 health facilities have been hit by the escalation -- 19 of which remain out of service, Swanson said.   Collectively they served at least 200,000 people, he added.

- 'Break the status quo' -
The September deal was never fully implemented as jihadists refused to withdraw from a planned buffer zone around the Idlib region.   But it ushered in a relative drop in violence until earlier this year, with Turkish troops deploying to observation points around the region.   The Syrian government has accused Turkey of failing to secure implementation of the truce deal by the jihadists.   But Turkish Defence Minister Hulusi Akar accused the Syrian regime late Tuesday of threatening the ceasefire deal.   "The regime is doing all that it can to break the status quo including using barrel bombs, land and air offensives," Akar told reporters.   "Turkish armed forces will not take a step back from wherever they may be", he however added.   Earlier, the US State Department said it was assessing indications that the government had used chemical weapons on Sunday during its offensive in Idlib.   HTS accused government forces of launching a chlorine gas attack on its fighters in the northern mountains of Latakia.   But the Observatory said Wednesday it had "no proof at all of the attack".
More ...

Cuba

General:
**********************************
Cuba is an independent island country situated in the Caribbean. It is the largest of the islands and covers 42,000sq miles. The climate is sub tropical throughout the year with most of the rainfall in
the northern parts of the country. Temperatures of between 20C to 35C are fairly standard throughout the year. Generally the winter effects of the American continent only last for short periods.
Safety & Security:
**********************************
The majority of tourists visiting Cuba will have no difficulty but bag snatching and other street crime appears to be increasing. The old Havana area and other major tourist resorts may be particular areas of concern in this regard. On arrival be careful to only use your recognised tour operator. If you are taking a taxi at any stage make sure it is a registered one and not a private vehicle. It is unwise to carry large quantities of money or jewellery away from your hotel and try not to flaunt wealth with your belongings. Pickpockets are too common an occurrence on buses and trains and at train stations so be careful with your essential documents and credit cards. Valuables should not be stored in suitcases when arriving in or departing from Havana as there have been a number of thefts from cases during the time the cases are coming through baggage handling. There is an airport shrink-wrap facility for those departing Havana which reduces the risk of tampering. Remember to carry a photocopy of your main documents (passport, flight tickets etc).
Road Safety:
**********************************
Following a number of serious road accidents involving tourists, you are advised not to use mopeds for travelling around Cuba or in Havana. Also, if you are involved in any accident a police investigation will be required to clear you and this may significantly delay your travel plans. On unlit roads at night there have been a number of accidents associated with roaming cattle (sounds like Ireland!). The traffic moves on the right side of the roads. There is a main highway running the length of the country but many of the country roads are in poor repair.
Local Laws & Customs:
**********************************
When arriving into Cuba make sure you are not carrying any items which could be considered offensive. Any illicit drug offense is treated very seriously and Cuban law allows for the death penalty to be used under these circumstances. If you require personal medication for your health, make sure it is in original packing and carry a letter from your doctor describing the medication. Never agree to carry any item for another individual and always secure your cases once they are packed. Taking photographs of military or police installations or around harbours, rail and airport facilities is strictly forbidden.

Currency:
**********************************
Since 1993 it is now possible to use US dollars for all transactions within Cuba. Remember, there is a 20$ airport departure tax. Certain travellers cheques and credit cards may not be acceptable within Cuba. This is particularly true of American Express cheques and cards but check your situation with the travel operator before departure.
Health Facilities:
**********************************
Generally healthcare facilities outside of Havana are limited and many standard medications may not be available. It is important to carry sufficient quantities of any medications which may be required for the duration of your time in Cuba.
Food & Water:
**********************************
The level of food and water hygiene varies throughout the country and between resorts. On arrival check the hotel cold water supply for the smell of chlorine. If it is not present then use sealed bottled water for both drinking and brushing your teeth throughout your stay. Cans and bottles of drinks are safe but take care to avoid pre-cut fruit. Peel it yourself to make sure it is not contaminated. Food from street vendors should be avoided in most cases. Bivalve shellfish are also a high risk food in many countries and Cuba is no exception in this regard. (Eg Mussels, Oysters, Clams etc)
Malaria & Mosquito Borne Diseases:
***********************************************
Malaria transmission does not occur within Cuba and so prophylaxis is not required. However, a different mosquito borne disease called Dengue has begun to reoccur in the country over the past few years. This viral disease can be very sickening and even progress to death. It is rare for tourists to become infected but avoiding mosquito bites is a wise precaution.
Swimming, Sun & Dehydration:
************************************
The extent of the Cuban sun (particular during the summer months (April to October) can be very excessive so make sure your head and shoulders are covered at all times when exposed. Watch children carefully as they will be a significant risk. Drink plenty of fluids to replace what will be lost through perspiration and, unless there is a reason not to,
take extra salt either on your food or in crisps, peanuts etc. Take care if swimming in the Caribbean to stay with others and to listen to local advice. Never swim after a heavy meal or alcohol.
Rabies Risk in Cuba:
**********************************
This viral disease does occur throughout Cuba and it is essential that you avoid any contact with all warm blooded animals. Dogs, cats and monkeys are the most commonly involved in spreading the disease to humans. Don't pick up a monkey for a photograph! If bitten, wash out the wound, apply an antiseptic and seek urgent medical attention.
Vaccinations for Cuba:
**********************************
There are no essential vaccines for entry / exit if coming from Ireland. However, for your own personal protection travellers are advised to have cover against the following;
*
Tetanus (childhood booster)
*
Typhoid (food & water borne disease)
*
Hepatitis A (food & water borne disease)
For those planning a longer or more rural trip vaccine cover against conditions like Hepatitis B and Rabies may also need to be considered.
Summary:
**********************************
Cuba is becoming a popular destination for tourists and generally most will stay very healthy. However commonsense care against food and water borne disease is essential at all times. Also take care with regard to sun exposure, dehydration and mosquito bites.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Tue, 28 Jan 2020 21:50:13 +0100 (MET)

Havana, Jan 28, 2020 (AFP) - A major earthquake that hit the Caribbean Tuesday rocked the Cuban capital Havana, causing buildings to be evacuated and sending thousands of people into the streets.  The quake rattled several tall buildings in the city, which were immediately evacuated by authorities.

The earthquake was felt in several provinces including Guantanamo and Santiago de Cuba in the east, Cienfuegos in the centre and Havana in the northwest, the official Cubadebate website reported.   There were no preliminary reports of damage or injuries, however.  The US Geological Survey reported the 7.7 magnitude quake hit at a depth of 10 kilometres (six miles), at 1910 GMT -- 125 kilometres northwest of Lucea, Jamaica.
Date: Fri, 18 Oct 2019 22:45:46 +0200 (METDST)

Washington, Oct 18, 2019 (AFP) - The US moved to further hurt Cuba's vital tourism industry by tightening the ability of the country's airlines to lease aircraft.   The US Department of Commerce said it was revoking existing licenses for US companies leasing aircraft to Cuban carriers, and will deny future applications for aircraft leases.   The move could make it harder for Cuba to service its rapidly growing tourism sector, a key source of foreign revenue for the poor country.

Washington has stepped up pressure on Havana due to its support for the embattled regime of Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro.   "This action by the Commerce Department sends another clear message to the Cuban regime -- that they must immediately cease their destructive behaviour at home and abroad," Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross said in a statement.

It was not immediately clear how many aircraft the move would impact.   Cuba's cash-poor carriers depend on aircraft rented from leasing companies or other airlines, which are often very old.   In May 2018, 112 people died in the crash of a 39-year-old Boeing 737 leased by national carrier Cubana de Aviacion from a small Mexican firm, Global Air.

In June of this year, US President Donald Trump announced a US ban on cruise ship stopovers by Americans on the island, forcing Havana to cut its 2019 tourism target by 15 percent to 4.3 million visitors.   Nearly 900,000 tourists visited the island on cruise ships last year, and almost 40 percent were American, according to official figures.   The announcement Friday also expanded restrictions on imports from Cuba and on products with US content that can be sold to the country.
Date: Wed 3 Jul 2019
Source: 660 City News [edited]

A Newfoundland woman is warning travellers to do their research before adventurous excursions abroad after she and several other Newfoundlanders became ill from a mysterious disease traced back to a cave she visited in Cuba. The illness was eventually identified as a respiratory infection called histoplasmosis, or "cave disease," caused by spores from bird or bat droppings in damp soil. [She] of Paradise, NL, travelled to Cuba with her husband on 27 Apr [2019], but her fever-like symptoms didn't appear until 21 May [2019], weeks after she returned home. X-rays showed nodules in her lungs and tests showed low blood counts. Her condition baffled local doctors, who initially thought her lung infection could be some form of pneumonia. The clue to her illness came from a chance meeting she'd made on the trip with a family of Newfoundlanders who had a mutual friend. [She] and her husband had travelled with the group on a tour that included cave diving in the Matanzas province of Cuba.

Back in Canada, a number of their new friends had also fallen ill. [She] and the travellers informed their doctors that they knew each other and were experiencing the same symptoms, and their illness was identified as a respiratory infection called histoplasmosis, or "cave disease." [She] said pinpointing the source of her condition offered some relief from what she called a terrible, alarming health issue that she feared might have been cancerous. "You didn't want to be too excited about the fact that somebody else was sick, but at least cancer was off the table," [she] said by phone Wednesday [3 Jul 2019].

Eastern Health, [her] local health authority, has issued an advisory for travellers heading to the Americas, Africa, East Asia and Australia to avoid contracting the disease. Histoplasmosis is a treatable disease, contracted by breathing in airborne spores where bird or bat droppings are disturbed in damp soil. Eastern Health described its symptoms as including "cough and chest pain, shortness of breath, fever and chills, headaches and flu-like illness." The disease is treatable and most people who contract it never show symptoms, but it can be serious for infants or people with compromised immune systems. The health authority said the advisory was issued after a low number of histoplasmosis cases were confirmed in the Eastern Health region. An exact number of cases could not be provided for privacy reasons, but [the patient] said she's heard of at least 5 others.

While the disease is treatable, it is rare in Newfoundland, making treatment more complicated. [The patient] said she's waiting to receive an anti-fungal medication that had to be approved from outside of the province, and she's been told she'll have to take the drug for treatment for the next 3 months to a year. [The patent] said she's still experiencing fatigue and a persistent cough, and her voice is still scratchy and strained from an illness she contracted from what was one of the most breathtaking excursions on her vacation. "It was absolutely amazing," she said of the cave. "It was so pristine and so nice-looking when we went in."

[She] said she'd advise other travellers to do a thorough background check on the regions they're visiting and any planned excursions. "It's without a doubt that you have to go and you have to research the excursion that you're going on," she said. "You have to know the region, the areas, 100%. [She] wrote a Facebook post about her experience that's been shared thousands of times, and she said people as far as France have written to her about experiencing similar, undiagnosed symptoms after travelling abroad.  [Byline: Holly McKenzie-Sutter]
====================
[_Histoplasma capsulatum_, a dimorphic fungus that grows in a mycelial form at ambient temperatures and as yeast at body temperature in mammals, is found worldwide in soil enriched by bird or bat droppings. Contaminated soil can be potentially infectious for years. Fungal spores become airborne during activities that disturb the contaminated soil, such as spelunking, mining, construction, excavation, demolition, roofing, chimney cleaning, farming, or gardening, which can lead to clusters of cases of histoplasmosis that follow inhalation of the aerosolized spores. The spores can travel distances downstream from the source in currents of air. Because of the presence of bats in caves, cave exploration is a known risk factor for histoplasmosis, which is sometimes known as "cave fever" (<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10403317>). Physicians should be aware of the association between histoplasmosis and caving when caring for individuals who develop an acute febrile respiratory illness after cave exploration (<http://tinyurl.com/yxjust7x>).

Another disease that has also acquired the name "cave fever" is tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF). See ProMED-mail posts Tick-borne relapsing fever - Israel: spelunkers, tourists http://promedmail.org/post/20180422.5761531 and Tick-borne relapsing fever - USA: (TX) cave workers, 2017 http://promedmail.org/post/20180420.5759542.

Although birds cannot be infected by the _H. capsulatum_ and do not transmit the disease, bats can become infected by _H. capsulatum_ and may harbor the fungus in their gut (<https://academic.oup.com/jtm/article/15/2/133/1801173>).

In the US, histoplasmosis is endemic in the Ohio, Missouri, and Mississippi River valleys, where it is caused by _H. capsulatum_ var. _capsulatum_. Histoplasmosis has also been reported in Mexico, Central and South America, Oceania, Asia, Africa, and Europe (<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4535725/>). In Africa, histoplasmosis occurs most commonly in west and central Africa, where it is caused by the _duboisii_ variety, which has yeast cells that average about twice the size of _H. capsulatum_ var. _capsulatum_  (<http://www.reviberoammicol.com/1997-14/155159.pdf>).

Most individuals with histoplasmosis are asymptomatic. Those who develop clinical manifestations are usually immunocompromised or are exposed to a large number of spores. Disseminated disease is especially more common in HIV/AIDS co-infected cases. - ProMED Mod.ML]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail maps:
Newfoundland, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada:
Date: Wed, 5 Jun 2019 03:22:19 +0200
By Paul HANDLEY

Washington, June 5, 2019 (AFP) - The Trump administration clamped down on US tourist visits to Cuba Tuesday, aiming to cut the flow of dollars to a country that Washington accuses of helping prop up Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro.

The Treasury Department banned group educational travel, cruise ship and private yacht visits by Americans, taking aim at the most common ways US tourists and Cuban-Americans visit the Caribbean island.   The move could constitute a heavy hit on Cuba, which saw more than a quarter-million US visitors in the first four months of 2019, almost double the figure from a year earlier.   "The United States holds the Cuban regime accountable for its repression of the Cuban people, its interference in Venezuela, and its direct role in the man-made crisis led by Nicolas Maduro," the State Department said in a news release.   "Empowered by Cuba, he has created a humanitarian disaster that destabilizes the region."

White House National Security Advisor John Bolton said the aim was to end what the administration considers "veiled tourism" to Cuba.   "We will continue to take actions to restrict the Cuban regime's access to US dollars," Bolton said on Twitter.   The Cuban government condemned the move, which could cost the country's economy tens of millions of dollars a year in lost income.   "They seek to stifle the economy and damage the standard of living of Cubans to wrest political concessions," said Foreign Affairs Minister Bruno Rodriguez in a tweeted statement. "They'll fail again."

- Reverses Obama's historic opening -
American tourism in Cuba took off after then-president Barack Obama moved to ease the half-century trade embargo against the communist government in 2014 -- even though continuing restrictions kept visits nominally in the realm of cultural and artistic exchanges and business dealings.   Cuba and the US restored ties in 2015 and Obama himself visited Havana in a historic presidential trip in March 2016, meeting with then-president Raul Castro. Weeks later, the ban was lifted on US commercial ship visits, opening the door for the Caribbean cruise ship industry to expand stops in Cuba.

But President Donald Trump came into office attacking the Obama opening, and within months began tightening relations, first by banning individual visits and limiting commercial interactions.   The State Department tied the new ban directly to Havana's support for Maduro -- whose embattled regime faces a direct challenge from US-backed opposition leader Juan Guaido, the self-declared acting president of Venezuela.  "Veiled tourism has served to line the pockets of the Cuban military, the very same people supporting Nicolas Maduro in Venezuela and repressing the Cuban people on the island," the State Department said.

- 'Political grandstanding' -
Collin Laverty, president of Cuba Educational Travel, one of the US agencies which arranges visits to Cuba, accused the Trump administration of playing politics by trying to appease conservative anti-Havana Cuban immigrants in Florida, an important election swing state where they carry significant political weight.   "This political grandstanding aimed at Florida in the run up to the 2020 elections is so unfortunate for the millions of Cubans that will feel the crunch from less US visitors," said Laverty.   "This has nothing to do with empowering the Cuban people and has everything to do with empowering a handful of people in Florida that have never even been to Cuba."   Travel industry officials said that people who are booked on tours now will be able to go, ensuring that advanced-booked cruise ships will likely be operating from Florida to Havana throughout this year.   But Royal Caribbean Cruises said ships leaving Wednesday and Thursday of this week will skip previously scheduled stops in Cuba as the company examines the new US policy.

Norwegian Cruise Lines said they are seeking additional information on the new policy to see how it will affect future travel.   Tessia Aral, the owner of ABC Charters in Miami, said it could have a huge impact on her business, which arranged trips to Cuba for about 10,000 people last year.   She said it will hurt not only companies like hers but also those of the many entrepreneurs in Cuba who have built businesses to serve tourists.   "The people making the rules have never been to Cuba. They don't know how things have changed" in recent years, she said.   "What they are doing is counter-productive. I believe it's really going to hurt the private entrepreneurs in Cuba -- all the private restaurants, all the private homes" who serve tourists.
Date: Sun, 10 Mar 2019 04:13:11 +0100
By Katell ABIVEN

Havana, March 10, 2019 (AFP) - In Havana, there's a shop selling a camera for more than $25,000 -- roughly 850 times the average monthly wage in Cuba.   The eye-popping sum earned predictable scorn on social media, but it begins to make sense when seen through the lens of the island's fledgling bid to tap into the luxury tourism market.

The exclusive camera store and other boutiques featuring A-list brands like Versace and Armani are located in a shopping gallery on the ground floor of the swanky Gran Hotel Manzana.   The mere existence of the shops certainly seems incongruous in a country that has been governed as a one-party communist state since 1959, and where the average wage is $30 a month.   But the hotel isn't exactly looking for locals to buy in -- it attracts "a clientele of private airplanes... princes and celebrities," according to general manager Xavier Destribats.

The Gran Hotel Manzana, the first ever five-star establishment in Havana, opened in 2017 in a sumptuous historic building that was, at the beginning of the 20th century, the island's first shopping mall.   The property run by Swiss group Kempinski is "the first genuine luxury hotel in Havana," said Destribats.   "It's the first hotel with a 1,000-square-meter spa," he said. All the rooms are at least 40 square meters (430 square feet), with prices ranging from $370 for a basic room in low season to $5,000 for the presidential suite.   "There was a certain type of clientele that didn't travel to Havana, or Cuba, because there wasn't the standard of luxury five-star hotel like in cities such as Paris or London," Destribats added.

- 'Feels like Miami' -
The hotel terrace offers stunning views over Havana's colorful historic neighbourhood, where many Cubans live in dilapidated buildings that have fallen into disrepair or have vegetation sprouting from them.   "It really doesn't feel like Cuba, clearly not -- it feels like being in the United States, Miami or Puerto Rico," said Celia Liegeois, a 26-year-old tourist from Paris.   Having traveled around the island nation for three weeks, she and a friend had decided to spend their last few days relaxing by the hotel's rooftop pool.

Nearby, Suki Lu, a recently arrived 28-year-old Chinese television presenter, is impressed at what she sees.   "It's beautiful. Look at the sunset! It's truly addictive," she said.   "I live in Dubai so when you talk about luxury hotels, the level there is really high, but I think I'll like this hotel," she said, while her friend used a drone to get an aerial view of the building.   The largest single group of visitors to the Gran Hotel Manzana -- one-fifth of the total -- are tourists from the United States, although there are plenty of visitors from Europe, Asia and the Middle East.

The Kempinski group, which hopes to open two or three more hotels in Cuba, is of course not the only chain to show an interest in the ultra-luxury market.   In September 2018, Spain's Iberostar opened its second five-star hotel, the Grand Packard.   French hotel giant Accor is planning on opening its own luxury establishment on the Malecon, Havana's famous seaside boulevard, in September.   It will include a chocolate shop on its ground floor and a restaurant and concert space on its roof.   The employees' outfits will be designed by Spanish fashion designer Agatha Ruiz de la Prada.

- US blacklist -
However, there is a slight catch: in every case, the hotels are owned by Gaviota, the Cuban army's branch dedicated to tourism.   The foreign hotel groups are only allowed to run the establishments, all built by French group Bouygues, which has a long-standing local presence.   Authorities don't publish the army's revenues, but this alliance between hoteliers and the military landed the luxury hotels on Washington's blacklist.

US tourists are technically banned from staying in the hotels -- but the restriction can be easily circumvented by either paying in cash or booking through travel agents.   Beyond hotels, developers have more ideas to entice those with deep pockets.   "There's a plan to build golf courses in partnership with real estate groups," said industry expert Jose Luis Perello.   The opening of a luxury hotel means Cuba has turned a corner, he said.   "Since it opened up to international tourism more than 20 years ago, Cuba has focused all its plans and strategies" on "sun and beach tourism" for the masses, Perello said.   That category currently accounts for 73 percent of the 70,000 hotel rooms on offer in Cuba. And those who rent them usually don't spend much money.

The same goes for cruise ship tourists -- while the number of cruises docking in Cuba has exploded, passengers only spend an average of $15 a day on land.   That isn't great news for Cuba, which welcomed 4.7 million tourists in 2018 -- it needs the cash.   The government, which has been subjected to US sanctions since 1962, used to depend on aid from its oil-rich ally Venezuela.   But with Venezuela in turmoil, Cuba is scrambling for other sources of hard currency and its economic growth has stagnated at around one percent -- not enough to cover the population's basic needs.   Opening luxury hotels is "a new stage," but also "a necessity," Tourism Minister Manuel Marrero Cruz says.
More ...

Cote d'Ivoire

Cote d'Ivoire - US Consular Information Sheet
May 21, 2007
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) is a developing country on the western coast of Africa.
The official capital is Yamoussoukro, but Abidjan is the largest city, the
ain commercial center, and where the Ivorian government and the U.S. Embassy are located.
Cote d'Ivoire is a republic whose constitution provides for separate branches of government under a strong president.

The country has been divided since a 2002 coup attempt developed into a civil war.
Despite several peace agreements and the establishment of a transitional government, key issues remain unresolved, elections have been delayed, and tensions persist throughout the country.

Tourist facilities in and near Abidjan, the commercial capital, are good; accommodations in many other locations are limited in quality and availability.
Read the Department of State Background Notes on Cote d’Ivoire for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport is required, but U.S. citizens traveling to Cote d'Ivoire for business or tourism do not require visas for stays of 90 days or less.
To stay longer than 90 days, the visitor may still enter without a visa, but then must apply for a "carte de sejour" within 90 days of arrival.
(Note: "Cartes de sejour" are not issued to children under the age of 16, who are documented on their parents' visas).
An international health certificate showing current yellow fever immunization is required for entry into Cote d'Ivoire.
Without it, the traveler may be required to submit to vaccination at the airport health office before clearing immigration, at a cost of 5,000 CFA (a little less than $10).

Travelers may obtain the latest information and details on entry requirements from the Embassy of the Republic of Cote d'Ivoire, 3421 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20007, telephone (202) 797-0300.
There are honorary consulates for Cote d'Ivoire in San Francisco, Stamford, Orlando, Houston and Detroit.
Overseas, travelers should inquire at the nearest Ivorian embassy or consulate.
See our Foreign Entry Requirements brochure for more information on Cote d’Ivoire and other countries.
Visit the Embassy of Cote d'Ivoire web site at http://www.cotedivoireembassy.com/ for the most current visa information.

Foreign travelers are sometimes approached at ports of entry by individuals with offers to expedite passport control and customs, and are then asked to pay an exorbitant fee, both for the service and for the passport and customs officers.
Travelers to Cote d'Ivoire are advised that there is no need to pay a police officer or customs officer at the airport for any service rendered during an arrival or departure, and they should not surrender their passports or other important documents to anyone except easily identifiable government officials in uniform.

See Entry and Exit Requirements for more information pertaining to dual nationality and the prevention of international child abduction.
Please refer to our Customs Information to learn more about customs regulations.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:Cote d'Ivoire has been unstable since the coup in 1999, and territorially divided since 2002.
The New Forces control the northern and some western parts of the country.
There are many road checkpoints manned by security forces and militia in both the government-controlled and New Forces-controlled portions of the country.
Soldiers and militia members check documents and frequently demand cash for permission to pass.
Cote d'Ivoire's border with Liberia is open, but border controls are extensive.

Political instability has contributed to economic stagnation and high unemployment, exacerbating social tensions and creating the potential for labor unrest and civil disorder.
There have been recurring episodes of violence, some of them severe.
In November 2004, there was a brief resumption of hostilities between the two sides followed by widespread attacks against people and property in Abidjan and elsewhere.
Many of these attacks were directed against French and other expatriates, and thousands fled the country.
Americans should avoid crowds and demonstrations, be aware of their surroundings, and use common sense to avoid situations and locations that could be dangerous.
While diplomatic efforts to end the crisis are ongoing, further civil unrest, coup attempts or the resumption of hostilities are possible.

Swimming in coastal waters is dangerous and strongly discouraged, even for excellent swimmers.
The ocean currents along the coast are powerful and treacherous, and numerous people drown each year.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department’s Internet web site where the current Travel Warnings and Public Announcements, including the Worldwide Caution Public Announcement, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges U.S. citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME:
Crime continues to be a major security threat for Americans living in Cote d'Ivoire.
Grab-and-run street crime and pick pocketing in crowded areas are widespread.
Armed carjacking, robberies of businesses and restaurants, and home invasions are common, and they often target expatriate residents who are perceived as wealthy.
Armed criminals use force when faced with resistance.
Travelers displaying jewelry and carrying cameras are especially at risk.
Travelers are advised to carry limited amounts of cash and only photocopies of key documents.
While there have been relatively few reported cases of sexual assault, given the general climate of criminality, the actual rate of assault may be much higher than that which is reported.
There were allegations of sexual assaults during the November 2004 civil strife.
Given the strong anti-French sentiment, people of non-African appearance may be specifically targeted for violence.
Avoid large gatherings and political demonstrations, as they can turn violent quickly.

Travel outside of Abidjan or at night is strongly discouraged, and it is particularly dangerous to visit Abidjan's Treichville, Adjame, Abobo, and Plateau districts after dark.
The DeGaulle and Houphouet-Boigny bridges in Abidjan are dangerous areas for pedestrians.
Inadequate resources and training limit the ability of the police to combat crime.
Many hotels, restaurants, nightclubs and supermarkets provide security guards to protect clients and vehicles.

Travelers should take the same common sense precautions in Abidjan that they would in any metropolitan area in the United States.
Travelers should stay in well-lit areas and walk confidently at a steady pace on the side of the street facing traffic close to the curb.
Travelers should avoid crowds, mass transit, doorways, bushes, alleys and sparsely populated areas.
Travelers who need transportation at night should take an Orange metered taxi.
Travelers should be discreet about your transactions, especially in sight on the street.
Normal spending habits of Westerners appear extravagant.

Credit card use in Cote d'Ivoire is limited, particularly outside Abidjan, but credit card fraud is an increasing problem.
Travelers should not use credit cards in paper transactions unless the credit card transaction is electronically performed in view of the individual.

Business fraud is rampant and the perpetrators often target foreigners, including Americans.
Schemes previously associated with Nigeria are now prevalent throughout West Africa, including Cote d'Ivoire, and pose a danger of grave financial loss.
Typically these scams begin with unsolicited communication (usually e-mails) from strangers who promise quick financial gain, often by transferring large sums of money or valuables out of the country, but then require a series of "advance fees" to be paid, such as fees for legal documents or taxes.
Of course, the final payoff does not exist; the purpose of the scam is simply to collect the advance fees.
A common variation is the scammer’s claim to be a refugee or émigré of a prominent West African family, or a relative of a present or former political leader who needs assistance in transferring large sums of cash.
Still other variations appear to be legitimate business deals that require advance payments on contracts.
Sometimes victims are convinced to provide bank account and credit card information and financial authorization that drains their accounts, incurs large debts against their credit, and takes their life savings.

The best way to avoid becoming a victim of advance-fee fraud is common sense — if a proposition looks too good to be true, it probably is a scam, particularly if one has never met the correspondent.
Travelers should carefully check and research any unsolicited business proposal before committing any funds, providing any goods or services, and undertaking any travel.
A good clue to a scam is the phone number given to the victim; legitimate businesses and offices provide fixed line numbers, while scams typically use only cell phones.
In Cote d'Ivoire, all cell phone numbers start with zero.

It is virtually impossible to recover money lost through these scams.
For additional information please consult the Department of State's brochure Advance Fee Business Scams.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Abidjan has privately-run medical and dental facilities that are adequate but do not fully meet U.S. standards.
Good physician specialists can be found, though few speak English.
While pharmacies are well stocked with medications produced in Europe, newer drugs may not be available.
Medical care in Cote d'Ivoire outside of Abidjan is extremely limited.
Malaria is a serious health problem in Cote d’Ivoire.
For more information on malaria, including protective measures, see the Centers for Disease Control Travelers’ Health web site at http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/.

The avian influenza or “Bird Flu” virus (H5N1) has been confirmed in animals in Cote d’Ivoire as of June 2006.
For more information regarding Avian Influenza, please visit the CDC’s internet site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel/other/avian_flu/ and the State Department’s Avian Influenza Fact Sheet.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s internet site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) website at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.
TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Cote d’Ivoire is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Serious traffic accidents, one of the greatest threats to U.S. citizens in Cote d’Ivoire, occur regularly in Abidjan.
Unsafe road conditions, unskilled drivers, and poorly maintained and overloaded vehicles create very poor driving conditions.
Speed limits, signals, and yielding for pedestrians and cyclists are not respected.
Travelers should drive defensively, watch out for public transportation vehicles that stop and start without warning, and be especially cautious at intersections because traffic lights often malfunction.
Travelers who must travel at night should beware of vehicles without headlights and/or taillights, and pedestrians and bicycles along the roadside.
In case of an accident, travelers are advised not to move their vehicle until a police officer authorizes.
Travelers should go to the nearest hospital or police station if there is no other vehicle to take the injured to a hospital, or if there is reason to believe that their life is in danger from others at the site of the accident.

Abidjan has a poor public transportation system; if traveling by bus, use only the “Express” line.
In Abidjan, taxis are readily available, inexpensive (metered), but poorly maintained and notorious for not respecting the rules of the road.
Communal taxis (“woro-woros”), used only within the limits of each commune, are not metered and are dangerous.
Local vans ("Gbaka") should not be used because they are frequently involved in accidents.

Criminals usually steal vehicles when the driver is in or near the vehicle, so car doors and windows should be kept locked.
While stopped in traffic, travelers should remember to allow enough room between your car and the one in front to maneuver out if needed.
Travelers should look around to see if there is anyone paying unusual attention or if someone appears to be watching, before entering their vehicles. Travelers should not attempt to enter their vehicles, and should go get assistance.
Travelers should enter and exit their vehicles as quickly as possible, to limit their vulnerability to carjacking.

Victims of carjacking should not resist.
Victims should try to remain calm and give the carjackers what they want, which is usually the vehicle and any valuables.
Experience shows that criminals usually don’t use violence unless they are confronted with resistance.
Furthermore, it is not uncommon to take an occupant, usually a woman or child, as hostage to ensure their safe escape; the hostage is usually released unharmed.
This is a very difficult situation; victims should use their best judgment in deciding a course of action.

A newer phenomenon is the staged accidental "bumping" accident.
If your vehicle is "bumped" from the rear or the side, stay locked inside because this ruse is used to get the driver out and leave the vehicle free for carjacking.
Travelers with cell phones should call for assistance.
Victims should report the accident at the nearest police station as soon as possible if they feel their safety is in jeopardy and try to get the license number for any other vehicle involved.

Emergency services such as ambulance service (SAMU) exist in Abidjan and larger towns.
Call 185 or 22-44-55-53.
In smaller towns there is usually no ambulance service available, but ambulances will be dispatched from larger towns

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Cote d'Ivoire’s Civil Aviation Authority as not being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for the oversight of Cote d'Ivoire's air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s internet web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Ivorian customs authorities encourage the use of an ATA (Admission Temporaire/Temporary Admission) Carnet for the temporary admission of professional equipment, commercial samples, and/or goods for exhibitions and fair purposes.
ATA Carnet Headquarters, at the U.S. Council for International Business, 1212 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036, issues and guarantees the ATA Carnet in the United States.
For additional information, call (212) 354-4480, e-mail atacarnet@uscib.org, or visit http://www.uscib.org.

If traveling to another West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) country, expatriate residents leaving Cote d’Ivoire must declare the amount of currency being taken out of the country; if going to any other country, tourists are prohibited from taking more than 500,000 CFA francs (approximately $1,000), and business operators two million CFA francs (approximately $4,000), without government approval.
Even with authorization, there is a cash limit of $4,000 for tourists and $5,500 for business people, with any surplus in travelers or bank checks.

Travelers should carry a photocopy of your U.S. passport, visa, and entry stamps.
Travelers should also, carry their international driver's licenses if planning to drive.

Government corruption remains a serious problem in Cote d'Ivoire, and has an impact on judicial proceedings, contract awards, customs, and tax issues.
Security forces (police, military, gendarmes) routinely stop vehicles for traffic violations and security checks. Travelers should politely present identification if stopped.
Travelers who are stopped at one of these check points for any reason and asked to pay a "fine" to these uniformed officials, should politely refuse and present a photocopy of their U.S. passport, visa, and entry stamp.

Taking pictures is prohibited near sensitive installations, including military sites, government buildings such as the radio and television stations, the Presidency building, the airport, and the DeGaulle and Houphouet-Boigny bridges in Abidjan.

Cote d’Ivoire recognizes dual nationality if acquired at birth.
Americans who also are Ivorian nationals may be subject, while in Côte d'Ivoire, to certain aspects of Ivorian law that impose special obligations on citizens of that country.
Please see our information on Customs Regulations.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Cote d'Ivoire's laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Cote d'Ivoire are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children’s Issues web site.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Cote d'Ivoire are urged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration website and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Cote d’Ivoire.
Americans withoutInternet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy is located in the Riviera Golf neighborhood of the Cocody section of Abidjan, east of the downtown area.
The Embassy's postal address is 01 B.P. 1712 Abidjan 01, and the main telephone number is 22-49-40-00.
The Consular Section fax number is 22-49-42-02, and more information is on the Consular pages of the Embassy's web site at http://Abidjan.usembassy.gov/
*

*

*
This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated November 21, 2006, with no major changes.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu, 24 Oct 2019 11:46:08 +0200 (METDST)
By David ESNAULT

Bouake, Ivory Coast, Oct 24, 2019 (AFP) - Once the bane of sub-Saharan Africa, sleeping sickness is agonisingly close to being wiped out, but only if countries -- and donors -- keep up their guard, say scientists.   The disease, transmitted to humans by the tsetse fly, was once a curse in 30 countries.   But a coordinated global fight to eradicate it has borne fruit, leading to a 95-percent fall in cases over the past 15 years, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).

Last year, the agency recorded only 977 cases, compared to a peak of some 300,000 in the 1990s. Its hope is that sleeping sickness will enter the history books by 2030.   Sleeping sickness -- human African trypanosomiasis -- is caused by the trypanosoma parasite, which is transmitted to humans by the tsetse when it takes a blood meal.   The disease is fatal unless diagnosed and treated rapidly. Early symptoms are severe headaches and muscle aches and fever.

Sufferers feel lethargic and sleepy by day then awake and exhausted at night. Neuropsychiatric and sensory disorders follow, then a coma before death ensues within months or sometimes even years later.   "Sleeping sickness is scary -- when someone has it, it makes them mad," said Emile Gouribitiali, 56, a villager in central Ivory Coast whose mother and younger brother both fell ill.   But scientists say this dreaded disease is on the ropes.   "After a century of fighting it, sleeping sickness is on the verge of being eradicated," said Dr Dramane Kaba, an entomologist and director of the Pierre Richet Institute (IPR) at Bouake in central Ivory Coast.   "Sleeping sickness has almost stopped being a public health problem in Africa," he said. "But we have to maintain our efforts."   The institute, founded in 1970, specialises in insect-transmitted diseases including malaria, dengue, zika and chikungunya.

- Meticulous task -
Despite the progress, "pockets of resistance" remain, says Kaba.   They include the Democratic Republic of Congo -- home to 80 percent of cases -- and Guinea, where health programmes have been ravaged by the Ebola crisis.   It is also difficult to gain an accurate assessment in areas of armed conflict.   If the overall outlook is relatively favourable, there must be no let-up towards eradication, Kaba insists.

He points to the fact that, after a campaign against the illness from the 1920s through to the 1960s "vigilance then dropped off and the illness returned".   Combatting the spread of the disease requires meticulous work to break the chain of transmission and kill the parasite, said Vincent Jamonneau at France's Research Institute for Development (IRD).   Teams on the ground, working with lab-based researchers, comb rural areas to uncover possible cases of the disease and beef up control of the tsetse fly, which favours a hot, humid habitat.

- Fly traps -
They log symptoms that point to a possible infection and then carry out a quick diagnostic blood test, obtaining results confirmed in a lab.   Patients identified in this way can be cured through hospitalisation of seven to 10 days, which the WHO provides free of charge across Africa. A revolutionary treatment, which involves taking a one-off pill, is being tested.

Ironically, as the disease is rolled back, it becomes more and more difficult to encourage villagers to come forward and get tested, said Jammoneau.   "People no longer feel that the disease is a threat," he said.   The researchers also test cattle, another tsetse target who suffer a different strain of the virus -- animal trypanosomiasis. They lose weight, their milk production slumps, then they die.   IPR teams set tsetse traps in villages where they operate. The traps comprise blue screens impregnated with insecticide -- the flies find the colour attractive. 

Another trap variant permits capture to assess their number and then dissection to determine if they are infected.   The IPR hosts research at its lab as the scientific community hones its battle to eradicate sleeping sickness.    The lab can draw on some state-of-the-art equipment as well as some 100 employees, including 16 researchers, but needs renovating, said Kaba.    For Jamonneau, "the means to eradicate trypanosomiasis are there.   "But this disease raises scant interest among fundraisers. So we still need their support as the challenge is to track down and treat the last cases in order to finish off the illness."
Date: Tue, 22 Oct 2019 16:24:07 +0200 (METDST)

Abidjan, Oct 22, 2019 (AFP) - Ivory Coast announced Tuesday that Arab investors had pledged $5 billion to support its programme to attract foreign tourists to the West African nation.   The tourism ministry said "a round table of investors in Dubai" on Sunday and Monday expressed interest In Ivory Coast and in total, the minister for tourism and leisure, Siandou Fofana, "enlisted from them pledges worth just over $5 billion" (4.49 billion euros).   Ivory Coast's charm offensive in the United Arab Emirates included a delegation with recently retired star footballer Didier Drogba and A'Salfo, lead singer with the pop group Magic System, who gave two concerts.

The initiative, dubbed "Sublime Cote d'Ivoire" (Magnificent Ivory Coast), was launched in May.   "Our goal is to become the fifth biggest destination for tourism in Africa by 2025," Fofana said in the ministry's statement.   If objectives are reached, tourism would account for 12 percent of GDP compared with 5.5 percent today, and jobs in the tourism sector would grow from 270,000, as of 2016, to 365,000.   The economy today is hugely dependent on rural earnings, especially cacao and coffee. The plan is to attract tourists to the remote west of the country, a region of unspoiled mountains and beaches.
Date: Tue, 27 Aug 2019 15:33:42 +0200 (METDST)

Bouake, Ivory Coast, Aug 27, 2019 (AFP) - The main market in Bouake, Ivory Coast's second biggest city, was largely destroyed Tuesday in an overnight blaze, although there were no known casualties, an AFP correspondent reported.   The fire broke out around 2:00 am (0200 GMT) and spread fast, market watchmen said.   It took around seven hours to bring under control, mobilising several hundred firefighters, police and troops, partly to put out the blaze but also to secure the area.   "This tragedy has most fortunately caused no loss of life," Bouake mayor Nicolas Djibo said, adding though that he was "dumbstruck by the scale of the damage".

Djibo said the fire had begun in the butchers' area of the market, which hosts hundreds of stalls and is a hub of social activity in Bouake, a city of one million people in the centre of Ivory Coast.   Some traders had been able to remove their wares in time but others wept at the sight of their loss.   Koffi Rachelle, who sold children's toys and various gadgets, told AFP she had lost everything. "I can"t even get into my shop, the fire has destroyed everything over there," she said in tears.

An inquiry into the fire has been opened, according to a police source who asked not to be named.   The market, which had an area of between eight and nine hectares (about 22 to 22 acres), had been razed by a fire in 1998.   Experts had been studying a proposal to house the stalls in a large modern building before the latest blaze.
Date: Tue, 30 Jul 2019 21:28:27 +0200

Abidjan, July 30, 2019 (AFP) - Eighty-nine people have contracted yellow fever and one person has died in recent weeks during an outbreak in Ivory Coast, the health ministry said Tuesday.   Most of the confirmed cases were in the West African country's economic capital Abidjan, the ministry said in a statement.

It recommended that any unvaccinated people be vaccinated against yellow fever.   "The outbreak occurs in the context of a dengue outbreak," the ministry said, adding that dengue and yellow fever are viral diseases transmitted by the same mosquito.    "The vector control measures that have been implemented to deal with dengue also work for the yellow fever outbreak."   In early June, 130 cases of dengue were reported including two deaths, with the authorities launching a major mosquito-control campaign.   Abidjan is going through the end of its rainy season, which spurs mosquito breeding.

Symptoms of yellow fever -- including high fever, vomiting and muscle aches -- usually manifest themselves three to six days after a person is bitten by an infected mosquito.   The infection caused by yellow fever is usually mild, but in some cases can be life-threatening and result in kidney and liver failure.   Yellow fever is found only in parts of South America and Africa.
Date: Tue 30 Jul 2019
Source: Medical Xpress [edited]

In recent weeks, 89 people have contracted yellow fever, and one person has died during an outbreak in Ivory Coast, the health ministry said Tuesday [30 Jul 2019].

Most of the confirmed cases were in the West African country's economic capital Abidjan, the ministry said in a statement. It recommended that any unvaccinated people be vaccinated against yellow fever.  "The outbreak occurs in the context of a dengue outbreak," the ministry said, adding that dengue and yellow fever are viral diseases transmitted by the same mosquito.

"The vector control measures that have been implemented to deal with dengue also work for the yellow fever outbreak."  In early June [2019], 130 cases of dengue were reported, including 2 deaths, with the authorities launching a major mosquito-control campaign.  Abidjan is going through the end of its rainy season, which spurs mosquito breeding.

Symptoms of yellow fever -- including high fever, vomiting and muscle aches -- usually manifest themselves 3-6 days after a person is bitten by an infected mosquito.  The infection caused by yellow fever is usually mild, but in some cases can be life-threatening and result in kidney and liver failure.  Yellow fever is found only in parts of South America and Africa.
=====================
[Yellow fever (YF) is a serious disease and has a case fatality rate of about 30%. It is surprising that there has been only one death so far among the 89 infected individuals. It is not stated that all 89 individuals were laboratory confirmed YF cases. The above report does not indicate the proportion of the population that has been vaccinated against YF.

YF virus can spread rapidly in a largely unvaccinated population, as it did in Angola in 2016. _Aedes aegypti_ vector control is of limited effectiveness in the face of a YF outbreak. Vaccination is the best preventive measure.

There have been YF cases in Cote d'Ivoire in the past, the most recent in 2011. At that time, more than 700 000 people were vaccinated against yellow fever [YF] in an emergency campaign in the country. There were YF cases in Abidjan in 2008, when the estimated vaccination coverage of the population was around 60 percent after a vaccination campaign. Now, time is of the essence to quickly halt the spread of YF, as it rapidly did in Angola and the DR Congo in that large outbreak. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[Maps of Cote d'Ivoire can be accessed at <http://bit.ly/2uHz53s>
and <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/52>.]
More ...

World Travel News Headlines

Date: Tue, 25 Feb 2020
13:15:00 +0100 (MET)
By Ella IDE and Jastinder KHERA

Rome, Feb 25, 2020 (AFP) - Italy's new coronavirus spread south on Tuesday to Tuscany and Sicily, as the civil protection agency reported a surge in the number of infected people and Rome convened emergency talks.    Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte has blamed poor management in a hospital in the country's north for the outbreak, which has caused seven deaths in Italy so far and infected the largest number of people in Europe.    Tuscany reported its first two cases, including one in the tourist destination of Florence, while Sicily marked one: a tourist from the worst-hit Lombardy region, where 212 people have tested positive. The female tourist in Sicily, who had been staying in a hotel in Palermo, tested positive on the first swab but was awaiting the definitive result from Italy's institute of infectious diseases, civil protection agency chief Angelo Borrelli said.

Health ministers from neighbouring countries were to meet in Rome as the 
number of confirmed infections jumped to 283, with over 50 new cases reported since Monday.    The EU's health commissioner and other international health officials were also expected in the Italian capital Tuesday.    Hundreds of people were confined to their rooms at a Tenerife hotel after an Italian tourist was hospitalised with a suspected case of coronavirus, health officials in the Canary Islands said.  While no neighbouring country has closed its borders with Italy, several governments have announced additional measures for travellers arriving from Italy, in particular from the two northern regions of Lombardy and Veneto.  They range from medical screening to recommendations to self-isolate.

- 'Mission Impossible' -
Several upcoming matches in Italian Serie A and the Europa League will be played behind closed doors to combat the spread of the disease.    Production of the latest "Mission: Impossible" film starring Tom Cruise in Venice has been stopped following the outbreak.    The main centre of infection in Italy has been the town of Codogno, a town of some 15,000 people around 60 kilometres (35 miles) to the south of Milan. Codogno and several others in northern Italy have been put under isolation in an attempt to stem the spread of the virus.

The 38-year-old man dubbed "Patient One" by Italian media was admitted to 
hospital last Wednesday in Codogno, and it is thought a large number of the cases in the worst-hit region of Lombardy can be traced back to him.    His heavily pregnant wife, several doctors, staff and patients at the hospital are thought to have caught the virus from him.    As well as the towns placed under quarantine, further wide-ranging measures have affected tens of millions of inhabitants in the north of Italy, with schools closed and cultural and sporting events cancelled.    Elsewhere in the country officials have also been recommending precautionary measures.  In Calabria in the south, bishops have asked their worshippers not to make the sign of peace during mass, media reported.    All seven of those who have died so far in Italy were either elderly or had pre-existing medical conditions.
Date: Tue, 25 Feb 2020 11:48:12 +0100 (MET)

Madrid, Feb 25, 2020 (AFP) - Hundreds of people were confined to their rooms at a Tenerife hotel Tuesday after an Italian tourist was hospitalised with a suspected case of coronavirus, health officials in the Canary Islands said.   "Hundreds of hotel clients are being monitored for health reasons and the degree of supervision will be assessed during the day, but so far, we're not talking about quarantine," health authority spokeswoman Veronica Martin told AFP, confirming that the Italian tourist "was staying at this hotel while on holiday in Tenerife".
Date: Tue, 25 Feb 2020 11:40:20 +0100 (MET)
By Laurent Thomet with Dario Thuburn in Geneva

Beijing, Feb 25, 2020 (AFP) - Fresh deaths and a surge in new coronavirus cases in Iran, Japan and South Korea on Tuesday fuelled fears of a pandemic, as the disease took root in some of the world's poorest -- and worst-equipped -- countries.  The rapid spread abroad came as the World Health Organization announced that the epidemic had peaked at its epicentre in China, where it has killed more than 2,600 people and infected over 77,000 others.

But the situation has worsened elsewhere with nearly 2,700 other cases and more than 40 deaths globally, prompting restrictions on travellers from infected nations, the cancellation of football matches and national efforts to isolate suspected patients.    South Korea, Italy and Iran have each logged sharp increases in infections and deaths, while several Middle Eastern countries also reported their first confirmed COVID-19 cases.

WHO chief Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus insisted the virus could still be contained, praising China's drastic quarantine measures in several cities for helping to prevent an even bigger spread.   "For the moment we are not witnessing the uncontained global spread of this virus and we are not witnessing large-scale deaths," Tedros told reporters in Geneva on Monday.   He added, however, that countries should do everything they can to "prepare for a potential pandemic" -- a term is used to describe an illness that spreads across numerous communities.   The White House plans to spend $2.5 billion to combat the epidemic, according to US media. There are 53 cases in the United States so far.

- Iran hotspot -
Iran has emerged as a major hotspot with the death toll rising to 15 on Tuesday as three more people succumbed to the disease.   The country has been scrambling to contain the epidemic since last week when it announced its first two deaths in Qom, a centre for Islamic studies and pilgrims that attracts scholars from abroad.

Iran has confirmed 61 cases so far, making its mortality rate exponentially higher than anywhere else in the world and raising suspicion that many more people have contracted the disease there.   A WHO team was due in Iran on Tuesday.   Several neighbours have enacted measures to block arrivals from Iran but the virus has already spread to Afghanistan and elsewhere in the Middle East.   The WHO has warned that poorer countries with weak health care systems are the most at risk.

- Games off -
South Korean President Moon Jae-in warned that the outbreak was "very grave" as the country's death toll rose to 10 and the number of confirmed infections approached 1,000 -- the largest total outside China.   Scores of events have been cancelled or postponed as the outbreak has spread in the world's 12th-largest economy, from K-pop concerts to the World Team Table Tennis championship.   Parliament closed for cleaning Tuesday after confirmation a person with the coronavirus had attended a meeting last week.   More than 80 percent of the infections have been in and around Daegu, South Korea's fourth-largest city.

Streets there have been largely deserted for days, apart from long queues at the few shops with masks for sale.   Most of the country's infections are linked to the Shincheonji Church of Jesus, an entity often accused of being a cult.   The US Centers for Disease Control warned Americans against "all nonessential travel to South Korea".   In Japan, a fourth former passenger of the coronavirus-stricken Diamond Princess cruise ship died, according to local media. The man was in his 80s.   Nearly 700 people from the quarantined ship have tested positive for the illness so far.

Infections have also spiked inside Japan, with at least 160 cases including one death.   The government has expanded the number of hospitals that can receive suspected patients and asked people with moderate symptoms to stay home.   Businesses were asked to "let people stay away from offices, to avoid rush hour commuting hours, and to encourage telecommuting," Health Minister Katsunobu Kato said.   Italy -- which has reported seven deaths and over 200 cases -- has locked down 11 towns, while upcoming football matches in its Serie A and the Europa League will be played behind closed doors.    Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte has said that residents could face weeks of lockdown.

- China cases slow -
In China, 508 new cases were reported, with all but nine at the outbreak's epicentre in central Hubei province.   The death toll nationwide reached 2,663 on Tuesday after 71 more people died, the lowest rise in almost three weeks.   Reassured by the official numbers, the country is gingerly returning to business.   Beijing is seeing more cars on the street, factories are resuming work, Apple is reopening several stores, and some regions are relaxing traffic restrictions.   But schools remain closed, the capital has a mandatory 14-day quarantine for returning residents, and authorities are keeping some 56 million people in Hubei under lockdown.
Date: Sun 23 Feb 2020
Source: ZBC News [edited]

Mbire, Mashonaland Central Province has been affected by an outbreak of anthrax prompting the Veterinary Services Department to place an embargo on the movement of cattle from the province.

The acting provincial coordinator, Richard Chipfuwa, said 34 beasts had so far succumbed to the disease in the remote district, which sits on the border with Mozambique and Zambia. "These (the 34) are the reported cases, but we suspect there could be many more that were not reported. We have since mobilized vaccines to the district's 5 dip tanks: Nyatsengwa, Masomo, Tengu, Bonga and Sapa, so that farmers can have the remaining herd saved," he said.

But a poor road network in the district is making it difficult for veterinary officials to access some of the dip tanks, a situation made worse by the ongoing rains. The officials, in addition to treating infected animals, are also educating communities against consuming meat from dead animals, because this could pose health risks to people.

The anthrax outbreak in Mbire, an arid district rich in an assortment of wildlife, is suspected to have been passed on to livestock by infected wild animals such buffaloes, which are typical carriers of the disease. Last year [2019], the province lost nearly 1300 cattle due to anthrax and other livestock diseases.
=====================
[For a description of Mashonaland, go to: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mashonaland>. It is in northern Zimbabwe and is made up of 3 provinces, East, West, and Central. For a map showing the location of Mashonaland Central Province go to: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mashonaland_Central_Province>.

In these hard to reach areas, it is a constant concern knowing what is happening where. And this goes a long way as to why some 34 animals are reported affected and probably more. And why it is so important to get the necessary volumes of vaccine out to these communities as soon as possible. We wish the provincial veterinary service well and all the luck that they enjoy. - ProMED Mod.MHJ]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Mashonaland Central Province, Zimbabwe:
Date: Mon, 24 Feb 2020 16:22:59 +0100 (MET)

Dubai, Feb 24, 2020 (AFP) - The new coronavirus hit four more Middle Eastern states on Monday, with Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait and Oman reporting new cases and the UAE calling on its citizens not to travel to Iran and Thailand.   Oman also halted flights to and from Iran  -- which is battling the deadliest outbreak outside China --with immediate effect.   The move came shortly after two Omani women who had returned from Iran were diagnosed with the disease.

The three cases in Kuwait and the one in Bahrain were also in individuals who had returned from Iran, where the virus has claimed the lives of 12 people.   Bahrain also shut three schools after a man who had transported children to the institutions tested positive after returning from Iran on February 21 via Dubai airport, the health ministry said.

In Kuwait, a 53-year-old Kuwaiti, a 61-year-old Saudi national and a 21-year-old stateless Arab who tested positive had all returned from Iran's holy city of Mashhad, the Kuwaiti health ministry said.   In Iraq, the virus was confirmed in an Iranian national studying in the southern shrine city of Najaf, health officials said.   All seven bourses in the oil-rich Gulf states were down on Monday as fears of a pandemic hit crude prices. The Saudi stock exchange led the slide, shedding 2.95 percent.

- Travel bans -
Iran's confirmed death toll rose to 12 on Monday, with the government vowing to be transparent and dismissing a lawmaker's claim the toll could be as high as 50.   The outbreak has prompted travel bans from nearby countries.

Last week, Kuwait banned entry of all ships from the Islamic republic and suspended flights to and from the country.   Kuwait also banned non-citizens coming from Iran from entering the Gulf state and operated chartered flights to bring back hundreds of Kuwaiti Shiite pilgrims from the Islamic republic.

Around a third of Kuwait's 1.4 million citizens are Shiite Muslims, who travel regularly to Iran to visit religious shrines. Kuwait also hosts roughly 50,000 Iranian workers.   Over half of Bahrain's population of under one million are Shiites, who also travel frequently to Iran.   The United Arab Emirates has already announced 13 cases of the novel coronavirus, all of them foreigners. The latest were a 70-year-old Iranian man, whose condition is unstable, and his 64-year-old wife.

On Monday, Abu Dhabi authorities called on all UAE citizens "to not travel to Iran and Thailand at present and up until further notice" as part of its efforts to monitor and contain the spread of the disease.   UAE airlines have suspended most flights to China -- where the virus first emerged in December -- except to the capital Beijing, but have not yet taken any measures to restrict travel to and from Iran. Around half a million Iranians live and work in the UAE.

Two Gulf states -- Saudi Arabia and Qatar -- remain free of the virus, but all have suspended flights to China.   Qatar Airways said on Monday that people arriving from Iran and South Korea would be asked to stay in home isolation or a quarantine facility for 14 days.   China's death toll from COVID-19 rose to nearly 2,600 on Monday, while the virus has now spread to more than 30 countries.
Date: Mon, 24 Feb 2020 17:49:00 +0100 (MET)

Kolkata, Feb 24, 2020 (AFP) - Rangers have suspended safari rides in a popular nature reserve in eastern India after five one-horned female rhinoceroses died from a suspected infectious disease, officials said Monday.  The animals were found dead over four days last week in Jaldapara National Park, nearly 700 kilometres (434 miles) north of West Bengal state's capital Kolkata.

India is home to two-thirds of the world's remaining one-horned rhinos, a vulnerable species on the IUCN red list   "Blood smears from carcasses have been sent to a laboratory in Kolkata," the reserve's chief conservator Ujjal Ghosh told AFP.   "All the five dead rhinos were adult females. We have put our staff on alert."

The park -- spread over 200 square kilometres (77 square miles) in the foothills of the eastern Himalayas -- is home to 204 rhinos according to the last official count in 2015.  More than 70 captive elephants used for safaris and patrolling also live in the reserve. The safari rides are carried out on elephants.   Activists said the animals may have died from anthrax, a communicable disease that attacks herbivores.

Humans can contract anthrax directly or indirectly from animals or animal products.  "We suspect that the animals died from a communicable disease like anthrax. Jaldapara forest has the odd case of anthrax which killed animals earlier," wildlife activist Animesh Bose told AFP.   Rangers were riding on elephants to reach the rhinos and vaccinate them using dart guns, the Hindustan Times reported.   Drones would try to find out if other animals have died or fallen ill, the newspaper said.
Date: Tue, 25 Feb 2020 04:50:33 +0100 (MET)

Jakarta, Feb 25, 2020 (AFP) - Dozens of Jakarta neighbourhoods were flooded Tuesday after torrential rains pounded Indonesia's capital, less than two months after nearly 70 people were killed in some of the megacity's worst flooding in years.   There were no immediate reports of casualties after the latest deluge, but parts of the city ground to a halt as whole neighbourhoods were swamped in muddy water, while power outages hit some districts.   At least 81 neighbourhoods were inundated with a dozen toll roads closed and some commuter train lines shuttered, according to an announcement by Indonesia's Disaster Mitigation Agency.

More torrential rains were expected later in the day.    "So the flooding will likely spread," agency spokesperson Agus Wibowo said on Twitter.   Floodwaters in some districts were as high as 127 centimetres (4 feet).   The low-lying city is prone to flooding during the wet season which starts around November.   Torrential rain in January triggered flooding and landslides that killed nearly 70 people in and around Jakarta while thousands more were forced to evacuate to shelters.
Date: Mon 24 Feb 2020
Source: Dhaka Tribune [edited]

In Baliadanga upazila of Thakurgaon district, 2 members of a family have died and 3 other members fell sick of an unknown disease. The deceased are MB 35, wife of HI, and her sister in law PB, wife of H from Songaon village of the upazila.

Quoting family members, local schoolteacher SPL said: "MB fell sick and died on Friday [21 Feb 2020] and on Saturday [22 Feb 2020], PB fell sick. "She came back home after undergoing primary treatment at Baliadanga Health Complex; however, she died early Sunday [23 Feb 2020]."

Soon afterwards, 3 other members of the family -- TA, HK and AA -- fell sick and were taken to Adhunik Sadar Hospital, she added.

Thakurgaon Civil Surgeon Dr MD Mahfuzar Rahman Sarker said a representative team of the health department has visited the village to investigate the cause of deaths.

The reasons of the deaths are yet to be known; however, the ones who fell sick are in better condition now, he added.

In 2019, 4 members of a family died due to Nipah virus in the same upazila. Locals are assuming the current deaths are occurring for the same reason.
===================
[With these cases described only as fatal or ill without mention of symptoms, it is not possible to speculate on what the etiology of thisdisease might be. The above report does mention that 4 fatal Nipah virus infections occurred in the same locality last year (2019). Nipah virus must surely be on the list of rule-outs in these current cases. This is the season when Nipah virus is circulating in Bangladesh in giant fruit bats (_Pteropus_ species) with spill-over of the virus by the bats' contamination of fruit or of palm sap juice in collecting pots on the palms. Person-to-person transmission of the virus can also occur. The transmission season is usually January to April.

As noted earlier, it is unfortunate that the public awareness efforts have not prevented these cases from occurring. Perhaps because cases are sporadic and geographically scattered there is little public perception of risk of infection and serious disease. Until effective public education to prevent infection by avoiding eating contaminated fruit or date palm sap is implemented, sporadic cases will continue to occur.

An image of a Pteropus fruit bat can be found at

HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
A map showing the location of the area where the cases occurred can be accessed at the above URL. - ProMED Mod.TY]

24-02-2020 -- Italy has reported a rapid increase in cases of laboratory-confirmed coronavirus (COVID-19) since 21 February 2020. An initial investigation by Italian authorities has found several clusters of cases in different regions of northern Italy, with evidence of local transmission of COVID-19.

A WHO-led team of experts from WHO and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) arrived in Italy on Monday 24 February to support Italian authorities in understanding the situation. WHO experts are providing support in the areas of clinical management, infection prevention and control, surveillance and risk communication. At this stage the focus is on limiting further human-to-human transmission.

While limited local person-to-person transmission of COVID-19 in countries outside of China was expected, the rapid increase in reported cases in Italy over the past two days is of concern. However, it should also be noted that based on current data, in the majority of cases (4 out of every 5) people experience mild or no symptoms.

“COVID-19 is a new virus that we need to take very seriously. This mission to Italy is one of the ways in which WHO/Europe is supporting countries across the Region. We are working hard with our Member States to ensure that they are ready for COVID-19, preparing for the arrival of cases and possible localized spread. It is vital that we treat patients with dignity and compassion, put measures in place to prevent onward transmission, and protect health workers,” commented Dr Hans Kluge, WHO Regional Director for Europe.

Health authorities in Italy are implementing measures to prevent onward transmission, including closing of schools and bars and cancelling of sports events and other mass gatherings in the areas affected. This aligns with the containment strategy currently being implemented globally in an effort to stop the spread of COVID-19. “WHO stands by the Government of Italy in its efforts and commitment to mitigate this outbreak and manage the cases effectively. Now is the time for solidarity and cooperation, to work together to protect everyone’s health,” added Dr Kluge.

Countries across the European Region continue to prepare for and respond to cases of COVID-19. This includes establishing how to promptly detect sick people, testing samples from suspect cases, ensuring appropriate infection control and case management to minimize the risk of the virus spreading, and maintaining communication with the public.

Best Regards,
WHO Media Team

Date: Mon, 24 Feb 2020 12:29:01 +0100 (MET)
By David Vujanovic

Tehran, Feb 24, 2020 (AFP) - Iran's government vowed Monday to be transparent after being accused of covering up the deadliest coronavirus outbreak outside China, dismissing claims the toll could be as high as 50.

The authorities in the Islamic republic have come under mounting public pressure since it took days for them to admit to "accidentally" shooting down a Ukrainian airliner last month, killing 176 people.   The government said on Monday that Iran's coronavirus death toll had jumped by four to 12 -- by far the highest outside China -- as its neighbours closed their borders and imposed strict quarantine measures.

But Ahmad Amirabadi Farahani, a lawmaker from the holy city of Qom, south of Tehran, alleged the government was "lying" about the full extent of the outbreak.   The ILNA news agency, which is close to reformists, said the lawmaker spoke of "50 deaths" in Qom alone.   "The rest of the media have not published this figure, but we prefer not to censor what concerns the coronavirus because people's lives are in danger," ILNA editor Fatemeh Mahdiani told AFP.

Farahani was wearing a face mask during the closed session of parliament but left after speaking, as he felt unwell, state news agency IRNA reported, adding sanitary workers then cleaned his seat.   Iran's government rejected his claim that the virus had killed 50 in Qom.   "I categorically deny this information," Deputy Health Minister Iraj Harirchi said in a news conference aired live on state television.   "This is not the time for political confrontations. The coronavirus is a national problem," he added.

- Transparency pledge -
The government pledged transparency over the outbreak.   "We will announce any figures (we have) on the number of deaths throughout the country. We pledge to be transparent about the reporting of figures," its spokesman Ali Rabiei said.   Iran has been scrambling to contain the COVID-19 outbreak since it announced the first two deaths in the holy city of Qom on Wednesday last week.   Authorities have since ordered the closure of schools, universities and other educational centres across the country as a "preventive measure".

A spokesman for Iran's parliament, Assadollah Abbassi, announced the latest four deaths among more than 60 infections after Monday's closed-door gathering of lawmakers.   Citing Health Minister Said Namaki, he said that "the cause of coronavirus infections in Iran are people who have entered the country illegally from Pakistan, Afghanistan and China".   Iran has yet to give a breakdown of where the other deaths occurred.   The worst-hit province for infections is Qom, with 34 cases, according to health ministry figures.

The others are in Tehran with 13 infections, Gilan with six, Markazi with four, Isfahan with two and one each for Hamedan and Mazandaran.   But the health minister said that one person who died of coronavirus in Qom, south of Tehran, was a businessman who had made several trips to China.   Namaki had unsuccessfully pleaded in January for Iran's government to order the suspension of all commercial flights between Iran and China.   In his remarks to state television on Sunday, the minister said direct flights between Iran and China were now suspended, but the Qom businessman had travelled there "on a connecting flight".

- Border closures -
Since it emerged in December, the new coronavirus has killed more than 2,500 people in China.   Iran now accounts for nearly half of the deaths elsewhere in the world, which currently stand at 30.   Many of Iran's neighbours have reported cases of coronavirus in people who had travelled to the Islamic republic.   Afghanistan on Monday reported its first case in a person who had travelled to Qom.   Baghdad also reported its first case on Monday -- an elderly Iranian citizen living in the southern Iraqi city of Najaf.

Iraq has shut its border with the Islamic republic and imposed a travel ban.   Similar preventive measures were imposed by Afghanistan, Armenia, Pakistan and Turkey.    Qom is a centre for Islamic studies and pilgrims, attracting scholars from Iran and beyond.   Kuwait and Bahrain also confirmed their first novel coronavirus cases, all of whom had come from Iran.