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Antartica

General:
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Cuba is an independent island country situated in the Caribbean. It is the largest of the islands and covers 42,000sq miles. The climate is sub tropical throughout the year with most of the rainfall in
the northern parts of the country. Temperatures of between 20C to 35C are fairly standard throughout the year. Generally the winter effects of the American continent only last for short periods.
Safety & Security:
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The majority of tourists visiting Cuba will have no difficulty but bag snatching and other street crime appears to be increasing. The old Havana area and other major tourist resorts may be particular areas of concern in this regard. On arrival be careful to only use your recognised tour operator. If you are taking a taxi at any stage make sure it is a registered one and not a private vehicle. It is unwise to carry large quantities of money or jewellery away from your hotel and try not to flaunt wealth with your belongings. Pickpockets are too common an occurrence on buses and trains and at train stations so be careful with your essential documents and credit cards. Valuables should not be stored in suitcases when arriving in or departing from Havana as there have been a number of thefts from cases during the time the cases are coming through baggage handling. There is an airport shrink-wrap facility for those departing Havana which reduces the risk of tampering. Remember to carry a photocopy of your main documents (passport, flight tickets etc).
Road Safety:
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Following a number of serious road accidents involving tourists, you are advised not to use mopeds for travelling around Cuba or in Havana. Also, if you are involved in any accident a police investigation will be required to clear you and this may significantly delay your travel plans. On unlit roads at night there have been a number of accidents associated with roaming cattle (sounds like Ireland!). The traffic moves on the right side of the roads. There is a main highway running the length of the country but many of the country roads are in poor repair.
Local Laws & Customs:
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When arriving into Cuba make sure you are not carrying any items which could be considered offensive. Any illicit drug offense is treated very seriously and Cuban law allows for the death penalty to be used under these circumstances. If you require personal medication for your health, make sure it is in original packing and carry a letter from your doctor describing the medication. Never agree to carry any item for another individual and always secure your cases once they are packed. Taking photographs of military or police installations or around harbours, rail and airport facilities is strictly forbidden.

Currency:
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Since 1993 it is now possible to use US dollars for all transactions within Cuba. Remember, there is a 20$ airport departure tax. Certain travellers cheques and credit cards may not be acceptable within Cuba. This is particularly true of American Express cheques and cards but check your situation with the travel operator before departure.
Health Facilities:
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Generally healthcare facilities outside of Havana are limited and many standard medications may not be available. It is important to carry sufficient quantities of any medications which may be required for the duration of your time in Cuba.
Food & Water:
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The level of food and water hygiene varies throughout the country and between resorts. On arrival check the hotel cold water supply for the smell of chlorine. If it is not present then use sealed bottled water for both drinking and brushing your teeth throughout your stay. Cans and bottles of drinks are safe but take care to avoid pre-cut fruit. Peel it yourself to make sure it is not contaminated. Food from street vendors should be avoided in most cases. Bivalve shellfish are also a high risk food in many countries and Cuba is no exception in this regard. (Eg Mussels, Oysters, Clams etc)
Malaria & Mosquito Borne Diseases:
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Malaria transmission does not occur within Cuba and so prophylaxis is not required. However, a different mosquito borne disease called Dengue has begun to reoccur in the country over the past few years. This viral disease can be very sickening and even progress to death. It is rare for tourists to become infected but avoiding mosquito bites is a wise precaution.
Swimming, Sun & Dehydration:
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The extent of the Cuban sun (particular during the summer months (April to October) can be very excessive so make sure your head and shoulders are covered at all times when exposed. Watch children carefully as they will be a significant risk. Drink plenty of fluids to replace what will be lost through perspiration and, unless there is a reason not to,
take extra salt either on your food or in crisps, peanuts etc. Take care if swimming in the Caribbean to stay with others and to listen to local advice. Never swim after a heavy meal or alcohol.
Rabies Risk in Cuba:
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This viral disease does occur throughout Cuba and it is essential that you avoid any contact with all warm blooded animals. Dogs, cats and monkeys are the most commonly involved in spreading the disease to humans. Don't pick up a monkey for a photograph! If bitten, wash out the wound, apply an antiseptic and seek urgent medical attention.
Vaccinations for Cuba:
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There are no essential vaccines for entry / exit if coming from Ireland. However, for your own personal protection travellers are advised to have cover against the following;
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Tetanus (childhood booster)
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Typhoid (food & water borne disease)
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Hepatitis A (food & water borne disease)
For those planning a longer or more rural trip vaccine cover against conditions like Hepatitis B and Rabies may also need to be considered.
Summary:
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Cuba is becoming a popular destination for tourists and generally most will stay very healthy. However commonsense care against food and water borne disease is essential at all times. Also take care with regard to sun exposure, dehydration and mosquito bites.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Fri, 6 Dec 2019 03:03:18 +0100 (MET)
By Pierre-Henry DESHAYES

Half Moon Island, Antarctica, Dec 6, 2019 (AFP) - The swimsuit-clad tourists leap into the icy water, gasping at the shock, and startling a gaggle of penguins.   They are spectators at the end of the world, luxury visitors experiencing a vulnerable ecosystem close-up.   And their very presence might accelerate its demise.   Antarctica, a vast territory belonging to no one nation, is a continent of extremes: the coldest place on Earth, the windiest, the driest, the most desolate and the most inhospitable.   Now, it's also a choice destination for tourists.

All around Half Moon Island, off the Antarctic Peninsula, blocks of ice of all sizes float by on a calm sea, their varying forms resembling weightless origami shapes.    On this strip of land, that juts out of the Antarctic Polar and towards South America, visitors can see wildlife normally only viewed in zoos or nature documentaries along with spectacular icy landscapes.   The ethereal shades of white that play across the pillowy peaks change with the light, acquiring pastel hues at dawn and dusk.   "Purity, grandeur, a scale that's out of this world," says Helene Brunet, an awestruck 63-year-old French pensioner, enjoying the scene.    "It's unbelievable, totally unbelievable. It's amazing just to be here, like a small speck of dust."

AFP joined the 430 passengers on board the Roald Amundsen, the world's first hybrid electric cruise ship, on its maiden voyage in the Southern Ocean.    "It's not your typical beach, but it's awesome to do it," says a numb Even Carlsen, 58, from Norway, emerging from his polar plunge in the three-degree C (37.4 F) water.   When tourists go ashore, bundled up in neon-coloured windbreakers and slathered in SPF50 sunscreen, they have to follow strict rules: clean your personal effects so you don't introduce invasive species, keep a respectful distance from wildlife to avoid distressing them, don't stray from the marked paths and don't pick up anything.   "We mucked up the rest of the world. We don't want to muck up Antarctica too," says an English tourist, as she vacuums cat hair off her clothes before going ashore.

- 'Heart of the Earth' -
The Antarctic peninsula is one of the regions on Earth that is warming the fastest, by almost three degrees Celsius in the past 50 years, according to the World Meteorological Organization -- three times faster than the global average.    In March 2015, an Argentinian research station registered a balmy 17.5 degrees Celsius, a record.    "Every year you can observe and record the melting of glaciers, the disappearance of sea ice... (and) in areas without ice, the recolonisation of plants and other organisms that were not present in Antarctica before," said Marcelo Leppe, director of the Chilean Antarctic Institute.

Antarctica is "like the heart of the Earth," he added, saying that it expands and contracts like a heart beating, while the mighty current which revolves around the continent is like a circulatory system as it absorbs warm currents from other oceans and redistributes cold water.   The Antarctic Treaty, signed 60 years ago by 12 countries -- it now has 54 signatories -- declared the area a continent dedicated to peace and science, but tourism has gradually increased, with a sharp rise in the past few years.   Tourism is the only commercial activity allowed, apart from fishing -- the subject of international disputes over marine sanctuaries -- and is concentrated mainly around the peninsula, which has a milder climate than the rest of the continent and is easier to access.

Cruise ships have roamed the region for around 50 years, but their numbers only started to increase from 1990, as Soviet ice-breakers found new purposes in the post-Cold War era.   Some 78,500 people are expected to visit the region between November and March, according to the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO).   That's a 40-percent increase from last year, due in part to short visits by a few new cruise ships carrying more than 500 passengers, too many to disembark under IAATO regulations.     "Some might say 'Well, 80,000 people, that doesn't even fill a national stadium'... (and that it) is nothing like Galapagos which welcomes 275,000 a year," says IAATO spokeswoman Amanda Lynnes.    "But Antarctica is a special place and you need to manage it accordingly."

- 'Leave Antarctica to the penguins' -
It is Antarctica's very vulnerability that is attracting more and more visitors.   "We want to see this fantastic nature in Antarctica before it's gone," Guido Hofken, a 52-year-old IT sales director travelling with his wife Martina, says.    They said they had paid a supplement to climate compensate for their flight from Germany.

But some question whether tourists should be going to the region at all.   "The continent probably would be better off being left to penguins and researchers, but the reality is, that is probably never going to happen," said Michael Hall, professor and expert on polar regions at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand.   "Vicarious appreciation never seems to be enough for humans. So with that being the case, it needs to be made as low risk to the Antarctic environment and as low carbon as possible," said Hall.    "However, when the average tourist trip to Antarctica is over five tonnes of CO2 emissions per passenger (including flights), that is a serious ask."

Soot or black carbon in the exhaust gases of the scientific and cruise ships going to the region is also of concern, said Soenke Diesener, transport policy officer at German conservation NGO Nabu.   "These particles will deposit on snow and ice surfaces and accelerate the melting of the ice because the ice gets darker and will absorb the heat from the sun and will melt much faster," he told AFP.   "So the people who go there to observe or preserve the landscape are bringing danger to the area, and leave it less pristine than it was," he added.

- Responsible tourism -
Antarctic tour operators insist they are promoting responsible tourism.   The trend is for more intimate, so-called expedition cruises, in contrast to popular giant cruise liners elsewhere which are criticised for being invasive and polluting.   With greener ships -- heavy fuel, the most commonly used for marine vessels, has been banned in Antarctica since 2011 -- cruise companies have sought to make environmental awareness a selling point, occasionally earning them accusations of greenwashing.

Global warming, pollution and microplastics are the result of human activities on other, faraway continents, say tour operators.   Here, their motto is "Take nothing but photographs, leave nothing but footprints, keep nothing but memories".   But before they've even set foot on the cruise ships departing from South America -- the most common itinerary -- visitors to Antarctica will already have flown across the world, causing emissions that harm the very nature they have come so far to admire.

Most visitors hail from the Northern Hemisphere, and almost half are from the United States and China, IAATO says.   "I'm a tourist who feels a little guilty about taking a flight to come here," admits Francoise Lapeyre, a 58-year-old globetrotter om France.   "But then again, there are priorities. There are some trips I just won't take, because they leave a big footprint and they're not worth it.   "Crisscrossing the planet to go to a beach for example," she says.

- Don't mention climate change -
Like other expedition cruises where accessible science is part of their trademark, the Roald Amundsen, owned by the Hurtigruten company, has no dance floor or casino.  Instead, there are microscopes, science events and lectures about whales and explorers like Charles Darwin.   But they steer clear of climate change, which is only mentioned indirectly.   That's a deliberate decision as the subject has proven "quite controversial", said Verena Meraldi, Hurtigruten's science coordinator.   "We held several lectures dedicated specifically to climate change but it leads to conflicts. There are people who accept it as a fact, others who don't," she said.   Onboard, "passengers" are referred to as "guests" and "explorers" rather than "cruisers".   "Explorers" are typically older, well-heeled, often highly travelled pensioners who are handed walking sticks as they step ashore.   "My 107th country," says a Dane, stepping ashore onto Antarctica.

The Roald Amundsen "guests" choose between three restaurants, from street food to fine dining -- a far cry from the conditions endured by the Norwegian adventurer for whom the ship is named, who had to eat his sled dogs to survive his quest to reach the South Pole in 1911.   They have paid at least 7,000 euros ($7,700) each for an 18-day cruise in a standard cabin, and up to 25,000 euros ($27,500) for a suite with a balcony and private jacuzzi.   Other cruises are banking on ultra-luxury, with James Bond-like ships equipped with helicopters and submarines, suites of more than 200 square metres (2,153 square feet) and butler services.   With a seaplane to boot, the mega-yacht SeaDream Innovation will offer 88-day cruises "from Pole to Pole" starting in 2021. The two most expensive suites, with a price tag of 135,000 euros per person, are already booked.
 
- Worlds collide -
Outside, in the deafening silence, wildlife abounds.   All around are penguins, as awkward on land as they are agile in water. Massive and majestic whales slip through the waves, and sea lions and seals laze in the sun.   On Half Moon Island, chinstrap penguins -- so called because of a black stripe on their chin -- strut about in this spring breeding season, raising their beaks and screeching from their rocky nests.   "This is to tell other males 'This is my space' and also, maybe, 'This is my female'," ornithologist Rebecca Hodgkiss, a member of the Hurtigruten's scientific team, explains, as a group of tourists stroll around ashore.   The colony of 2,500 penguins has been gradually declining over the years, but it's not known if that is man's fault or they have just moved away, according to Karin Strand, Hurtigruten's vice president for expeditions.   Invisible to the naked eye, traces of humankind are however to be found in the pristine landscape.   Not a single piece of rubbish is in sight but microplastics are everywhere, swept in on ocean currents.   "We've detected them in the eggs of penguins for example," Leppe told AFP.

- Venice under water -
The Antarctic, which holds the world's largest reserve of freshwater, is a ticking time bomb, warn experts and studies.   They say that the future of millions of people and species in coastal areas around the world depends on what is happening here.   As a result of global warming, the melting ice sheet -- especially in the western part of the continent -- will increasingly contribute to rising sea levels, radically re-drawing the map of the world, says climate scientist Anders Levermann, of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research.   This meltwater will contribute 50 centimetres (almost 20 inches) to the global sea level rise by 2100, and much more after that, he said.   "For every degree of warming, we get 2.5 metres of sea level rise. Not in this century, but in the long run," he said.

Even if the international community meets its obligations under the Paris Agreement to limit global warming to under two degrees Celsius, sea levels will still rise by at least five metres.   "Which means that Venice is under water, Hamburg is under water, New York, Shanghai, Calcutta," he said.   It's impossible to predict when, but the scenario appears unavoidable, says Levermann.   In the same way that a cruise ship powering ahead at full speed can't immediately stop, sea levels will continue to rise even if all greenhouse gas emissions were to cease immediately, a study has said.

- Changing the world? -
The tourism industry says it hopes to make "ambassadors" out of Antarctica visitors.   "It's good for the animal life and for the protection of Antarctica that people see how beautiful this area is, because you cherish what you know and understand," said Hurtigruten chief executive Daniel Skjeldam.   Texan tourist Mark Halvorson, 72, says he is convinced.   "Having seen it, I am that much more committed to having a very high priority in my politics, in my own inner core convictions to being as environmentally friendly in my life as I can," he said.   So, do Guido and Martina Hofken see themselves as future "ambassadors of Antarctica"?    "Just a little bit, probably. But I don't think I will change the world," Guido Hofken concedes.    "The best thing would be for nobody to travel to Antarctica."
Date: Thu, 17 May 2018 09:57:07 +0200

Buenos Aires, May 17, 2018 (AFP) - Tourism regulation in Antarctica has become an urgent matter due to environmental threats, officials from the 53 member countries of the Antarctic Treaty warned at their annual meeting, held this week in Buenos Aires.

In the absence of rules, travel agencies offer trips to the region on boats sometimes equipped with helicopters or submarines, according to Segolene Royal, French ambassador for the Arctic and Antarctic poles.   "This activity creates considerable disturbance ... we are witnessing a race toward large-scale tourism that is dangerous for ecosystems," she said at the assembly on Wednesday.

During the austral summer of 2016/2017, around 44,000 tourists set off for Antarctica, compared with just 9,000 in 1995/1996, according to French authorities.   However, the push for regulation is not about banning tourism, former environmental minister Royal said, but rather about ensuring it is managed in compliance with the treaty and its environmental protection protocol.

In Buenos Aires, the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting  -- whose mission is to regulate human activity on the continent -- also sought to encourage scientific cooperation between countries that have collectively set up around 100 research bases across the ice.   Also up for analysis is China's proposed fifth permanent scientific station in Antarctica, which would be located in the Ross Sea area south of New Zealand.
Date: Wed, 5 Jul 2017 13:01:49 +0200
By Marlowe HOOD

Paris, July 5, 2017 (AFP) - A chunk of ice bigger than the US state of Delaware is hanging by a thread from the West Antarctic ice shelf, satellite images revealed Wednesday.   When it finally calves from the Larsen C ice shelf, one of the biggest icebergs in recorded history will be set adrift -- some 6,600 square kilometres (2,550 square miles) in total, according to the European Space Agency (ESA).

The iceberg's depth below sea level could be as much as 210 metres (almost 700 feet), or about 60 storeys, it said.   "The crack in the ice is now around 200 kilometres (125 miles) long, leaving just five kilometres between the end of the fissure and the ocean," the ESA said in a statement.   "Icebergs calve from Antarctica all the time, but because this one is particularly large its path across the ocean needs to be monitored as it could pose a hazard to maritime traffic."

Scientists tracking the berg's progression expect it to break of within months.    The Larsen C shelf will lose more than 10 percent of its total surface area.   The massive ice cube will float in water and by itself will not add to sea levels when it melts.   The real danger is from inland glaciers.   Ice shelves float on the sea, extending from the coast, and are fed by slow-flowing glaciers from the land.    They act as giant brakes, preventing glaciers from flowing directly into the ocean.   If the glaciers held in check by Larsen C spilt into the Antarctic Ocean, it would lift the global water mark by about 10 centimetres (four inches), researchers have said.

The calving of ice shelves occurs naturally, though global warming is believed to have accelerated the process.   Warming ocean water erodes the underbelly of the ice shelves, while rising air temperatures weaken them from above.   The nearby Larsen A ice shelf collapsed in 1995, and Larsen B dramatically broke up seven years later.   The ESA is keeping an eye on Larsen C with its Copernicus and CryoSat Earth orbiters.

Man-made global warming has already lifted average global air temperatures by about one degree Celsius (1.8 degrees Fahrenheit) since pre-industrial levels.    Antarctica is one of the world's fastest-warming regions.   The world's nations undertook in the Paris Agreement, inked in 2015, to cap average global warming at "well under" 2 C.
Date: Wed, 22 Jun 2016 21:35:09 +0200
By Jean-Louis SANTINI

Washington, June 22, 2016 (AFP) - Two sick workers were evacuated from a remote US research station near the South Pole on Wednesday in a risky rescue mission carried out in the dead of Antarctica's winter, a US official said.   A Twin Otter turboprop plane flew in dark and cold conditions to pick up the workers from the Amundsen-Scott station, about 250 meters from the geographic South Pole, a spokesman for the US National Science Foundation (NSF), Peter West told AFP.

The plane's crew and a medical team had made the 10-hour journey to the South Pole in the middle of Antarctica's 24-hour winter on Tuesday night to reach the unidentified patients, who could not be treated on site.   The NSF -- the US research agency that operates the Amundsen-Scott Station -- organized the rescue mission last week given the condition of the first patient, which was not disclosed for privacy reasons.   "It was really an emergency," West said.   It later became apparent that the second worker also needed to be evacuated.

The sick workers -- employees of the US company Lockheed Martin who worked on base logistics -- were then taken to the Rothera base, a British research station some 2,200 kilometers (about 1,365 miles) away, the spokesman said.   The pair, who were not identified, were then to be transferred to a hospital in South America, West said, without giving further details.   The Amundsen-Scott base was home to 48 people -- 39 men and nine women -- who work on-site throughout the austral winter, which spans February through October.

- Rare rescue mission -
Near the world's southernmost point, workers spend this period withstanding nearly complete darkness and dramatically low temperatures -- on Tuesday, the thermometer dropped to -60 degrees Celsius (-76 degrees Fahrenheit).   It was only the third time that an emergency rescue operation has been launched in the middle of winter.   In 2001, the only doctor at the Amundsen-Scott station was suffering from a life-threatening pancreatic condition and required urgent evacuation. A second medical evacuation was carried out that year.

In 1999, the US station's doctor Jerri Nielsen, who was self-treating her own breast cancer, required medical evacuation but weather conditions were more favorable, as the mission took place in the spring.  The Twin Otter plane, operated by the Canadian company Kenn Borek Air, is specially designed to operate in extremely cold temperatures.

Research projects at the Amundsen-Scott station include monitoring long-term levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere.     The station also operates two telescopes that observe "cosmic microwave background" radiation -- the faint light signature left by the Big Bang -- to study the origins of the universe, dark energy and dark matter.
Date: Wed, 18 Jun 2014 09:04:56 +0200 (METDST)
by Martin PARRY

SYDNEY, June 18, 2014 (AFP) - Antarctic scientists warned Wednesday that a surge in tourists visiting the frozen continent and new roads and runways built to service research facilities were threatening its fragile environment.   Tourist numbers have exploded from less than 5,000 in 1990 to about 40,000 a year, according to industry figures, and most people go to the fragmented ice-free areas that make up less than one percent of Antarctica.   A growing number of research facilities are also being built, along with associated infrastructure such as fuel depots and runways, in the tiny ice-free zones.

It is these areas which contain most of the continent's wildlife and plants, yet they are among the planet's least-protected, said a study led by the Australian government-funded National Environmental Research Programme (NERP) and the Australian Antarctic Division.   "Many people think that Antarctica is well protected from threats to its biodiversity because it's isolated and no one lives there," said Justine Shaw from the NERP of the study published in the journal PLoS Biology.   "However, we show that there are threats to Antarctic biodiversity.   "Most of Antarctica is covered in ice, with less than one percent permanently ice-free," she added.   "Only 1.5 percent of this ice-free area belongs to Antarctic Specially Protected Areas under the Antarctic Treaty System, yet ice-free land is where the majority of biodiversity occurs."   Five of the distinct ice-free areas have no protection at all while all 55 of the continent's protected zones are close to sites of human activity.

- Fragile ecosystems -
Steven Chown of Monash University, another collaborator in the study, said the ice-free areas contain very simple ecosystems due to Antarctica's low species diversity.   This makes its native wildlife and plants extremely vulnerable to invasion by outside species, which can be introduced by human activity.   "Antarctica has been invaded by plants and animals, mostly grasses and insects, from other continents," he said.    "The very real current and future threats from invasions are typically located close to protected areas.    "Such threats to protected areas from invasive species have been demonstrated elsewhere in the world, and we find that Antarctica is, unfortunately, no exception."

The study said the current level of protection was "inadequate by any measure" with Shaw saying more was needed to guard against the threat posed by the booming tourism industry.   "(We need) to protect a diverse suite of native insects, plants and seabirds, many of which occur nowhere else in the world," she said.   "We also need to ensure that Antarctic protected areas are not going to be impacted by human activities, such as pollution, trampling or invasive species."   Antarctica is considered one of the last frontiers for adventurous travellers.   Most travel by sea, some paying in excess of US$20,000 for a luxury cabin in the peak period from November to March. There is also a healthy market for sightseeing flights.

Approximately 30 nations operate permanent research stations on the continent including the US, China, Russia, Australia, Britain, France and Argentina, and more are on the way.   China's state media said in December that the country was building its fourth base and a fifth was being planned.   Fellow study author Hugh Possingham, from NERP, said that without better protection "this unique and fragile ecosystem could be lost".   "Although we show that the risks to biodiversity from increasing human activity are high, they are even worse when considered together with climate change," he added.    "This combined effect provides even more incentive for a better system of area protection in Antarctica."
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Cote d'Ivoire

Cote d'Ivoire - US Consular Information Sheet
May 21, 2007
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) is a developing country on the western coast of Africa.
The official capital is Yamoussoukro, but Abidjan is the largest city, the
ain commercial center, and where the Ivorian government and the U.S. Embassy are located.
Cote d'Ivoire is a republic whose constitution provides for separate branches of government under a strong president.

The country has been divided since a 2002 coup attempt developed into a civil war.
Despite several peace agreements and the establishment of a transitional government, key issues remain unresolved, elections have been delayed, and tensions persist throughout the country.

Tourist facilities in and near Abidjan, the commercial capital, are good; accommodations in many other locations are limited in quality and availability.
Read the Department of State Background Notes on Cote d’Ivoire for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport is required, but U.S. citizens traveling to Cote d'Ivoire for business or tourism do not require visas for stays of 90 days or less.
To stay longer than 90 days, the visitor may still enter without a visa, but then must apply for a "carte de sejour" within 90 days of arrival.
(Note: "Cartes de sejour" are not issued to children under the age of 16, who are documented on their parents' visas).
An international health certificate showing current yellow fever immunization is required for entry into Cote d'Ivoire.
Without it, the traveler may be required to submit to vaccination at the airport health office before clearing immigration, at a cost of 5,000 CFA (a little less than $10).

Travelers may obtain the latest information and details on entry requirements from the Embassy of the Republic of Cote d'Ivoire, 3421 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20007, telephone (202) 797-0300.
There are honorary consulates for Cote d'Ivoire in San Francisco, Stamford, Orlando, Houston and Detroit.
Overseas, travelers should inquire at the nearest Ivorian embassy or consulate.
See our Foreign Entry Requirements brochure for more information on Cote d’Ivoire and other countries.
Visit the Embassy of Cote d'Ivoire web site at http://www.cotedivoireembassy.com/ for the most current visa information.

Foreign travelers are sometimes approached at ports of entry by individuals with offers to expedite passport control and customs, and are then asked to pay an exorbitant fee, both for the service and for the passport and customs officers.
Travelers to Cote d'Ivoire are advised that there is no need to pay a police officer or customs officer at the airport for any service rendered during an arrival or departure, and they should not surrender their passports or other important documents to anyone except easily identifiable government officials in uniform.

See Entry and Exit Requirements for more information pertaining to dual nationality and the prevention of international child abduction.
Please refer to our Customs Information to learn more about customs regulations.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:Cote d'Ivoire has been unstable since the coup in 1999, and territorially divided since 2002.
The New Forces control the northern and some western parts of the country.
There are many road checkpoints manned by security forces and militia in both the government-controlled and New Forces-controlled portions of the country.
Soldiers and militia members check documents and frequently demand cash for permission to pass.
Cote d'Ivoire's border with Liberia is open, but border controls are extensive.

Political instability has contributed to economic stagnation and high unemployment, exacerbating social tensions and creating the potential for labor unrest and civil disorder.
There have been recurring episodes of violence, some of them severe.
In November 2004, there was a brief resumption of hostilities between the two sides followed by widespread attacks against people and property in Abidjan and elsewhere.
Many of these attacks were directed against French and other expatriates, and thousands fled the country.
Americans should avoid crowds and demonstrations, be aware of their surroundings, and use common sense to avoid situations and locations that could be dangerous.
While diplomatic efforts to end the crisis are ongoing, further civil unrest, coup attempts or the resumption of hostilities are possible.

Swimming in coastal waters is dangerous and strongly discouraged, even for excellent swimmers.
The ocean currents along the coast are powerful and treacherous, and numerous people drown each year.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department’s Internet web site where the current Travel Warnings and Public Announcements, including the Worldwide Caution Public Announcement, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges U.S. citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME:
Crime continues to be a major security threat for Americans living in Cote d'Ivoire.
Grab-and-run street crime and pick pocketing in crowded areas are widespread.
Armed carjacking, robberies of businesses and restaurants, and home invasions are common, and they often target expatriate residents who are perceived as wealthy.
Armed criminals use force when faced with resistance.
Travelers displaying jewelry and carrying cameras are especially at risk.
Travelers are advised to carry limited amounts of cash and only photocopies of key documents.
While there have been relatively few reported cases of sexual assault, given the general climate of criminality, the actual rate of assault may be much higher than that which is reported.
There were allegations of sexual assaults during the November 2004 civil strife.
Given the strong anti-French sentiment, people of non-African appearance may be specifically targeted for violence.
Avoid large gatherings and political demonstrations, as they can turn violent quickly.

Travel outside of Abidjan or at night is strongly discouraged, and it is particularly dangerous to visit Abidjan's Treichville, Adjame, Abobo, and Plateau districts after dark.
The DeGaulle and Houphouet-Boigny bridges in Abidjan are dangerous areas for pedestrians.
Inadequate resources and training limit the ability of the police to combat crime.
Many hotels, restaurants, nightclubs and supermarkets provide security guards to protect clients and vehicles.

Travelers should take the same common sense precautions in Abidjan that they would in any metropolitan area in the United States.
Travelers should stay in well-lit areas and walk confidently at a steady pace on the side of the street facing traffic close to the curb.
Travelers should avoid crowds, mass transit, doorways, bushes, alleys and sparsely populated areas.
Travelers who need transportation at night should take an Orange metered taxi.
Travelers should be discreet about your transactions, especially in sight on the street.
Normal spending habits of Westerners appear extravagant.

Credit card use in Cote d'Ivoire is limited, particularly outside Abidjan, but credit card fraud is an increasing problem.
Travelers should not use credit cards in paper transactions unless the credit card transaction is electronically performed in view of the individual.

Business fraud is rampant and the perpetrators often target foreigners, including Americans.
Schemes previously associated with Nigeria are now prevalent throughout West Africa, including Cote d'Ivoire, and pose a danger of grave financial loss.
Typically these scams begin with unsolicited communication (usually e-mails) from strangers who promise quick financial gain, often by transferring large sums of money or valuables out of the country, but then require a series of "advance fees" to be paid, such as fees for legal documents or taxes.
Of course, the final payoff does not exist; the purpose of the scam is simply to collect the advance fees.
A common variation is the scammer’s claim to be a refugee or émigré of a prominent West African family, or a relative of a present or former political leader who needs assistance in transferring large sums of cash.
Still other variations appear to be legitimate business deals that require advance payments on contracts.
Sometimes victims are convinced to provide bank account and credit card information and financial authorization that drains their accounts, incurs large debts against their credit, and takes their life savings.

The best way to avoid becoming a victim of advance-fee fraud is common sense — if a proposition looks too good to be true, it probably is a scam, particularly if one has never met the correspondent.
Travelers should carefully check and research any unsolicited business proposal before committing any funds, providing any goods or services, and undertaking any travel.
A good clue to a scam is the phone number given to the victim; legitimate businesses and offices provide fixed line numbers, while scams typically use only cell phones.
In Cote d'Ivoire, all cell phone numbers start with zero.

It is virtually impossible to recover money lost through these scams.
For additional information please consult the Department of State's brochure Advance Fee Business Scams.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Abidjan has privately-run medical and dental facilities that are adequate but do not fully meet U.S. standards.
Good physician specialists can be found, though few speak English.
While pharmacies are well stocked with medications produced in Europe, newer drugs may not be available.
Medical care in Cote d'Ivoire outside of Abidjan is extremely limited.
Malaria is a serious health problem in Cote d’Ivoire.
For more information on malaria, including protective measures, see the Centers for Disease Control Travelers’ Health web site at http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/.

The avian influenza or “Bird Flu” virus (H5N1) has been confirmed in animals in Cote d’Ivoire as of June 2006.
For more information regarding Avian Influenza, please visit the CDC’s internet site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel/other/avian_flu/ and the State Department’s Avian Influenza Fact Sheet.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s internet site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) website at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.
TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Cote d’Ivoire is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Serious traffic accidents, one of the greatest threats to U.S. citizens in Cote d’Ivoire, occur regularly in Abidjan.
Unsafe road conditions, unskilled drivers, and poorly maintained and overloaded vehicles create very poor driving conditions.
Speed limits, signals, and yielding for pedestrians and cyclists are not respected.
Travelers should drive defensively, watch out for public transportation vehicles that stop and start without warning, and be especially cautious at intersections because traffic lights often malfunction.
Travelers who must travel at night should beware of vehicles without headlights and/or taillights, and pedestrians and bicycles along the roadside.
In case of an accident, travelers are advised not to move their vehicle until a police officer authorizes.
Travelers should go to the nearest hospital or police station if there is no other vehicle to take the injured to a hospital, or if there is reason to believe that their life is in danger from others at the site of the accident.

Abidjan has a poor public transportation system; if traveling by bus, use only the “Express” line.
In Abidjan, taxis are readily available, inexpensive (metered), but poorly maintained and notorious for not respecting the rules of the road.
Communal taxis (“woro-woros”), used only within the limits of each commune, are not metered and are dangerous.
Local vans ("Gbaka") should not be used because they are frequently involved in accidents.

Criminals usually steal vehicles when the driver is in or near the vehicle, so car doors and windows should be kept locked.
While stopped in traffic, travelers should remember to allow enough room between your car and the one in front to maneuver out if needed.
Travelers should look around to see if there is anyone paying unusual attention or if someone appears to be watching, before entering their vehicles. Travelers should not attempt to enter their vehicles, and should go get assistance.
Travelers should enter and exit their vehicles as quickly as possible, to limit their vulnerability to carjacking.

Victims of carjacking should not resist.
Victims should try to remain calm and give the carjackers what they want, which is usually the vehicle and any valuables.
Experience shows that criminals usually don’t use violence unless they are confronted with resistance.
Furthermore, it is not uncommon to take an occupant, usually a woman or child, as hostage to ensure their safe escape; the hostage is usually released unharmed.
This is a very difficult situation; victims should use their best judgment in deciding a course of action.

A newer phenomenon is the staged accidental "bumping" accident.
If your vehicle is "bumped" from the rear or the side, stay locked inside because this ruse is used to get the driver out and leave the vehicle free for carjacking.
Travelers with cell phones should call for assistance.
Victims should report the accident at the nearest police station as soon as possible if they feel their safety is in jeopardy and try to get the license number for any other vehicle involved.

Emergency services such as ambulance service (SAMU) exist in Abidjan and larger towns.
Call 185 or 22-44-55-53.
In smaller towns there is usually no ambulance service available, but ambulances will be dispatched from larger towns

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Cote d'Ivoire’s Civil Aviation Authority as not being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for the oversight of Cote d'Ivoire's air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s internet web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Ivorian customs authorities encourage the use of an ATA (Admission Temporaire/Temporary Admission) Carnet for the temporary admission of professional equipment, commercial samples, and/or goods for exhibitions and fair purposes.
ATA Carnet Headquarters, at the U.S. Council for International Business, 1212 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036, issues and guarantees the ATA Carnet in the United States.
For additional information, call (212) 354-4480, e-mail atacarnet@uscib.org, or visit http://www.uscib.org.

If traveling to another West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) country, expatriate residents leaving Cote d’Ivoire must declare the amount of currency being taken out of the country; if going to any other country, tourists are prohibited from taking more than 500,000 CFA francs (approximately $1,000), and business operators two million CFA francs (approximately $4,000), without government approval.
Even with authorization, there is a cash limit of $4,000 for tourists and $5,500 for business people, with any surplus in travelers or bank checks.

Travelers should carry a photocopy of your U.S. passport, visa, and entry stamps.
Travelers should also, carry their international driver's licenses if planning to drive.

Government corruption remains a serious problem in Cote d'Ivoire, and has an impact on judicial proceedings, contract awards, customs, and tax issues.
Security forces (police, military, gendarmes) routinely stop vehicles for traffic violations and security checks. Travelers should politely present identification if stopped.
Travelers who are stopped at one of these check points for any reason and asked to pay a "fine" to these uniformed officials, should politely refuse and present a photocopy of their U.S. passport, visa, and entry stamp.

Taking pictures is prohibited near sensitive installations, including military sites, government buildings such as the radio and television stations, the Presidency building, the airport, and the DeGaulle and Houphouet-Boigny bridges in Abidjan.

Cote d’Ivoire recognizes dual nationality if acquired at birth.
Americans who also are Ivorian nationals may be subject, while in Côte d'Ivoire, to certain aspects of Ivorian law that impose special obligations on citizens of that country.
Please see our information on Customs Regulations.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Cote d'Ivoire's laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Cote d'Ivoire are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children’s Issues web site.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Cote d'Ivoire are urged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration website and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Cote d’Ivoire.
Americans withoutInternet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy is located in the Riviera Golf neighborhood of the Cocody section of Abidjan, east of the downtown area.
The Embassy's postal address is 01 B.P. 1712 Abidjan 01, and the main telephone number is 22-49-40-00.
The Consular Section fax number is 22-49-42-02, and more information is on the Consular pages of the Embassy's web site at http://Abidjan.usembassy.gov/
*

*

*
This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated November 21, 2006, with no major changes.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu, 24 Oct 2019 11:46:08 +0200 (METDST)
By David ESNAULT

Bouake, Ivory Coast, Oct 24, 2019 (AFP) - Once the bane of sub-Saharan Africa, sleeping sickness is agonisingly close to being wiped out, but only if countries -- and donors -- keep up their guard, say scientists.   The disease, transmitted to humans by the tsetse fly, was once a curse in 30 countries.   But a coordinated global fight to eradicate it has borne fruit, leading to a 95-percent fall in cases over the past 15 years, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).

Last year, the agency recorded only 977 cases, compared to a peak of some 300,000 in the 1990s. Its hope is that sleeping sickness will enter the history books by 2030.   Sleeping sickness -- human African trypanosomiasis -- is caused by the trypanosoma parasite, which is transmitted to humans by the tsetse when it takes a blood meal.   The disease is fatal unless diagnosed and treated rapidly. Early symptoms are severe headaches and muscle aches and fever.

Sufferers feel lethargic and sleepy by day then awake and exhausted at night. Neuropsychiatric and sensory disorders follow, then a coma before death ensues within months or sometimes even years later.   "Sleeping sickness is scary -- when someone has it, it makes them mad," said Emile Gouribitiali, 56, a villager in central Ivory Coast whose mother and younger brother both fell ill.   But scientists say this dreaded disease is on the ropes.   "After a century of fighting it, sleeping sickness is on the verge of being eradicated," said Dr Dramane Kaba, an entomologist and director of the Pierre Richet Institute (IPR) at Bouake in central Ivory Coast.   "Sleeping sickness has almost stopped being a public health problem in Africa," he said. "But we have to maintain our efforts."   The institute, founded in 1970, specialises in insect-transmitted diseases including malaria, dengue, zika and chikungunya.

- Meticulous task -
Despite the progress, "pockets of resistance" remain, says Kaba.   They include the Democratic Republic of Congo -- home to 80 percent of cases -- and Guinea, where health programmes have been ravaged by the Ebola crisis.   It is also difficult to gain an accurate assessment in areas of armed conflict.   If the overall outlook is relatively favourable, there must be no let-up towards eradication, Kaba insists.

He points to the fact that, after a campaign against the illness from the 1920s through to the 1960s "vigilance then dropped off and the illness returned".   Combatting the spread of the disease requires meticulous work to break the chain of transmission and kill the parasite, said Vincent Jamonneau at France's Research Institute for Development (IRD).   Teams on the ground, working with lab-based researchers, comb rural areas to uncover possible cases of the disease and beef up control of the tsetse fly, which favours a hot, humid habitat.

- Fly traps -
They log symptoms that point to a possible infection and then carry out a quick diagnostic blood test, obtaining results confirmed in a lab.   Patients identified in this way can be cured through hospitalisation of seven to 10 days, which the WHO provides free of charge across Africa. A revolutionary treatment, which involves taking a one-off pill, is being tested.

Ironically, as the disease is rolled back, it becomes more and more difficult to encourage villagers to come forward and get tested, said Jammoneau.   "People no longer feel that the disease is a threat," he said.   The researchers also test cattle, another tsetse target who suffer a different strain of the virus -- animal trypanosomiasis. They lose weight, their milk production slumps, then they die.   IPR teams set tsetse traps in villages where they operate. The traps comprise blue screens impregnated with insecticide -- the flies find the colour attractive. 

Another trap variant permits capture to assess their number and then dissection to determine if they are infected.   The IPR hosts research at its lab as the scientific community hones its battle to eradicate sleeping sickness.    The lab can draw on some state-of-the-art equipment as well as some 100 employees, including 16 researchers, but needs renovating, said Kaba.    For Jamonneau, "the means to eradicate trypanosomiasis are there.   "But this disease raises scant interest among fundraisers. So we still need their support as the challenge is to track down and treat the last cases in order to finish off the illness."
Date: Tue, 22 Oct 2019 16:24:07 +0200 (METDST)

Abidjan, Oct 22, 2019 (AFP) - Ivory Coast announced Tuesday that Arab investors had pledged $5 billion to support its programme to attract foreign tourists to the West African nation.   The tourism ministry said "a round table of investors in Dubai" on Sunday and Monday expressed interest In Ivory Coast and in total, the minister for tourism and leisure, Siandou Fofana, "enlisted from them pledges worth just over $5 billion" (4.49 billion euros).   Ivory Coast's charm offensive in the United Arab Emirates included a delegation with recently retired star footballer Didier Drogba and A'Salfo, lead singer with the pop group Magic System, who gave two concerts.

The initiative, dubbed "Sublime Cote d'Ivoire" (Magnificent Ivory Coast), was launched in May.   "Our goal is to become the fifth biggest destination for tourism in Africa by 2025," Fofana said in the ministry's statement.   If objectives are reached, tourism would account for 12 percent of GDP compared with 5.5 percent today, and jobs in the tourism sector would grow from 270,000, as of 2016, to 365,000.   The economy today is hugely dependent on rural earnings, especially cacao and coffee. The plan is to attract tourists to the remote west of the country, a region of unspoiled mountains and beaches.
Date: Tue, 27 Aug 2019 15:33:42 +0200 (METDST)

Bouake, Ivory Coast, Aug 27, 2019 (AFP) - The main market in Bouake, Ivory Coast's second biggest city, was largely destroyed Tuesday in an overnight blaze, although there were no known casualties, an AFP correspondent reported.   The fire broke out around 2:00 am (0200 GMT) and spread fast, market watchmen said.   It took around seven hours to bring under control, mobilising several hundred firefighters, police and troops, partly to put out the blaze but also to secure the area.   "This tragedy has most fortunately caused no loss of life," Bouake mayor Nicolas Djibo said, adding though that he was "dumbstruck by the scale of the damage".

Djibo said the fire had begun in the butchers' area of the market, which hosts hundreds of stalls and is a hub of social activity in Bouake, a city of one million people in the centre of Ivory Coast.   Some traders had been able to remove their wares in time but others wept at the sight of their loss.   Koffi Rachelle, who sold children's toys and various gadgets, told AFP she had lost everything. "I can"t even get into my shop, the fire has destroyed everything over there," she said in tears.

An inquiry into the fire has been opened, according to a police source who asked not to be named.   The market, which had an area of between eight and nine hectares (about 22 to 22 acres), had been razed by a fire in 1998.   Experts had been studying a proposal to house the stalls in a large modern building before the latest blaze.
Date: Tue, 30 Jul 2019 21:28:27 +0200

Abidjan, July 30, 2019 (AFP) - Eighty-nine people have contracted yellow fever and one person has died in recent weeks during an outbreak in Ivory Coast, the health ministry said Tuesday.   Most of the confirmed cases were in the West African country's economic capital Abidjan, the ministry said in a statement.

It recommended that any unvaccinated people be vaccinated against yellow fever.   "The outbreak occurs in the context of a dengue outbreak," the ministry said, adding that dengue and yellow fever are viral diseases transmitted by the same mosquito.    "The vector control measures that have been implemented to deal with dengue also work for the yellow fever outbreak."   In early June, 130 cases of dengue were reported including two deaths, with the authorities launching a major mosquito-control campaign.   Abidjan is going through the end of its rainy season, which spurs mosquito breeding.

Symptoms of yellow fever -- including high fever, vomiting and muscle aches -- usually manifest themselves three to six days after a person is bitten by an infected mosquito.   The infection caused by yellow fever is usually mild, but in some cases can be life-threatening and result in kidney and liver failure.   Yellow fever is found only in parts of South America and Africa.
Date: Tue 30 Jul 2019
Source: Medical Xpress [edited]

In recent weeks, 89 people have contracted yellow fever, and one person has died during an outbreak in Ivory Coast, the health ministry said Tuesday [30 Jul 2019].

Most of the confirmed cases were in the West African country's economic capital Abidjan, the ministry said in a statement. It recommended that any unvaccinated people be vaccinated against yellow fever.  "The outbreak occurs in the context of a dengue outbreak," the ministry said, adding that dengue and yellow fever are viral diseases transmitted by the same mosquito.

"The vector control measures that have been implemented to deal with dengue also work for the yellow fever outbreak."  In early June [2019], 130 cases of dengue were reported, including 2 deaths, with the authorities launching a major mosquito-control campaign.  Abidjan is going through the end of its rainy season, which spurs mosquito breeding.

Symptoms of yellow fever -- including high fever, vomiting and muscle aches -- usually manifest themselves 3-6 days after a person is bitten by an infected mosquito.  The infection caused by yellow fever is usually mild, but in some cases can be life-threatening and result in kidney and liver failure.  Yellow fever is found only in parts of South America and Africa.
=====================
[Yellow fever (YF) is a serious disease and has a case fatality rate of about 30%. It is surprising that there has been only one death so far among the 89 infected individuals. It is not stated that all 89 individuals were laboratory confirmed YF cases. The above report does not indicate the proportion of the population that has been vaccinated against YF.

YF virus can spread rapidly in a largely unvaccinated population, as it did in Angola in 2016. _Aedes aegypti_ vector control is of limited effectiveness in the face of a YF outbreak. Vaccination is the best preventive measure.

There have been YF cases in Cote d'Ivoire in the past, the most recent in 2011. At that time, more than 700 000 people were vaccinated against yellow fever [YF] in an emergency campaign in the country. There were YF cases in Abidjan in 2008, when the estimated vaccination coverage of the population was around 60 percent after a vaccination campaign. Now, time is of the essence to quickly halt the spread of YF, as it rapidly did in Angola and the DR Congo in that large outbreak. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[Maps of Cote d'Ivoire can be accessed at <http://bit.ly/2uHz53s>
and <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/52>.]
More ...

Georgia

Georgia US Consular Information Sheet
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Georgia is a constitutional republic with a developing economy.
Tourist facilities outside of Tbilisi are not highly developed, and many of the goods and services taken for granted
in other countries are not yet available.
Read the Department of State Background Notes on Georgia for additional information.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport is required.
U.S. citizens visiting for 90 days or less do not need a visa to enter Georgia.
For further information, please contact the Embassy of Georgia at 2209 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC, 20008 tel. (202) 387-2390, fax: (202) 393-4537.
Visit the Embassy of Georgia web site at http://embassy.mfa.gov.ge/index.php?lang_id=GEO&sec_id=2&lang_id=ENG for the most current visa information.

Information on dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.
SAFETY AND SECURITY:
As a result of civil wars in the 1980s and early 1990s, there are two separatist regions in Georgia that are not under the control of the Government of Georgia:
South Ossetia, in north-central Georgia; and Abkhazia, in northwest Georgia.
Although armed conflict between the separatist regions and the central government has ceased, episodes of violence continue and political relations are tense. Political developments have the potential to result in open hostilities.
Due to the volatility of the political situation, high levels of crime, and inability of Embassy personnel to travel to Abkhazia or South Ossetia, the U.S. Embassy advises American citizens not to travel to these separatist-controlled areas.
Because of the restricted access of U.S. officials to Abkhazia and South Ossetia, the ability of the U.S. Government to assist American citizens in these regions is extremely limited, even in emergencies.
All travelers to these regions, regardless of purpose, should register with the U.S. Embassy. The U.S. Embassy recommends that Americans regularly monitor warden messages on the Embassy web site for the latest information on the security situation throughout Georgia.

Political tensions remain high between the Georgian Government and the South Ossetia separatist regime, based in Tskhinvali.
This situation culminated in sniper and mortar exchanges between South Ossetian and Georgian troops in 2004.
Although the fighting did not escalate into an all-out war, low-level violence continues between the two sides, periodically resulting in deaths, and underscoring the potential for instability in the region.
A tense truce also exists between the Georgian Government and the separatist de facto government of Abkhazia; since April 2008, several incidents have increased the tension to a point where cross-border military actions are a possibility.
Over the past several years, a number of attacks, criminal incidents, and kidnappings have occurred in Abkhazia.
While Abkhaz "border officials" may demand that travelers entering the region purchase "visas" from the so-called "Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Abkhazia," the U.S. Government recognizes the territorial integrity of Georgia.
American citizens in areas of western Georgia, near Abkhazia, are advised to be aware of their surroundings at all times and to avoid straying off main roads or traveling after dark.

American citizens should be aware that they cannot legally cross by land, air, rail, or sea between Russia and Georgia, even if in possession of valid Russian or Georgian visas.
In July 2006, the Russian Government closed the only border crossing between Georgia and Russia under the control of both governments (the only other crossings are through Georgia’s separatist regions).
Russian authorities said the closure, at Verkhny Lars, would be temporary, pending necessary repairs at the crossing, although it remains closed as of June 2008.
On August 6, 2007, a missile was fired from an aircraft near a village between the city of Gori and the separatist region of South Ossetia.
Although this was an isolated incident, it serves as a reminder that the situation near the separatist areas remains unpredictable.

Georgia's armed forces have periodically conducted operations against suspected international terrorists, Chechen fighters, and criminals who have taken refuge in the Pankisi Gorge.
American citizens should avoid all travel to the Pankisi Gorge, north of the city of Akhmeta.
American citizens are also advised to exercise caution when traveling in the northern mountainous areas of Georgia bordering the Russian Federation, especially the Chechnya and Dagestan sectors.

Political demonstrations take place from time to time in the capital city, Tbilisi, and normally take place in front of the Parliament building on Rustaveli Avenue.
While these demonstrations are normally peaceful, confrontational demonstrations have occurred, and we wish to remind all Americans that even demonstrations intended to be peaceful can turn confrontational and possibly escalate into violence.

Regardless of the region in Georgia one is planning to visit, American citizens are urged to review their personal security precautions, increase their levels of awareness, register with the consular section and as appropriate, take increased security measures.

In the past, religious minorities in Georgia have been targets of violent attacks.
The victims were primarily Jehovah's Witnesses, but also include Pentecostals, Baptists, and members of the Assembly of God.
Incidents included the burning of literature, the destruction of private property and the beating (sometimes severe) of believers, including American citizens.
Although Georgian authorities arrested, convicted and imprisoned the ringleader of the group responsible for these attacks in 2005, American citizens should remain cautious when engaging in missionary activity in Georgia.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affair’s web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, including the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or, for callers outside the United States and Canada, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. eastern time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME:
Crime is a very serious problem in Georgia.
There is a great disparity in affluence between foreigners and most Georgians.
Americans in particular are perceived as being wealthy, and are therefore specifically targeted for economic- and property-based crimes.
Incidents such as residential break-in, carjacking, car theft, petty theft, and armed robbery account for most of the crimes involving Americans that are reported to the Embassy.
Petty street crime, such as pick pocketing, purse snatching, and cell phone theft, is also common throughout the country. Furthermore, violent attacks have become more commonplace.
Because illegal firearms are readily available in Georgia, assailants are likely to be armed with firearms and other weapons.

Crime remains a particularly serious issue in Tbilisi, where criminal activity against foreigners remains at levels disproportionate to other metropolitan areas in Europe and the United States.
Many robberies and assaults have occurred in areas frequented by American citizens and foreigners, such as on side streets near Tbilisi’s city center; trouble spots include areas off the main avenues in the Vake and Vera districts, and Chavchavadze and Rustaveli avenues, as well as the Saburtalo region of Tbilisi.
These crimes often occurred when the victim was alone, after dark, and in unfamiliar surroundings.

Petty theft is also a problem on the Tbilisi metro system and in minivans, or “marshrutkas” used for public transport.
American citizens are advised to use personal vehicles or use taxis from established companies that carry passengers door-to-door.
While the security of overland travel in Georgia has improved, vehicular and rail traffic remains vulnerable to robbery.

The threat of kidnapping exists both within and outside of Tbilisi.
In the past, foreign businessmen have been abducted for ransom, and Americans in the Tbilisi area have received kidnapping threats.
The possibility of similar risk to Americans elsewhere in the country cannot be discounted.

Outside of Tbilisi, criminal activity is also a problem, especially in the separatist regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, due to the reduced capacity of law enforcement in those areas.
Other regions of concern include:
upper Svanetia, Samtskhe-Javakheti, the administrative border with Abkhazia (including Zugdidi city), and areas along the border with Russia.
When visiting or traveling through these regions, American citizens are urged to increase their vigilance, review their personal security precautions, and take appropriate security measures, e.g. traveling with a native Georgian escort familiar with the local area.

Despite much progress in the Georgian Government’s efforts to reform police and fight internal corruption, serious concerns remain as to the police’s ability to deter criminal activity or conduct effective post-incident investigations.
Although police emergency response is good (see below for contact information), criminals continue to have freedom of movement throughout Tbilisi day or night.

In light of the serious crime situation, all American citizens visiting Georgia are again strongly advised to exercise basic security precautions. American travelers should vary times and routes, especially from places of residence to work locations. Americans should maintain a low profile by not carrying large amounts of cash, not wearing excessive amounts of jewelry, and not behaving in a manner that would draw unnecessary attention.
Additionally, Americans should be aware of their surroundings, travel in pairs or groups, and stay on main streets and routes.
The Embassy recommends that those traveling throughout the country do so during daylight hours only and provide a travel itinerary and contact telephone numbers to a friend or business colleague.
Also, Americans should not hesitate to report any unusual incidents or suspicious vehicles or individuals to the Georgian authorities as soon as possible.
Finally, those that do become a victim of crime should not resist their assailant and should cooperate with the assailant as best they can.
Assailants are most interested in money and/or property; cooperation reduces the chance of being assaulted and/or injured.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

The Georgian Ministry of Internal Affairs (MOIA) has established a police emergency hotline.
This service is currently limited to larger cities, but the MOIA is planning to expand this service countrywide.

The local “911” equivalent to contact police in an emergency is: “022”.
Please note that the police dispatcher speaks only Georgian or Russian.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Medical care in Georgia is limited.
There is a severe shortage of basic medical supplies, including disposable needles, anesthetics, and antibiotics.
Elderly travelers and those with pre-existing health problems may be at risk due to inadequate medical facilities.
It is recommended that travelers who intend to visit Georgia for at least two weeks get the hepatitis A vaccine and a pre-exposure rabies vaccine.
Travelers are also encouraged to bring medicine to treat diarrhea, which regularly afflicts newcomers.
Georgian doctors and hospitals often expect immediate cash payment before rendering medical services.

Medical Information: Tuberculosis (TB) is an increasingly serious health concern in Georgia.
For further information, please consult the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Travel Notice on TB http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/yellowBookCh4-TB.aspx
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company before traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and if it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Georgia is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

As in the United States, vehicular traffic in Georgia moves along the right side of roadways.
Speed limits range from 80 to 100 km/hr on highways, and from 30 to 60 km/hr on urban thoroughfares.
Motorists are not permitted to make right turns on red traffic lights.
While legislation mandating seat belt use has yet to be enacted, drivers and passengers are nevertheless strongly advised to buckle up on Georgian roads.
Georgian law requires that children under seven (7) years of age be restrained in child-safety seats.
A driver with any blood alcohol concentration exceeding 0.00% is considered to be driving under the influence of alcohol.

Motorists should exercise extreme caution when driving in Georgia, as many local drivers do not operate their vehicles in accordance with established traffic laws.
Traffic signals and rules of the road are often completely ignored.
Motorists drive erratically, often recklessly, and at excessive speeds.
Motorists may frequently encounter oncoming high-speed traffic attempting to pass other vehicles at blind turns or over hilltops.
Pedestrians enjoy no right-of-way and need to be extremely careful when crossing streets.
The Georgian Patrol Police, who come under the authority of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, are responsible for maintaining traffic safety in Georgia, but enforcement of traffic regulations is haphazard.

Undivided two-lane roads connect most major cities in Georgia.
Roads are generally in poor condition and often lack shoulder markings and centerlines.
In addition, traffic signals may not work because of power outages or poor maintenance.
Driving at night can be especially dangerous.
Travel on mountain roads is treacherous in both rain and snow, and during winter, heavy snowfalls may make some roads impassable.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
Visit the web site of the country’s national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at http://tourism.gov.ge/start.php
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Georgia, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Georgia’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

Travelers on regional airlines among the countries of the South Caucasus may experience prolonged delays and sudden cancellations of flights.
In addition to frequent delays, flights are often overcrowded or overbooked.
Basic safety features such as seat belts are sometimes missing.
Air travel to Georgia on international carriers via Europe is typically more reliable.
Ticketed passengers on flights departing from Georgia should reconfirm reservations with the airline 24 hours prior to departure.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Georgia has been subject to energy crises in the last few years.
During the winter months, frequent and prolonged power outages are common, especially outside of Tbilisi.
The lack of lighting in public places, even when electricity is available, heightens vulnerability to crime (please see the Crime section above for details).

Georgia’s customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning the temporary import into or export from Georgia of items such as alcohol, tobacco, jewelry, religious materials, art or artifacts, antiquities, and business equipment.
Only personal medicines with a doctor’s statement can be imported without the permission of the Georgian Drug Agency section of the Ministry of Health.

American citizens may not import firearms into Georgia; however, hunting weapons may be brought into the country for a two-week period, based on valid Georgian hunting licenses.
While there is no limit to the amount of currency that can be imported, if more money is exported than was declared at the time of entry, the traveler is obligated to prove it was legally obtained.
There are limits on the amount of Georgian currency that may be exported.

American citizens should exercise extreme caution in purchasing property in Abkhazia.
Land for sale in that region rightfully may belong to internally displaced persons forced to leave Abkhazia in the early 1990s and may have improperly been placed on the market by the de facto authorities in Abkhazia.
In such cases, the government of Georgia considers the sale of property in Abkhazia illegal under Georgian law and the property could be reclaimed by original owners at a future date.

The Ministry of Culture, Department of Expertise and Evaluation must license any valuables such as artwork, antiques, jewelry, paintings, etc.
This license describes the object, assesses its value, and provides permission to export it from Georgia.
The U.S. Embassy in Tbilisi can provide more specific information on quantities of items that can be imported duty-free, as well as duties excised for specific items.
It is also advisable to contact the Embassy of Georgia in Washington, DC for specific information regarding customs requirements.
Please see our information on Customs Regulations.

While the Georgian lari is the only legal tender, dollars can be freely exchanged for laris at market rates.
ATMs are also becoming more widespread, but only within the city of Tbilisi.
Credit cards are rarely accepted outside of upscale hotels and restaurants, and travelers’ checks are difficult to cash.
American citizens in Georgia have reported incidents of credit card fraud and identity theft.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, an American citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offences.
Persons violating Georgian laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Georgia are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Georgia are strongly encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department's travel registration web site, https://travelregistration.state.gov, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Georgia.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy in Tbilisi is located at 11 George Balanchine Street.
Office hours from American Citizens Services are from 2 to 5 pm on weekdays; no appointment is necessary.
The telephone number is (995) (32) 27-70-00, which can also be reached after hours, and the fax number is: (995) (32) 53-23-10.
The U.S. Embassy in Tbilisi’s web site is http://georgia.usembassy.gov/.
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This replaces the Country Specific Information dated October 3, 2007 to update the section on Entry and Exit Requirements, Safety and Security, Crime, Information of Victims of Crime, ion, Traffic Safety and Road Condition, Special Circumstances, and Aviation Safety Oversight.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Wed, 4 Mar 2020 15:45:48 +0100 (MET)

Tbilisi, March 4, 2020 (AFP) - Three Italian skiers died in an avalanche in north-western Georgia on Wednesday, officials said.    They were among six people who were skiing in a closed zone near Mount Tetnuldi when the avalanche hit, the Caucasus nation's tourism agency said in a statement.   "Rescuers have found the bodies of three Italians," the agency said, adding it had rescued three more, including one with multiple fractures.   Upper Svaneti, where the incident occurred, is one of the highest and most remote skiing destinations in Europe. Its medieval villages dotted with stone watchtowers are on UNESCO's World Heritage list.
Date: Wed, 26 Feb 2020 20:03:47 +0100 (MET)

Tbilisi, Feb 26, 2020 (AFP) - Georgia on Wednesday announced its first confirmed case of the novel coronavirus in the South Caucasus region.   "A Georgian national has tested positive for the novel coronavirus," Health Minister Ekaterine Tikaradze told a news conference, adding that the infected man has been placed in isolation in a Tbilisi hospital.   "Three different tests of the 50-year-old man's nasopharyngeal smear gave positive results, but he is doing well, he is clinically healthy," head of Georgia's national centre for disease control, Amiran Gamkrelidze told journalists.

The man had arrived in Georgia from Iran via Azerbaijan, Gamkrelidze said.   Tikaradze said Georgia would introduce a two-week ban on Iranian nationals entering Georgia, but flatly dismissed fears of a coronavirus epidemic in the ex-Soviet country "at this point".   On Sunday, Georgia's neighbour Armenia closed its border with Iran and suspended flights as fears over an outbreak of coronavirus in Iran sent neighbouring countries scrambling to contain the outbreak.
Date: Sat, 22 Jun 2019 21:45:46 +0200
By Anna SMOLCHENKO with Irakli METREVELI in Tbilisi

Moscow, June 22, 2019 (AFP) - Russia's government on Saturday banned Georgian airlines from flying into its territory, extending restrictions imposed by President Vladimir Putin as part of growing tensions between Moscow and its ex-Soviet neighbour.   Putin had signed a decree late Friday banning Russian airlines from flying to pro-Western Georgia from July 8 in response to anti-Moscow rallies in the Georgian capital Tbilisi.

The protests broke out after a Russian lawmaker addressed parliament from the speaker's seat earlier this week, a hugely sensitive move for two countries whose relations remain tense after a brief war in 2008.   The rallies have morphed into a broader movement against the Georgian authorities while the Kremlin has branded them a "Russophobic provocation".   On Saturday, protesters took to the streets of the Georgian capital for a third day of rallies, with some 3,000 demanding snap elections and electoral reform.   The crowd sang a profanity-laced, anti-Putin chant and some of the demonstrators held up placards insulting the Russian president.   Demonstrators also shot paper airplanes into the sky in response to the Russian bans.

Russia's transportation ministry said that from July 8 two Georgian airlines would be banned from flying to Russia, citing the need to ensure "aviation safety" and debt owned by the Georgian companies.   The Kremlin has said the ban against travel to Georgia was to "ensure Russia's national security and protect Russian nationals from criminal and other unlawful activities."

Authorities recommended travel companies stop selling holiday packages to Georgia and advised Russian tourists to return home.   Russia's travel industry and ordinary Russians hit out at the decision by the Kremlin, saying it was a politically motivated move that has little to do with safety concerns.   "Tourism in Georgia is on the rise, and the decision has shocked the whole industry," Aleksan Mkrtchyan, head of Pink Elephant, a chain of travel agencies, said in a statement.

- 'This is politics' -
The ban during high season is expected to hit the travel industry in both countries hard and become a major nuisance for Russian holidaymakers.   Russia and Georgia fought a brief but bloody war in 2008 and tensions between the two governments remain high.   But Georgia -- known for its picturesque Black Sea resorts, rich national cuisine and generous hospitality -- has emerged as one of the most popular destinations for Russian tourists over the past few years, with more than 1.3 million visiting last year.

Irina Tyurina, a spokeswoman for the Russian Tourism Union, said that most in the industry believed that Georgia was not a dangerous destination.   "Georgians have traditionally treated Russians well," Tyurina told AFP.    It was too early to estimate potential industry losses from the ban, she said.   More than 7,000 people have signed a petition calling on Moscow to resume flights.

Russian tourists in Tbilisi expressed regret at the restrictions.   "We are against the ban," Nina Guseva told AFP in the Georgian capital. "We are not guilty and we do not have to suffer."   Fellow traveller Mikhail Strelkov added: "This is politics and has nothing to do with people on holidays."   In Russia, many struck a similar note.   Elena Chekalova, a prominent chef and culinary blogger, said the latest Kremlin move "shocked" her.   "Why are they deciding for us what we cannot eat, where we cannot fly, who we cannot be friends with?" she wrote on Facebook.

- Simmering discontent -
Moscow has suspended flights to Georgia before -- during a spike in tensions in October 2006 and in August 2008 following the outbreak of the five-day war over the breakaway regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.   "Putin decided to punish Georgia because there are street protests there," opposition leader Alexei Navalny said on Twitter.   A senior government official in Tbilisi said the Kremlin ban was politically motivated.   "Putin's decision is of course political and has nothing to do with safety concerns," the official told AFP on condition of anonymity.

Analysts say the latest restrictions may further fuel simmering discontent with Kremlin policies.   Since 2014, Russians have been chafing under numerous rounds of Western sanctions over Moscow's role in Ukraine and other crises, with real incomes falling for the fifth year in a row.    During an annual phone-in with Russians this week, Putin dismissed calls to "reconcile" with the West to alleviate economic hardship, saying Moscow needed to protect its interests and "nothing" would change anyway.
Date: Thu, 6 Jun 2019 11:24:00 +0200

Tbilisi, June 6, 2019 (AFP) - Three people died on Thursday when a helicopter owned by one of Georgia's top luxury hotels crashed in a northern mountainous region of the country, emergency services said.   A chopper belonging to the Rooms luxury hotel "crashed in an unpopulated area near the Qulo mountain in the Kazbegi municipality," the spokesman of Georgia's emergency situations department, Rati Mujiri, told AFP.   "All three people onboard have died," he said.  "The helicopter pilot and two staff members of the Adjara Group (which owns Kazbegi Rooms hotel) have been killed in the accident," the company said in a statement.

The Rooms hotel operates Bell 505 Jet Ranger helicopters, according to the hotel's website.   Famed for its spectacular landscapes with snow-capped peaks of the Greater Caucasus mountain range, dramatic rocky gorges, and medieval churches, Kazbegi is a popular tourist destination.
Date: Thu 2 May 2019
Source: PLoS One [edited]

Citation
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Rao S, Traxler R, Napetavaridze T, et al. Risk factors associated with the occurrence of anthrax outbreaks in livestock in the country of Georgia: A case-control investigation 2013-2015. PLoS One. 2019;14(5):e0215228. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215228

Abstract
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Introduction
Anthrax is considered endemic in livestock in Georgia. In 2007, the annual vaccination became the responsibility of livestock owners, while contracting of private veterinarians was not officially required. Six years later, due to increase in human outbreaks associated with livestock handling there is a need to find out the risk factors of livestock anthrax in Georgia.

Objective
To identify exposures and risk factors associated with livestock anthrax.

Methods
A matched case-control study design was used to recruit the owners of individual livestock anthrax cases that occurred between June 2013 and May 2015, and owners of unaffected livestock from within ("village control") and outside the village ("area control"). We collected data about the case and control livestock animals' exposure and risk factors within the one-month prior to the disease onset of the case livestock (or matched case for the controls). We used logistic regression analysis (univariate and multivariable) to calculate the odds ratios of exposures and risk factors.

Results
During the study period, 36 anthrax cases met the case definition and were enrolled in the study; 67 matched village control livestock and 71 matched area control livestock were also enrolled. The findings from multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrate that vaccination within the last 2 years significantly reduced the odds of anthrax in cattle (OR = 0.014; 95% Confidence interval = or less 0.001, 0.99). The other factors that were significantly protective against anthrax were 'animals being in covered fence area/barn' (OR = 0.065; p-value = 0.036), and 'female animal being pregnant or milking compared to heifer' (OR = 0.006; p-value = 0.037).

Conclusions
The information obtained from this study has involved and been presented to decision makers, used to build technical capacity of veterinary staff, and to foster a One Health approach to the control of zoonotic diseases which will optimize prevention and control strategies. Georgia has embedded the knowledge and specific evidence that vaccination is a highly protective measure to prevent anthrax deaths among livestock, to which primary emphasis of the anthrax control program will be given. Education of livestock keepers in Georgia is an overriding priority.
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Communicated by
Debby Reynolds
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[The major benefits of this research project were not scientific but instructional in bringing home to all concerned at all levels that livestock anthrax is not inevitable but extremely preventable with many benefits in both animal health and public health. The article conclusions needed to be emphasised: "The control strategies that were recommended for anthrax included a combination of vaccination, quarantine, and proper carcass handling and disposal. Overall, the information obtained from this study has involved and been presented to decision makers, used to build technical capacity of regional and national veterinary staff, and fostered a One Health approach to the control of zoonotic diseases like anthrax, which will optimize prevention and control strategies. For example, a multi-agency anthrax One Health team was established to investigate cases and co-develop educational materials for farmers.

"The investigation process involved a series of trainings and workshops for participants and stakeholders to promote an understanding of epidemiological investigations and the economics of disease control with anthrax as a model. Georgia now has embedded the knowledge and specific evidence that vaccination is a highly protective measure to prevent anthrax deaths among livestock. Hence, primary emphasis for disease prevention will be given to vaccination, with a specific mark/tag for vaccination being desirable. Alternatively, a formal vaccination record given to the owner, or livestock registration is recommended. Education of livestock keepers in Georgia on the importance of vaccination is an overriding priority. Vaccination teams can play an increased role with more attention paid to delivery of standard memorable messages at the time of vaccination and to disseminating public announcements. It is overwhelmingly the case that vaccination of livestock against anthrax is protective and is an effective risk mitigation for anthrax in Georgia."

And if the Georgians can do it, anybody anywhere can do it. And you will note that their last outbreak was in 2017. Our thanks to Debby for forwarding this article. - ProMED Mod.MHJ]

[Maps of Georgia can be seen at
More ...

Grenada

Grenada US Consular Information Sheet
March 30, 2007
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Grenada is a developing Caribbean island nation.
The capital is St. George’s. Tourism facilities vary, according to price and area. Read the Department of Sta
e Background Notes on Grenada for additional information.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: Although Grenada has its own entry requirements, the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 requires all U.S. citizen travelers to and from the Caribbean to have a valid, unexpired passport to depart or enter the United States by air. Effective January 23, 2007, U.S. citizens, including infants and children, must have a valid, unexpired U.S. passport, or a “passport card” (which is now under development) when departing or entering the U.S. by air.
IMPORTANT NEW INFORMATION:The new passport requirement will be extended to all land border crossings as well as sea travel no later than June 1, 2009.
We strongly encourage all American citizen travelers to apply for a U.S. passport or “passport card” well in advance of anticipated travel.
American citizens can visit travel.state.gov or call 1-877-4USA-PPT (1-877-487-2778) for information on how to apply for their passports. Until the passport requirement is in place for sea travel, U.S. citizens traveling by ship to Grenada may refer to our Foreign Entry Requirements brochure for documentation that is acceptable for travel to and from Grenada.
There is no visa requirement for stays up to three months. There is an airport departure fee of US$20 for adults and US$10 for children between the ages of five and twelve.
See our Foreign Entry Requirements brochure for more information on Grenada and other countries.

For additional information concerning entry/exit requirements, travelers may contact the Embassy of Grenada, 1701 New Hampshire Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009, telephone: (202) 265-2561, Fax: (202) 265-2468: e-mail: grenada@oas.org, or the Consulate of Grenada in New York.
Read our information on dual Nationality and the prevention of international child abduction. Also, please see our Customs Information.
SAFETY AND SECURITY:
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department’s Internet web site, where the current Worldwide Caution Public Announcement, Travel Warnings and Public Announcements can be found.
Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).
The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME:
Street crime occurs in Grenada.
Tourists have been victims of armed robbery especially in isolated areas and thieves frequently steal credit cards, jewelry, U.S. passports and money.
Mugging, purse snatching and other robberies may occur in areas near hotels, beaches and restaurants, particularly after dark.
Visitors should exercise appropriate caution when walking after dark or when using the local bus system or taxis hired on the road.
It is advisable to hire taxis to and from restaurants.
INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime.
MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Medical care is limited.
U.S. citizens requiring medical treatment may contact the U.S Embassy in St. George’s for a list of local doctors, dentists, pharmacies and hospitals.
Serious medical problems requiring hospitalization and/or medical evacuation to the U.S. can cost thousands of dollars.
Doctors and hospitals often expect immediate cash payment for health services.
Pharmacies are usually well stocked, and prescription medicine is available, but travelers are advised to bring with them sufficient prescription medicine for the length of their stay as occasionally there are temporary shortages of medicines; most pharmacies will check with others in the area to see if they can get what is needed.

Grenada chlorinates its water, making it generally safe to drink.
However, during especially heavy rains, quality control can slip, particularly in the city of St. George’s.
It is recommended that visitors to Grenada request bottled water, which is widely available and relatively inexpensive.
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s Internet site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) website at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.
MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.
TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Grenada is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
Traffic moves on the left in Grenada; the majority of vehicles are right hand drive. Grenada’s roads, paved and unpaved, are mostly narrow and winding, with many blind corners and narrow or no shoulders.
Road surfaces often deteriorate; especially in the rainy season (June –November) before maintenance work begins.
Driving conditions in Grenada, including road conditions, increasing numbers of vehicles, and sometimes undisciplined minibus drivers all require caution and reduced speed for safety.
The Government of Grenada has a seat belt law; drivers and passengers found not wearing seat belts are subject to a fine of EC$1,000 (US$400).
Getting a local temporary drivers license, based on valid U.S. drivers license plus EC$30 (US$12), is highly recommended.
In the event of an accident, not having a valid local driver’s license may result in a fine, regardless of who is at fault.
Rental vehicle companies are widely available; most of them will assist in applying for temporary driving licenses.
The adequacy of road signage varies, but is generally poor to nonexistent.
For specific information concerning Grenada driver’s permits, road safety, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, please contact the Grenada Board of Tourism in New York at 317 Madison Avenue, Suite 1704, New York, N.Y. 10017, telephone 1-800-927-9554, (212) 599 0301; Fax: 212-573-9731; e-mail: gbt@caribsurf.com or www.grenadagrenadines.com
Please refer to our Road Safety Page for more information.
Visit the website of the country’s national tourist office at www.grenadagrenadines.com.
Additional general information can be found on Grenada’s Internet website at: http://www.grenadaconsulate.org.
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Grenada’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for the oversight of Grenada’s air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s internet website at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Recovery efforts have been made from the damage caused by Hurricane Ivan in September 2004 and Hurricane Emily in July 2005.
All utilities have been restored.
Cruise ships have returned and all the main shopping areas are open.
While the majority of hotels are up and running, there is still one major resort (Le Source), which remain closed.
The resort’s management hopes to have the hotel open by the time Cricket World Cup 2007 Super Eight games take place in Grenada (alternate days April 10-21).

The February 1 merger of Liat and Caribbean Star airlines has reduced the number of daily flights between Grenada and the other Eastern Caribbean islands from six to three.
Travelers coming into the region from the U.S. and elsewhere should verify in advance directly with Liat that they have a valid reservation.
Some travelers making reservations from outside the region have arrived in the Eastern Caribbean and discovered that the reservation they thought they had on Liat, is not recognized by the airline, resulting in delayed travel as well as additional hotel costs.

Grenada experiences tropical storms during the hurricane season, from June through November. General information about natural disaster preparedness is available via the Internet from the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) at http://www.fema.gov.
It is difficult to cash personal U.S. checks in Grenada.
If accepted, they will take approximately six weeks to clear by a local bank. Major credit cards are widely accepted, and ATM facilities are available at most banks.
Most hotels and restaurants take U.S. currency; however, change will be in local currency.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Grenada laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Grenada are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
For more information, please see our information on criminal penalties.
CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children’s Issues website.
REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Grenada are encouraged to register with the U.S. Embassy through the State Department’s travel registration website , and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Grenada.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the U.S. Embassy.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy is located on the main road to Lance Aux Epines after the Christian Scientist Church, and is approximately 15 minutes from the Point Salines International Airport. Telephone: 1-(473) 444-1173/4/5/6; Fax: 1-(473) 444-4820; Internet e-mail: usemb_gd@caribsurf.com. Embassy hours are 8:00 am to 12:30 pm, Monday to Friday except local and American holidays.
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This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated October 13, 2006, to update all sections.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Mon 7 Mar 2016
Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]

Two weeks ago, health officials in Grenada reported on a chickenpox outbreak that affected 17 students at St. George's Anglican Junior School. The school was closed for the week to monitor and treat affected students.

This pustulovesicular rash represents a generalized herpes outbreak due to the Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) pathogen/CDC.

Last week, the Ministry of Health screened over 400 students from the St. George's Anglican School. The exercise saw a team of qualified nursing personnel conducting screening and evaluation of students at the St. George's Anglican Junior and Senior Schools.

A total of 255 and 183 students from the junior and senior schools respectively were examined on the compound as the institution reopened its doors following the completion of sanitation and cleaning operations.

During the screening/examination at the school, several students with skin lesions, fever, cold, headaches and skin rashes were identified and were not given clearance for a return to the classroom. Some of the students were referred to the doctor, and others were requested to be observed at home.

Meanwhile, the ministry will undertake a daily monitoring of the school, conduct education sessions with teachers and undertake another medical evaluation of students, in particular the ones that are to be observed at home and referred.

Chickenpox is a common, usually benign childhood disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a member of the herpes family. This virus causes 2 distinct diseases; varicella (chickenpox) is the primary infection, and later when VSV reactivates, herpes zoster (shingles).

Chickenpox is highly contagious and is spread by coughing and sneezing, by direct contact and by aerosolization of the virus from skin lesions. You can also get it by contact with the vesicle secretions from shingles.

The disease is characterized by fever and a red, itchy skin rash that usually starts on the abdomen, back or face and then spreads to nearly all parts of the body. The rash begins as small red bumps that appear as pimples or insect bites. They then develop into thin-walled blisters that are filled with clear fluid which collapse on puncture. The blisters then break, crust over, and leave dry brown scabs.

The chickenpox lesions may be present in several stages of maturity and are more abundant on covered skin rather than exposed. Lesions may also be found in the mouth, upper respiratory tract and genitals.

Chickenpox is contagious from 1-2 days before the rash forms and continues until all the lesions are crusted over (usually about 5 days).

This disease is more serious in adults than in children. Complications of chickenpox are rare, but include pneumonia, encephalitis and secondary bacterial infections.

Infection with this virus usually gives lifelong immunity, although 2nd attacks have been documented in immunocompromised people. The viral infection remains latent, and disease may recur years later as shingles.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the chickenpox vaccine is the best protection against chickenpox. The vaccine is made from weakened varicella virus that produces an immune response in your body that protects you against chickenpox. The chickenpox vaccine was licensed for use in the United States in 1995.  [Byline: Robert Herriman]
===================
[A map of Grenada can be found at <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/34>. - ProMED Mod.LK]
Date: Sat 28 Aug 2010
Source: Spice Grenada.com, The New Today [edited]
<http://www.spicegrenada.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2505:dengue-fever-is-present&catid=546:august-28th-2010&Itemid=143>

After weeks of speculation among the population that there are dengue cases on the island, the officials within the Ministry of Health confirmed last week that 39 people in Grenada had come down with the fever. Head of the Epidemiology Unit within the Ministry of Health, Dr Alister Antoine, told reorters last week Tuesday [24 Aug 2010] that every parish, including Carriacou, has been affected by dengue fever, with the youngest case being a 2 year old and the oldest being 72.

He said: "In total, we have 20 males and 19 females. The figures we have now are what we have just confirmed with the lab, meaning that there were 17 new cases diagnosed during the 1st week in August [2010]." According to Dr Antoine, there was a noted increase in infection during the months of July and August. As compared to only one case in February, 6 by June, and with the number jumping to 15 in July.

"People should be making it difficult for the mosquitoes to breed, just make it difficult by cleaning up the place," he said. Presently there are 2 types of [dengue virus] strains recorded in Grenada -- type 1 and type 2, and there have been 2 cases of DHF both of which were mild and were treated successfully.
========================
[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map showing the location of Grenada in the southern Caribbean can be accessed at <http://healthmap.org/r/05Pe>. - ProMed Mod.TY]
Date: Mon, 3 Sep 2007 11:53:29 +0200 (METDST) MIAMI, Sept 3, 2007 (AFP) - A potentially catastrophic class-five Hurricane Felix ripped across the warm waters of the Caribbean early Monday towards Honduras and Belize after damaging homes and power lines in Grenada. The storm was so powerful that it tossed around a US 'hurricane hunter' data gathering airplane and forced it to abort its mission, the Miami Herald reported. At 0900 GMT the center of Felix was located some 445 kilometers (275 miles) south-southeast of Kingston, Jamaica, packing winds of 270 kilometers (165 miles) per hour, with higher gusts, the Florida-based National Hurricane Center said in its latest advisory. The hurricane was moving west at around 33 kilometers (21 miles) per hour, and "on this track the center of Felix will be near the coasts of extreme northeastern Nicaragua and northeastern Honduras early on Tuesday morning," the Hurricane Center said. Felix is then forecast to head for Belize and Mexico's Yucatan peninsula, where it could make landfall on Wednesday. No casualties were reported since Felix became the second hurricane of the Atlantic storm season on Saturday, though one person was reported missing in northern Venezuela. In just 15 hours on Sunday, Felix jumped from a Category Two storm with winds at 160 kilometers (100 miles) per hour to a rare Category Five hurricane, the most powerful on the Saffir-Simpson scale. The speed at which Felix reached maximum strength was one of the fastest ever recorded, Hurricane Center specialists said. Felix was so powerful that one of the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's 'hurricane hunter' airplanes was caught in a rapid updraft-downdraft cycle as it gathered data, the Miami Herald reported. The violent cycle placed four times the weight of gravity on those aboard the plane. "Four Gs can put a fair strain on the aircraft, and it also got some very heavy hail that can rip the paint off the plane," Hurricane Center forecaster James Franklin told the newspaper. The airplane, a modified Orion P-3 that normally carries 14 people, was ordered backto its base at Saint Croix, one of the US Virgin Islands, Franklin said. The storm, nourished by the warm Caribbean ocean, was expected to maintain its strength as it followed the general path that another Category Five storm, Hurricane Dean, took just last week. Though extremely powerful, Felix "has a very small wind field," the Hurricane Center said. "Hurricane force winds extend outward up to 45 kilometers (30 miles) from the center, and tropical storm force winds extend outward up to 185 kilometers (115 miles)," the Hurricane Center said. The Honduran government early Monday warned officials along its Caribbean coast to prepare for the hurricane. Hurricane conditions "are also possible over extreme northeastern Nicaragua," the Hurricane Center said. In Venezuela civil defense officials said a person went missing as beaches were evacuated in Puerto Cabello, 120 kilometers (75 miles) west of Caracas, where Felix generated high winds, heavy rains and up to three meter (10 foot) swells. There were no immediate reports of damage as the storm skimmed just north of the Paraguana peninsula, site of Venezuela's main oil refineries. Meanwhile Jamaica, which lay well to the north of Felix's track, was under a tropical storm watch as it prepared to hold elections Monday, already postponed from one week ago by Hurricane Dean. Warnings for Aruba, Bonaire and Curacao were discontinued as Felix swiped the popular tourist destinations in the Netherlands Antilles after wreaking some damage in Grenada, ripping roofs, downing power lines and knocking radio and TV stations off the air. Last week, Dean, also reaching category five, swept through the Caribbean with severe winds and rains, leaving a wide swathe of damage and a death toll of 30 from Martinique to Mexico.
Date: Thu, 14 Jul 2005 17:59:59 +0200 (METDST) MIAMI, July 14 (AFP) - Hurricane Emily, the Atlantic's second big storm of the season, headed west, gathering strength Thursday, the National Hurricane Center said, just after its predecessor Dennis carved a trail of death and destruction across the region. Packing 100-mile-per-hour (160-kilometer-per-hour) winds and growing stronger, Emily -- now a Category Two hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson intensity scale, on which five is the top-force storm -- lashed Grenada and headed toward Hispaniola island. Shared by the Dominican Republic and Haiti, Hispaniola's southern coast was grazed last week by Dennis, leaving at least 40 people dead in Haiti. Dennis went on to kill 16 in Cuba and one man in Jamaica. Emily was expected to produce heavy rain across much of the southern Caribbean and northern Venezuela, as well as the Netherlands Antilles. "These rains could produce life-threatening flash floods and mudslides," the center warned. In Grenada, where 30,000 people -- one-third of the permanent population -- remain homeless 10 months after Hurricane Ivan, there were widespread fears about the new storm. There were no immediate reports of fatalities in Grenada Thursday, though authorities said they were inspecting damage. At 1500 GMT, the storm's center was about 560 miles (905 kilometers) southeast of Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic, moving west-northwest near 18 miles (30 kilometers) per hour, the US center said. "Additional strengthening is forecast during the next 24 hours," the center added. The government of the Dominican Republic has issued a tropical storm watch from Punta Salinas westward to the Haitian border. And the government of Haiti has issued a tropical storm watch from the border with the Dominican Republic to Port-au-Prince. In Haiti, civil protection agency spokesman Jeffe Delorges said after Dennis roared past last Thursday that 23 bodies were found in the southwestern town of Grand-Goave. Most were killed when a bridge collapsed. Another 10 were killed in the Grande-Anse region, also in the southwest, along with five in the southeast and two in the southern city of Cayes. The agency estimates that about 15,000 people are without homes or means to feed themselves, with hundreds of houses completely destroyed. It said there had been widespread flooding and damage to plantations. The Haitian government announced emergency aid totaling the equivalent of 30,000 dollars. Cuban President Fidel Castro said in a televised address late Monday that the toll from Dennis had climbed to 16 and that Dennis destroyed or damaged 120,000 homes and caused more than 1.4 billion dollars in damage. Castro also read from a lengthy list of agricultural devastation: "The entire crop of citrus fruits was lost -- 200,000 tonnes of grapefruit fell from the trees, as did 160,000 tonnes of oranges. "At hundreds of dollars per tonne, that's a huge loss for our exports," he said. Dennis, the first hurricane of the season, was estimated to have caused a further one billion to five billion dollars in insured losses in the United States, according to Risk Management Solutions.
Date: Thu, 7 Oct 2004 03:19:49 +0200 (METDST) by Laura Bonilla POINT SALINES, Grenada, Oct 6 (AFP) - US Secretaty of State Colin Powell flew over the Caribbean island state of Grenada on Wednesday to survey the damage caused by Hurricane Ivan and vowed to bring more help to this devastated spice island. The hurricane killed 39 people and destroyed 90 percent of the tiny island's buildings when it blasted across the Caribbean on September 7, causing an estimated 800 million dollars in damage. This island of 90,000 people is heavily dependent on tourism and nutmeg production, which together account for 40 percent of the economy. The United States has given one million dollars in aid to Grenada and pledged an additional 3.6 million, US officials said. The island will receive additional help in a 100-million-dollar emergency aid package that US President George W. Bush has requested from Congress for Caribbean nations hit by a wave of hurricanes this storm season, Powell said. "We'll do everything we can to expedite the flow of that money," Powell said in a news conference at the airport in Point Salines, the island's southernmost point, after surveying the destruction from his plane's cockpit. "There's an urgent need to reconstruct the economy as well as rebuilding houses and rebuilding schools," Powell said, noting that Grenada's schools, homes, farms and power system were hit by the hurricane. Residents are receiving food and water, "but it'll be a continuing challenge," he said. Shelters need to be built for people who remain homeless, the infrastructure needs to be repaired and power needs to be restored, he said. Only one-third of the island has electricity. Grenada's Prime Minister Keith Mitchell said his government's priority is to reopen schools, which remain closed. "After the devastation arrived we've gone through quite a lot in every respect," Mitchell said. He told Powell: "You understood what was happening, you had a good grasp of the problems that we've faced." From an airplane, much of the island appeared still in ruins. Some areas appeared deserted, while some buildings looked as if they had been eaten up by a raging blaze and palm trees stood leafless. "When those roofs went away, there was water damage done in all of these homes, in some cases destroying a family's entire possessions, all that they owned," Powell said. "What makes this situation so difficult for Grenada is that not only was their infrastructure hit -- schools, housing, roads, the power system -- but their means of production and the economic base of the country," he said. The nutmeg industry -- Grenada is world's second producer of the aromatic seed -- was devastated, and it takes five to 10 years for its evergreen trees to regrow, Powell said. "We want to see if there are things we can do to help with that or perhaps diversify the agricultural sector," he said.
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Bahrain

Bahrain - US Consular Information Sheet
June 27, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Bahrain is a hereditary kingdom governed by the Al-Khalifa family. In 2002, the country adopted a new constitution that reinstated a parliament, which consists of o
e elected and one appointed chamber. Islamic ideals and beliefs provide the conservative foundation of the country's customs, laws and practices. Bahrain is a modern, developed country and tourist facilities are widely available. The capital is Manama. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Bahrain for additional information.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport and a visa are required. Passports should be valid for at least six months after the date of arrival. U.S. passport holders outside of Bahrain may apply and pay for a two-week tourist visa online through the Bahraini government web site at http://www.evisa.gov.bh, or may obtain it upon arrival at the airport. U.S. diplomatic passport holders receive a no-fee two-week visa. Prior to travel, visitors may obtain five-year multiple-entry visas valid for stays as long as one month from Bahraini embassies overseas. Bahrain assesses heavy fines on visitors who fail to depart Bahrain at the end of their authorized stay. The amount of the fine is determined by a formula related to the visa type, duration, and location of issuance. An exit tax is included in the ticket price for flights out of Bahrain, and no additional exit fees are required upon departure. Residents of Bahrain who intend to return must obtain a re-entry permit before departing. For further information on entry/exit requirements, travelers may contact the Embassy of the Kingdom of Bahrain, 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008, telephone (202) 342-1111; or the Bahrain Permanent Mission to the U.N., 2 United Nations Plaza, East 44th St., New York, NY 10017, telephone (212) 223-6200. Visit the Embassy of Bahrain web site at www.bahrainembassy.org for the most current visa information.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site. For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.
SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Americans in Bahrain should maintain a high level of security awareness. Spontaneous demonstrations take place in Bahrain from time to time in response to world events or local developments. We remind American citizens that even demonstrations intended to be peaceful can turn confrontational and possible escalate into violence. American citizens are therefore urged to avoid the areas of demonstrations if possible, and to exercise caution if within the vicinity of any demonstrations. American citizens should stay current with media coverage of local events and be aware of their surroundings at all times. Information regarding demonstrations in Bahrain can be found on the U.S. Embassy Manama’s web site at http://bahrain.usembassy.gov/information_for_travelers.html.

Visiting U.S. citizens should register with the U.S. Embassy in Manama upon arrival. The Department of State remains concerned about the possibility of terrorist attacks against U.S. citizens and interests throughout the world. Americans should maintain a low profile, vary routes and times for all required travel, and treat mail and packages from unfamiliar sources with caution. In addition, U.S. citizens are urged to avoid contact with any suspicious, unfamiliar objects, and to report the presence of the objects to local authorities. Please report any security concerns to the U.S. Embassy's Regional Security Office at telephone (973) 1724-2700 during office hours or (973) 1727–5126 after hours.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department’s web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Worldwide Caution, Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts can be found.
Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada or, for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).
The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME:
The crime rate in Bahrain is low and violent crime is rare. However, burglary, petty theft, and robberies do occur. Visiting Americans are urged to take the same security precautions in Bahrain that one would practice in the United States. Hotel room doors should be locked when visitors are in their rooms, and travelers are encouraged to store valuables in hotel room safes when they are available. Women are encouraged to keep their purses firmly under their arms, and men should avoid keeping their wallets in their hip pockets while in the old market area. The U.S. Embassy in Manama recommends that travelers using local taxis insist on the use of a meter since unexpectedly high fares may otherwise be charged. Bahrain has a professional police force, and visitors are encouraged to contact the police if problems are encountered.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the U.S. Embassy. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the U.S. Embassy for assistance. The Embassy staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how to transfer funds. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

The local equivalent to the “911” emergency line in Bahrain is 999.
See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Basic modern medical care and medicines are available in several hospitals and health centers in Bahrain. Two government hospitals, several private hospitals, and numerous private clinics located throughout the country offer a wide range of medical services. Cardiac care, general surgery, internal medicine, obstetrics, gynecology, pediatrics, orthopedics and dentistry services are readily available, as are x-rays, CT-scan and MRI testing. The government hospitals house both trauma and ICU units. Pharmacies are common throughout Bahrain and carry a wide range of medications. Prescriptions are normally required.
Payment at all medical facilities is due at the time of service. Some hospitals have limited direct billing capability for certain insurance carriers. Billing and insurance practices vary among the medical facilities.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.
MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Bahrain is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Travel by road in Bahrain is generally safe although unsafe driving practices are common. Highways and major roads in the northern third of Bahrain are four to six lanes wide and well maintained; roads in villages and older parts of Manama and Muharraq are narrow and twisting. As in the United States, traffic in Bahrain moves on the right. Roundabouts (traffic circles) follow the British system, with those automobiles within the traffic circle having right of way over those attempting to enter. Although the Bahraini penal code calls for fines of up to 100 dinars ($270.00) or imprisonment of up to six months for driving above posted speed limits, it is not uncommon for drivers to drive well over the posted speed limits of 50-120 km per hour. The law allows the police to detain drivers for traffic violations until they can appear before a magistrate. It is illegal to use a cell phone while driving.

Under Bahraini law, any sign of having consumed alcohol may be taken as prima facie evidence of driving under the influence, which can lead to imprisonment and/or fines of up to 1,000 Bahraini Dinars (2,700 U.S. dollars). Except for minor accidents, drivers may not move their vehicles after an accident until a report has been filed with the traffic police. This is true even in cases of single-car accidents. Insurance companies may not provide coverage if the cars are moved. However, drivers involved in minor, non-injury accidents no longer need to wait at the scene for the police. Individuals should get their vehicles off the road to avoid further accidents. Drivers can call the accident hotline at 199 (if there are no injuries) or 999 (when someone is injured) where they will be directed to one of five centers to file the accident report. This report must be filed within 24 hours of the accident. Both drivers may be prohibited from leaving the country until the matter is resolved if an accident results in legal proceedings. The main switchboard at the traffic department is 1787-2222.
Emergency numbers are as follows:
Fire/Ambulance/Police: 999
Traffic/Accidents: 199 (no injuries) OR 999 (injuries)
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. Visit the web site of Bahrain’s national authority responsible for road safety at http://www.traffic.gov.bh/main.htm.
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Bahrain, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Bahrain’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Individuals subject to Bahraini court orders arising from indebtedness, labor disagreements, or other legal disputes may be prevented from departing Bahrain until their cases are resolved. Instances have occurred in which departure was prohibited for several years, since the legal process can be both lengthy and complex. The Consular Section of the U.S. Embassy in Manama maintains a list of local attorneys capable of representing Americans.
Please see our Customs Information.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Persons violating Bahrain’s laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Disrespect to officials in word or deed can result in heavy fines. Travelers who are driving should be aware that one drink may be sufficient grounds for a DUI arrest. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Bahrain are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Bahrain are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Bahrain. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located at Bldg. 979, Road no. 3119, Zinj District (next to Al Ahli Sports Club). The mailing address is P.O. Box 26431, Manama, Bahrain. The telephone number is (973) 1724-2700. The after-hours number is (973) 1727-5126. The Consular Section’s fax number is (973) 1725-6242. The Embassy's web site, which includes consular information and the most recent messages to the American community in Bahrain is at http://bahrain.usembassy.gov/. The workweek in Bahrain is Sunday through Thursday.
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information for Bahrain dated November 23, 2007 without substantive changes.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Mon, 16 Mar 2020 09:24:17 +0100 (MET)

Manama, March 16, 2020 (AFP) - A Bahraini woman has died from the novel coronavirus, the health ministry announced on Monday, marking the first death from the disease among Gulf Co-operation Council states.    The 65-year-old woman had pre-existing medical conditions, the ministry said on Twitter.    Nearly 1,000 cases of the virus have been recorded so far across the six nations of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).   Most of those infected have been people returning from Iran, where more than 700 people had died in the outbreak by Sunday.

Facing a mounting public health threat, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and Oman have taken drastic measures to combat the pandemic.   The Gulf countries have shut down cinemas and other entertainment centres -- some even closing gyms and spas.    Kuwait has taken the strictest measures in the GCC by largely locking down the country over the weekend.
Date: Mon, 24 Feb 2020 08:04:46 +0100 (MET)

Dubai, Feb 24, 2020 (AFP) - Kuwait and Bahrain confirmed on Monday their first novel coronavirus cases, the countries' health ministries announced, adding all had come from Iran.  Kuwait reported three infections and Bahrain one in citizens who had returned home from the Islamic republic.
Date: Mon, 2 Oct 2017 19:26:47 +0200

Dubai, Oct 2, 2017 (AFP) - A "terrorist explosion" during a Shiite procession commemorating Ashura lightly wounded five policemen on Monday, the interior ministry in Sunni-ruled Bahrain announced.   "A terrorist explosion caused five light injuries among policemen deployed as security for a procession along Budaiya Avenue" in western Manama, a tweet from the ministry said.

Shiites in the tiny Gulf kingdom mark Ashura with processions in Manama and in villages around the capital.   The annual Ashura commemorations mark the killing of Imam Hussein by the forces of the Caliph Yazid in 680 AD -- a formative event in Shiite Islam.   Imam Hussein's death was part of a dispute over who should succeed the Prophet Mohammed, which eventually developed into a bitter schism between the Sunni and Shiite branches of Islam.

Bahrain, home to the US Fifth Fleet, has seen sporadic violence since the repression in 2011 of a protest movement by the Shiite majority, demanding a constitutional monarchy and an elected prime minister.   Hundreds of protesters, mainly but not all Shiites, were arrested and sentenced to lengthy prison terms for their role in the demonstrations.   Bahrain says it does not discriminate towards the country's Shiites, and regularly accuses Shiite Iran of meddling in its internal affairs, an allegation Tehran denies.
Date: Sun, 26 Feb 2017 20:11:48 +0100

Dubai, Feb 26, 2017 (AFP) - Four Bahraini policemen were wounded in a bomb attack Sunday near the village of Jaw, south of the capital Manama, the interior ministry said.   "Terrorist blast in police bus near Jua village. 4 policemen injured and they are in a stable condition. Necessary steps are being taken," the ministry said on its Twitter account.   It gave no further details.

On January 1, gunmen attacked the prison in Jaw, killing a policeman and allowing 10 inmates to escape.   Shiites convicted over anti-government protests in Sunni-ruled Bahrain were held at Jaw.   Tiny but strategic Bahrain, home to the US Fifth Fleet, has been rocked by unrest since the authorities crushed Shiite-led protests in 2011 demanding a constitutional monarchy and an elected prime minister.

Hundreds of Shiites have been arrested and many have faced trials over their role in the demonstrations.   One of those on trial is Sheikh Issa Qassem, the country's Shiite spiritual leader.   He was stripped of his citizenship last year for "serving foreign interests" -- a reference to Shiite Iran.   On Sunday, clashes broke out between security forces and protesters in several Shiite villages as a new hearing in Qassem's case was underway, witnesses said.   Protesters chanted anti-government slogans and carried portraits of Qassem, they said.
Date: Wed, 15 Feb 2017 11:55:11 +0100

Dubai, Feb 15, 2017 (AFP) - An explosion wounded two civilian passers-by in Bahrain, the interior ministry said early Wednesday, as demonstrators were marking the sixth anniversary of an anti-government uprising that was bloodily suppressed.   The ministry did not say what caused Tuesday evening's blast in a village outside the capital Manama but demonstrators sometimes throw petrol bombs during the sporadic protests that still grip the Sunni-ruled but Shiite-majority kingdom.   "Terrorist blast in Sitra causes minor injuries to a married couple passing the site. Police at the scene," the ministry said on its Twitter account without elaborating.   It also tweeted a picture of a black 4X4 with a shattered windscreen and significant damage to the front bonnet.   The blast came as demonstrators clashed with police in Manama and several nearby villages.   The demonstration in the capital ended when police fired tear gas and stun grenades, witnesses said.

Activists posted pictures of injured protesters online, but the interior ministry has not published any official statements about the reported demonstrations.   The Shiite-led protests of February 2011 sought a constitutional monarchy and an elected prime minister to replace the current government dominated by the ruling Al-Khalifa family.   Authorities crushed them the following month with the support of Saudi-led forces who secured key installations.   Since then, the authorities have banned the Shiite opposition and handed long jail terms to many of its leaders. Some have been stripped of their citizenship.   Tiny but strategic Bahrain lies just across the Gulf from Iran and is home to the US Navy's Fifth Fleet.
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Yemen

Yemen - US Consular Information Sheet
July 21, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
The Republic of Yemen was established in 1990 following unification of the former Yemen Arab Republic (North) and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (South). I
lamic and traditional ideals, beliefs, and practices provide the foundation of the country's customs and laws. Yemen is a developing country and modern tourist facilities are widely available only in major cities. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Yemen for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: Passports and visas are required for travel to Yemen. Visas may be obtained at Yemeni Embassies abroad; all travelers to Yemen can also potentially obtain entry visas at ports of entry. Travelers to Yemen are no longer required to have an affiliation with and arrange their travel through a Yemeni-based individual or organization to enter Yemen. However, individuals may be asked for supporting evidence of their character, purpose of visit and length of stay. Upon arrival at ports of entry, travelers may be issued a visa valid for a maximum of three months.
Yemeni law requires that all foreigners traveling in Yemen obtain exit visas before leaving the country. In cases of travelers with valid tourist visas and without any special circumstances (like those listed below), this exit visa is obtained automatically at the port of exit as long as the traveler has not overstayed the terms of the visa.
In certain situations, however, foreigners are required to obtain exit visas from the Immigration and Passport Authority headquarters in Sanaa. These cases may include, but are not limited to, foreigners who have overstayed the validity date of their visa; U.S.-citizen children with Yemeni or Yemeni-American parents who are not exiting Yemen with them; foreigners who have lost the passport containing their entry visa; foreign residents whose residence visas are based on their employment or study in Yemen, marriage to a Yemeni citizen, or relationship to a Yemeni parent; or foreign residents who have pending legal action (including court-based "holds" on family members' travel). The loss of a passport can result in considerable delay to a traveler because Yemeni law requires that the traveler attempt to recover the passport by placing an advertisement in a newspaper and waiting a week for a response. All minor/underage U.S. citizens should be accompanied by their legal guardian(s) and/or provide a notarized letter in Arabic of parental consent when obtaining exit visas to depart Yemen. In all of these more complex cases, obtaining an exit visa requires the permission of the employing company, the sponsoring Yemeni family member, the sponsoring school or the court in which the legal action is pending. Without this permission, foreigners -- including U.S. Citizens -- may not be allowed to leave Yemen.
American women who also hold Yemeni nationality and/or are married to Yemeni or Yemeni-American men often must obtain permission from their husbands for exit visas. They also may not take their children out of Yemen without the permission of the father, regardless of who has custody (see Special Circumstances section below).
For more details, travelers can contact the Embassy of the Republic of Yemen, Suite 705, 2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037, telephone 202-965-4760; or the Yemeni (Mission to the U.N., 866 United Nations Plaza, Room 435, New York, NY 10017, telephone (212) 355-1730. Visit the Yemeni Embassy home page for more visa information at http://www.yemenembassy.org/.
Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site. For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.
SAFETY AND SECURITY: The Department of State is concerned that al-Qa‘ida and its affiliates are actively engaged in extremist-related activities in Yemen and the Arabian Peninsula. The Department remains concerned about possible attacks by extremist individuals or groups against U.S. citizens, facilities, businesses and perceived interests.

On March 18, 2008, three mortar rounds landed in the vicinity of the U.S. Embassy in Sanaa. Yemeni students at a nearby school and Yemeni government security personnel posted outside the embassy were injured in the attack. On April 6, 2008, an expatriate residential compound in the Hadda neighborhood of southwestern Sanaa was attacked by mortar fire, and on April 30, 2008, suspected extremists fired two mortar rounds that exploded near the Yemen Customs Authority and the Italian Embassy. No injuries were reported in either incident. A group calling itself al-Qa'ida in Yemen may be responsible for all three attacks. Following the attacks against the Embassy and the residential compound, the Department of State ordered the departure of all American non-emergency embassy staff and family members on April 7, 2008.
On January 18, 2008, suspected al-Qa’ida operatives ambushed a tourist convoy in the eastern Hadramout Governorate, killing two Belgians. On July 2, 2007, suspected al-Qa’ida operatives carried out a vehicle-borne explosive device attack on tourists at the Belquis Temple in Marib, which resulted in the deaths of eight Spanish tourists and two Yemenis. The targeting of tourist sites by al-Qa’ida may represent an escalation in terror tactics in Yemen. On February 3, 2006, 23 convicts, including known affiliates of al-Qa’ida, escaped from a high-security prison in the capital city, Sanaa. Among the al-Qa’ida associates were individuals imprisoned for their roles in the 2000 bombing of the USS Cole and the 2002 attack on the French oil tanker Limburg. In the weeks following the escape, some prisoners voluntarily turned themselves in to authorities; to date, however, some escapees remain at large. Two of the escapees were killed in vehicle-based suicide attacks on oil facilities near Mukalla and Marib on September 15, 2006. Those attacks were followed by the arrest the next day in Sanaa of four suspected al-Qa’ida operatives, who had stockpiled explosives and weapons. On December 5, 2006, a lone gunman opened small arms fire outside of the Embassy compound during the early morning hours. The assailant, wounded by host-nation security personnel and subsequently arrested, was the sole casualty. It appears that, although the gunman was influenced by extremist ideology, he worked alone in planning and executing the attack.
Americans should avoid areas where demonstrations are taking place. A 2005 demonstration against an increase in the fuel price led to two days of widespread demonstrations and rioting throughout Sanaa and other cities. Those demonstrations resulted in a large amount of property damage, looting, and several roadblocks.
In late 2007 and throughout 2008, there has been an increase in anti-government demonstrations in southern Yemen, including the cities of Aden, Taizz, Ibb, and Mukalla, as well as surrounding regions. Some of these demonstrations have resulted in injuries and deaths. Americans should be aware of the potential for further demonstrations when traveling in these areas.
Throughout the country, U.S. citizens are urged to exercise particular caution at locations where large groups of expatriates have gathered. From time to time, the U.S. Embassy in Sanaa may temporarily close or suspend public services as necessary to review its security posture and ensure its adequacy.
In addition, U.S. citizens are urged to avoid contact with any suspicious, unfamiliar objects, and to report the presence of such objects to local authorities. Vehicles should not be left unattended and should be kept locked at all times. Americans in Yemen are urged to register and remain in contact with the American Embassy in Sanaa for updated security information (see section on Registration/Embassy location below).
Yemeni government security organizations have arrested and expelled foreign Muslims, including Americans, who have associated with local Muslim organizations considered to be extremist by security organs of the Yemeni government. Americans risk arrest if they engage in either political or other activities that violate the terms of their admission to Yemen.
Travel on roads between cities throughout Yemen can be dangerous. Armed carjacking, especially of four-wheel-drive vehicles, occurs in many parts of the country, including the capital. Yemeni security officials advise against casual travel to rural areas. The U.S. Embassy sometimes restricts the travel of its own personnel to rural areas, while the Government of Yemen also sometimes places restrictions on Americans traveling outside Sanaa. Please check with the Embassy for the latest restrictions.
Travel is particularly dangerous in the tribal areas north and east of Sanaa. Armed tribesmen in those areas have kidnapped a number of foreigners in attempts to resolve disputes with the Yemeni government. Hostilities between tribesmen and government security forces in the Sadah governorate north of Sanaa have flared up on several occasions since 2005. Serious fighting occurred in the city of Benni Hashish from late May through early June 2008. Americans are urged to avoid this region during periods of conflict.
Travel by boat through the Red Sea or near the Socotra Islands in the Gulf of Aden presents the risk of pirate attacks. If travel to any of these areas is necessary, travelers may reduce the risk to personal security if such travel is undertaken by air or with an armed escort provided by a local tour company.
Other potential hazards to travelers include land mines and unexploded ordnance from the 1994 civil war. This is of particular concern in areas where fighting took place in the six southern provinces. However, most minefields have been identified and cordoned off.
Americans are most vulnerable to terrorist attacks when they are in transit to and from their residences or workplaces, or visiting locations where large groups of expatriates have gathered. All Americans are reminded to vary their routes and times, remain vigilant, report suspicious incidents to the Embassy, avoid areas where large groups of expatriates have gathered, lock car windows and doors, and carry a cell phone.
Based on previous abductions of foreigners in Iraq, Afghanistan and Kuwait, the Embassy recommends that Americans with doubts about the identity of security or police personnel on the roads remain in their vehicles, roll up their windows, and contact the Embassy. For additional information on travel by road in Yemen, see the Traffic Safety and Road Conditions section below.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, including the Travel Warning for Yemen, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.
Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll-free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).
The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME: The most serious crime problem affecting travelers to Yemen is carjacking. Travelers have rarely been victims of petty street crime.
INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends, and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

The local equivalent to the "911" emergency line in Yemen is 199, but operators do not speak English.
See our information on Victims of Crime.
MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Lack of modern medical facilities outside of Sanaa and Aden and a shortage of emergency ambulance services throughout the country may cause concern to some visitors. Doctors and hospitals often expect immediate cash payment for health services. An adequate supply of prescription medications for the duration of the trip is important. While many prescription drugs are available in Yemen, a particular drug needed by a visitor may not be available.
The U.S. Embassy in Sanaa strongly advises all American citizens residing in or traveling to Yemen to ensure that they have received all recommended immunizations (see below).
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en/.
The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Yemen.

MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.
TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Yemen is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
Based on previous abductions of foreigners in Iraq, Afghanistan and Kuwait, the Embassy recommends that Americans with doubts about the identity of security or police personnel on the roads remain in their vehicles, roll up their windows, and contact the Embassy. For additional information addressing security concerns for Americans in Yemen, please see the Safety and Security section above.
Travel by road in Yemen should be considered risky. Within cities, minivans and small buses ply somewhat regular routes, picking up and dropping off passengers with little notice or regard for other vehicles. Taxis and public transportation are widely available but the vehicles may lack safety standards and equipment. Embassy personnel are advised to avoid public buses for safety reasons. Despite the presence of traffic lights and traffic policemen, drivers are urged to exercise extreme caution, especially at intersections. While traffic laws exist, they are often not enforced, and/or not adhered to by motorists. Drivers sometimes drive on the left side of the road, although right-hand driving is specified by Yemeni law. No laws mandate the use of seat belts or car seats for children. The maximum speed for private cars is 100 kilometers per hour (62.5 miles per hour), but speed limits are rarely enforced. A large number of under-age drivers are on the roads. Many vehicles are in poor repair and lack basic parts such as functional turn signals, headlights and taillights. Pedestrians, especially children, and animals on the roads constitute a hazard in both rural and urban areas. Beyond the main inter-city roads, which are usually paved and in fair condition, the rural roads in general require four-wheel-drive vehicles or vehicles with high clearance.
Yemeni security officials advise against casual travel to rural areas. The U.S. Embassy sometimes restricts the travel of its own personnel to rural areas, while the Government of Yemen also sometimes places restrictions on Americans traveling outside Sanaa. Please check with the Embassy for the latest restrictions.
Travelers should take precautions to avoid minefields left over from Yemen's civil wars. Traveling off well-used tracks without an experienced guide could be extremely hazardous, particularly in parts of the south and the central highlands.
Penalties for driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs, and reckless driving which causes an accident resulting in injury, are a fine and/or prison sentence. If the accident results in death, the driver is subject to a maximum of three years in prison and/or a fine. Under traditional practice, victims' families negotiate a monetary compensation from the driver proportionate to the extent of the injuries -- higher if it is a fatality.
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information and visit the web site of Yemen’s national tourism office at http//yementourism.com.
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Yemen, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Yemen’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: Photography of military installations, including airports, equipment, or troops is forbidden. In the past, such photography has led to the arrest of U.S. citizens. Military sites are not always obvious. If in doubt, it is wise to ask specific permission from Yemeni authorities.
Travelers should be aware that automated teller machines (ATMs) are being introduced in major cities but are still not widely available in Yemen. Credit cards are not widely accepted. The Government of Yemen may not recognize the U.S. citizenship of persons who are citizens of both Yemen and the United States. This may hinder the ability of U.S. consular officials to assist persons who do not enter Yemen on a U.S. passport. Dual nationals may also be subject to national obligations, such as taxes or military service. For further information, travelers can contact the nearest embassy or consulate of Yemen.
American citizens who travel to Yemen are subject to the jurisdiction of Yemeni courts, as well as to the country's laws, customs, and regulations. This holds true for all legal matters including child custody. Women in custody disputes in Yemen may not enjoy the same rights that they do in the U.S., as Yemeni law often does not work in favor of the mother. Parents planning to travel to Yemen with their children should bear this in mind. Parents should also note that American custody orders might not be enforced in Yemen.
American women who also hold Yemeni nationality, and/or are married to Yemeni or Yemeni-American men, are advised that if they bring their children to Yemen they may not enjoy freedom of travel should they decide they want to leave Yemen. Such women often must obtain permission from their husbands for exit visas. They also may not take their children out of Yemen without the permission of the father, regardless of who has custody (See Entry/Exit Requirements section above).
American students and workers in Yemen sometimes report that the sponsors of their residence permits seize their U.S. passports as a means of controlling their domestic and international travel. While the sponsors say they seize the passports on behalf of local security services, there is no law or instruction from Yemeni passport or security offices requiring that passports be seized.
Please see our Customs Information.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Yemeni laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned. Penalties for possession or use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Yemen are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. The use of the mild stimulant "qat” or “khat" is legal and common in Yemen, but it is considered an illegal substance in many other countries, including the United States. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.
CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.
REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION: Americans living or traveling in Yemen are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Yemen. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located at Dhahr Himyar Zone, Sheraton Hotel District, PO Box 22347. The telephone number of the Consular Section is (967)(1) 755-2000, extension 2153 or 2266. The fax number is (967) (1) 303-175. The after-hours emergency number is (967) (1) 755-2000 (press 0 for extension) or (967) 733213509. The Embassy is open from Saturday through Wednesday.
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information for Yemen dated December 27, 2007, to update the sections on Entry/Exit Requirements, Safety and Security, Information for Victims of Crime, Criminal Penalties and Medical Facilities and Health Information.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Wed 11 Mar 2020 6:13 PM
Source: AhlulBayt News Agency [edited[

Oxfam International said on Tuesday [10 Mar 2020], that Yemen is currently suffering from a forgotten cholera crisis, and warned of the high number of people infected with the disease with the approaching rainy season next April, while health care systems are on the verge of collapse.  The organization said, in a statement, that the outbreak of the epidemic in 2019 is the 2nd ever on a global scale, and cases are still increasing, referring to the announcement of a high cholera rate in Sanaa, Hajjah, Hodeidah, Taiz and Dhamar since 2017.  It noted that more than 56,000 suspected cases have already been recorded in the first 7 weeks of 2020, roughly equal to the same period in 2019. "The number of cases of cholera in 2019 was the 2nd largest ever recorded in a country in a single year, surpassed only by the numbers in Yemen in 2017," it added.

The organization confirmed that the prolonged, consistent nature of new cases over the last 14 months shows the disease is still rampant in Yemen. "The outlook is bleak for people in Yemen with cholera continuing at similar levels to last year [2019] and the rainy season likely to see thousands more people infected," Muhsin Siddiquey, Oxfam's Yemen Country Director said. "This is a health crisis hiding in plain sight. It's shocking that this ongoing crisis is getting so little attention. A lack of clean water and food has left many people weak and vulnerable to disease, and yet aid agencies are struggling to reach those most in need because of access constraints imposed by all sides," Siddiquey added. "We need urgent action from the international community to ensure safe, secure and unimpeded access for humanitarian aid and to bring the parties together to agree a nationwide ceasefire."

The number of deaths from cholera in 2019 dropped to 1025 - less than half the number of fatalities in 2017. But efforts to definitively beat the disease have been massively undermined by the war, which has decimated health, water and sanitation systems. Medical supplies are in chronically short supply and only around half the health facilities in Yemen are fully functioning. Fluctuating exchange rates have pushed up the price of diesel, in turn increasing the price of trucking clean water to parts of the country where groundwater is unavailable. More than 17 million people struggle to get clean water.  "The humanitarian crisis in Yemen is entirely man-made and those who continue to arm all sides in this war bear responsibility for its devastating consequences," Siddiquey said.
===================
[The epidemic of reported cholera in war-torn Yemen continues. The calculated case fatality rate from this is quite low, strongly suggesting that many of the cases are not cholera. Even with that, the numbers reported in this continuing catastrophe are difficult to wrap one's head around. - ProMed Mod.LL]
Date: Tue, 14 Jan 2020 12:29:02 +0100 (MET)

Dubai, Jan 14, 2020 (AFP) - At least 78 children in war-torn Yemen have died from dengue-related illnesses, Save the Children said Tuesday, warning of an epidemic.    "Seventy-eight children under 16 have already died in the outbreak of dengue-related illness in Yemen, with more than 52,000 suspected cases being recorded across the country," the aid group said in a statement.    It added this "could signal the start of an epidemic".

Save the Children said that a total of 192 people have died in Yemen last year from dengue-related illnesses -- most cases reported in the port cities of Hodeida and Aden.    "Hodeida has the second highest death rate in the country with 62 adult and children deaths in 2019. We have never seen anything like this before," said Save the Children's field coordinator in Yemen, Mariam Aldogani, herself recovering from dengue fever.   "More than 40 of our staff including their families have been affected by the fever." 

According to the Red Cross in November, Yemen was already grappling with an epidemic of the viral disease, which is transmitted by several species of mosquito that breed in stagnant water.   Tens of thousands of people, mostly civilians, have been killed and millions pushed to the brink of famine since a Saudi-led military coalition intervened against Iran-aligned Shiite rebels in 2015.   It has generated what the United Nations has termed the world's worst humanitarian crisis.
Date: Tue 3 Dec 2019
Source: Twitter feed in Arabic [machine trans., edited]

Taiz health official: 24 laboratory-confirmed cases of West Nile virus and more than 300 suspected cases. #Republic_Yemen
===================
[Any information on the actual number of WNV cases, their lab confirmation, and public health response activities in this regard will be highly appreciated. - ProMED Mod.UBA]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Yemen:
Date: Tue 15 Oct 2019
Source: Yemen Online [edited]

The cumulative number of suspected cholera cases reported in Yemen between October 2016 and August 2019 is 2,036,960, including 3716 related deaths (fatality rate of 0.18%). The 5 governorates with the highest attack rate per 10 000 are: Amran (1602.13), Al Mahwit (1474.79), Sana'a (1295.78), Al Bayda (1027.14) and Dahamar (957.61).

The national average attack rate is 713.99 per 10 000. The highest numbers of deaths are reported in the Hajjah (559), Ibb (486), Al Hudaydah (380) and Taizz (304) governorates. Cholera patients are often unable to afford transportation to supported health facilities, which contributes to the spread of disease and to deaths at community level.

Acute fuel shortages are causing critical disruption of water and sanitation services in Yemen given the reliance on fuel for extracting water. Limited access to water increases the risk of epidemic diseases, acute malnutrition, and triggers additional population displacement. Up to 16 million Yemenis may fall into acute need of humanitarian assistance and WASH services.
========================
[The calculated case fatality rate from this is quite low, strongly suggesting that many of the cases are not cholera. Even with that, the numbers reported in this continuing catastrophe are difficult to wrap one's head around. - ProMED Mod.LL]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Thursday 22nd August 2019
World Health Organisation

Sana’a, 21 August 2019 — A 6-day oral cholera vaccination campaign reached almost 400 000 people, including almost 65 000 children under the age of 5 in Aden, Al Dhale’e and Taiz, where high numbers of suspected cholera and acute watery diarrhoea cases have been recorded.

The first few months of 2019 saw an increase of reported acute watery diarrhoea cases in over 95% of districts across Yemen. Between January and the end of July 2019, there have been nearly 536 000 suspected cases and 773 associated deaths. Children under 5 represent one quarter of all suspected cases.

The vaccination campaign, run by local health authorities, UNICEF and WHO, was made possible thanks to GAVI, the Vaccine Alliance, and to the World Bank’s ‘Emergency Health and Nutrition Project.’

“Amid the fighting in surrounding areas, over 800 health workers, brave men and women, risked their lives to reach communities from cholera — these are the real heroes,” said Altaf Musani, WHO Representative in Yemen.

“Thanks to the extraordinary commitment and dedication of Yemen’s local health workforce, hundreds of thousands of people from these priority districts were reached with vaccination against cholera,” said Sara Beysolow Nyanti, UNICEF Country Representative in Yemen. 

Since April 2017, the cholera and acute watery diarrhoea epidemic in Yemen has caused an estimated 2 million suspected cases and 3500 associated deaths. Almost one third have been in children under 5, including 711 associated deaths. The outbreak in Yemen remains the largest cholera in the world. 

Health partners throughout Yemen joined forces to control and prevent any future cholera outbreaks. UNICEF and WHO are working closely with the relevant health authorities and other humanitarian partners to respond.

More ...

Austria

Austria - US Consular Information Sheet
July 29, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Austria is a highly developed, stable democracy with a modern economy.
Tourism is an important pillar of the Austrian economy and facilities are widely availab
e.
Read the Department of State Background Notes on Austria for additional information, or see the information at the Austrian National Tourist Office web site, http://www.austria.info.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A valid passport is required. U.S. citizens can stay without a visa for tourist/business for up to 90 days in each six-month period. That 90-day period begins when you enter any of the Schengen countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, and Sweden.
Note:
Although European Union regulations require that non-EU visitors obtain a stamp in their passports upon initial entry to a Schengen country, many borders are not staffed with officers carrying out this function.
If an American citizen wishes to ensure that his or her entry is properly documented, it may be necessary to request a stamp at an official point of entry.
Under local law, travelers without a stamp in their passports may be questioned and asked to document the length of their stay in Schengen countries at the time of departure or at any other point during their visit, and could face possible fines or other repercussions if unable to do so.
There are no vaccination requirements for international travelers.
Visit the Embassy of Austria web site at http://www.austria.org/ for the most current visa information. There are four Austrian Consulates General in the United States. As each one serves clients from a particular region, please contact the appropriate office for assistance. If you reside outside the U.S. please contact the responsible Austrian Embassy or Consulate in your country of residence.
A list of Austrian Embassies/Consulates is available at http://www.bmeia.gv.at/aussenministerium/buergerservice/oesterreichische-vertretungen.html.
Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.
SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Austria remains largely free of terrorist incidents. However, like other countries in the Schengen area, Austria’s open borders with its Western European neighbors allow the possibility of terrorist groups entering/exiting the country with anonymity. Americans are reminded to remain vigilant with regard to their personal security and to exercise caution.

Austrian intelligence experts have registered increased radicalization of immigrant Muslim individuals and of small conspiratorial groups, as well as intensified use of the Internet as a propaganda and communications platform. Despite some terrorism-related incidents in 2007 directed against individual Austrian nationals or the Government of Austria, authorities overall believe the likelihood of terrorist attacks in Austria remains relatively low; the State Department rates Austria as a “Medium” threat for transnational terrorism.

Every year, a number of avalanche deaths occur in Austria's alpine regions. Many occur when skiers/snowboarders stray from the designated ski slopes. Leaving the designated slopes to ski off-piste may pose serious risks and may delay rescue attempts in case of emergency. Skiers/snowboarders should monitor weather and terrain conditions, and use the available avalanche rescue equipment. Avalanche beepers (transceivers) are the most common rescue devices and, when properly used, provide the fastest way of locating an avalanche victim, usually enabling authorities to begin rescue operations within minutes.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State’s, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.
Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll-free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME:
Austria has one of the lowest crime rates in Europe, and violent crime is rare. However, crimes involving theft of personal property have increased in recent years.
As such, most crimes involving Americans are crimes of opportunity involving theft of personal belongings. Travelers are also targets of pickpockets who operate where tourists tend to gather. Some of the spots where such crimes are most frequently reported include Vienna’s two largest train stations, the plaza around St. Stephan’s Cathedral and the nearby pedestrian shopping areas (in Vienna’s First District).

There has been an increase in thefts and pick-pocketing on public transportation lines, especially on those lines coming into and out from the city center. U.S. citizens are advised to secure personal belongings and always take precautions while on public transportation and in public places such as cafes and tourist areas. Many citizens have had to disrupt travel plans while awaiting replacements for lost and stolen passports since emergency passports are generally only authorized in rare circumstances such as critical medical emergencies.
INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.
Information on the Austrian crime victim compensation program can be found on the U.S. Embassy web site at http://vienna.usembassy.gov/en/embassy/cons/compens.htm.
The local equivalent to the 911 emergency line in Austria is 133.See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
There are an adequate number of hospitals available in Austria. Local hospitals will not settle their accounts directly with American insurance companies. The patient is obliged to pay the bill to the local hospital and later claim a refund from his/her insurance carrier in the United States. MEDICARE payments are not available outside the United States.

The Austrian Medicine Import Act generally prohibits the import of prescription drugs into Austria, with two exceptions:
A) Travelers residing outside the European Union are allowed to carry with them (as part of their personal luggage) drugs and medicines, but only the quantity that an individual having a health problem might normally carry; and,
B) Travelers while staying in Austria may receive drugs and medicines for their personal use by mail. The quantity is limited to the length of their stay in Austria and must never exceed three packages.
Generally, it is recommended that travelers have either a prescription or written statement from their personal physician that the medicines are being used under a doctor's direction and are necessary for their physical wellbeing while traveling.
Public health conditions in Austria are excellent. The level of community sanitation in Vienna meets or exceeds that of most large American cities. Disease incidence and type are similar to that seen in the major cities of Western Europe and the United States. At the present time, air pollution is not a major health problem in Vienna.

The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Austria.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad, consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at: http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at: http://www.who.int/ith/en.
MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

Any person, regardless of citizenship, who wants to take up residence in Austria, must be covered by some health insurance plan that covers full medical treatment in Austria. American citizens interested in joining the health insurance plan under the Austrian system should apply to the Health Insurance Agency (Gebietskrankenkasse) in the province (Bundesland) where they reside.
Further information may be obtained from the appropriate “Gebietskrankenkasse” http://www.sozialversicherung.at/portal/index.html?ctrl:cmd=render&ctrl:window=esvportal.channel_content.cmsWindow&p_menuid=955&p_tabid=6&p_pubid=687.
TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Austria is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
Road conditions in Austria are generally excellent. During the winter, however, roads in alpine areas may become dangerous due to snowfall, ice, or avalanches. Some mountain roads may be closed for extended periods and tire chains are often required. Drivers should exercise caution during the heavily traveled vacation periods (December-February, Easter, July-August). Extra caution is recommended when driving through autobahn construction zones, particularly on the A-1 East/West Autobahn. Reduced lanes and two-way traffic in these zones have resulted in several deadly accidents in recent years. Traffic information and road conditions are broadcast on the English language channel fm4, located between 91 and 105 FM depending on the locale.

A U.S. driver’s license alone is not sufficient to drive in Austria. The U.S. driver’s license must be accompanied by an international driver’s permit (obtainable in the U.S. from American Automobile Association and the American Automobile Touring Alliance) or by an official translation of the U.S. driver’s license, which can be obtained at one of the Austrian automobile clubs (OEAMTC or ARBOE). This arrangement is only acceptable for the first six months of driving in Austria, after which all drivers must obtain an Austrian license.

Austria requires all vehicles using the autobahn to display an “Autobahn Vignette” highway tax sticker on the inside of the vehicle’s windshield. The sticker may be purchased at border crossings, gas stations in Austria, and small “Tabak” shops located in Austrian towns. Fines for failing to display a valid autobahn vignette on the windshield of your car are usually around $120.

Austrian autobahns have a maximum speed limit of 130 km/hr, although drivers often drive much faster and pass aggressively. The use of hand-held cell phones while driving is prohibited. Turning right on red is also prohibited throughout Austria. The legal limit for blood alcohol content in Austria is .05 percent and penalties for driving under the influence tend to be stricter than in many U.S. states.

Tourists driving rented vehicles should pay close attention to the provisions of their rental contract. Many contracts prohibit drivers from taking rented vehicles into eastern European countries. Drivers attempting to enter countries listed as “prohibited” on the car rental contract may be arrested, fined, and/or charged with attempted auto theft. Austrian police are authorized to hold the rented vehicle for the car rental company.
Emergency roadside help and information may be reached by dialing 123 or 120 for vehicle assistance and towing services (Austrian automobile clubs), 122 for the fire department, 133 for police, and 144 for ambulance.
The European emergency line is 112.
Austrian Federal Railroads (Österreichische Bundesbahnen) offer excellent railroad service to all major towns of the country and also direct connections with all major cities in Europe. Trains are well maintained and fares are reasonable. There is also an extensive network of bus lines operated by the Austrian Postal Service (Österreichische Post). All major cities also offer excellent public transportation services.
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. Visit the web-site of Austria’s national tourist office (Österreich Werbung) at http://www.austria.info and the national authority responsible for road safety (Kuratorium für Verkehrssicherheit) at http://www.kfv.at/.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Austria’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Austria’s air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at: http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Travelers using U.S. issued debit cards in Austrian Automatic Teller Machines (ATMs) may encounter problems. If the request for cash is rejected, travelers should check their accounts immediately to see whether the money was in fact debited from their account. If this is the case, they should notify their banking institution immediately. Prompt action may result in a refund of the debited amount. Receipts should always be requested and kept for verification with your home bank.
Please see our Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Austrian laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Austria are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Austria are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Austria.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.
The Consular Section of the U.S. Embassy is located at Parkring 12a, tel. +43- 1-31339-7535, fax: +43-1-5125835, web site: http://vienna.usembassy.gov/en/index.html
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This replaces the Country Specific Information sheet for Austria dated January 23, 2008, without substantive changes.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu, 19 Mar 2020 17:34:25 +0100 (MET)

Vienna, March 19, 2020 (AFP) - Austria said Thursday it was placing all arrivals to the country by air in mandatory quarantine after recording more than 2,000 coronavirus cases to date.   A decree published on the health ministry website stated "Austrian and foreign citizens are obliged to enter home quarantine immediately for 14 days on arrival by plane in Austria," adding they would be required to provide a written commitment to that effect.   Transit passengers, medical professionals and staff from international organisations are exempt from the measure.
Date: Tue, 10 Mar 2020 12:05:30 +0100 (MET)

Vienna, March 10, 2020 (AFP) - Chancellor Sebastian Kurz on Tuesday said Austria was restricting travel from Italy, which has been hard hit by the coronavirus.   "We are putting in place an entry ban for people from Italy to Austria, unless they have a doctor's certificate," Kurz told reporters.   Austrians in Italy will be allowed to return as long as they agree to a two-week home quarantine, he added.
Date: Sun, 8 Mar 2020 15:48:15 +0100 (MET)

Vienna, March 8, 2020 (AFP) - Avalanches killed six people in Austria Sunday in two separate incidents, police said.   At least five people were swept away Sunday morning by a large avalanche on a mountain in Upper Austria, part of a group walking in snow shoes on the Dachstein range.   Local police said five bodies had been recovered from the avalanche, which began 2,800 metres (9,200 feet) up. The victims were thought to be from the Czech Republic, they added.

Although they did not think there were other victims, mountain rescue workers were searching the site, team leader Christoph Preimesberger told the Austrian Press Agency (APA).   In January 2019, about 60 residents in the town of Ramsau-am-Dachstein, which also lies in the Dachstein range, escaped another large avalanche which caused significant damage but no casualties.   Elsewhere Sunday, a 33-year-old police officer died in an avalanche in the southern Carinthia region on the Grossglockner peak.   Local police said he died while taking part in a training exercise.
Date: Mon, 18 Nov 2019 16:10:29 +0100 (MET)

Vienna, Nov 18, 2019 (AFP) - A man died on Monday in a landslide that destroyed much of his home in southern Austria, which has been hit by heavy rainfall and snow affecting transport and electricity.   The retiree was behind his house in Carinthia state when part of the hill above it slid off, killing the 79-year-old, police said.   Earlier Monday, two women were rescued from the rubble of two houses after another landslide, this one in the spa town of Bad Gastein in Salzburg state.   Salzburg, Tyrol and Carinthia states have all seen heavy rain and snowfall since last week, leading to power cuts in thousands of homes.   Many roads and railway lines have also been cut, and several schools in these areas remained closed on Monday.
Date: Tue, 27 Aug 2019 13:51:00 +0200 (METDST)

Vienna, Aug 27, 2019 (AFP) - An Austrian court has ruled that a German hiker who was trampled to death by cows was partly to blame for the accident in a case which has sparked national debate.   A lower court ordered the cows' owner in February to pay the woman's family 180,000 euros ($200,000) plus a monthly pension of 1,500 euros.

The verdict was seen as potentially harmful for agriculture and tourism in the Alpine country known for its picturesque mountains and cows grazing freely on their slopes in the summer.   A higher court however ruled that the 45-year-old who was hiking with her dog bore 50 percent of the blame as she needed to be aware of the risks cows, especially those with calves, posed when confronted by dogs, a court official said Tuesday.   She also did not heed warning signs to keep a distance from the herd. The farmer in turn had known his cows with calves to be aggressive and should have fenced off part of his pasture, the official said.   The decision means the compensation will also be cut by half. Both parties can appeal the verdict.

The incident took place in July 2014 in the Pinnistal Valley in Tyrol when a herd of cows suddenly surrounded the hiker and trampled her. She died of her injuries at the scene.   Her husband and son had accused the farmer of negligence, while the farmer insisted he had put up warning signs on the pasture.   The February ruling led to Tyrol's farmers describing it as a threat to their livelihood and threating to close off their lands to hikers.   Following the outcry, the government published a "code of conduct" for hikers.   The guidelines include keeping a distance from cows and walking dogs on a short lead but unleashing them in case of attack.
More ...

World Travel News Headlines

Date: Fri, 27 Mar 2020 22:49:49 +0100 (MET)

Dublin, March 27, 2020 (AFP) - Ireland is to impose a lockdown in a bid to stem the spread of the coronavirus, Prime Minister Leo Varadkar said on Friday.   "Everybody must stay at home, in all circumstances," he said of the new measures to come into force at midnight (0000 GMT) on Saturday and last until 12 April.   Exceptions will be made for essential workers, medical appointments and the purchase of food.   Travel for "vital family reasons", for farming and exercise within two kilometres (one mile) of homes will also be allowed.

All public or private gatherings "of any number of people" outside a single household are also prohibited.   "These are radical actions aimed at saving as many people's lives as possible," said Varadkar at a press conference.   "I'm asking us for a time to forego our personal liberties and freedoms for a greater cause."   There have been 22 COVID-19 related deaths and 2,121 confirmed cases of the virus in Ireland, according to department of health figures released earlier Friday.   Earlier this month the Irish government ordered schools, universities and pubs to close nationwide.   Swathes of non-essential businesses were also ordered shut earlier this week as Ireland braced for an uptick of COVID-19 cases within its borders.

Emergency coronavirus legislation passed through the final stages of Irish parliament and was signed into law by president Michael D. Higgins earlier Friday.   The bill enacts a rent freeze and a moratorium on evictions for the duration of the crisis.   It also streamlines the registration of healthcare and defence forces staff returning to the workforce, and enables the Irish government's financial supports to those laid off as a result of COVID-19 business closures.   "The legislation is emergency legislation for a time of crisis," said Higgins in a statement.   "These are difficult times, but our difficulties will come to an end."
Date: Sat, 28 Mar 2020 11:03:02 +0100 (MET)

Johannesburg, March 28, 2020 (AFP) - South African police enforcing a coronavirus lockdown on Saturday fired rubber bullets towards hundreds of shoppers queueing outside a supermarket in Johannesburg, an AFP photographer said.   Between 200 and 300 people gathered outside a popular grocery store, Shoprite, early Saturday in Yeoville, a crime-prone area in Johannesburg's gritty central business district on day two of a nationwide lockdown.

But as they scrambled to secure their spots, many did not observe the recommended safe distance between them.   Police arrived in 10 patrol vehicles and started firing rubber bullets towards the shoppers.   Startled shoppers trampled on each other and a woman with a baby on her back fell to the ground.   Later the police used whips to get the shoppers to observe social distancing rules.

President Cyril Ramaphosa has ordered South Africa's 57 million people to stay at home for 21 days and deployed the police and the military to enforce the lockdown.   But many people, especially from poor neighbourhoods, have defied the order, going out in numbers looking for food.   While jogging and dog-walking are banned, shopping for food and other basics, but not alcohol, is permitted.   South Africa, which has 1,170 confirmed coronavirus cases, recorded its first death from the virus on Friday.
Date: Sat, 28 Mar 2020 09:41:43 +0100 (MET)

Accra, March 28, 2020 (AFP) - Ghana has announced a two-week lockdown in the country's two main regions starting Monday to curb the spread of coronavirus.   The move came as the authorities reported 137 confirmed cases, including four deaths.   President Nana Akufo-Ado said there would be "restrictions on movement of persons in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area and the Greater Kumasi Metropolitan Area and contiguous districts for a period of two weeks."

He said residents would only be allowed to go out to buy food, water and medicines and to use public toilets.   "There shall be, during this period, no inter-city movement of vehicles and aircrafts for private or commercial purposes.. except for vehicles and aircrafts providing essential services and those carrying cargo," he said.   Ghana has already closed schools, suspended public events and banned large gatherings.
Date: Fri, 27 Mar 2020 19:25:31 +0100 (MET)

Brussels, March 27, 2020 (AFP) - Belgium on Friday extended its general lockdown to slow the spread of the coronavirus by two weeks to April 18.   The decision, confirmed by top officials, extended a confinement that began on March 18 until the end of the country's Easter holiday break, with schools, restaurants and most shops to remain closed.   Prime Minister Sophie Wilmes said the period could be extended by another two weeks to May 3 if the spread of the virus demanded it.   "Our efforts are only beginning and to ease up now would have catastrophic consequences," she told a media briefing.   Outdoor sports activities and walks outside are still allowed, but only in small groups, with a friend or with family members living under the same roof.

In theory, travelling for work can only be done with a certificate from the employer.    Supermarkets in Belgium remain open, but shoppers are only admitted if there is enough space for one person per 10 square metres, and they must not stay for more than 30 minutes.   Belgium, a country of 11.4 million people, has recorded 7,284 cases of the novel coronavirus strain, and 289 deaths.    The extension in Belgium follows a similar decision in neighbouring France where the lockdown rules are stricter.   Europe is grappling with the global outbreak that has killed more than 10,000 people on the continent, mostly in Italy and Spain.
Date: Fri, 27 Mar 2020 18:17:31 +0100 (MET)

Bangui, Central African Republic, March 27, 2020 (AFP) - The Central African Republic, a poverty-stricken state that the UN has singled out as highly vulnerable to coronavirus, has stepped up measures over fears that the disease is spreading locally.   President Faustin-Archange Touadera, in a statement received by AFP on Friday, said that after four cases of infection ad been detected, all among people coming from abroad, a fifth had now surfaced.

In this light, "there are grounds for fearing local transmission" of coronavirus, he said.   New measures unveiled by the authorities include a two-week ban on people coming in from countries where the virus is being transmitted locally, except for diplomats and NGO workers.

Schools, childcare facilities and universities are being closed, and restrictions have been placed on movement between the capital Bangui and the rest of the country.   The United Nations on Wednesday said the CAR "is one of the least prepared countries to face a COVID-19 outbreak, with 2.2 million people already in need of health assistance and about 70 percent of health services provided by humanitarian organisations."   The country has been ravaged by three civil wars in 20 years and remains prey to violence from armed groups that control two-thirds of the country.
Date: Fri, 27 Mar 2020 17:45:22 +0100 (MET)

Rome, March 27, 2020 (AFP) - Italy recorded a shocking spike in coronavirus deaths Friday with 969 new victims, the worst daily record for any country since the pandemic began.   The infection rate however continued its downward trend, with the civil protection agency reporting nearly 86,500 confirmed cases in Italy -- a 7.4 percent increase, down from around 8.0 percent in previous days.
Date: Fri, 27 Mar 2020 17:41:36 +0100 (MET)

Brussels, March 27, 2020 (AFP) - A pet cat has been infected with the novel coronavirus in Belgium after being contaminated by its owner, Belgian health authorities said Friday.   Cases of contamination of pets are rare and authorities ruled out any risk of contamination to humans from home animals.   The reports follows similar cases in Hong Kong where two dogs tested positive for COVID-19 during a screening campaign carried out on 17 dogs and eight cats living in contact with people carrying the virus.

In Belgium, the discovery was made by researchers at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Liege.   This is "an isolated case" which can occur after "close contact between animals and infected  humans", said Doctor Emmanuel Andre, a government agency spokesman on the pandemic.    The virus can be transmitted from humans to animals but "there is no reason to think that animals can be vectors of the epidemic in our society", he said.

In Hong Kong, "the dogs showed no symptoms", while in Belgium "the cat was suffering from transitory respiratory and digestive problems", said the Belgian food safety agency AFSCA in a statement.    "So far, there is no evidence that a domestic animal can transmit the virus to humans or other pets", the public authority said.

As a precautionary measure, it is "strongly recommended" to apply standard rules of hygiene when dealing with pets: "avoid close contact with pets... wash your hands after handling any animal, do not let the animal lick your face."   The aim is to prevent the transmission of the virus to the animal and to prevent the animal itself from becoming a carrier of the virus.
Date: Fri, 27 Mar 2020 14:53:24 +0100 (MET)

Beijing, March 27, 2020 (AFP) - China reported more than 50 imported cases of the coronavirus on Friday, hours after announcing a ban on foreigners entering the country.   In recent weeks China's tally of infections has dwindled dramatically, with only a handful of domestic patients each day.

But just as the country appears to be bringing the outbreak under control, nations around the globe are battling to control soaring numbers of infections in new hotspots.   There were another 55 new infections in China on Friday, the National Health Commission said, with one local infection and 54 imported cases from overseas.   Beijing has been racing to control the number of infections being brought into the country -- mostly Chinese nationals returning home from overseas, including large numbers of students abroad.

On Thursday Beijing announced dramatic measures to curb arrivals into the country, including reducing the number of international flights, limiting the capacity on board to 75 percent, and imposing a ban on foreigners entering China.   Non-nationals living in China with valid visas and resident permits will be blocked from returning to the country after midnight on Friday night, the foreign ministry said.    The ministry said it was a "temporary measure that China is compelled to take in light of the outbreak situation."

Diplomats and the crew of international airlines and vessels will still be permitted to enter.   Flights in and out of China will also be capped at just one route a week to each country, including for international airlines.   The tally of cases brought into China from abroad climbed to 595 on Friday, health officials said.   A series of strict measures had already been put in place to try and stem the wave of infections coming in.   All Beijing-bound international flights have been diverted to other urban centres, where passengers will first be screened for the virus.

Many Chinese cities including Beijing and Shanghai have also imposed a compulsory 14-day quarantine for all arrivals from abroad.    There were nearly 1,100 return international passenger flights scheduled to come to China this week.   There were another five deaths on Friday, according to the National Health Commission -- all in the province of Hubei where the virus first emerged late last year.   In total 81,340 people have been infected in China, and the outbreak has claimed 3,292 lives.

- Clashes -
Hubei lifted travel restrictions this week after two months in lockdown, but fears remain of a rebound in cases elsewhere in the country, even though only healthy people are allowed to leave the province.   Traffic police in Jiangxi reportedly blocked people trying to enter the province from neighbouring Hubei on Friday.    Videos posted on China's Twitter-like platform Weibo purportedly showed scores of people clashing with police on a bridge connecting the provinces.   Other footage showed people trying to overturn a vehicle.
Date: Fri, 27 Mar 2020 12:37:54 +0100 (MET)

London, March 27, 2020 (AFP) - British police faced criticism on Friday for using "over-the-top" methods to maintain a coronavirus lockdown, after officers armed with sweeping new powers deployed drones to detect walkers far from home.   Civil liberties group Big Brother Watch said the police must behave within the rule of law after it also emerged that road checkpoints had been set up to quiz drivers about their journeys.   "It's understandable why police are dispersing parties and barbecues but demanding drivers give journey details at road checkpoints is over-the-top," said director Silkie Carlo.     "It's critical we protect public health and critical we protect basic democratic norms too. Arbitrary policing will not help the country to fight this pandemic."

The drone incident happened in the Peak District National Park in Derbyshire, central England, while roadblocks were used in other parts of the country.   Social media users compared their actions to "the Stasi", East Germany's notorious state police.    Another civil liberties group, Liberty, said in a statement: "We need a response in terms of public health rather than a response in terms of criminal justice to this epidemic."   Britons have been told since the beginning of the week that they are only allowed to leave their homes for limited reasons such as going to work, essential food shopping, or for exercise once a day.   But they are not allowed to travel for recreational purposes.

To enforce the new rules, police were officially handed powers which prevents people leaving their home "without reasonable excuse".   Those ignoring the tougher restrictions on movement could be hit with a £60 fine doubled to £120 (133 euros,$147) for any second offence.   The measures will be in place for at least six months, with a review every three weeks.   Derbyshire police defended their actions, claiming in a tweet that "we will not be apologetic for using any legal and appropriate methods to keep people safe".   It added: "Our actions and the government's advice are there to keep you and others safe."   A total of 11,658 coronavirus cases have so far been confirmed in Britain, and 578 deaths.
Date: Fri, 27 Mar 2020 11:59:09 +0100 (MET)

Madrid, March 27, 2020 (AFP) - The death toll in Spain soared over 4,800 Friday after 769 people died in 24 hours, in what was a record one-day figure for fatalities, the government said.    Health ministry figures showed the number of deaths reaching 4,858, while cases jumped to 64,059, although the rate of new infections appeared to be slowing, registering a 14 percent increase compared with 18 percent a day earlier.