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Angola

Angola - US Consular Information Sheet
June 20, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Angola is a large, developing country in south-west central Africa.
The capital city is Luanda.
Portuguese, the official language, is widely spoken through
ut the country.
Despite its extensive oil and mineral reserves and arable land suitable for large-scale production of numerous crops, Angola has some of the world's lowest social development indicators.
Development was severely restricted by a 27-year long civil war that broke out upon independence in 1975, which destroyed the majority of the country's infrastructure.
Since the conflict's conclusion in 2002, the government has initiated extensive infrastructure reconstruction and development projects, and there are growing signs of economic recovery.
However, Angola still faces challenges with its infrastructure and with providing government services, especially in basic social services, aviation and travel safety, accommodation availability and quality and communications. Facilities for tourism, particularly outside the capital of Luanda, are often rudimentary. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Angola for additional information.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport and visa are required and must be obtained in advance.
An International Certificate of Vaccination is required.
Visitors should allow several weeks for the processing of their visa application.
Angola does not issue airport visas.
Persons arriving without visas are subject to arrest or exclusion.
Travelers may also encounter delays if they do not have at least one completely blank visa page in their passports for entry stamps.
As of November 1, 2007, Angola no longer requires travelers to have an exit visa.
Travelers whose international immunization cards do not show inoculations against yellow fever within the past ten years may be subject to exclusion, on-the-spot vaccination, and/or heavy fines.
Visitors remaining in Angola beyond their authorized visa duration are subject to fines and arrest.
It is illegal to attempt to carry local currency out of Angola and persons found attempting to carry local currency out of Angola are subject to having this currency confiscated by customs officers.
Current information on entry requirements may be obtained from the Embassy of Angola at 2100-2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC, tel. (202) 785-1156, fax (202) 785-1258. See our information on dual nationality, the prevention of international child abduction and customs regulations.
SAFETY AND SECURITY:
The overall security situation in Angola has improved markedly since the end of the civil war; however, Americans should still exercise caution when traveling in Angola.
Although the war has ended, ground travel throughout Angola can be problematic due to land mines, which were used extensively during the war.
Travelers should not touch anything that resembles a mine or unexploded ordinance.
Frequent checkpoints and poor infrastructure contribute to unsafe travel on roads outside of the city of Luanda.
Police and military officials are sometimes undisciplined, but their authority should not be challenged.
Travel in many parts of Luanda is relatively safe by day, but car doors should be locked, windows rolled up, and packages stored out of sight.
Visitors should avoid travel after dark, and no travel should be undertaken on roads outside of cities after nightfall.

Americans located in, or planning to visit, the northern province of Cabinda should be aware of threats to their safety outside of Cabinda city.
In 2007 and 2008 armed groups specifically targeted and attacked expatriates in Cabinda; these armed attacks resulted in the rape, robbery and murder of a small number of expatriates working in Cabinda.
Those responsible have declared their intention to continue attacks against expatriates.
Occasional attacks against police and Angolan Armed Forces (FAA) convoys and outposts also continue to be reported.
These incidents, while small in overall numbers, have occurred with little or no warning.
American citizens are, therefore, urged to exercise extreme caution when traveling outside of Cabinda city and limit travel to essential only.

Americans are advised to undertake only essential travel to Lunda North and South provinces.
As the government of Angola is sensitive to the travel of foreigners in the diamond producing areas of the provinces, proper permission and documentation is required to frequent these areas.
One can be subject to restriction or detention.
There have been reports of crime or banditry in these areas, especially on roads leading into these areas.

Visitors to Angola are advised not to take photographs of sites and installations of military or security interest, including government buildings, as this can result in fines and possibly arrest.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department’s web site, where the current Travel Warnings and Public Announcements, including the Worldwide Caution, can be found.
Up-to-date information on security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or, for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 AM to 8:00 PM Eastern Standard Time, Monday through Friday (except on U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME:
Crime is a serious problem throughout Angola.
While most violent crime occurs between Angolans, foreigners have occasionally been attacked as well.
Street crime is a regular occurrence in Luanda.
The most common crimes are pick-pocketing, purse-snatching, vehicle theft, and vehicle break-ins.
Armed muggings, robberies, and carjacking involving foreigners are not frequent but do occur.
Americans are advised to avoid Roque Santeiro and Rocha Pinto, and to only travel the “Serpentine Road” in front of the U.S. Embassy by car.
In general, movement around Luanda is safer by day than by night.
Touring after dark should be avoided.
Police and military officials are sometimes undisciplined, but their authority should not be challenged.
Air travelers arriving in Luanda are strongly advised to arrange reliable and secure ground transportation in advance; there is no regular taxi service.
American citizens are advised to avoid the use of the public transportation known as “candongueiros” or “taxistas”; these multi-passenger vans are largely unregulated and often dangerous.

Motorists should stop at all police checkpoints if so directed.
Police officers may solicit bribes or request immediate payment of "fines" for alleged minor infractions.
American citizens asked for bribes by the police should politely ask the traffic police to write them a ticket if the police allege a moving violation.
If the police officer writes the ticket, then the motorist would pay the fine at the place indicated on the ticket.
If no moving violation is alleged and the officer is asking for a bribe, the motorist should, without actually challenging the officer's authority, politely ask the officer for his/her name and badge number.
Officers thus engaged will frequently let motorists go with no bribe paid if motorists follow this advice.
Motorists are reminded to have all proper documents in the vehicle at all times (i.e. vehicle registration, proof of insurance, and driver's license), as the lack of documentation is a violation and can also be a reason an officer would solicit a bribe.
Local law requires that every driver in Angola have the proper permission to drive.
Further information on driving in Angola can be obtained from the Embassy of Angola.
Police are not always responsive to reports of crime or requests for assistance.
Most police are on foot and are assigned to designated stationary posts.
The Rapid Intervention Police (PIR) unit is frequently seen patrolling various areas of the city.
This unit, which is well trained and organized, will respond to major criminal incidents.

There have been police operations against illegal aliens and private companies resulting in deportation of illegal resident foreign nationals and loss of personal and company property.
Independent entrepreneurs in Angola should carry relevant immigration and business documents at all times.

Travelers should be alert to fraud occasionally perpetrated by Luanda airport personnel.
Immigration and customs officials sometimes detain foreigners without cause, demanding gratuities before allowing them to enter or depart Angola.
Airport health officials sometimes demand that passengers arriving without proof of current yellow fever vaccination accept and pay for a vaccination at the airport.
Travelers are advised to carry their yellow fever vaccination card and ensure their yellow fever vaccine is up-to-date.
If travelers forget to bring their yellow fever vaccination card and do not wish to receive the vaccine offered at the airport, they should be prepared to depart the country on the next available flight.
Searches of travelers' checked baggage is common; travelers are advised to take precautions against this possibility.
Travelers should also be aware that criminals sometimes attempt to insert items into baggage at the airport, particularly for flights from Luanda to South Africa.
It is important that travelers maintain control of their carry-on baggage at all times, and if they believe something has been inserted into their baggage, they should report the incident immediately to airport authorities.
INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends, and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of crimes are solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

In addition to reporting crime to local police and the U.S. Embassy in Angola, victims of crime who are residing in Angola are also encouraged to report the crime to the security department of their employer.
Short-term visitors are encouraged to report the crime to the management of the hotel where they are staying if the crime occurred in or near the hotel.
The local equivalent to the “911” emergency line in Angola for police is 113; for fire fighters: 115, and for ambulance services: 112.
Please be advised that the emergency numbers listed may or may not have an English speaking operator available.
See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Medical facilities and services are available in Angola, but are limited and often do not meet U.S. standards.
Adequate care for medical emergencies is limited to Luanda, where there are some good private clinics that usually have a 24-hour service provided by a general practice physician and with specialists on call.
A list of such facilities can be found at http://angola.usembassy.gov/medical_information.html.
Routine operations such as appendectomies can be performed.
Local pharmacies provide a limited supply of prescriptions and over-the-counter medicines/drugs.
Travelers are, therefore, urged to carry with them an adequate supply of properly-labeled medications they routinely require for the duration of their projected stay in Angola.
Malaria is endemic in most areas of Angola.

An outbreak of Marburg hemorrhagic fever, a severe and often fatal disease, occurred in Uige province in the spring of 2005; however, on November 7, 2005, the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Angola and the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that the Marburg outbreak in Angola had ended.
This announcement came after 45 consecutive days without a new case of the illness.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad, consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Angola is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
Since the end of the civil war in 2002, overland access to the interior has increased.
However, fighting in most of the country damaged or destroyed many roads and bridges, and services for motorists outside urban areas cannot be counted on.

Road travel can be dangerous, especially during the rainy season (October - March), which can cause large potholes and erosion and due to the presence of landmines.
Road conditions vary widely outside the capital from acceptable paved surfaces to virtually impassable dirt roads, particularly secondary routes.
Many secondary roads, including secondary roads in urban areas, are impassable during the rainy season.
Overloaded, poorly marked, and disabled vehicles, as well as pedestrians and livestock, pose hazards for motorists.
Ground travel in rural areas should be undertaken during daylight hours only.
Landmines also pose a continuing hazard to travelers.
Many areas were heavily mined during the war, including roads, bridges, and railroad tracks.
Areas with suspected landmines are generally clearly marked and travelers should heed these warnings.
Primary roads are considered to be landmine free in most provinces, but travelers should not venture far from the margins of the road.
Extensive government, commercial, and NGO demining projects continue throughout the country.

Traffic in Luanda is heavy and often chaotic, and roads are often in poor condition.
Few intersections have traffic lights or police to direct vehicles.
Drivers often fail to obey traffic signals and signs, and there are frequent vehicle breakdowns.
Itinerant vendors, scooters and pedestrians often weave in and out of traffic, posing a danger to themselves and to drivers.
Most public transportation, including buses and van taxis, should be avoided as the vehicles are generally crowded and may be unreliable.
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Angola, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Angola’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa/. The U.S. Embassy in Luanda prohibits its employees from using TAAG, Angola’s national airline, for domestic or international flights due to concerns regarding safety and maintenance.
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Customs Regulations:
Angolan customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from Angola of sensitive items including firearms, antiquities, and currency.
It is advisable to contact the Embassy of Angola in Washington, DC or one of Angola's consulates in the United States for specific information regarding customs requirements.

Financial Transactions:
Angola is generally a cash-only economy; neither traveler’s checks nor credit cards are used outside the capital of Luanda.
In Luanda, credit cards are accepted in extremely limited circumstances, namely large hotels.
Although, in April 2007 a major campaign was launched to expand credit card acceptance this effort has yet to expand beyond the capital city.
In general, Automated Teller Machine’s (ATM’s) are only accessible to those individuals who hold accounts with local banks.
Dollars are generally accepted in all provincial capitals; travelers should carry a sufficient supply of U.S. dollars with them.
Only the newer series U.S. dollar bills (with large faces) are accepted.
U.S. dollars can be converted to local currency at exchange businesses authorized by the Angolan government.
Angolan currency (the Kwanza) may not be taken out of the country and travelers, who attempt to carry currency out of Angola, are subject to having the currency confiscated.

Personal Identification: U.S. citizens are encouraged to carry a copy of their U.S. passports with them at all times so that, if questioned by local officials, proof of identity and U.S. citizenship is readily available.
The Consular Section of the U.S. Embassy in Luanda can prepare copies of American passports at no charge for individuals who register with the Embassy.
To avoid the risk of theft of or confiscation of original documentation, the U.S. Embassy recommends that Americans keep their passport in a secure place and carry a copy to avoid the possibility of authorities confiscating identity and travel documents.

Labor Disputes: American performers traveling to Angola to perform in concerts and/or other events should be aware that there have been several serious allegations made against talent agencies making arrangements for foreign performers.
These allegations include, among other things, several charges of breach of contract and the forcible retention of passports and persons.
Performers should assure themselves of the reputation of any agency they may contract with before traveling.
Many find it useful to contact performers who have previously worked in Angola and are familiar with agencies in Angola.
Persons experiencing any incidents of this nature in Angola should report these to the local Angolan police and the U.S. Embassy.

Long Delays in Renewal of Visas: U.S. citizens who opt to renew their work or other visa while in Angola should expect delays of 2-10 weeks or more, during which time the Angolan immigration authorities will retain one's passport and one will not be able to travel.
U.S. citizens are advised to plan accordingly, and if travel during this time cannot be avoided, one should apply for a second U.S. passport PRIOR to turning over the primary passport to Angolan authorities for visa renewal.
To apply for a second U.S. passport, you must write a letter explaining the need for the second passport, as well as meet all the requirements for a normal application for passport renewal, including being able to show a current valid passport.
Receiving a second passport will take 7-10 business days.
Expatriates who stay beyond their visa expiration date are subject to steep fines.

Hotel Availability:
Hotels are limited in Angola, and demand for the limited number of rooms is high.
Hotels are often booked months in advance, especially in the capital city of Luanda.
Only a few large hotels in Luanda accept credit cards; hotels in the provinces generally do not accept credit cards.
Adequate hotels are found in most provincial capitals, but some provide limited amenities.
Please see our information on Customs Regulations.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Angolan laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession or use of, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Angola are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sex with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime prosecutable in the United States.

Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION: Americans living or traveling in Angola are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Angola.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.

The Consular Section is located at the American Embassy Complex, Rua Houari Boumedienne #32, in the Miramar area of Luanda, P.O. Box 6468, tel. (244) 222-641-000,
(244) 222-447-028, (244) 222-445-481, (244) 222-446-224; 24-hour duty officer (244) 923-404-209; fax (244) 222-641-259.
The Consular Section may be contacted by e-mail at consularluanda@state.gov.
Further information on travel to Angola is also available at the Embassy web site at http://angola.usembassy.gov/.
*

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This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated April 29, 2008, to update the Country Description, Entry/Exit Requirements, Safety and Security, Crime, Traffic Safety and Road Conditions, Aviation Safety Oversight, and Special Circumstances.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu 9 May 2019 19:02 WAT
Source: Diario de Noticias [in Portuguese, machine trans., abridged, edited]

The measles outbreak in the Angolan province of Lunda Sul has caused 47 deaths since the start of the year [2019], among almost 1300 registered cases, Angola's national director of Public Health told Lusa today [9 May 2019].

Isilda Neves [Director, Program in Technical Assistance to the MOH] told Lusa that a vaccination campaign to identify children who are not yet immunized against the disease, will start at the weekend [11 May 2019], lasting for 10 days.

Along with this campaign, the vaccination intensification in the districts of Saurimo, capital of Lunda Sul, and in the other municipalities of the province, has been underway since the 2nd week of April [2019].

"At the end of the week we are going to make a big intervention: We are training the teams to go all out. We have at least 100 teams, each with 4 elements -- 2 coaches, one support team for the mobilization, and another to register the vaccinated children," she said.

The campaign, according to the national public health official, takes place first in Saurimo, followed by the remaining 3 municipalities in the province.

"Since the beginning of the year [2019], there were 1297 cases and 47 deaths, mostly in Saurimo," added Isilda Neves.

Health authorities are trying to control the situation, in which more than 90% of cases are being registered in children who have not been vaccinated, she said.

"One of the problems we identified is that many children who have passed the age of measles vaccination have not been vaccinated. Since there are a large number of children in the same household, we are also finding cases in children under 9 months and this is our concern too," she said.
======================
[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Lunda Sul province, Angola:
26th December 2018

Angola (Cunene province). 29 Nov 2018. (reported) 25 cases of microcephaly. Samples sent to the central laboratory in Luanda to determine if they are Zika virus related. There were no cases of microcephaly during the same period in 2017.

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map Angola:
Date: Sat 11 Aug 2018
Source: World Health Organization [edited]
<http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/news/Surveillance-presence-of-dracunculiasis-in-Angola/en/>

Disease surveillance confirms the presence of dracunculiasis in Angola. The World Health Organization (WHO) has received confirmation of a human case (29 Jun 2018) of dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease) in Angola -- a country not known to have had any cases in the past. "The patient is an 8 year old girl from Cunene Province.

Signs of worm emergence in April this year [2018] were characteristic of guinea worm disease and the worm appeared identical to _Dracunculus medinensis_," said Dr Maria Cecília de Almeida of the Angolan Guinea Worm Eradication Programme and who is also director of Control Programmes for Neglected Tropical Diseases, Ministry of Health. "The case-management protocol was observed, including the preservation of the worm specimen, and we are investigating further to determine the extent of transmission and burden of the disease." The case was detected through a nationwide guinea worm case search during the national immunization campaign against measles and rubella.

The specimen was sent to the WHO Collaborating Center for Dracunculiasis Eradication at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, where a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) [1] test confirmed the worm as _Dracunculus medinensis_ [2]. "This is the first confirmed case of human infection in Angola. The discovery is part of measures taken by the Ministry of Health, following a WHO evaluation mission to Angola in 2016 to assess the country's level of readiness to finalize its dossier requesting a WHO certification," said Dr Dieudonné Sankara, team leader of WHO's guinea worm eradication programme.

After the evaluation mission of 2016, the International Commission for the Certification of Dracunculiasis Eradication recommended that Angola should use all available opportunities to gather robust evidence of absence of guinea worm disease in the country before submitting its certification request. WHO is supporting Angola through all 3 of its operating levels -- Country Office, Regional Office and Headquarters -- to implement its roadmap for certification of dracunculiasis-free status. "With the discovery of this new case, measures are being put up to strengthen surveillance, reporting and investigation of all suspicious cases through the country's Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response," said Dr Nzuzi Katondi, field officer, WHO Country Office, Angola. "Intelligence and alerts are being reported and rumours are being followed up and investigated."

Efforts are also being made through the country's broader mapping exercise of other neglected tropical diseases. To achieve global certification of dracunculiasis eradication, WHO must formally certify every individual country even if no transmission has ever taken place in that particular country. Confirmation of the 1st case in Angola comes as the global guinea worm eradication programme is tackling _Dracunculus medinensis_ infection in both humans and dogs, mainly in Chad. From 1 Jan to 31 May 2018, Chad reported 3 human cases and 534 infected dogs. Ethiopia and Mali, 2 other countries with recent cases, reported zero human cases.

South Sudan, which reported its last human case in November 2016, declared interruption of dracunculiasis transmission in March 2018. The latest confirmation from Angola brings the global total, so far this year [2018], to 4 human cases. Dracunculiasis is a crippling parasitic disease caused by a long threadlike worm. The infection is transmitted mostly when people drink water contaminated with parasite-infected water fleas. When the eradication campaign began in 1986, there were an estimated 3.5 million cases.  PCR is a technique used in medical and biological research laboratories. It is used in the early stages of processing DNA for sequencing, for detecting the presence or absence of a gene to help identify pathogens during infection, and when generating forensic DNA profiles from tiny samples of DNA.  _Dracunculus medinensis_, a nematode (worm), is the causative agent of guinea worm disease.
============================
[According to the latest guinea worm update from WHO (Weekly Epidemiology Report 2018;32:409-16. 10 Aug 2018; <http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/273782/WER9332.pdf>) the reported numbers for other countries in 2018 are Chad, 5544; Ethiopia, 5044; Mali, 91; Sudan, 0. South Sudan did not file a report. Even though this is just a single case, the finding indicates that there is a focus. - ProMED Mod.EP]

[Cunene province is in the south of Angola bordering Namibia (<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cunene_Province>).

HealthMap/ProMED map available at: Angola: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/165>.]
Date: Tue 8 May 2018
Source: AllAfrica.com [edited]

A total of 21 positive cases of sleeping sickness were diagnosed in the last 2 weeks in the municipality of Banga, Kwanza Norte province, during the prospecting campaign held by the Provincial Department of the Institute of Combat and Control of Trypanosomiasis (Icct).

Angelino Francisco Correia, the supervisor of the campaign, said that 2800 had been examined, and 21 cases were diagnosed, of which 5 were confirmed as sleeping sickness patients.

The official called the active participation of the population in the campaigns of prospection of the disease.
=====================
[A review of human trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) in Africa (Fevre EM, Wissmann Bv, Welburn SC, Lutumba P (2008) The Burden of Human African Trypanosomiasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2(12): e333. <https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000333>) found that Angola is a highly endemic country with more than a 1000 cases annually. For background information on human trypanosomiasis in Africa see the ProMED posting "Trypanosomiasis - Angola http://promedmail.org/post/20110709.2081".

A map of Kwanza Norte Province, Angola:
Monday 16th April 2018

- Ndalatando. 11 Apr 2018. At least 78 suspected cases recorded in the period 4-9 Apr 2018 in northern Cuanza Norte Province.
More ...

Congo, Republic of the

Republic of Congo US Consular Information Sheet
August 29, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
The Republic of the Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) is a developing nation in central Africa. The official language is French. The largest cities are the capita
, Brazzaville, on the Congo River, and Pointe Noire on the coast. Civil conflict in 1997 and again in 1998-99 damaged parts of the capital and large areas in the south of the country. The last rebel group still engaged in armed struggled signed a cease-fire accord with the government in March 2003. Facilities for tourism are very limited. Read the Department of State Background Notes on the Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville) for additional information.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: A passport, visa and evidence of yellow fever vaccination are required for entry. Additional information on entry requirements may be obtained from the Embassy of the Republic of the Congo, 4891 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20011, telephone (202) 726-5500, or from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of the Congo to the United Nations, 14 E. 65th St., New York, NY, 10021, telephone (212) 744-7840. Overseas, inquiries should be made at the nearest Congolese embassy or consulate.
Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site. For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
As a result of past conflicts, there is extensive damage to the infrastructure in Brazzaville and in the southern part of the country, and the government is working to reconstruct roads and buildings. Fighting broke out in March and June of 2002 when rebel groups launched attacks first in the Pool region, and later, at the Brazzaville airport. The fighting in Brazzaville was quickly contained and the rebels were repulsed. In March 2003, the rebels and the government signed a cease-fire accord, which remains in effect, although there was some violence in Brazzaville in December 2003.

Occasionally, political unrest in neighboring Kinshasa can affect Brazzaville on the other side of the Congo River. For example, in 2007, stray small arms fire originating in Kinshasa landed in Brazzaville.

Continued security awareness remains a key consideration for all visitors. Night travel outside of cities should be avoided. U.S. citizens should avoid political rallies and street demonstrations and maintain security awareness at all times.
In the event of a fire, call the fire brigade at 81-53-87.
The Department of State suspended operations at the U.S. Embassy in Brazzaville in 1997. The Brazzaville U.S. Embassy interim offices are located in the B.D.E.A.C (Central African Development Bank) building in Brazzaville. A new embassy compound is under construction and slated to open in 2009. While Brazzaville is still not fully open for normal operations, Embassy personnel are present in Brazzaville to provide information and guidance to American citizens. Staff can be contacted through the Embassy’s interim offices (see Registration/Embassy Location section below). The reduced staff in Brazzaville has limited ability to provide emergency services and non-emergency services generally take a few days to coordinate through Embassy Kinshasa.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphletA Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME: In the Congo, petty street crime targeting foreigners is rare. Incidents of mugging and pick pocketing happen frequently near the ports in Pointe Noire and Brazzaville, and sometimes in the Congolese neighborhoods surrounding Brazzaville's city center.

Criminal elements are known to target middle-class and affluent residences without 24-hour guards for burglary. Roadblocks and robberies by armed groups targeting travelers occur in the Pool region south of Brazzaville. Travel to the Pool region is discouraged due to these elements.

Travelers should note that in the case of theft and robbery, legal recourse is limited and therefore, they may wish to leave all valuable items at home.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends, and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

While there is no local equivalent to the “911” emergency line in Republic of the Congo, the Rapid Response Police Team can be reached at 665-4804. However, police resources are limited and response to emergency calls is often slow (15 minutes or longer).

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Medical facilities are extremely limited. Some medicines are in short supply, particularly outside the larger cities. Travelers should carry their own supply of properly labeled medications.
Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease. Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the type that predominates in the Congo, is resistant to the antimalarial drug chloroquine. Because travelers to the Republic of the Congo are at high risk for contracting malaria, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advises that travelers should take one of the following antimalarial drugs: mefloquine (Lariam™), doxycycline, or atovaquone/proguanil (Malarone™). Travelers who become ill with a fever or flu-like illness while traveling in a malaria-risk area and up to one year after returning home should seek prompt medical attention and tell the physician their travel history and what antimalarials they have been taking. For additional information on malaria, including protective measures, see the CDC Travelers’ Health web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/yellowBookCh4-Malaria.aspx/.
The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of the DRC.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning the Republic of the Congo is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
Road conditions are generally poor and deteriorate significantly during the rainy season, November-May. Maintenance of the few paved roads is limited. Overland travel off the main roads requires a four-wheel drive vehicle. Poorly marked checkpoints, sometimes manned by undisciplined soldiers, exist in many areas of the countryside.

Taxis are considered an acceptable mode of transport due to availability and low cost. Registered public transportation vehicles are painted green with white roofs and striping. Security is not generally an issue with taxis but buses are often overcrowded and thus less secure. Mechanical reliability of both vehicle types remains in question.
Traffic safety in general is hazardous due to high speeds, aggressive driving, poorly maintained vehicles and general apathy for pedestrians and cyclists.

Roads are narrow, dangerously potholed, frequently wash out during rainy season and are often full of debris, and pedestrians.
Emergency services are limited. Please refer to the medical section above.
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in the Republic of the Congo, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed the Republic of the Congo’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Ferry service between Brazzaville and Kinshasa normally operates from 8 A.M. to 4 P.M. Monday through Saturday and 8 A.M. to 12 P.M. Sunday, but it may close completely with minimal notice. A special exit permit from the Republic of the Congo’s Immigration Service and a visa from the Democratic Republic of the Congo’s embassy/consulate are required to cross the Congo River from Brazzaville to Kinshasa. Passenger travel on the railroad is discouraged, as there are frequent reports of extortion by undisciplined security forces and robberies by criminal elements along the route.
The Congo is primarily a cash economy and uses the Central African Franc (CFA), a common currency with Gabon, Chad, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, and Equatorial Guinea. U.S. dollars may be exchanged for local currency. Traveler’s checks can be cashed for a fee at some hotels. Two hotels in Brazzaville, and several in Pointe Noire, accept major credit cards, but prefer payment in cash. Prices are usually quoted in CFA or Euros. Other businesses do not normally accept credit cards. Personal checks drawn on foreign accounts are not accepted. Western Union has offices in Brazzaville and Pointe Noire, and one bank in Brazzaville has an ATM.
Airport police and customs officials routinely inspect incoming and outgoing luggage, even for internal travel. For a complete list of prohibited items, please contact the nearest Congolese embassy or consulate. Please see our Customs Information.
Local security forces in areas outside Brazzaville and Pointe Noire may detain foreigners to solicit bribes. Detention of U.S. citizens, particularly in remote areas, may not always be promptly reported to the U.S. Government by Congolese authorities. U.S. citizens are encouraged to carry a copy of their passports with them at all times so that, if questioned by local officials, proof of identity and U.S. citizenship is readily available. If detained or arrested, U.S. citizens should always ask to be allowed to contact the U.S. Embassy. Please see the Registration/Embassy Location section below.
In general there are no restrictions on photography; however photographs of government buildings or military installations, port facilities or the airport should not be taken. When photographing human beings in remote areas where populations adhere to traditional beliefs, it is best to request permission first. If permission is refused, the photo should not be taken.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Republic of the Congo’s laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Republic of the Congo are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Republic of the Congo are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Republic of the Congo. Americans withoutInternet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.

The U.S. Embassy in Brazzaville has interim offices located in the B.D.E.A.C Building, 4th Floor, Place du Gouvernement, Plateau de Centre Ville, Brazzaville. The web site is http://brazzaville.usembassy.gov. The telephone number during regular business hours (7:30 am until 4:30 pm, Monday through Friday) is 242-81-14-81; email is Consular.Brazzaville@state.gov. For after-hours emergencies, call the U.S. Embassy in Kinshasa (see below).

The U.S. Embassy in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is located at 310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Gombe; tel. 243-(0)81-225-5872 (do not dial the zero when calling from abroad into the DRC). Entrance to the Consular Section of the U.S. Embassy in Kinshasa is on Avenue Dumi, opposite Ste. Anne residence. The Consular Section of the Embassy in Kinshasa may be reached at cellular tel. 243-(0)81-884-4609, 243-(0)81-884-6859 or 243-(0)81-225-5872; fax 243-(0)81-301-0560. For after-hours emergencies, use 243-81-225-5872. (Cellular phones are the norm, as other telephone service is often unreliable).
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information for Republic of the Congo dated August 20, 2008 to update the section on Safety and Security.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Wed 26 Sep 2018
Source: WHO Relief Web [edited]

The Republic of Congo, in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) and partners, started today [26 Sep 2018] a vaccination campaign to control the spread of yellow fever in the port city of Pointe Noire and surrounding areas. More than one million people from 9 months of age are expected to be vaccinated in this 6-day campaign.

The vaccination campaign uses doses from the global emergency yellow fever vaccine stockpile managed by the International Coordination Group on Vaccine Provision (ICG) and funded by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. The ICG coordinates the timely and equitable provision of vaccines during outbreaks and maintains an emergency stockpile of 6 million doses of yellow fever vaccine, which is continually replenished. Gavi will also cover operational costs for this campaign.

The immunization drive is a response to a laboratory-confirmed yellow fever case, which tested positive on 21 Aug 2018, after the person visited a rural area. Since then, no other case has been confirmed in the country, but more than 200 suspected cases have been reported since the beginning of the year [2018], with most of these notified by the health authority in Pointe Noire. It is possible that there are also undetected cases, as a large proportion of the Pointe Noire population seeks care in the private system; therefore, the national surveillance system may not be receiving notification.

Yellow fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes that can be deadly but is prevented by an extremely effective vaccine. Urban outbreaks are of particular concern, and Pointe Noire is the country's economic capital, with a population of more than one million people. After declining for many years, yellow fever outbreaks are on the rise globally. The ease and speed of population movements, rapid urbanization and a resurgence of mosquitoes because of global warming have significantly increased the risk of urban outbreaks with international spread.

"Yellow fever has re-emerged as a public health threat in recent years in the African region," said Dr. Ibrahima Soce Fall, WHO's Emergencies Director for Africa. "However, the vaccine is safe and provides life-long immunity. This reactive vaccination campaign is focusing on people who are most at risk and will set up a firewall which will prevent the virus from spreading further."

The neighbouring Democratic Republic of the Congo has shown solidarity with the Republic of Congo by lending more than 700 000 syringes for the vaccination campaign while Pointe Noire health authorities wait for syringes to arrive from the international stockpile next month [October 2018].

The response to this outbreak is part of a comprehensive strategy to eliminate yellow fever epidemics (EYE) globally by 2026. WHO, UNICEF, Gavi, and more than 50 partners are supporting the Government of Congo and 39 other high-risk countries to assess epidemic risk, roll out vaccination campaigns, engage with communities and deliver other response activities, including surveillance and laboratory diagnosis.

Nationwide preventive actions are also needed to ensure the protection of the entire population at risk. Rapid outbreak detection and response and long-term prevention are integral to a sustained control of yellow fever. As part of the EYE Strategy, more than 4 million additional people are expected to be vaccinated in preventive mass campaigns in the Republic of Congo over the few next years.
=====================
[It is encouraging to see that components of a large yellow fever (YF) vaccination campaign have come together to start the effort 2 days ago [26 Sep 2018]. Although there is only one confirmed YF case, considering the 200 suspected cases and the risk of rapid YF virus spread in Pointe Noir, a city with a dense and susceptible human population and abundant mosquito vectors, the vaccination campaign is prudent. A recent report indicated that entomological surveys in the affected area have revealed high densities of mosquito vectors (_Aedes aegypti_) responsible for urban YF transmission, signaling the potential for human-to-human transmission via _Aedes aegypti_ and rapid amplification. Larval sites have been found around the homes of suspected cases, and this situation could worsen with the arrival of the rainy season. WHO is supporting the Ministry of Health and Population in implementing targeted vector control activities for adult mosquitoes and larvae within a 200-metre [660-foot] perimeter of areas where the confirmed case-patient lives and works. YF outbreaks under conditions like these can spread rapidly and get out of control, as occurred in Angola with spillover into the Democratic Republic of the Congo. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Republic of Congo: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/166>]
Date: Tue 25 Sep 2018
Source: Africa News [edited]
<http://www.africanews.com/2018/09/25/congo-to-launch-immunization-against-yellow-fever-outbreak-the-morning-call/>

On Thursday [27 Sep 2018], the government of the Republic of Congo will begin what it calls a robust and coordinated response against the yellow fever outbreak recorded in some parts of the country. The planned response follows the health ministry's warning last month [August 2018] of "an emerging event of epidemic proportions." According to the head of the government's epidemics unit, Lambert Kitembo, 186 suspected cases of yellow fever have been detected this year [2018], many of which were reported in the western commercial hub of Pointe Noire. [Byline: Jerry Bambi]
===================
[The numbers of reported yellow fever cases in the Republic of the Congo (RC) is growing, especially in the Pointe-Noire area. Pointe-Noire is a port city and oil industry hub with an international airport and links to other large cities. A previous report indicated that a retrospective search in 16 health centre registers in Pointe-Noire found 69 additional suspected cases during 2018 that meet the clinical case definition for yellow fever; 56 of the suspected cases were already recorded in the national surveillance system. Of these, 2 of the suspected cases reported staying in Angola.

The above report indicates that there are now 186 suspected cases. A recent WHO risk assessment reported that the overall public health risk at the national level is high due to the confirmation of a yellow fever case in the densely populated urban city of Pointe Noire (‎1.2 million inhabitants), with suboptimal immunization coverage in the affected community and the potential risk of spread within the Congo, especially to the capital city of Brazzaville.

The Ministry of Health and Population (MoHP) declared a yellow fever outbreak in Pointe Noire on 22 Aug 2018, and the national committee for outbreak management was promptly activated. WHO was notified on 23 Aug 2018, in line with the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005). A recent report indicated that entomological surveys in the affected area have revealed high densities of mosquito vectors (_Aedes aegypti_) responsible for urban yellow fever transmission, signalling the potential for human-to-human transmission and rapid amplification. Larval sites have been found around the homes of suspected cases, and this situation could worsen with the arrival of the rainy season.

WHO is supporting the MoHP in implementing targeted vector control activities for adult mosquitoes and larvae within a 200-metre [660 foot] perimeter of areas where the confirmed case-patient lives and works. It is difficult to assess the risk of an ongoing outbreak without knowing the proportion of the unvaccinated population in the areas where the cases occurred. One hopes that the planned vigorous vaccination campaign will be initiated as planned this week. Yellow fever outbreaks can quickly get out of hand, as occurred in Angola and the DRC in 2016-2017.

Frequent movement of individuals across borders of neighbouring countries and beyond underscores the need for prompt action to prevent spread. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at: Republic of Congo: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/166>]
Disease outbreak news
7 September 2018

Event Description
On 5 July 2018, a 20-year-old male living in Bissongo, Republic of the Congo, visited Bissongo health centre in the Loandjili District of Pointe-Noire City, with a fever he had developed the previous day. On 9 July, due to the onset of jaundice and persistent fever, he returned to the same health facility. The patient did not have a history of yellow fever vaccination or haemorrhagic symptoms. The patient had previously travelled to Ngoyo and Tchiamba Nzassi districts two weeks prior to symptom onset; Tchiamba Nzassi is a rural district in Pointe-Noire located along the border with Angola.

He was admitted to the health facility and received antimalarial and antibiotic treatments. As yellow fever was also suspected as a differential diagnosis, a blood sample was collected on 10 July and sent to Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale (INRB) in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, for testing; on 26 July, the sample tested positive for yellow fever by serology. On 30 July, INRB sent a sample to Institut Pasteur de Dakar for confirmation; on 21 August, the sample tested positive for yellow fever by seroneutralization with a high titre.

Following the confirmation of yellow fever, an investigation was conducted in the affected area. A retrospective search in 16 health centre registers in Pointe-Noire found 69 additional suspected cases during 2018 which meet the clinical case definition for yellow fever; 56 of the suspected cases were already recorded in the national surveillance system. Two of the suspected cases reported staying in Angola. Samples were collected from 43 of these cases and sent to INRB; all samples tested negative for yellow fever. Entomological surveys in the affected area have revealed high densities of mosquito vectors (Aedes aegypti) responsible for urban yellow fever transmission, signalling the potential for human-to-human transmission and rapid amplification. Larval sites have been found around the homes of suspected cases, and this situation could worsen with the arrival of the rainy season.

Public health response

The Ministry of Health and Population (MoHP) declared a yellow fever outbreak in Pointe-Noire on 22 August 2018 and the national committee for outbreak management was promptly activated. WHO was notified on 23 August 2018 in line with the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005).

WHO is supporting the country in the preparation of an emergency response plan and an International Coordinating Group (ICG) request for supplies for a reactive mass vaccination campaign targeting the Pointe-Noire area, which has a population of approximately one million people. WHO is also supporting resource mobilization activities, as the country is not eligible for Gavi support.

WHO is supporting the MoHP in implementing targeted vector control activities for adult mosquitoes and larvae within a 200-metre perimeter of areas where the confirmed case-patient lives and works. WHO is also providing technical support to strengthen surveillance at points of entry, case management, and public awareness, as well as recommending the use of mosquito nets during the day time.

WHO risk assessment

The overall public health risk at the national level is high due to the confirmation of a yellow fever case in a densely populated urban city of Pointe-Noire (‎1.2 million inhabitants), with suboptimal immunization coverage in the affected community and the potential risk of spread within the Congo, especially to the capital city of Brazzaville. Entomological surveys in the affected area revealed high densities of Aedes aegypti, responsible for urban transmission of yellow fever, signalling the potential for rapid amplification. The approaching rainy season may potentially increase this risk. Thus, the risk of an urban epidemic needs to be mitigated urgently, although there is no indication of active urban transmission according to the information available.

The risk at the regional level is considered to be moderate due to the lack of information to describe the scope and the dynamics of the outbreak, as well as because of cross-border movements, particularly between to and from Gabon and Cabinda in Angola. Pointe-Noire is a port city and oil industry hub with an international airport and links to other large cities. Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo have recently conducted mass preventive and reactive yellow fever vaccination campaigns, respectively. However, population immunity levels in the Democratic Republic of the Congo are low in the zones not targeted by the 2016 reactive campaigns, such as the areas neighbouring Pointe-Noire. No other yellow fever cases related to the outbreak in Pointe-Noire have been reported outside the country at this stage.

The risk at the global level is considered low. Risks need to be closely monitored and regularly reassessed.

WHO Recommendations

Vaccination is the primary means for prevention and control of yellow fever. In urban centres, targeted vector control measures are also helpful to interrupt transmission. WHO and partners will continue to support local authorities to implement these interventions to control the current outbreak.

WHO recommends vaccination against yellow fever for all international travellers above nine months of age going to the Republic of the Congo, as there is evidence of yellow fever virus transmission. The Republic of the Congo also requires a yellow fever vaccination certificate for all travellers aged 9 months or older . Yellow fever vaccination is safe, highly effective and provides life-long protection. In accordance with the IHR (2005), the validity of the international certificate of vaccination against yellow fever extends to the life of the person vaccinated. A booster dose of yellow fever vaccine cannot be required of international travellers as a condition of entry.

WHO encourages its Member States to take all actions necessary to keep travellers well informed of risks and preventive measures including vaccination. Travellers should also be made aware of yellow fever symptoms and signs and instructed to rapidly seek medical advice when presenting with these. Viraemic returning travellers may pose a risk for the establishment of local cycles of yellow fever transmission in areas where the competent vector is present.

WHO advises against the application of any restrictions on travel or trade to the Republic of the Congo in relation to this outbreak, based on the information currently available.
Date: Fri 31 Aug 2018
Source: Business Insider [edited]

Congo Republic will launch a country-wide vaccination campaign to control an outbreak of yellow fever near the border with the Angolan enclave of Cabinda, the health ministry said on Friday [31 Aug 2018].

Earlier this week, the authorities said over 180 suspected cases and one confirmed case of the sometimes deadly mosquito-borne virus had been identified this year [2018], many in the western commercial hub of Pointe Noire.

"Congo (Republic) declared a yellow fever epidemic at Pointe Noire on 24 Aug [2018]," the ministry said in a statement.

In response, it said: "The Health and Population Ministry will organize, in collaboration with partners, a national vaccination campaign." It did not specify when the campaign would begin. The vaccinations will be free of charge. Only children under 9 months, pregnant women and mothers breastfeeding infants under 6 months will not be vaccinated, the statement added.

No deaths have yet been reported in the outbreak.

The disease causes fever, body aches and nausea and can quickly spread in areas with large unvaccinated populations.

A major outbreak in 2016 in Angola and Democratic Republic of Congo killed more than 400 people and was believed to have infected thousands more before it was brought under control through an extensive vaccination campaign.  [Byline: Alessandra Prentice]
======================
[The case numbers and locations are essentially the same as reported in the earlier ProMED-mail post, with no increase in the numbers of suspected cases. A country-wide vaccination campaign is planned in response to these cases. As noted in previous posts, this outbreak is fairly widely distributed geographically across 5 health districts. The dates on which these suspected cases were diagnosed are not given, so we do not have a picture of the timeframe of this outbreak. None of these cases resulted in deaths.

It is difficult to assess the risk of an ongoing outbreak without knowing the proportion of the unvaccinated population in the areas where the cases occurred. One hopes that the planned vigorous vaccination campaign will be initiated as soon as possible. Yellow fever outbreaks can quickly get out of hand, as occurred in Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2016-2017. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Republic of Congo: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/166>]
Date: Tue 28 Aug 2018
Source: Reuters [edited]

Congo Republic has confirmed a case of yellow fever near the border with an Angolan enclave, the health ministry said on Tuesday [28 Aug 2018], and has warned of "an emerging event of epidemic proportions."

In all, 186 suspected cases have been detected this year [2018], many of which were in the western commercial hub of Pointe Noire, the head of the government's epidemics unit, Lambert Kitembo told Reuters.

He said 8 blood samples were sent to Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) for testing last month [July 2018], one of which came back positive. It was then officially confirmed last week at a laboratory in Senegal.

The sometimes deadly mosquito-borne virus causes fever, body aches and nausea and can quickly spread in areas with large unvaccinated populations.

A major outbreak in 2016 in Angola and the DRC killed more than 400 people and was believed to have infected thousands more before it was brought under control through an extensive vaccination campaign.

The confirmed victim in the case of yellow fever in Congo Republic had traveled in Tchiamba Nzassi district, which lies along the border with the Angolan enclave of Cabinda, 2 weeks prior to the onset of his symptoms, the World Health Organization (WHO) said in a weekly report.

No deaths have been reported, but the situation is being taken seriously by health officials, Kitembo said. He did not say whether authorities had plans to test other blood samples.

"Congo, in general, and the departments of Pointe Noire and Koulou in particular are experiencing since the start of 2018 an emerging event of epidemic proportions," the health ministry said in a statement dated last week.

The WHO said that the confirmed case was detected early last month [July 2018] at a health centre in Pointe Noire, where the patient with fever and jaundice was admitted for treatment.
======================
[The number of suspected cases has gone up from 70 yesterday [27 Aug 2018] to 186 mentioned above. There is now one laboratory confirmation. As noted in the previous post, this outbreak is fairly widely distributed geographically across 5 health districts. The dates on which these suspected cases were diagnosed are not given, so we do not have a picture of the time frame of this outbreak. None of these cases resulted in deaths.

It is difficult to assess the risk of an ongoing outbreak without knowing the proportion of the unvaccinated population in the areas where the cases occurred. One hopes that a vigorous vaccination campaign will be initiated as soon as possible. Yellow fever outbreaks can quickly get out of hand, as occurred in Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2016-2017. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Republic of Congo: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/166>]
More ...

Italy

US Consular Information Sheet Italy, Holy See (Vatican City) and San Marino - January 21, 2009 COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Italy is a developed democracy with a modern economy.
The Holy See is a sovereign entity that serves as the ecclesiastical, gove
nmental and administrative capital of the Roman Catholic Church, physically located within the State of the Vatican City inside Rome, with a unique, non-traditional economy.
San Marino is a developed, constitutional democratic republic, also independent of Italy, with a modern economy.
Tourist facilities are widely available. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Italy, the Holy See, and San Marino for additional information. ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
Italy is a party to the Schengen agreement.
As such, U.S. citizens may enter Italy for up to 90 days for tourist or business purposes without a visa.
The passport should be valid for at least three months beyond the period of stay.
For further details about travel into and within Schengen countries, please see our fact sheet.
For all other purposes, a visa is required and must be obtained from the Italian Embassy or Consulates before entering Italy.
For further information concerning visas and entry requirements for Italy, travelers may contact the Embassy of Italy at 3000 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008, via telephone at (202) 612-4400 or online at http://www.ambwashingtondc.esteri.it/ambasciata_washington, or Italian Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, Newark, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, or San Francisco, accessible through the Italian Embassy web site. Americans staying or traveling within Italy for less than three (3) months are considered non-residents. This includes persons on vacation, those taking professional trips, students registered at an authorized school, or persons performing research or independent study. As of May 2007, under Italian law (http://www.camera.it/parlam/leggi/07068l.htm), all non-residents are required to complete a dichiarazione di presenza (declaration of presence). Tourists arriving from a non-Schengen-country (e.g. the United States) should obtain a stamp in their passport at the airport on the day of arrival. This stamp is considered the equivalent of the declaration of presence. Tourists arriving from a Schengen-country (e.g. France) must request the declaration of presence form from a local police office (commissariato di zona), police headquarters (questura) or their place of stay (e.g hotel, hostel, campgrounds) and submit the form to the police or to their place of stay within eight business days of arrival. It is important that applicants keep a copy of the receipt issued by the Italian authorities. Failure to complete a declaration of presence is punishable by expulsion from Italy. Additional information may be obtained (in Italian only) from the Portale Immigrazione at http://www.portaleimmigrazione.it and the Polizia di Stato at http://www.poliziadistato.it/pds/ps/immigrazione/soggiorno.htm. Americans staying in Italy for more than three (3) months are considered residents and must obtain a permesso di soggiorno (permit of stay). This includes Americans who will work or transact business and persons who want to simply live in Italy.
An application “kit” for the permesso di soggiorno may be requested from one of 14,000 national post offices (Poste Italiane). The kit must then be returned to one of 5,332 designated Post Office acceptance locations.
It is important that applicants keep a copy of the receipt issued by the post office.
Additional information may be obtained from an Italian immigration website online at http://www.portaleimmigrazione.it/.
Within 20 days of receiving the permit to stay in Italy, Americans must go to the local Vital Statistics Bureau (Anagrafe of the Comune) to apply for residency. It generally takes one to two months to receive the certificate of residence (Certificato di Residenza). Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet. SAFETY AND SECURITY:
There have been occasional episodes of politically motivated violence in Italy, most often connected to Italian internal developments or social issues.
Italian authorities have found bombs outside public buildings, received bomb threats, and were subjects of letter bombs.
Firebombs or Molotov cocktails have been thrown at buildings or offices in the middle of the night.
These incidents have all been attributed to organized crime or anarchist movements.
Americans were not targeted or injured in these instances.
Demonstrations may have an anti-American character.
Even demonstrations intended to be peaceful have the potential to turn into confrontational situations and possibly escalate into violence.
U.S. citizens traveling or residing in Italy should take common sense precautions and follow news reports carefully in order to avoid demonstrations and to be aware of heightened security and potential delays when they occur.
American citizens are encouraged to read the Warden Messages posted on the Embassy’s web site at http://italy.usembassy.gov/acs/demonstration/default.asp. Italy remains largely free of terrorist incidents.
However, like other countries in the Schengen area, Italy’s open borders with its Western European neighbors allow the possibility of terrorist groups entering/exiting the country with anonymity. For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State’s, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found. Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll-free in the U.S., or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays). The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s A Safe Trip Abroad. CRIME:
Italy has a moderate rate of violent crime, some of which is directed towards tourists, principally for motives of theft.
Some travelers are victims of rape and beatings.
There are incidents of drinks laced with drugs being used by criminals to rob, and in some cases, assault tourists.
Many of these incidents occur in the vicinity of Rome’s Termini train station and at major tourist centers such as Campo de Fiori and Piazza Navona, as well as in Florence and Naples.
Criminals using this tactic “befriend” a traveler at a train station, bus stop, restaurant, café or bar in tourist areas, then eventually offer a drink laced with a sleeping drug.
When the tourist falls asleep, criminals steal the traveler’s valuables.
There are also instances where the victim is assaulted, either physically or sexually. Americans are urged to exercise caution at train stations and airports, and when frequenting nightclubs, bars and outdoor cafes, particularly at night, because criminals may make initial contact with potential victims in such settings.
Individuals under the effect of alcohol may become victims of crime, including robbery, physical and sexual assault, due to their impaired ability to judge situations and make decisions.
This is particularly a problem for younger Americans visiting Italy, where the age limit on the sale of alcoholic beverages is lower than in the United States.
If you are a victim of such a crime, please file a police report and contact the U.S. Embassy or nearest consulate.
There are also in-country organizations, which provide counseling, medical, and legal assistance to certain crime victims. Petty crimes such as pick-pocketing, theft from parked cars, and purse snatching are serious problems, especially in large cities.
Pick-pockets sometimes dress like businessmen.
Tourists should not be lulled into a false sense of security by believing that well-dressed individuals are not potential pick-pockets or thieves.
Most reported thefts occur at crowded tourist sites, on public buses or trains, or at the major railway stations: Rome’s Termini; Milan’s Centrale; Florence’s Santa Maria Novella; and Naples’ Centrale and Piazza Garibaldi.
Travelers should also be alert to theft in Milan’s Malpensa Airport, particularly at car rental agencies.
Clients of Internet cafes in major cities are also targeted.
Tourists who have tried to resist petty thieves on motor scooters have suffered broken arms and collarbones. Thieves in Italy often work in groups or pairs.
Pairs of accomplices or groups of street urchins are known to divert tourists’ attention so that another can pick-pocket them.
In one particular routine, one thief throws trash, waste or ketchup at the victim; a second thief assists the victim in cleaning up the mess; and the third discreetly takes the victim’s belongings.
Criminals on crowded public transportation slit the bottoms of purses or bags with a razor blade or sharp knife removing the contents.
Theft of small items such as radios, luggage, cameras, briefcases, and even cigarettes from parked cars is a major problem. Carjackings and thefts are reported by occupants of vehicles waiting in traffic or stopped at traffic lights.
Vehicles parked near beaches during the summer are broken into and robbed of valuables.
Robbers take items from cars at gas stations often by smashing car windows. In a scam practiced on the highways, one thief signals a flat tire to the driver of another car and encourages the driver to pull over.
Often, the tire has been punctured by an accomplice, while in other instances, there may, in fact, be nothing wrong with the vehicle.
When the driver stops, one thief helps change the tire, while the other takes the driver’s belongings.
Use particular caution driving at night on highways, when there may be a greater incidence of robbery attempts.
There are occasional reports of break-ins of rental cars driven by Americans when the precautions mentioned above were not followed during stops at highway service areas. On trains, a commonly reported crime involves one or more persons who pretend to befriend a traveler and offer drugged food or drink.
Also, thieves are known to impersonate police officers to gain the confidence of tourists.
The thief shows the prospective victim a circular plastic sign with the words “police” or “international police.”
If this happens, the tourist should insist on seeing the officer’s identification card (documento), as impersonators tend not to carry forged documents.
Tourists should immediately report thefts or other crimes to the local police. The U.S. Secret Service in Rome is assisting Italian Law Enforcement authorities in investigating an increase in the appearance of ATM skimming devices.
These devices are attached to legitimate bank ATMs, usually located in tourist areas, and capture the account information stored electronically on the card’s magnetic strip.
The devices consist of a card reader installed over the legitimate reader and a pin-hole video camera mounted above the keypad that records the customer’s PIN.
ATMs with skimming devices installed may also allow normal transactions to occur.
The victim’s information is sold, traded on-line, or encoded on another card such as a hotel key card to access the compromised account.
Here are some helpful hints to protect yourself and to identify skimming devices: 1) Use ATMs located in well-lit public areas, or secured inside the bank/business 2) Cover the keypad with one hand as you enter your PIN 3) Look for gaps, tampered appearance, or other irregularities between the metal faceplate of the ATM and the card reader 4) Avoid card readers that are not flush with the face of the ATM 5) Closely monitor your account statements for unauthorized transactions Organized criminal groups operate throughout Italy, but are more prevalent in the south.
They occasionally resort to violence to intimidate or to settle disputes.
Though the activities of such groups are not generally targeted at tourists, visitors should be aware that innocent by-standers could be injured. In many countries around the world, counterfeit and pirated goods are widely available.
Transactions involving such products may be illegal under local law.
In addition, bringing them back to the United States may result in forfeitures and/or fines.
More information on this serious problem is available at http://www.cybercrime.gov/18usc2320.htm. According to Italian Law (Law 80 of May 14, 2005), anyone caught buying counterfeit goods (for example, DVD’s, CD’s, watches, purses, bags, belts, sunglasses, etc.) is subject to a fine of no less than EUR 1,000.
Police in major Italian cities enforce this law to varying degrees.
Travelers are advised to purchase products only from stores and other licensed retailers to avoid unknowingly buying counterfeit and illegal merchandise. INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate for assistance.
The embassy/consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Lost or stolen credit cards present risk of identity theft and should be cancelled immediately.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed. The local equivalent to the “911” emergency line in Italy is: 113. Please see our information on Victims of Crime, including possible victim compensation programs in the United States. CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country’s laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those of the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Italian law, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use or trafficking in illegal drugs in Italy are severe and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in illicit sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties. SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Strikes and other work stoppages occur frequently in the transportation sector (national airlines, airports, trains, and bus lines).
Most are announced in advance and are of short duration.
Information on strikes may be found at http://www.infrastrutture.gov.it/page/NuovoSito/site.php.
Reconfirmation of domestic and international flight reservations is highly recommended. U. S citizens using public transportation while in Italy are reminded they must adhere to local transportation laws and regulations. Travelers must purchase train tickets and validate them by punching them in validating machines usually located near the entrance of train tracks prior to boarding.
Failure to follow this procedure may result in an on-the-spot fine by an inspector on the train. Travelers must purchase bus tickets prior to boarding and validate them immediately after boarding. Tickets may be purchased at tobacco stores or kiosks. Failure to follow this procedure may result in an immediate fine imposed by an inspector on the bus. If the violator does not pay the fine on the spot, it will automatically double and will be forwarded to the violator’s home address. MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Medical facilities are available, but may be limited outside urban areas.
Public hospitals, though generally free of charge for emergency services, sometimes do not maintain the same standards as hospitals in the United States, so travelers are encouraged to obtain insurance that would cover a stay in a private Italian hospital or clinic.
It is almost impossible to obtain an itemized hospital bill from public hospitals, as required by many U.S. insurance companies, because the Italian National Health Service charges one inclusive rate (care services, bed and board). In parts of southern Italy, the lack of adequate trash disposal and incineration sites has led to periodic accumulations of garbage in urban and rural areas.
In some cases, residents have burned garbage, resulting in toxic emissions that can aggravate respiratory problems. The U.S. Navy initiated a public health evaluation in the Naples area in 2008.
Updates on that evaluation can be found at http://www.nsa.naples.navy.mil/risk.
After finding levels of bacterial and chemical contamination of potential health concern, particularly in samples of area well water, the Navy recommended all personnel living off-base in the Naples area use only bottled water for drinking, cooking, ice-making, and brushing teeth.
For more information on safe food and water precautions, see the CDC’s web site below.
The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Italy. Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas. TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Italy is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance. Streets in historic city centers are often narrow, winding and congested.
Motor scooters are very popular and drivers often see themselves as exempt from conventions that apply to automobiles. Travelers who rent scooters should be particularly cautious.
Pedestrians and drivers should be constantly alert to the possibility of scooters’ sudden presence.
Most vehicle-related deaths and injuries involve pedestrians or cyclists who are involved in collisions with scooters or other vehicles.
U.S. citizens should remain vigilant and alert while walking or cycling near traffic.
Pedestrians should be careful, as sidewalks can be extremely congested and uneven.
Drivers of bicycles, motorcycles, and other vehicles routinely ignore traffic signals and traffic flows and park and drive on sidewalks.
For safety, pedestrians should look carefully in both directions before crossing streets, even when using a marked crosswalk with a green avanti (“walk”) light illuminated.
Traffic lights are limited, often disobeyed, and a different convention of right-of-way is observed.
Italy has over 5,600 kilometers (3,480 mi.) of Autostrada, or superhighways.
Commercial and individual vehicles travel and pass on these well-maintained roads at very high speeds.
Accidents occur in which contributing factors include excessive speed, alcohol/drug use, and/or sleepiness of long-distance drivers.
Italy has one of the highest rates of car accident deaths in the European Union. In rural areas, a wide range of speed on highways makes for hazardous driving.
Roads are generally narrow and often have no guardrails.
Travelers in northern Italy, especially in winter, should be aware of fog and poor visibility, responsible for multiple-car accidents each year.
Most Italian automobiles are equipped with special fog lights.
Roadside assistance in Italy is excellent on the well-maintained toll roads, but limited on secondary roads.
Use of safety belts and child restraining devices is mandatory and headlights should be on at all times outside of urban areas. U.S. citizens driving in Italy are reminded that they must adhere to the local driving laws and regulations.
Vehicle traffic in some historic downtown areas of cities and towns throughout Italy is limited by a system of permits (called “ZTL” and functioning the same way as an EasyPass system in the United States might on the freeway).
Cameras record the license plates of cars driving in parts of the city that require a permit.
Although most of the automated verification stations are clearly marked, if a driver passes one it is impossible to know at the time that a violation occurred or has been recorded.
Violators are not pulled over or stopped, and there is no personal contact with a police officer.
Whenever possible, the fines imposed for these violations are forwarded to the driver’s home in the United States to request payment.
The fines are cumulative for each time a driver passes a control point.
A similar system of automated traffic control cameras is in place in many parts of the highway system and is used to ticket speeding violations. U.S. citizens driving in Italy should also note that, according to Italian regulation, if a resident of a non-European Union country (e.g. the United States) violates a traffic law, the violator must pay the fine at the time the violation occurs to the police officer issuing the ticket.
If the citizen does not or cannot pay the fine at the time, Italian regulation allows the police officer to confiscate the offender’s vehicle (even if the vehicle is a rental vehicle). For specific information concerning Italian driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, contact the Italian Government Tourist Board (ENIT) offices via the Internet at: http://www.enit.it, tel: 212-245-4822 or the A.C.I. (Automobile Club Italiano) at Via Magenta 5, 00185 Rome, tel: 39-06-4477.
For information on obtaining international drivers licenses, contact AAA or the American Automobile Touring Alliance. Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
Visit the web site of the country’s national tourist office at http://www.italiantourism.com and national authority responsible for road safety at http://www.infrastrutturetrasporti.it. AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) assessed the Government of Italy’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Italy’s air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa. DISASTER PREPAREDNESS:
Several major earthquake fault lines cross Italy.
Principal Italian cities, with the exception of Naples, do not lie near these faults, but smaller tourist towns, like Assisi, do and experience earthquakes.
General information about disaster preparedness is available online from the U.S. Federal Management Agency (FEMA) at http://www.fema.gov.
Detailed information on Italy’s earthquake fault lines is available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at http://www.usgs.gov Italy also has several active volcanoes generating geothermal events.
Mt. Etna, on the eastern tip of the island of Sicily, has been erupting intermittently since 2000.
Mt. Vesuvius, located near Naples, is currently capped and not active.
Activity at Mt. Vesuvius is monitored by an active seismic network and sensor system, and no recent seismic activity has been recorded.
Two of Italy’s smaller islands, Stromboli and Vulcano in the Aeolian Island chain north of Sicily, also have active volcanoes with lava flows.
Detailed information on volcano activity in Italy is available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at http://www.usgs.gov. CHILDREN’S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.
REGISTRATION / EMBASSY AND CONSULATE LOCATIONS:
Americans living or traveling in Italy are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site, so they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Italy.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy is located at Via V. Veneto 119/A, tel.: 39-06-46741 and fax: 39-06-4674-2217; web site: http://italy.usembassy.gov/english/. The U.S. Consulates are located in: Florence:
Lungarno Amerigo Vespucci 38, tel: 39-055-266-951, consular fax: 399-055-215-550; Milan:
Via Principe Amedeo 2/10, tel: 39-02-290-351, and fax:
39-02-290-35-273; Naples:
Piazza della Repubblica, tel:
39-081-583-8111, and consular fax:
39-081-583-8275. There are U.S. Consular Agents located in: Genoa:
Via Dante 2, tel:
39-010-584-492, and fax: 39-010-553-3033; Palermo:
Via Vaccarini 1, tel:
39-091-305-857, and fax:
39-091-625-6026; Venice:
Viale Galileo Galilei, 30, tel: 39-041-541-5944, and fax: 39-041-541-6654. * * * This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated June 10, 2008, to update the sections onSafety and Security and Medical Facilities and Health Information.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Wed, 28 Aug 2019 14:39:17 +0200 (METDST)

Rome, Aug 28, 2019 (AFP) - Italy's Stromboli volcano off the coast of Sicily erupted Wednesday, according to fire fighters who rushed to put out wildfires sparked by lava flows.

Emergency services scrambled to launch motorboats and helicopters after the "strong explosion" in the south-central slope of the crater shook the island, but no-one was hurt, the fire service said on Twitter.   Falling ash from a vast mushrooming cloud covered the rooves of houses in the tiny windswept town of Stromboli, the Repubblica newspaper said, adding that the explosion had been felt on the nearby island of Salina.

The volcano, which is part of the Aeolian Islands archipelago in southern Italy, had been off limits to walkers following a deadly eruption in June which killed a hiker and sent tourists fleeing.   Stromboli, just 12 square kilometres (4.6 square miles) in area and 924 metres (3,000 feet) high, is just the top of a volcano that is largely underwater.   It is one of few in the world with almost continuous activity, according to the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology.
Date: Tue, 6 Aug 2019 20:52:44 +0200 (METDST)

Rome, Aug 6, 2019 (AFP) - Tourists to the Eternal City will no longer be able to catch their breath on the Spanish Steps, after Rome banned people from sitting on the famous monument.   Police could be seen blowing whistles to order people up and off the Steps in the historic centre on Tuesday, an AFP photographer reported.

The marble steps, one of the architectural jewels of the Italian capital, have long been a place for weary sightseers to stop and watch the world go by -- while possibly scoffing down a quick sandwich or slurping a milkshake.   But in an attempt to crack down on slovenly behaviour, the council issued new rules earlier this summer banning all "camping out" or "sitting" on historic monuments, including the Steps and the "boat" fountain at its feet.   Transgressors could be slapped with a fine of up to 400 euros ($448) for everything from sitting, to going shirtless, bathing in fountains and dragging wheeled suitcases down historic steps.

The landmark, made famous in the United States by the 1953 film "Roman Holiday" starring Audrey Hepburn and Gregory Peck, underwent a 1.5-million-euro renovation in 2016 financed by upmarket jeweller Bulgari.   The marble had been discoloured by years of pollution but also caked in chewing gum and stained by wine and coffee spills.

The Steps, designed by architect Francesco de Sanctis between 1723 and 1726 and dominated by the Trinita dei Monti church at the top, are a UNESCO site.   Last month, two German tourists were fined 950 euros for making themselves a coffee on the steps of the famous Rialto bridge in Venice and asked to leave the city.
Date: Sat, 20 Jul 2019 11:45:40 +0200

Rome, July 20, 2019 (AFP) - Italy's Mount Etna, Europe's biggest live volcano, erupted overnight with lava flows and explosive burps, vulcanologists said Saturday.   A heavy emission of ash into the sky forced the closure of two airports in Sicily's second-biggest city of Catania. They partially reopened early Saturday.

The activity followed "lively spattering" recorded by the  National Institute of Geophysics and Vulcanology (INGV) in early June and a previous eruption in December last year.   Eruptions are frequent, and the last major one dated back to early 2009.   The institute said this latest eruption was intermittent and the lava was flowing around 1.5 kilometres (one mile) down a desertic escarpment called the Valle del Bove (Ox Valley) from craters situated on the volcano's southeast face.
Date: Wed, 3 Jul 2019 21:26:25 +0200
By Charles ONIANS

Rome, July 3, 2019 (AFP) - A volcano on the Italian island of Stromboli erupted dramatically on Wednesday, killing a hiker and sending tourists fleeing into the sea.   The volcano is known to be active but on Wednesday there were two particularly powerful explosions.   "Unfortunately one man is dead, there are a few injured, but none seriously," emergency worker Calogero Foti told RAI television.   The dead man was a 35-year-old from Messina in Sicily who was walking with a Brazilian companion who was found dehydrated and in a state of shock, the AGI news agency reported.   They were walking below the 400 metre altitude limit above which a guide is required.

- 'Like being in hell' -
A navy boat has been sent to the 12 square kilometre (five square miles) island for a possible mass evacuation, with 70 inhabitants and tourists already evacuated.   "It was like being in hell because of the rain of fire coming from the sky," Italian news agencies quoted local priest Giovanni Longo as saying.   He said it was not known if there were any hikers on the volcano at the time of the eruption, which caused fires around the village of Ginostra.   Stromboli is topped by an active volcano which is a magnet for tourists from early spring each year.   Italian media reported that some tourists had fled into the sea after the eruption, while others had barricaded themselves into homes.

Italy's National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV) said there were two huge explosions on the central-southern side of the volcano's crater at around 1446 GMT Wednesday, one of the biggest explosions ever recorded on the island.   The explosions were preceded by lava spills "from all the active mouths of the crater terrace," the INGV said, prompting a two-kilometre high plume of smoke.   "It's been a long time since we had an eruption of this magnitude," former local councillor Gianluca Giuffre told RAI news.   "My experience and of those who have been living here for generations leads us to believe that the situation will calm down again but we must be cautious," he said.   A firefighting plane could not put out fires in the area because of the amount of smoke, Italian media reported.   The INGV said it was monitoring the situation.

- Cinematic fame -
A previous massive eruption in December 2002 prompted a tidal wave after magma from a particularly violent eruption cascaded into the sea. Six people were injured.   Piers, boats and some buildings were swept away.   Access to the island was forbidden to outsiders for over a month amid the risk of further landslides and scientists set up electronic observation stations to monitor volcanic activity.   Four-fifths of the island's population of around 500 decided to leave for the Aeolian island administrative centre of Lipari, whose schools have taken on Stromboli's children since the disaster.   Stromboli was made famous in the 1950 film of the same name by Roberto Rossellini, starring Ingrid Bergman and is a major tourist attraction with thousands of people visiting its lava-spitting crater each year.   Stromboli is part of the seven-island Eolian Archipelago just off Sicily in southern Italy.
Date: Sat, 1 Jun 2019 21:20:01 +0200

Rome, June 1, 2019 (AFP) - Mount Etna in southern Italy has burst into life, spitting molten lava high into the sky, though cloud cover Saturday ruined the view for those brave enough to venture up the flanks of Europe's highest volcano.

The National Institute of Geophysics and Vulcanology (INGV) said there was "lively spattering" as fire and hot ash spewed high into the sky in an eruption which began Thursday and had slowed slightly by Saturday but still posed a risk to climbers.

The lava came from two eruptive fissures on the north-eastern and south-south-eastern sides of the New Southeast Crater.   The volcano on the island of Sicily previously erupted in December.   The latest lava show was not expected to pose any problems for nearby residential areas or for flights at the closest airport at Catania.
More ...

World Travel News Headlines

Date: Mon, 16 Sep 2019 08:19:07 +0200 (METDST)

Tokyo, Sept 16, 2019 (AFP) - Almost 80,000 homes are still without power a week after a powerful typhoon battered eastern Japan, authorities said Monday, with sustained heavy rain prompting evacuation orders and hampering recovery efforts.    Typhoon Faxai powered into the Tokyo region in the early hours of Monday last week, packing record winds that brought down power lines, disrupted Rugby World Cup preparations and prompted the government to order tens of thousands of people to leave their homes.

The storm killed two people, with at least three elderly later confirmed dead due to heatstroke as temperatures soared to above 35 degrees Celsius (95 degrees Fahrenheit) in areas affected by a post-typhoon blackout.   Some 78,700 households were still without power in Chiba, southeast of the capital, Tokyo Electric Co. (TEPCO) spokesman Naoya Kondo told AFP.   "A complete recovery is still unlikely until September 27 as we have difficulties in mountain areas," he added.   Some 16,700 households were also without water because several water purification plants had no power, a local official said.   With help from the military, officials were dispatching water tanker trucks to the affected areas.

The national weather agency Monday issued new warnings for heavy rain in Chiba, while local authorities issued non-compulsory evacuation orders to 46,300 people due to the risk of landslides.   "A delay in recovery work is expected due to heavy rain," said Kenta Hirano, a disaster management official in Futtsu in Chiba, where more than 1,000 houses were damaged by the typhoon.   Local media showed residents in Chiba hurriedly covering broken roofs with blue tarps.   "We are at a loss as we can't live there again," a 66-year-old man told public broadcaster NHK after the typhoon ripped off the roof of his house.
Date: Sun, 15 Sep 2019 15:38:29 +0200 (METDST)

Athens, Sept 15, 2019 (AFP) - More than 160 firefighters on Sunday battled to contain a large fire near Athens blazing for a second day amid gale force winds, officials said.   And in another emergency, authorities evacuated dozens of people from two villages and a hotel on the island of Zakynthos after a new fire broke out on Sunday.

The fire department said the blaze near Athens burned in the mountains above Loutraki, a coastal resort some 60 kilometres (35 miles) west of Athens.   "The fire is burning near the top of the mountain," Stefanos Kolokouris, the fire department's deputy chief of operations, told state TV ERT.   "We are trying to create a perimeter but the terrain is very difficult, with ravines," he said.   Four water bombers and six helicopters were participating in operations. Given a lack of roads in the area, two squads of firefighters had to be carried to the mountaintop by Super Puma helicopter, state agency ANA said.   Officials had already evacuated 50 people from a local monastery when the fire broke out on Saturday, but stressed that other inhabited areas were not in danger.

On Zakynthos, officials ordered the evacuation of the villages of Agalas and Keri in the south of the island. Some 120 tourists were also relocated to a safe area.   The Greek fire department on Sunday said it had been called to nearly 80 fires over the past 24 hours.   It has already faced more than 9,600 rural and urban fires this year.
Date: Sat, 14 Sep 2019 16:08:47 +0200 (METDST)

Singapore, Sept 14, 2019 (AFP) - Pollution from forest fires in Indonesia pushed Singapore's air quality to unhealthy levels for the first time in three years on Saturday, the government said, a week ahead of the Formula One night race in the city.   The toxic smoke caused by burning to clear land for plantations is an annual problem for Indonesia's neighbours, but has been worsened this year by particularly dry weather.   "There has been a deterioration in the haze conditions in Singapore this afternoon," the National Environment Agency (NEA) said in a statement.   "This was due to a confluence of winds over the nearby region that led to more smoke haze from Sumatra being blown toward Singapore," it said, referring to one of the Indonesian islands where fires are raging.

The NEA said the pollutant standards index (PSI) worsened to 112 in parts of the island Saturday night.   An index reading between 101-200 is considered unhealthy, with residents advised against doing prolonged strenuous exercises outdoors.   Singapore may continue to experience hazy conditions over the next few days, the agency warned.   The city-state of 5.6 million people was shrouded in a thin white haze, with a few residents seen wearing face masks, but there was no major disruption to daily activities.   The F1 race is scheduled from Friday to Sunday on a street circuit in the Marina Bay financial district.

Singapore GP, the Formula One organisers, said the possibility of haze is one of the potential issues covered in their contingency plan for this year's grand prix.   "The plan was formulated and refined with stake holders, government bodies and the Formula One community," Singapore GP said in an emailed statement.   "In the event that the haze causes visibility, public health or operational issues, Singapore GP would work closely with the relevant agencies before making any collective decisions regarding the event."

Neighbouring Malaysia has also been affected by the smoke, with air quality in parts of the country including the capital Kuala Lumpur reaching unhealthy levels over the past few days and triggering a diplomatic row with Jakarta.   In 2015, the index reached "hazardous" levels of more than 300 in Singapore, forcing the closure of schools. Indonesian forest fires were the worst in two decades that year, firing up smog that blanketed large parts of Southeast Asia for weeks.
Date: Sat, 14 Sep 2019 11:16:53 +0200 (METDST)

Bangkok, Sept 14, 2019 (AFP) - Floods in northeastern Thailand have submerged homes, roads and bridges, leaving more than 23,000 people in evacuation shelters as anger grows over the government's "slow" emergency response.   Torrential rain has lashed the country for the last two weeks, causing flash floods and mudslides in almost half its provinces, with families evacuated from their homes in boats or makeshift rafts.   Since August 29, 32 people have been killed in the deluge, said a statement from the disaster department on Saturday that also gave the number of people staying in emergency shelters.   Two weather events are behind the widespread floods, the department said -- Storm Podul and a tropical depression that formed over the South China Sea called Kajiki.

Local media reports from the worst-hit province of Ubon Ratchathani showed people wading through chest-deep water and rescuers in boats trying to steer buffalo to higher ground.   Flooding in the province, which borders Laos and Cambodia, has been exacerbated by rising water levels in the Moon and Chi rivers.   "It will take three weeks to drain the floodwater" from up to 90 percent of inundated households, said provincial governor Sarit Witoon.   "The water has slightly receded about four centimetres today and I think it will keep going down," he added.

But the situation is already "unlivable" for families in one-storey homes, said Pongsak Saiwan, local director of opposition party Future Forward.   Access to an entire district is currently cut off due to flood waters, which are about two metres (6.5 foot) deep in the main town, while three major bridges are "impassable", he said.   "The government has been very slow in responding to the situation since the floods started in the beginning of September," Pongsak told AFP.   Ubon Ratchathani's plight started trending on Twitter this week with the hashtag #SaveUbon.   Aerial shots of the flood-hit plains blanketed with muddy river water were widely shared, as well as photos of stray dogs being rescued by passing boats.

One Twitter user compared the flood response to how quickly the government had mobilised and saved 12 young boys and their football coach from a waterlogged cave last year -- an incident that catapulted Thailand to international attention.   "Only 13 lives stuck in the cave and it was still very high-profile, but this is hundreds of thousands of lives," tweeted Yosita8051. "It's not okay."   Thailand's junta leader-turned-premier Prayut Chan O-Cha tweeted on Saturday that he has told agencies to "expedite assistance" to those in the affected areas.
Date: Fri, 13 Sep 2019 16:44:33 +0200 (METDST)

Niamey, Sept 13, 2019 (AFP) - Niger launched a campaign on Friday to vaccinate more than four million children against measles, one of the biggest causes of child mortality in the country, the health ministry said.

The one-week nationwide vaccination programme aims to "eliminate measles by the end of 2020", Health Minister Illiassou Mainassara said, adding, it "will reach 4.254 million children" aged from 9 months up to the age of five.   "Despite all the efforts made in the fight against communicable diseases, we still note the persistence of localised measles epidemics (in Niger)," Mainassara said on his way to the capital Niamey to launch the campaign.    But some experts say the vaccination programme should have kicked in sooner    "The delay of this campaign which should have happened in 2018 has resulted in ...the emergence of epidemics in several health districts," said Niger's UNICEF representative, Felicite Tchibindat.

Since January this year, 9,741 suspected cases have been documented in Niger resulting in 53 deaths, she said.   "Measles is a serious and extremely contagious viral disease and remains one of the leading causes of early childhood death, while it can be prevented by vaccination," TchibiNdat said.    She believes the children of migrants, refugees and displaced people will especially benefit from the campaign.    Niger's vaccination programme is supported by the World Health Organization (WHO), UNICEF (United Nations Children's Fund) and the Gavi vaccine Alliance.
Date: Fri, 13 Sep 2019 16:08:16 +0200 (METDST)

Nairobi, Sept 13, 2019 (AFP) - Kenya on Friday became the third country to start routinely innoculating infants against malaria, using the world's first vaccine to combat a disease that kills 800 children globally every day.   The vaccine -- lab name RTS,S -- targets the deadliest and most common form of malaria parasite in Africa, where children under five account for two-thirds of all global deaths from the mosquito-born illness.

Kenya joins Malawi and Ghana, which commenced their own pilot programs for the vaccine supported by the World Health Organization (WHO) earlier this year.   The vaccine will be introduced in phases across malaria-endemic parts of western Kenya near Lake Victoria, starting with Homa Bay, the country's health ministry said.   "It's an exciting time for Kenya as we roll out this vaccine in parts of the country where the burden of malaria is the highest," Health Minister Sicily Kariuki said in a statement.   RTS,S will be added to the national immunisation schedule in these areas, given alongside other routine shots for children under two.

The health ministry said 120,000 Kenyan children were expected to be vaccinated under the pilot programme.   The country has distributed insecticide-treated mosquito nets, fumigated homes and improved diagnostics in its fight against malaria.   But the disease remains stubborn. The health ministry says malaria claimed more than 10,000 lives in 2016, and infected millions more.   As in the rest of the world, children in Kenya bear the brunt of the disease.    Up to 27 percent of Kenyan children under five have been infected with the disease, the health ministry said.   "This vaccine represents an additional tool that will boost Kenya's efforts in reducing malaria infections and deaths among children," Kariuki said.   WHO says a child dies roughly every two minutes from malaria somewhere in the world.

- 30 years in making -
Known under its commercial name as Mosquirix, the vaccine was developed over 30 years by British pharmaceutical giant GlaxoSmithKline in partnership with nonprofit PATH and African research institutes.   It is the only vaccine to date to show a protective effect against malaria in young children, WHO says.   It acts against Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest malarial parasite and the most prevalent in Africa, where illness and death from the disease remain high despite some gains.   The shots, administered over four doses, have been shown in clinical trials to significantly reduce cases of malaria, and malaria-related complications, in young children.   The vaccine prevented about four in 10 cases of malaria and three in 10 cases of the most severe, life-threatening form of the disease, within the trial group, WHO says.

Evidence gained from the vaccine pilot schemes could guide decisions about whether RTS,S is rolled out more widely in future, WHO says.   "This is the most advanced malaria vaccine that we have today. It has been in the making for the last almost three decades," Dr Richard Mihigo, WHO's co-ordinator of immunisation and vaccine development programme, told AFP before the Kenyan launch.   "Children are the most vulnerable group to this severe disease that is malaria, so protecting children can make a big impact in preventing malaria."   The disease kills more than 400,000 people around the world every year. Of these about 290,000 are under five.    Most are in Africa, where more than 90 percent of the world's malaria cases -- and fatalities -- occur.
Date: Fri, 13 Sep 2019 11:40:02 +0200 (METDST)

London, Sept 13, 2019 (AFP) - British Airways has cancelled all its scheduled UK flights for September 27, when company pilots will again strike in a long-running row over pay.   It comes after the carrier cancelled all flights departing and arriving in the UK on Monday and Tuesday owing to BA's first strike by pilots in the company's 100-year history.

In a statement released late Thursday, BA called on the British Airline Pilots Association (BALPA) union "to call off their strike and return to negotiations".    The airline added: "We are very sorry that BALPA's actions will affect thousands more travel plans."   This week's strike sparked travel chaos for about 200,000 passengers, mostly using London's Gatwick and Heathrow airports.   BALPA estimates that the 48-hour strike cost the airline £80 million ($99 million, 89 million euros), but BA has yet to provide a figure.
Date: Tue, 10 Sep 2019 13:02:19 +0200 (METDST)

Khartoum, Sept 10, 2019 (AFP) - Sudan reported four confirmed cases of cholera in Blue Nile Tuesday and said three people had also died of acute diarrhoea in the war-torn state.   Health Minister Akram al-Toum has asked the World Health Organization to send supplies of cholera vaccine immediately, the ministry said.

Ministry and WHO officials have been sent to the affected area.   "There are 37 cases of acute diarrhoea in Blue Nile... There have been three deaths," the ministry said in a statement.   Dozens of people died from acute diarrhoea in Sudan in 2016 after thousands of cases were reported nationwide.   Blue Nile state, which has a large ethnic minority population, has been the focus of a rebellion by the Sudan People's Liberation Army-North since 2011.   The army declared a ceasefire after the  overthrow of veteran president Omar al-Bashir earlier this year.
Date: Sat 14 Sep 2019
Source: Vax Before Travel [edited]

A new report from Japan's National Institute of Infectious Disease (NIID) indicates the Rubella virus outbreak continues to spread. As of [4 Sep 2019], there have been 2156 Rubella cases reported by the NIID during 2019.

This is an increase of about 260 rubella cases in Japan since July 2019. On a local basis, the city of Tokyo has reported 37% of Japan's 2019 Rubella cases.

Since Rubella is very dangerous for a pregnant woman and her developing baby, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) said on [7 Aug 2019], "pregnant women who are not protected against rubella through either vaccination or previous rubella infection, should not travel to Japan during this outbreak."

But, pregnant women should not get a Rubella vaccination with the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) says the CDC. This is because the MMR vaccine is an attenuated "live virus" vaccine.

The CDC says "pregnant women who are not vaccinated should wait to get [the] MMR vaccine until after they have given birth. And, women of childbearing age should avoid getting pregnant for at least 4 weeks after receiving the MMR vaccine."

Additionally, the CDC says "if a pregnant woman contracts the rubella virus, her baby could have birth defects such as deafness, cataracts, heart defects, mental disabilities, and organ damage."

And, when a rubella infection occurs during early pregnancy, serious consequences, such as miscarriages, stillbirths, and severe birth defects in infants, which are known as Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS), [may result].

This new NIID report indicates there have been 3 CRS cases in Japan during 2019. As a comparison, during 2005-2015 in the USA, only 8 babies with CRS were reported.

Moreover, [fewer] than 10 people in the USA are reported as having rubella each year. Since 2012, all rubella cases had evidence that they were infected when they were living or traveling outside the USA.

To alert international travellers, the CDC issued a Level 2 Travel Alert regarding Japan's ongoing Rubella virus outbreak in August 2019. This "Practice Enhanced Precautions" Travel Alert says "travellers to Japan should make sure they are vaccinated against rubella with the MMR vaccine before visiting Japan." This CDC Travel Alert is important since approximately 4.5 million US citizens visit Japan annually.

Additionally, the Public Health Agency of Canada and the UK Foreign Travel Advice recommend "pregnant women who are not protected against rubella avoid traveling to Japan."

In the USA, there are 2 approved rubella vaccines: MMR II-Rubella and ProQuad. Both rubella vaccines are available at most pharmacies. Travelers to Japan can request a rubella vaccine counselling appointment with a local pharmacist.

Rubella vaccines, like any medicine, can produce side effects. [People] are encouraged to report vaccine side effects to a healthcare provider or the CDC.  [Byline: Dani Reiter]
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[See discussion of rubella in ProMED-mail Rubella - Japan (02)

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Date: Tue 10 Sept 2019
Source: Focus Taiwan [edited]

Taiwan's enterovirus cases continued to increase last week, bringing the total number to nearly 20 000 between [1 and 7 Sep 2019], the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) said Tuesday [10 Sep 2019].

A total of 19 254 patients sought outpatient or emergency treatment at hospitals for enterovirus infection around the country, up 4% from the figure recorded the previous week [25-31 Aug 2019] and the highest over the same period in nearly 5 years, according to CDC data.

CDC physician Lin Yung-ching said there were 2 severe cases recorded last week, one of which involved an 8-month-old girl and the other a 4-year-old boy, both in central Taiwan. The 2 children were reported in stable condition after treatment.

Some of the 2 patients' family members or classmates with whom they had had contact have also been confirmed as enterovirus cases, and the CDC judged that the infection might have been spread through contact, Lin said.

A total of 303 cases of enterovirus-71 (EV-71), the most severe enterovirus strain, have been reported so far this year [2019], the highest in the same period from 2016 to 2018.

Meanwhile, a total of 36 cases with severe complications have been recorded nationwide, including 27 EV-71 cases, according to CDC statistics.

EV-71 is a neurological disease that attacks the nervous system, and infants under the age of 5 are at highest risk of developing severe complications from this type of infection.

In extreme cases, EV-71 can cause polio-like permanent paralysis, according to the CDC. As Taiwan is still in the peak season for enterovirus infection, CDC Deputy Director-General Philip Lo urged the public to take precautions against the spread of the illness, especially among children.

Children infected with enterovirus should be kept away from school so as to prevent the spread of the disease, as enterovirus is highly contagious, Lo advised.  [Byline: Chen Wei-ting and Evelyn Kao]
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[The enteroviruses are spread from person to person by coughs, sneezes, or touching objects or surfaces that have the virus on them. Therefore, practicing good personal hygiene -- washing hands regularly and thoroughly with soap and water -- is the best way to prevent from getting and spreading the infectious disease.

However, most people infected with non-polio enteroviruses do not get sick, or present with mild illness, like the common cold. Infants, children, and teenagers are more likely than adults to get infected and become sick because they do not yet have immunity (protection) from previous exposures to the viruses. Adults can get infected too, but they are less likely to have symptoms, or their symptoms may be milder. Symptoms of mild illness may include fever; runny nose, sneezing, and cough; skin rash; mouth blisters; and body and muscle aches.

Some non-polio enterovirus infections can lead to:
- Viral conjunctivitis;
- Hand-foot-mouth disease;
- Viral meningitis (infection of the covering of the spinal cord and/or brain);
- Viral encephalitis (infection of the brain);
- Myocarditis (infection of the heart);
- Pericarditis (infection of the sac around the heart);
- Acute flaccid paralysis (a sudden onset of weakness in one or more arms or legs);
- Inflammatory muscle disease (slow, progressive muscle weakness).

Infants and people with weakened immune systems have a greater chance of having these complications. People who develop myocarditis may have heart failure and require long-term care. Some people who develop encephalitis or paralysis may not fully recover.

Enterovirus cases were reported from Taipei, Taiwan in 2017 (Human enterovirus - Taiwan: alert http://promedmail.org/post/20170418.4978387), and health alerts like the one mentioned in report above were issued to the general public to observe proper hygiene to reduce disease transmission. Also the case number for EV-71 associated severe disease has also increased, which is a cause for public health concern. - ProMED Mod.UBA]

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