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Antartica

General:
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Cuba is an independent island country situated in the Caribbean. It is the largest of the islands and covers 42,000sq miles. The climate is sub tropical throughout the year with most of the rainfall in
the northern parts of the country. Temperatures of between 20C to 35C are fairly standard throughout the year. Generally the winter effects of the American continent only last for short periods.
Safety & Security:
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The majority of tourists visiting Cuba will have no difficulty but bag snatching and other street crime appears to be increasing. The old Havana area and other major tourist resorts may be particular areas of concern in this regard. On arrival be careful to only use your recognised tour operator. If you are taking a taxi at any stage make sure it is a registered one and not a private vehicle. It is unwise to carry large quantities of money or jewellery away from your hotel and try not to flaunt wealth with your belongings. Pickpockets are too common an occurrence on buses and trains and at train stations so be careful with your essential documents and credit cards. Valuables should not be stored in suitcases when arriving in or departing from Havana as there have been a number of thefts from cases during the time the cases are coming through baggage handling. There is an airport shrink-wrap facility for those departing Havana which reduces the risk of tampering. Remember to carry a photocopy of your main documents (passport, flight tickets etc).
Road Safety:
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Following a number of serious road accidents involving tourists, you are advised not to use mopeds for travelling around Cuba or in Havana. Also, if you are involved in any accident a police investigation will be required to clear you and this may significantly delay your travel plans. On unlit roads at night there have been a number of accidents associated with roaming cattle (sounds like Ireland!). The traffic moves on the right side of the roads. There is a main highway running the length of the country but many of the country roads are in poor repair.
Local Laws & Customs:
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When arriving into Cuba make sure you are not carrying any items which could be considered offensive. Any illicit drug offense is treated very seriously and Cuban law allows for the death penalty to be used under these circumstances. If you require personal medication for your health, make sure it is in original packing and carry a letter from your doctor describing the medication. Never agree to carry any item for another individual and always secure your cases once they are packed. Taking photographs of military or police installations or around harbours, rail and airport facilities is strictly forbidden.

Currency:
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Since 1993 it is now possible to use US dollars for all transactions within Cuba. Remember, there is a 20$ airport departure tax. Certain travellers cheques and credit cards may not be acceptable within Cuba. This is particularly true of American Express cheques and cards but check your situation with the travel operator before departure.
Health Facilities:
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Generally healthcare facilities outside of Havana are limited and many standard medications may not be available. It is important to carry sufficient quantities of any medications which may be required for the duration of your time in Cuba.
Food & Water:
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The level of food and water hygiene varies throughout the country and between resorts. On arrival check the hotel cold water supply for the smell of chlorine. If it is not present then use sealed bottled water for both drinking and brushing your teeth throughout your stay. Cans and bottles of drinks are safe but take care to avoid pre-cut fruit. Peel it yourself to make sure it is not contaminated. Food from street vendors should be avoided in most cases. Bivalve shellfish are also a high risk food in many countries and Cuba is no exception in this regard. (Eg Mussels, Oysters, Clams etc)
Malaria & Mosquito Borne Diseases:
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Malaria transmission does not occur within Cuba and so prophylaxis is not required. However, a different mosquito borne disease called Dengue has begun to reoccur in the country over the past few years. This viral disease can be very sickening and even progress to death. It is rare for tourists to become infected but avoiding mosquito bites is a wise precaution.
Swimming, Sun & Dehydration:
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The extent of the Cuban sun (particular during the summer months (April to October) can be very excessive so make sure your head and shoulders are covered at all times when exposed. Watch children carefully as they will be a significant risk. Drink plenty of fluids to replace what will be lost through perspiration and, unless there is a reason not to,
take extra salt either on your food or in crisps, peanuts etc. Take care if swimming in the Caribbean to stay with others and to listen to local advice. Never swim after a heavy meal or alcohol.
Rabies Risk in Cuba:
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This viral disease does occur throughout Cuba and it is essential that you avoid any contact with all warm blooded animals. Dogs, cats and monkeys are the most commonly involved in spreading the disease to humans. Don't pick up a monkey for a photograph! If bitten, wash out the wound, apply an antiseptic and seek urgent medical attention.
Vaccinations for Cuba:
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There are no essential vaccines for entry / exit if coming from Ireland. However, for your own personal protection travellers are advised to have cover against the following;
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Tetanus (childhood booster)
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Typhoid (food & water borne disease)
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Hepatitis A (food & water borne disease)
For those planning a longer or more rural trip vaccine cover against conditions like Hepatitis B and Rabies may also need to be considered.
Summary:
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Cuba is becoming a popular destination for tourists and generally most will stay very healthy. However commonsense care against food and water borne disease is essential at all times. Also take care with regard to sun exposure, dehydration and mosquito bites.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu, 17 May 2018 09:57:07 +0200

Buenos Aires, May 17, 2018 (AFP) - Tourism regulation in Antarctica has become an urgent matter due to environmental threats, officials from the 53 member countries of the Antarctic Treaty warned at their annual meeting, held this week in Buenos Aires.

In the absence of rules, travel agencies offer trips to the region on boats sometimes equipped with helicopters or submarines, according to Segolene Royal, French ambassador for the Arctic and Antarctic poles.   "This activity creates considerable disturbance ... we are witnessing a race toward large-scale tourism that is dangerous for ecosystems," she said at the assembly on Wednesday.

During the austral summer of 2016/2017, around 44,000 tourists set off for Antarctica, compared with just 9,000 in 1995/1996, according to French authorities.   However, the push for regulation is not about banning tourism, former environmental minister Royal said, but rather about ensuring it is managed in compliance with the treaty and its environmental protection protocol.

In Buenos Aires, the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting  -- whose mission is to regulate human activity on the continent -- also sought to encourage scientific cooperation between countries that have collectively set up around 100 research bases across the ice.   Also up for analysis is China's proposed fifth permanent scientific station in Antarctica, which would be located in the Ross Sea area south of New Zealand.
Date: Wed, 5 Jul 2017 13:01:49 +0200
By Marlowe HOOD

Paris, July 5, 2017 (AFP) - A chunk of ice bigger than the US state of Delaware is hanging by a thread from the West Antarctic ice shelf, satellite images revealed Wednesday.   When it finally calves from the Larsen C ice shelf, one of the biggest icebergs in recorded history will be set adrift -- some 6,600 square kilometres (2,550 square miles) in total, according to the European Space Agency (ESA).

The iceberg's depth below sea level could be as much as 210 metres (almost 700 feet), or about 60 storeys, it said.   "The crack in the ice is now around 200 kilometres (125 miles) long, leaving just five kilometres between the end of the fissure and the ocean," the ESA said in a statement.   "Icebergs calve from Antarctica all the time, but because this one is particularly large its path across the ocean needs to be monitored as it could pose a hazard to maritime traffic."

Scientists tracking the berg's progression expect it to break of within months.    The Larsen C shelf will lose more than 10 percent of its total surface area.   The massive ice cube will float in water and by itself will not add to sea levels when it melts.   The real danger is from inland glaciers.   Ice shelves float on the sea, extending from the coast, and are fed by slow-flowing glaciers from the land.    They act as giant brakes, preventing glaciers from flowing directly into the ocean.   If the glaciers held in check by Larsen C spilt into the Antarctic Ocean, it would lift the global water mark by about 10 centimetres (four inches), researchers have said.

The calving of ice shelves occurs naturally, though global warming is believed to have accelerated the process.   Warming ocean water erodes the underbelly of the ice shelves, while rising air temperatures weaken them from above.   The nearby Larsen A ice shelf collapsed in 1995, and Larsen B dramatically broke up seven years later.   The ESA is keeping an eye on Larsen C with its Copernicus and CryoSat Earth orbiters.

Man-made global warming has already lifted average global air temperatures by about one degree Celsius (1.8 degrees Fahrenheit) since pre-industrial levels.    Antarctica is one of the world's fastest-warming regions.   The world's nations undertook in the Paris Agreement, inked in 2015, to cap average global warming at "well under" 2 C.
Date: Wed, 22 Jun 2016 21:35:09 +0200
By Jean-Louis SANTINI

Washington, June 22, 2016 (AFP) - Two sick workers were evacuated from a remote US research station near the South Pole on Wednesday in a risky rescue mission carried out in the dead of Antarctica's winter, a US official said.   A Twin Otter turboprop plane flew in dark and cold conditions to pick up the workers from the Amundsen-Scott station, about 250 meters from the geographic South Pole, a spokesman for the US National Science Foundation (NSF), Peter West told AFP.

The plane's crew and a medical team had made the 10-hour journey to the South Pole in the middle of Antarctica's 24-hour winter on Tuesday night to reach the unidentified patients, who could not be treated on site.   The NSF -- the US research agency that operates the Amundsen-Scott Station -- organized the rescue mission last week given the condition of the first patient, which was not disclosed for privacy reasons.   "It was really an emergency," West said.   It later became apparent that the second worker also needed to be evacuated.

The sick workers -- employees of the US company Lockheed Martin who worked on base logistics -- were then taken to the Rothera base, a British research station some 2,200 kilometers (about 1,365 miles) away, the spokesman said.   The pair, who were not identified, were then to be transferred to a hospital in South America, West said, without giving further details.   The Amundsen-Scott base was home to 48 people -- 39 men and nine women -- who work on-site throughout the austral winter, which spans February through October.

- Rare rescue mission -
Near the world's southernmost point, workers spend this period withstanding nearly complete darkness and dramatically low temperatures -- on Tuesday, the thermometer dropped to -60 degrees Celsius (-76 degrees Fahrenheit).   It was only the third time that an emergency rescue operation has been launched in the middle of winter.   In 2001, the only doctor at the Amundsen-Scott station was suffering from a life-threatening pancreatic condition and required urgent evacuation. A second medical evacuation was carried out that year.

In 1999, the US station's doctor Jerri Nielsen, who was self-treating her own breast cancer, required medical evacuation but weather conditions were more favorable, as the mission took place in the spring.  The Twin Otter plane, operated by the Canadian company Kenn Borek Air, is specially designed to operate in extremely cold temperatures.

Research projects at the Amundsen-Scott station include monitoring long-term levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere.     The station also operates two telescopes that observe "cosmic microwave background" radiation -- the faint light signature left by the Big Bang -- to study the origins of the universe, dark energy and dark matter.
Date: Wed, 18 Jun 2014 09:04:56 +0200 (METDST)
by Martin PARRY

SYDNEY, June 18, 2014 (AFP) - Antarctic scientists warned Wednesday that a surge in tourists visiting the frozen continent and new roads and runways built to service research facilities were threatening its fragile environment.   Tourist numbers have exploded from less than 5,000 in 1990 to about 40,000 a year, according to industry figures, and most people go to the fragmented ice-free areas that make up less than one percent of Antarctica.   A growing number of research facilities are also being built, along with associated infrastructure such as fuel depots and runways, in the tiny ice-free zones.

It is these areas which contain most of the continent's wildlife and plants, yet they are among the planet's least-protected, said a study led by the Australian government-funded National Environmental Research Programme (NERP) and the Australian Antarctic Division.   "Many people think that Antarctica is well protected from threats to its biodiversity because it's isolated and no one lives there," said Justine Shaw from the NERP of the study published in the journal PLoS Biology.   "However, we show that there are threats to Antarctic biodiversity.   "Most of Antarctica is covered in ice, with less than one percent permanently ice-free," she added.   "Only 1.5 percent of this ice-free area belongs to Antarctic Specially Protected Areas under the Antarctic Treaty System, yet ice-free land is where the majority of biodiversity occurs."   Five of the distinct ice-free areas have no protection at all while all 55 of the continent's protected zones are close to sites of human activity.

- Fragile ecosystems -
Steven Chown of Monash University, another collaborator in the study, said the ice-free areas contain very simple ecosystems due to Antarctica's low species diversity.   This makes its native wildlife and plants extremely vulnerable to invasion by outside species, which can be introduced by human activity.   "Antarctica has been invaded by plants and animals, mostly grasses and insects, from other continents," he said.    "The very real current and future threats from invasions are typically located close to protected areas.    "Such threats to protected areas from invasive species have been demonstrated elsewhere in the world, and we find that Antarctica is, unfortunately, no exception."

The study said the current level of protection was "inadequate by any measure" with Shaw saying more was needed to guard against the threat posed by the booming tourism industry.   "(We need) to protect a diverse suite of native insects, plants and seabirds, many of which occur nowhere else in the world," she said.   "We also need to ensure that Antarctic protected areas are not going to be impacted by human activities, such as pollution, trampling or invasive species."   Antarctica is considered one of the last frontiers for adventurous travellers.   Most travel by sea, some paying in excess of US$20,000 for a luxury cabin in the peak period from November to March. There is also a healthy market for sightseeing flights.

Approximately 30 nations operate permanent research stations on the continent including the US, China, Russia, Australia, Britain, France and Argentina, and more are on the way.   China's state media said in December that the country was building its fourth base and a fifth was being planned.   Fellow study author Hugh Possingham, from NERP, said that without better protection "this unique and fragile ecosystem could be lost".   "Although we show that the risks to biodiversity from increasing human activity are high, they are even worse when considered together with climate change," he added.    "This combined effect provides even more incentive for a better system of area protection in Antarctica."
Date: Sun, 17 Nov 2013 12:27:56 +0100 (MET)

WASHINGTON, Nov 17, 2013 (AFP) - A powerful 7.8 magnitude undersea earthquake struck in the Scotia Sea, a remote region in the far south Atlantic near Antarctica, US earthquake monitors reported Sunday.   The quake struck at 0904 GMT in the ocean some 893 kilometers (550 miles) southwest of Grytviken, South Georgia, and 1,140 kilometres (710 miles) southeast of Ushuaia, Argentina, said the US Geological Survey, which monitors earthquakes worldwide.   The epicenter was at a depth of 10 kilometers (6.2 miles), and was near that of a 6.8 magnitude undersea earthquake that the USGS registered in the Scotia Sea some 30 hours earlier.

The quake occurred at the boundary between the Antarctic tectonic plate and the Scotia Sea plate, said geophysicist Randy Baldwin at the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado.   "They're sliding past one another horizontally, it's not a subduction zone," Baldwin told AFP. "There will be aftershocks probably for weeks."   There were no tsunami warnings since there were no vertical movements in the seafloor as occur in a subduction quake, when one tectonic plate moves under another one, Baldwin said.   Yet despite the enormous energy unleashed the area is so remote that there is little or no impact to humans, he said.   "You couldn't pick a more remote area for an earthquake," he said.
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Sudan

Sudan US Consular Information Sheet
August 29, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Sudan is a diverse, developing country in northeastern Africa. The capital city is Khartoum. The civil war between the northern and southern regions, which began in 1
83, ended in 2005. A multi-party conflict continues in the west in Darfur, and the armed Ugandan group known as The Lord’s Resistance Army is present in the south. Security conditions are adverse in these and some other regions. Transportation networks and other forms of infrastructure are poor and do not meet western standards. Even where available, water and electric services suffer frequent outages. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Sudan for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: The Government of Sudan requires all travelers to present a passport and an entry visa. Most travelers must obtain the entry visa before arrival; only American citizens who also possess a Sudanese national identification document (such as a Sudanese passport or national identification card) may apply for an entry visa at Khartoum International Airport. The Government of Sudan routinely denies visas to travelers whose passports contain visas issued by the Government of Israel or other evidence of travel to Israel such as exit or entry stamps.

Travelers must obtain an exit visa before departure from Sudan as well as pay any airport departure tax not included in the traveler’s airline ticket. Visitors may obtain the latest information and further details from the Embassy of Sudan, 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008, tel.: 202-338-8565.

Travel permits issued by the semi-autonomous Government of Southern Sudan (GOSS) or by the South Sudan Relief and Rehabilitation Commission (SSRRC) are not adequate for entry to the country, although travelers may find these documents useful to present to local authorities when in the south. Personal baggage, including computers, is routinely searched upon arrival to and departure from Sudan. The authorities will seize material deemed objectionable, such as alcohol or pornography, and may detain or arrest the traveler. Travelers intending to bring electronic items should inquire about entry requirements when they apply for a visa; restrictions apply to many devices, including video cameras, satellite phones, facsimile machines, televisions, and telephones. Travelers are not allowed to depart Sudan with ivory, some other animal products, or large quantities of gold.

All visitors must register with the authorities within three days of arrival. Travelers must register within 72 hours of arrival in Sudan at the Ministry of Interior. All foreigners traveling more than 25 kilometers outside of Khartoum must obtain a travel permit from the Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs in Khartoum. This applies to all travel, including private, commercial, and humanitarian activities. Americans risk detention by Sudanese authorities when traveling more than 25 kilometers outside of Khartoum without a travel permit issued by the Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs. Travelers must register again with the police within 24 hours of arrival. The government requires a separate travel permit for travel to Darfur. These regulations are strictly enforced and even travelers with proper documentation may expect delay or temporary detention from the security forces, especially outside the capital. Authorities expect travelers to strictly respect roadblocks and other checkpoints.

Travelers who wish to take any photographs must obtain a photography permit from the Government of Sudan, Ministry of Interior, Department of Aliens.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site. For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
On January 1, 2008, unknown assailants shot and killed two U.S. Embassy employees - an American USAID officer and a Sudanese national driver. Terrorists are known to operate in Sudan and continue to seek opportunities to carry out attacks against U.S. interests. Terrorist actions may include suicide operations, bombings, or kidnappings. U.S. citizens should be aware of the risk of indiscriminate attacks on civilian targets in public places, which include tourist sites and locations where westerners are known to congregate, and commercial operations associated with U.S. or Western interests. Terrorists are known to have targeted both official facilities and residential compounds. Anti-American sentiment is prevalent and Americans should exercise utmost caution at all times.

The U.S. Embassy’s ability to provide consular services in Sudan, including emergency assistance, is severely limited. Many areas outside the capital of Khartoum are extremely difficult to access.

Travel in many parts of Sudan is hazardous. Outside the major cities infrastructure is extremely poor, medical care is limited, and very few facilities for tourists exist.

Conflict among various armed groups and government forces continues in western Sudan, in the states of North Darfur, South Darfur, and West Darfur. Banditry and lawlessness are also common in the west. Many local residents are in camps for internally-displaced persons, and receive humanitarian assistance for basic needs such as food, water, and shelter. Expatriate humanitarian workers have been the targets of carjackings and burglaries.

Land mines remain a major hazard in southern Sudan, especially south of the city of Juba. Visitors should travel only on main roads unless a competent de-mining authority such as the UN has marked an area as clear of mines. The armed Ugandan group known as The Lord’s Resistance Army is present along the southern border and reportedly has announced it will target Americans.
Occasional clashes between armed groups representing communal interests continue to occur in the centrally-located states of Upper Nile, Blue Nile, and Bahr al Ghazal. Banditry also occurs.
Sudan shares porous land borders with nine other countries, including Chad, the Central African Republic, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, and Eritrea. Conflict in these countries occasionally spills over into Sudan.

Americans considering sea travel in Sudan's coastal waters should exercise caution as there have been incidents of armed attacks and robberies by unknown groups in recent years, including one involving two American vessels. Exercise extreme caution, as these groups are considered armed and dangerous. When transiting in and around the Horn of Africa and/or in the Red Sea near Yemen, it is strongly recommended that vessels convoy in groups and maintain good communications contact at all times. Marine channels 13 and 16 VHF-FM are international call-up and emergency channels, and are commonly monitored by ships at sea. 2182 Mhz is the HF international call-up and emergency channel. Wherever possible, travel in trafficked sea-lanes. Avoid loitering in or transiting isolated or remote areas. In case of emergency, contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. In the event of an attack, consider activating Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME: Crime is on the increase throughout Sudan. Additional security measures should be taken at places of residence to protect life and property. Anti-American sentiments can be found throughout the country. Americans should exercise caution by avoiding crowded public areas and public gatherings. Americans should avoid traveling alone. Report all instances of anti-American acts and crime targeting westerners to the American Embassy, and report incidents of crime to the Sudanese Police.

Americans should guard their backpacks or hand luggage. When traveling by air, travelers should maintain constant contact with their baggage and assure that they do not contain illicit items, such as alcohol or military ordinance. Americans have been removed from international airlines and detained when suspect items have been detected in checked baggage.

Carjacking and armed robbery continue to occur in western and southern Sudan. Sexual assault is more prevalent in the areas of armed conflict. Travelers who do not use the services of reputable travel firms or knowledgeable guides or drivers are especially at risk. Travel outside of Khartoum should be undertaken with a minimum of two vehicles so that there is a backup in case of mechanical failure or other emergency. Solo camping is always risky.

The Sudanese mail system can be unreliable. International couriers provide the safest means of shipping envelopes and packages, although anything of value should be insured.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Individuals with medical conditions which may require treatment are discouraged from traveling to Sudan. Medical facilities in Khartoum fall short of U.S. standards; outside the capital, very few facilities exist and hospitals and clinics are poorly equipped. Travelers must pay cash in advance for any medical treatment. Ambulance services are not available. Medicines are available only intermittently; travelers should bring sufficient supplies of needed medicines in clearly-marked containers.

Malaria is prevalent in all areas of Sudan. The strain is resistant to chloroquine and can be fatal. Consult a health practitioner before traveling, obtain suitable anti-malarial drugs, and use protective measures, such as insect repellent, protective clothing, and mosquito nets. Travelers who become ill with a fever or a flu-like illness while in Sudan, or within a year after departure, should promptly seek medical care and inform their physician of their travel history and the kind of anti-malarial drugs used. For additional information about malaria and anti-malarial drugs please see the Center for Disease Control travelers’ health web site, http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/index.htm.

Officially, people with HIV are not granted a visa and are not permitted to enter Sudan. A negative HIV test result must be presented at a Sudanese embassy or at Khartoum airport in order to obtain a visa. However, anecdotal reports indicate this requirement is not enforced in practice. Please confirm this requirement with the Embassy of Sudan at www.sudanembassy.org.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Sudan is provided for general reference only, and may not be accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Road conditions throughout Sudan are hazardous due to erratic driver behavior, pedestrians and animals in the roadways, and the lack of basic safety equipment on many vehicles. Only major highways and some streets in the cities are paved; many roads are narrow, rutted, and poorly maintained. Local drivers do not observe conventions for the right-of-way, stop in the road without warning, and frequently exceed safe speeds for road, traffic, and weather conditions. Driving at night is dangerous and should be avoided if possible; many vehicles operate without lights.

In the north and west, dust storms and sand storms, known locally as haboobs, greatly reduce visibility when they occur. Roads in these areas can be quickly covered with shifting sand at any season of the year. Roads in southern Sudan often are impassable during the rainy season, from March to October.
U.S. citizens are subject to the laws of the country in which they are traveling, including traffic laws. In Sudan vehicles have the steering wheel on the left side and drivers use the right side of the road.

Traffic from side streets on the right has the right-of-way when entering a cross street, including fast-moving main streets. Traffic on the right has the right-of-way at stops. Right turns on a red light are prohibited. Speed limits are not posted, but the legal speed limit for passenger cars on inter-city highways is 120 kph (about 70 mph), while in most urban areas the limit is 60 kph (about 35 mph.) The speed limit in congested areas and school zones is 40 kph (about 25 mph).

Many local drivers carry no insurance despite the legal requirement that all motor vehicle operators purchase third-party liability insurance from the government. Persons involved in an accident resulting in death or injury must report the incident to the nearest police station or police officer as soon as possible. Persons found at fault can expect fines, revocation of driving privileges, and jail sentences, depending on the nature and extent of the accident. Persons convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol face fines, jail sentences, and corporal punishment.

Americans may use their U.S. driver's licenses for up to 90 days after arrival in Sudan, and then must carry either an International Driving Permit (IDP) or a Sudanese driver's license. There are no restrictions on vehicle types, including motorcycles and motorized tricycles.

Public transportation is limited to within and between major urban areas. Passenger facilities are basic and crowded, especially during rush hours and periods of seasonal travel. Schedules are unpublished and subject to change without notice. Vehicle maintenance does not meet U.S. standards. There is routine passenger train service on the route from Khartoum to Wadi Halfa (on the border with Egypt) and to Port Sudan (on the Red Sea.) Bus service between major cities is regular and inexpensive. Intra-city bus service in the major urban areas is regular, but most buses and bus stops are privately-operated and unmarked. Taxis are available in the major cities at hotels, tourist sites, and government offices. The motorized rickshaws in common use in Khartoum are unsafe. Travelers are encouraged to hire cars and drivers from reputable sources with qualified drivers and safe vehicles. Irregularly-scheduled mini-buses provide some public transit to rural communities; many areas lack any public transportation.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Sudan, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Sudan’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

Enforcement of aviation safety standards in Sudan is uneven; civil aviation in Sudan continues to experience air incidents and accidents, including 5 crashes with at least 64 fatalities between November 8, 2007, and June 30, 2008. Incidents included engine failures, collapsed landing gear, and planes veering off the runway. Whenever possible, Americans traveling to Sudan despite the ongoing travel warning are advised to travel directly to their destinations on international carriers from countries whose civil aviation authorities meet international aviation safety standards for the oversight of their air carrier operations under the FAA’s International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) program. Adverse seasonal weather conditions, such as dust or sand storms in the north between April and June and severe rain storms in the south between March and October, cause frequent flight cancellations.

Two hijackings originated in Sudan in 2007; no passengers were harmed.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: In November 1997, the U.S. imposed comprehensive financial and commercial sanctions against Sudan, prohibiting U.S. transactions with Sudan. Travelers intending to visit Sudan despite the Travel Warning should contact the Department of the Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC), Office of Compliance, telephone 1-800-540-6322 or 202-622-2490, regarding the effect of these sanctions.

Travelers must be prepared to pay cash for all purchases, including hotel bills, airfares purchased locally, and all other travel expenses. Major credit cards, including Visa, MasterCard, or American Express, cannot be used in Sudan due to U.S. sanctions. Sudan has no international ATMs. Local ATMs draw on local banks only.

Travelers, including journalists, must obtain a photography permit before taking any photographs. Even with a photography permit, photographing military areas, bridges, drainage stations, broadcast stations, public utilities, slum areas, and beggars is prohibited.

Sudan is a conservative society, particularly in the capital and other areas where the Muslim population is the majority. Alcohol is prohibited by law and modest dress is expected. Loose, long-sleeved shirts and full-length skirts or slacks are recommended attire for women visitors. Women who are not Muslim are not expected or required to cover their heads. Men may wear short-sleeved shirts but short pants are not acceptable in public.

Please see our information on Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Sudanese laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in alcohol or illegal drugs in Sudan are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States as well in Sudan.

Sudan’s Public Order Courts have continued to serve as the state mechanism for morality enforcement since the early 1980's. Today the court still issues punishments ranging from fines, to lashings, to lengthy prison sentences for offences such as drinking alcohol, wearing inappropriate clothing, or associating with unmarried women.

Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Sudan are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Sudan. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located at Sharia Ali Abdel Latif, Khartoum, Sudan; tel: 249 1 83 774-701, http://sudan.usembassy.gov/.
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information dated March 12, 2008, to update sections on Entry/Exit Requirements, Medical Facilities and Health Information, Aviation Safety Oversight, and Criminal Penalties.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

5th November 2019
http://www.emro.who.int/sdn/sudan-news/who-scales-up-cholera-vigilance-in-khartoum-sudan.html

5 November 2019, Khartoum, Sudan -- To prevent a potential spread of the current cholera outbreak to Khartoum State – including to the country’s capital Khartoum City – and at the request of the Federal Minister of Health Dr Akram Eltoum, WHO is working closely with health partners, nongovernmental organizations, and at-risk communities to ensure that suspected cases are quickly identified and responded to, and that people can effectively protect themselves from infection.  “The risk of cholera spreading is very real. If not properly managed, this could have potentially serious consequences. More than eight million people live in Khartoum State, where the public health system is impacted by the economic crisis, recent flooding, and ongoing outbreaks of infectious diseases,” said Dr Naeema Al Gasseer, WHO Representative in Sudan.

As of 3 November, Sudan’s Ministry of Health reported 332 suspected cases of cholera, concentrated in Blue Nile and Sennar States. Two cases were confirmed in Khartoum State on 19 October.  Together with the Ministry of Health, WHO has conducted initial risk mapping in Khartoum State to identify which areas are more likely to be at increased risk of an outbreak. This will allow for more informed planning to ensure high-risk areas, including Sharq Elnil and Ombada localities, are better prepared to respond as needed.  Scaling up health capacities to detect and respond to cholera

To ensure that health facilities and cholera treatment centres in Khartoum State are equipped to diagnose and treat suspected patients, WHO has delivered cholera medicines and supplies sufficient for 400 severely dehydrated patients, and 500 Rapid Diagnostic Tests used for immediate detection and screening of cholera patients in health facilities.  WHO is also supporting the establishing of two cholera treatment centres in Ombada and Bahri localities by providing additional cholera medicines, medical supplies, and Rapid Diagnostic Tests.

To strengthen disease surveillance in Khartoum State, WHO, with support MSF, is providing refresher training for 271 health staff and paramedics from all 7 localities on cholera detection and management. An additional 35 health staff are being trained to form Rapid Response Teams who will be the first to respond to suspected cases at locality level.  Ensuring communities are aware of prevention and treatment actions.  “A key aspect of preventing and controlling cholera is how well at-risk communities are able to protect themselves by drinking safe water, properly handling food, avoiding defecation in open areas, handwashing, and knowing what to do when they see the first signs of infection,” said Dr Al Gasseer.

WHO and the Khartoum State Ministry of Health are working with more than 1700 male and female health promoters and volunteers who will play a critical role in raising awareness among communities on cholera, hygiene practices, and environmental health, as well as linking communities with available health services and involving them more in health planning activities.

WHO’s work to protect people from cholera in Sudan is made possible through the Sudan Humanitarian Fund.

For more information
Inas Hamam
Communications officer
WHO Regional Office
hamami@who.int
Date: Sun 27 Oct 2019
Source: Radio Dabanga and AllAfrica [edited]

According to the Sudanese Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization (WHO), 323 suspected cholera cases, including 10 deaths, were reported in Blue Nile state, Sennar and Khartoum between the end of August 2019 and [22 Oct 2019]. The 1st case was detected on [28 Aug 2019], the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs in Sudan says in its latest Sudan Situation Report. Two cases were recently recorded in Ombadda locality in Omdurman, the twin-city of Khartoum.

On [6 Oct 2019], humanitarian partners in Sudan launched the Cholera Readiness and Response Plan, that targets 2.5 million people in 8 high-risk states (Blue Nile state, Sennar, El Gedaref, Kassala, El Gezira, White Nile state, Khartoum, and River Nile state).

An oral cholera vaccine campaign launched on 11 Oct 2019 is ongoing, targeting 1.6 million people in high risk communities in Blue Nile and Sennar states. The aim of the campaign is to contain the outbreak and prevent its spread to neighboring states.

Risk assessment
---------------
Sudan has been facing a continuous surge of acute watery diarrhea/suspected cholera cases since 2016. The current outbreak was reported following recent heavy rains and flooding in 17 out of 18 states across the country. As a result of the flooding, the country reported widespread damage to infrastructure, thus more cholera cases can be expected in the future.
======================
[As stated in Lutwick LI, Preis J, Choi P: Cholera. In: Chronic illness and disability: the pediatric gastrointestinal tract. Greydanus DE, Atay O, Merrick J (eds). NY: Nova Bioscience, 2018; pp 113-136, oral rehydration therapy can be life-saving in outbreaks of cholera and other forms of diarrhea:
"As reviewed by Richard Guerrant et al (1), it was in 1831 that cholera treatment could be accomplished by intravenous replacement, and, although this therapy could produce dramatic improvements, not until 1960 was it 1st recognized that there was no true destruction of the intestinal mucosa, and gastrointestinal rehydration therapy could be effective, and the therapy could dramatically reduce the intravenous needs for rehydration. Indeed, that this rehydration could be just as effective given orally as through an orogastric tube (for example, refs 2 and 3) made it possible for oral rehydration therapy (ORT) to be used in rural remote areas and truly impact on the morbidity and mortality of cholera. Indeed, Guerrant et al (1) highlights the use of oral glucose-salt packets in war-torn Bangladeshi refugees, which reduced the mortality rate from 30 per cent to 3.6 per cent (4) and quotes sources referring to ORT as "potentially the most important medical advance" of the 20th century. A variety of formulations of ORT exist, generally glucose or rice powder-based, which contain a variety of micronutrients, especially zinc (5).

"The assessment of the degree of volume loss in those with diarrhea to approximate volume and fluid losses can be found in ref 6 below. Those with severe hypovolemia should be initially rehydrated intravenously with a fluid bolus of normal saline or Ringer's lactate solution of 20-30 ml/kg followed by 100 ml/kg in the 1st 4 hours and 100 ml/kg over the next 18 hours with regular reassessment. Those with lesser degrees of hypovolemia can be rehydrated orally with a glucose or rice-derived formula with up to 4 liters in the 1st 4 hours, and those with no hypovolemia can be given ORT after each liquid stool with frequent reevaluation."

References
----------
1. Guerrant RL, Carneiro-Filho BA and Dillingham RA. Cholera, diarrhea, and oral rehydration therapy: triumph and indictment. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37(3):398-405; available at: <http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/37/3/398.long>.
2. Gregorio GV, Gonzales ML, Dans LF and Martinez EG. Polymer-based oral rehydration solution for treating acute watery diarrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(2):CD006519. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006519.pub2; available at: <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD006519.pub3/full>.
3. Gore SM, Fontaine O and Pierce NF. Impact of rice based oral rehydration solution on stool output and duration of diarrhea: meta-analysis of 13 clinical trials. BMJ 1992; 304(6822): 287-91; available at: <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1881081/>.
4. Mahalanabis D, Choudhuri AB, Bagchi NG, et al. Oral fluid therapy of cholera among Bangladesh refugees. Johns Hopkins Med 1973; 132(4): 197-205; available at: <http://www.searo.who.int/publications/journals/seajph/media/2012/seajph_v1n1/whoseajphv1i1p105.pdf>.
5. Atia AN and Buchman AL. Oral rehydration solutions in non-cholera diarrhea: a review. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009; 104(10): 2596-604, doi: 10.1038/ajg.2009.329; abstract available at: <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19550407>.
6. WHO. The treatment of diarrhea, a manual for physicians and other senior health workers. 4th ed. 2005; available at: <http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2005/9241593180.pdf>. - ProMED Mod.LL]

[HealthMap/ProMED maps available at:
Adamawa State, Nigeria: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/6479>
Date: Wed, 30 Oct 2019 13:41:25 +0100 (MET)

Juba, Oct 30, 2019 (AFP) - Three aid volunteers working at Ebola screening points along the DR Congo border were killed in clashes in South Sudan, the International Organisation of Migration (IOM) said Wednesday.   "The IOM volunteers, one female and two males, were caught in a crossfire during clashes that broke out" on Sunday, in Morobo County in the Central Equatoria region, the UN agency said in a statement.   Two other male volunteers were injured, while a female volunteer and the son of the woman who was killed were abducted.   "We are deeply saddened by the loss of our colleagues and we extend our heartfelt condolences to their families and friends," said IOM chief of mission in South Sudan, Jean-Philippe Chauzy.

According to the statement, the IOM has suspended screening for Ebola at five sites along the border with the Democratic Republic of Congo.   An Ebola outbreak has killed more than 2,000 people in DR Congo since August 2018, placing the region on high alert, with cases already having spread to Uganda.   "The safety of our personnel is paramount and will not be further jeopardised until we secure guarantees for the security of all our personnel operating in Morobo County," said Chauzy.    The UN's humanitarian agency OCHA also condemned the killings in a statement, noting it was the first reported killing of aid workers in South Sudan since 2018.

At least 115 aid workers, mainly South Sudanese, have been killed since the country plunged into conflict in December 2013 after President Salva Kiir accused his former deputy Riek Machar of plotting a coup against him.   The conflict has left nearly 400,000 dead and displaced millions.   A peace deal was signed in September last year and a ceasefire has largely held, but fighting in the Central Equatoria region has continued between government forces and a holdout rebel group.   A long-delayed unity government is due to be formed by November 12, however Machar is seeking further postponement over crucial outstanding issues.
Fri 11/10/2019 14:43
WorldHealthOrganizationNews@who.int

Attributable to the Federal Ministry of Health in Sudan, WHO and UNICEF

KHARTOUM, 11 October 2019 -  "Sudan has launched an oral cholera vaccination campaign in response to the ongoing outbreak of cholera. More than 1.6 million people aged one year and above in the Blue Nile and Sinnar states will be vaccinated over the coming five days.  “The announcement of the Federal Ministry of Health in Sudan on the cholera outbreak last month allowed national and state authorities, and health partners, to act quickly and respond to the outbreak.

“Since the announcement on 8 September, 262 cases of suspected cholera and eight related deaths have been reported as of 9 October in the Blue Nile and Sinnar states. No cholera-related deaths have been reported since mid-September. “The vaccines were procured and successfully shipped using funding from Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. In addition, Gavi is providing nearly US$ 2 million to cover operational costs for the campaign.

“We joined efforts to respond as quickly as possible to contain the current outbreak of cholera and prevent it from spreading further in Sudan. The vaccination campaign kicking off today in combination with other measures including scaling up water, sanitation and hygiene activities, enhancing surveillance, prepositioning supplies and case management, will help protect people who are at highest risk.

“The first round of the campaign will conclude on 16 October and will be followed by a second round in four to six weeks to provide an additional dose to ensure people are protected for at least the next three years.  “As part of the campaign, over 3,560 vaccinators, more than 2,240 social mobilizers, and almost 70 independent monitors have been trained and deployed to the two affected states.”
Date: Wed 9 Oct 2019
Source: Dabanga [edited]

Arbaat in El Ganeb locality in Sudan's Red Sea state reported 10 new cases of suspected Rift Valley fever* on Monday and Tuesday [7 and 8 Oct 2019], bringing the total number of registered cases to 5, and 3 deaths.  Doctor Ahmed Dereir told Radio Dabanga about the spread of the disease in 8 villages in the area of Arbaat, pointing out that the cases were transferred to Port Sudan for treatment. He explained that the governor formed an emergency room of 35 people representing various government agencies, medical committees, and members of the Forces for Freedom and Change.

Ali Bayrak, head of the Community Support Committee for the residents of Arbaat called on the government for the explicit announcement of the results of laboratory testing of samples.  The state Ministry of Health committed to provide 2 doctors to the villages of the Arbaat Administrative Unit and training 10 medical staff, and 3 midwives, in addition to the distribution of water chlorination tablets and the provision of 3 spraying vehicles.

As reported by Radio Dabanga on Sunday [6 Oct 2019], one man and more than 20 head of cattle died in Arbaat on Thursday and Friday [3 and 4 Oct 2019], and that to date, so far, 3 people and 420 cows have died of the disease, now suspected to be Rift Valley fever, that hit the area of Arbaat, north of Port Sudan, over the past weeks, medical doctor Ahmed Dereir told Radio Dabanga.

According to the UN World Health Organisation (WHO) Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a viral zoonosis that primarily affects animals but also has the capacity to infect humans. Infection can cause severe disease in both animals and humans. The disease also results in significant economic losses due to death and abortion among RVF-infected livestock.

RVF virus was 1st identified in 1931 during an investigation into an epidemic among sheep on a farm in the Rift Valley of Kenya, and most cases occur in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Key facts:
- Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a viral zoonosis that primarily affects animals but can also infect humans.
- The majority of human infections result from contact with the blood or organs of infected animals.
- Human infections have also resulted from the bites of infected mosquitoes.
- To date, no human-to-human transmission of RVF virus has been documented.
- The incubation period (the interval from infection to onset of symptoms) for RVF varies from 2-6 days.
- Outbreaks of RVF in animals can be prevented by a sustained programme of animal vaccination.
==================
[On Wed 9 Oct 2019, villages in the area of Arbaat in El Ganeb locality in Red Sea state reported 9 new cases suspected to be Rift Valley fever, bringing the total number of reported cases to 65 (<https://www.dabangasudan.org/en/all-news/article/nine-more-cases-of-rift-valley-fever-in-sudan-s-red-sea-state>). In addition to the Red Sea state outbreak mentioned above, a separate report indicates that Rift Valley fever is occurring in Sudan's River Nile state (see Rift Valley fever - Sudan: (RS,NR) human, animal, alert, OIE Archive Number: http://promedmail.org/post/20191014.6726088). These 2 Sudan states mentioned above are adjoining, so it is not surprising that suspected or confirmed Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks are occurring there simultaneously. The Ministry of Health is investigating the outbreaks in both states. Not only are these outbreaks a human health problem, they are clearly an animal health problem as well, with 420 cattle reported dying of the disease. A One Health response is urgently needed, with participation of physicians, veterinarians and entomologists. There was evidence of RVF virus in the neighbouring Central African Republic this year (2019). Last year (2018), human and animal cases occurred in neighboring South Sudan (see Valley fever - South Sudan (09): (EL) human, animal, WHO http://promedmail.org/post/20180410.5735975).

If focal geographic areas of transmission are identified in this Sudan situation, increased surveillance of people and livestock should be initiated and livestock vaccination considered. RVF-infected livestock can pose a significant risk to humans in contact with them, often livestock owners and veterinarians. Abortions in livestock with a loss in productivity present an economic problem for many ethnic groups that depend on them for livelihoods.

The above report mentions abortion storms in a River Nile state outbreak that could have had serious economic, social and public health consequences. It is likely that RVF virus will persist in this area in transovarially infected eggs of _Aedes_ mosquito vectors. These eggs can remain viable for long periods and hatch when flooded during future rain events, with subsequent emergence of infected females ready to transmit the virus. This risk provides justification for maintaining livestock of the area well vaccinated into the future. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[A media (radio) report on an event of human and animal disease, in Sudan's area of Arbaat, north of Port Sudan, Red Sea state, caused by an "unknown fever" killing 3 people and 420 cows, was posted by ProMED-mail on 6 Oct 2019 as "undiagnosed," RFI (http://promedmail.org/post/20191006.6712623). The commentary suggested RVF as possible etiology, requesting further information. According to Sudan's official OIE report, dated 13 Oct 2019, an event of RVF has been diagnosed in "Arabaata dam area, Alghunub Wa Alolaib, Red Sea state" (http://promedmail.org/post/20191014.6726088), the animals affected being goats, which are thus considered, in this event, the virus' primary victims and main source of human infection, directly or through vectors. The samples from the goats were found RVF-infected by ELISA. In difference with the earlier media (radio) report, the OIE report indicated that there are "no cattle and sheep in this area." A media report dated 12 Oct 2019 (<https://khartoumstar.com/en/2019/10/12/ministry-of-health-rift-valley-fever-in-northern-sudan/>) reported RVF "emerging" in Sudan's River Nile state, naming the locations Berber, north of Bawqa, Ftouar, Joule and Sulaimaniya, and the Artoli region of the East Bank. The report cited Hatem Fadl, an official in the epidemiology and emergency department at the Federal Ministry of Health, saying that "4 cases of Rift Valley fever were diagnosed among 17 samples taken last week, [which] were sent to the Central Laboratory in Khartoum." Hatem pointed out that the Federal Minister of Health commissioned a team to investigate the injuries, [which] arrived in the villages of Artoli, Al-Bawqa, and Fatwwar [Fri 11 Oct 2019], before the disease was officially announced (12 Oct 2019). Additional data were included in the same media source on 13 Oct 2019 (<https://khartoumstar.com/en/2019/10/13/attempts-to-control-rift-valley-fever-in-the-nile-river-state/>). No details on animal cases in River Nile state have become available, nor specific lab results of the human samples. Additional information from Sudan, and clarification on the discrepancies between the media reports as far as animal species are concerned, will be welcomed. - ProMED Mod.AS]

[A map showing the location of the 2 states mentioned above can be accessed at:

HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
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Djibouti

Djibouti - US Consular Information Sheet
May 30, 2006

COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: Djibouti is a developing African country located on the Gulf of Aden. It is a multi-party democracy with a legal system based on French civil law (Djibouti was a Fr
nch colony until 1977), though modified by traditional practices and Islamic (Sharia) law. Although exact statistics are unavailable, unemployment is estimated in excess of 50% of the working-age population. About two-thirds of the country's 650,000 residents live in the capital, also called Djibouti. Modern tourist facilities and communications links are limited in the city of Djibouti and are virtually non-existent outside the capital. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Djibouti for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: A passport, visa, and evidence of yellow fever vaccination are required. Travelers may obtain the latest information on entry requirements from the Embassy of the Republic of Djibouti, 1156 15th Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005, telephone (202) 331-0270, or at the Djibouti Mission to the United Nations, 866 United Nations Plaza, Suite 4011, New York, N.Y. 10017, telephone (212) 753-3163. Overseas, inquiries may be made at the nearest Djiboutian embassy or consulate. In countries where there is no Djiboutian diplomatic representation, travelers may sometimes obtain visas at the French Embassy. See our Foreign Entry Requirements brochure for more information on Djibouti and other countries. Visit the Embassy of Djibouti web site at www.embassy.org/embassies/dj.html for the most current visa information.
American journalists or any American connected with the media must contact the U.S. Embassy's Public Affairs section prior to travel to facilitate entry into Djibouti. If you are unclear whether this applies to you, please contact the U.S. Embassy for more information.

See Entry and Exit Requirements for more information pertaining to dual nationality and the prevention of international child abduction . Please refer to our Customs Information to learn more about customs regulations

SAFETY AND SECURITY: Djibouti enjoys a stable political climate. However, its international borders are porous and lightly patrolled. In particular, Somalia, Djibouti's neighbor to the south, is considered by many to be a haven for terrorists and other insurgent elements. In addition, tensions exist between neighboring Ethiopia and Eritrea due to the unsettled nature of their long-running border dispute. Civil unrest or armed conflict in neighboring countries could disrupt air travel to and from Djibouti or otherwise negatively affect its security situation.
Terrorism continues to pose a threat in East Africa. U.S. citizens should be aware of the potential for indiscriminate attacks on civilian targets in public places, including tourist sites and other sites where Westerners are known to congregate.
Travelers should exercise caution when traveling to any remote area of the country, including the borders with Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia. Djiboutian security forces do not have a widespread presence in those regions. In recent years, acts of sabotage have occurred along the Djibouti-Ethiopia railway. Although Americans were not specifically targeted in any of these attacks, U.S. citizens should exercise caution.
Demonstrations have become more frequent due to the recent increase in energy prices. Americans are advised to avoid all demonstrations as they may become violent.
Americans considering seaborne travel around Djibouti's coastal waters should exercise extreme caution, as there have been several recent incidents of armed attacks and robberies at sea by unknown groups. These groups are considered armed and dangerous. When transiting in and around the Horn of Africa and/or the Red Sea near Yemen, it is strongly recommended that vessels convoy in groups and maintain good communications contact at all times. Marine channels 13 and 16 VHF-FM are international call-up and emergency channels and are commonly monitored by ships at sea. 2182 Mhz is the HF international call-up and emergency channel. In the Gulf of Aden, transit routes farther offshore reduce, but do not eliminate, the risk of contact with suspected assailants. Wherever possible, travel in trafficked sea-lanes. Avoid loitering in or transiting isolated or remote areas. In the event of an attack, consider activating the Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons. Due to distances involved, there may be a considerable delay before assistance arrives. Vessels may also contact the Yemeni Coast Guard 24-hour Operations Center at 967 1 562-402. Operations Center staff members speak English.
U.S. citizens are encouraged to carry a copy of their U.S. passports with them at all times for readily available proof of identity and U.S. citizenship if questioned by local officials. Police occasionally stop travelers on the main roads leading out of the capital to check identity documents.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department's Internet web site where the current Worldwide Caution Public Announcement , Travel Warnings and Public Announcements can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State's pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad .
CRIME: Accurate crime statistics are not available, but crime appears to be on the rise. Petty thefts and pickpockets are common, and a few home invasions have been reported. Major crimes involving foreigners are rare, but are increasing in frequency. In the past year the number of murders has increased in Djibouti, involving mainly Djiboutian and third country nationals (TCNs). This increase in crime is possibly linked to declining economic conditions and a deepening resentment toward the increasing number of TCN workers brought in to assist with major construction projects in Djibouti.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime .
MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Adequate medical facilities in the capital of Djibouti are limited and medicines are often unavailable. Medicines that are available are extremely expensive. Medical services in some outlying areas may be completely nonexistent. Motorists especially should be aware that in case of an accident outside the capital, emergency medical treatment would depend almost exclusively on passersby. In addition, cell phone coverage in outlying areas is often unavailable, making it impossible to summon help.
Malaria and dengue fever are prevalent in Djibouti. Travelers who become ill with a fever or flu-like illness while traveling in a malaria-risk area and up to one year after returning home should seek prompt medical attention and tell the physician their travel history and what anti-malarial drugs they have been taking.

In 2005, polio was found in all of Djibouti's neighbors (Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea and Yemen) and health professionals strongly suspect it is present in Djibouti. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that all infants and children in the United States should receive four doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) at 2, 4, and 6-18 months and 4-6 years of age. Adults who are traveling to polio-endemic and epidemic areas and who have received a primary series with either IPV or oral polio vaccine should receive another dose of IPV. For adults, available data does not indicate the need for more than a single lifetime booster dose with IPV.

In May 2006, avian influenza was confirmed in three chickens and one human in Djibouti. For more information about this illness, see the Department of State's Avian Flu Fact Sheet .

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC's internet site at . For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's (WHO) website at . Further health information for travelers is available at .

MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas .
TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Djibouti is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

The Djiboutian Ministry of Defense and the national police force share responsibility for road safety in Djibouti. While Djibouti has been declared a "mine-safe" country, this indicates landmines have been identified and marked, not that they have been removed. Landmines are known to be present in the northern districts of Tadjoureh and Obock. In addition, there may be mines in the Ali Sabieh district in the south. Travelers should stay on paved roads and should check with local authorities before using unpaved roads.
The two main international routes to the capital city via Dire Dawa, Ethiopia, and Yoboki, Djibouti, are both in poor condition due to heavy truck traffic, whose presence demands that drivers remain vigilant. Major roads outside the capital are paved but lack guardrails. Railroad crossings are often not clearly marked.
Roads are often narrow, poorly maintained, and poorly lit. Drivers and pedestrians should exercise extreme caution. Excessive speed, unpredictable local driving habits, pedestrians and livestock in the roadway, and the lack of basic safety equipment on many vehicles are daily hazards. Speed limits are posted occasionally but are not enforced. The leafy narcotic khat is widely used, particularly in the afternoons, creating another traffic hazard. Travelers should be aware that police set up wire coils as roadblocks on some of the major roads, and these may be difficult to see at night.
The only means of public inter-city travel is by bus. Buses are poorly maintained and their operators often drive erratically with little regard for passenger safety.
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. Visit the web site of Djibouti's national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at .

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: As there is no direct commercial air service between the United States and Djibouti, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Djibouti's Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with ICAO international aviation safety standards. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA's Internet website at .

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: Although the narcotic khat is legal and widely chewed in Djibouti, it is considered an illegal substance in many countries, including the United States.
Djiboutians are generally conservative in dress and manner, especially in rural areas.
Photography of public infrastructure (including, but not limited to, public buildings, seaports, the airport, bridges, military facilities or personnel) is not allowed in Djibouti. Use extreme caution when photographing anyone or anything near prohibited areas. Photographic equipment will be confiscated, and the photographer may be arrested.
Djibouti is a cash-based economy and credit cards are not widely accepted. Reliable automated teller machines (ATMs) are not available. Changing money on the street is legal, but be aware of possible scams as well as personal safety considerations if people observe you carrying large amounts of cash. The exchange rate on the street will be similar to that at a bank or hotel. It is important that the U.S. banknotes that you carry have a date of 2003 or newer because some currency exchanges will not accept U.S. paper money older than 2003.

Djiboutian customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from Djibouti of firearms. It is advisable to contact the Embassy of Djibouti in Washington, D.C., for specific information regarding customs requirements.

Please see our information on Customs Information .
CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Djiboutian law, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Djibouti are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties .

CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children's Issues website.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION: Americans living or traveling in Djibouti are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department's travel registration website and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Djibouti. Americans withoutInternet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.

The U.S. Embassy is located at Plateau du Serpent, Boulevard Marechal Joffre, Djibouti City. The mailing address is Ambassade Americaine, B.P. 185, Djibouti, Republique de Djibouti. The telephone number is (253) 35-39-95. The fax number is (253) 35-39-40. Normal working hours are Sunday through Thursday, 7:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.
* * *
This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated November 2, 2005, to update sections on Safety and Security, Crime, Medical Facilities and Health Information, Special Circumstances, and Registration/Embassy Location.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Mon, 26 Feb 2018 08:27:14 +0100

Djibouti, Feb 26, 2018 (AFP) - President Ismael Omar Guelleh's ruling party claimed a resounding victory in Friday's parliamentary elections in Djibouti, taking nearly 90 percent of seats after the opposition largely boycotted the poll.   Mohamed Abdallah Mahyoub, a senior member of Guelleh's UMP party and campaign spokesman, told AFP late Sunday the party had won 58 out of 65 parliamentary seats, an increase of three since the last vote in 2013.   There was no immediate figure for turnout among the tiny Horn of Africa nation's 194,000 registered voters.   Guelleh has ruled Djibouti since 1999 and was last re-elected in 2016 with 87 percent of the vote.

The UMP's victory has helped by the badly-divided opposition with two parties -- MRD and RADDE and a faction of a third party, ARD -- refusing to put forward any candidates, saying the elections would neither be fair nor transparent while others accused the election commission of bias.   The UMP claimed every seat outside of the capital and all but seven seats in Djibouti city with the remainder going to the UDJ party.   The law stipulates that 25 percent of seats must go to women, an increase from just 10 percent in the outgoing parliament. According to Mahyoub, this threshold was nearly met as 15 women won parliamentary seats, 14 of them from the UMP.
Date: Thu, 12 Jun 2014 16:56:37 +0200 (METDST)

GENEVA, June 12, 2014 (AFP) - Nearly a quarter of the population in drought-hit Djibouti is in desperate need of aid, with malnutrition and a dramatic lack of water causing a mass exodus from rural areas, the UN said on Thursday.   "Persistent and recurring droughts have resulted in a general lack of water for both people and livestock," said the UN's Djibouti coordinator Robert Watkins.   The crisis, which has dragged on since 2010, has left a full 190,000 of the country's 850,000 residents in need of humanitarian assistance.   They include 27,500 refugees, mainly from neighbouring Somalia, Watkins told reporters in Geneva.

Yet the crisis in Djibouti has received little international attention, with a UN appeal for aid last year reaching only a third of its target -- the lowest level of funding for any such appeal worldwide.   The appeal comes amid warnings from Britain on Thursday that Somalia's Al-Qaeda-linked Shebab insurgents were planning further attacks in the tiny and traditionally tranquil Horn of Africa country.   Shebab suicide bombers hit a crowded restaurant in Djibouti last month, killing at least one, in an attack apparently linked to the country's participation in the African Union force in Somalia.   Djibouti's port also serves as a key base for international anti-piracy operations off the Somali coast.

Watkins also said on Thursday that some 60,000 migrants -- most of them Ethiopians trying to reach the Gulf for work -- were also in need of aid inside Djibouti.   Last year alone, 100,000 passed through the country, he said. Most migrants come on foot, staggering alongside the roads in the extreme heat.   "Many die from dehydration," he said.   Foreigners are not the only ones on the move in the country, where most people still live off livestock which have been hard-hit by the drought.   "There has been a huge exodus of people living in rural areas," Watkins said, adding that the population in the capital Djibouti City had more than doubled since 2010, now home to 85 percent of the population.

Nationwide, a full 18 percent of the population is considered acutely malnourished, rising to 26 percent in some areas -- well above the 15-percent emergency threshold, Watkins said.   Sixty percent of the country's population was also suffering from diarrhoeal diseases, he said.   Watkins said he hoped the lack of interest from funders would change, pointing out that a new appeal last month for $74 million (55 million euros) was already 13 percent funded, with contributions from the United States, the EU and Japan among others.
Date: Mon, 26 Nov 2012 18:20:54 +0100 (MET)

RIYADH, Nov 26, 2012 (AFP) - The United Nations said on Monday that the number of people in Arab countries infected with HIV more than doubled to 470,000 in the eight years to 2009. "The number of adults and children living with HIV has more than doubled between 2001 and 2009 from 180,000 to 470,000," according to data from UNAIDS, the UN programme on HIV and AIDS. New HIV infections increased from 43,000 in 2001 to 59,000 in 2009, it said at a meeting in Riyadh on combatting AIDS, organised by the Arab League and the Saudi government. The number of deaths from AIDS also surged from about 8,000 in 2001 to 24,000 in 2009.

In Djibouti and Somalia, the percentage of infected people represents 2.5 percent and 0.7 percent of the countries' respective populations. "These figures are very worrying and need an immediate response," it said in an Arabic-language statement. The figures appear in contrast with the global trend. UNAIDS said last week that 25 low- and middle-income countries had managed to at least halve their rate of new HIV infections since 2001, representing a reduction of 700,000 new HIV infections. Globally, new HIV infections fell to 2.5 million last year from 2.6 million in 2010 and represented a 20-percent drop from 2001, it said.
Date: Wed 23 Nov 2011
Source: IC Publications [edited]

Authorities in Djibouti have reported a serious outbreak of a potentially fatal diarrhea infection in the capital [Djibouti], with 2 deaths since October 2011 and 127 new cases this month [November 2011], the WHO said on Tuesday [22 Nov 2011]. WHO said 5000 cases of acute watery diarrhea (AWD) have already been reported this year [2011] compared to 2000 in the Red Sea port in 2010.

Poor hygiene and sanitation along with recent rainfall in some areas had led to the contamination of already limited and unsafe water supplies, according to the UN health agency, which said the drought in the Horn of Africa had exacerbated the situation.

"The effects of the recurring drought on several parts of Djibouti and neighbouring countries have resulted in a malnourished, poorer and more vulnerable population," a WHO statement said. [WHO] is working with the Djibouti ministry of health to train health workers and set up treatment centres.
Date: Tue, 22 Nov 2011 12:16:01 +0100 (MET)

GENEVA, Nov 22, 2011 (AFP) - Authorities in Djibouti have reported a serious outbreak of a potentially fatal diarrhoea infection in the capital, with two deaths since October and 127 new cases this month, the WHO said on Tuesday. The World Health Organization said 5,000 cases of Acute Watery Diarrhoea (AWD) have already been reported this year compared to 2,000 in the Red Sea port in 2010.

Poor hygiene and sanitation along with recent rainfall in some areas had led to the contamination of already limited and unsafe water supplies, according to the UN health agency, which said the drought in the Horn of Africa had exacerbated the situation. "The effects of the recurring drought on several parts of Djibouti and neighbouring countries have resulted in a malnourished, poorer and more vulnerable population," a WHO statement said. The body is working with the Djibouti ministry of health to train health workers and set up treatment centres.

Last week the UN rights agency reported an outbreak of cholera among Somali refugees in Kenya's huge Dadaab refugee camp, with one death. The WHO said on Tuesday that all five camps were affected by AWD but no cases had been reported in Kenya outside the camps. AWD is rife in south central Somalia where more than 53,000 cases were reported this year, resulting in 795 deaths, the agency said.
More ...

Uruguay

Uruguay - US Consular Information Sheet
May 01, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Uruguay is a constitutional democracy with a large, educated middle class and a robust developing economy.
The capital city is Montevideo .
Tourist facilit
es are generally good with many 5-star accommodations at resort destinations such as Punta del Este and Colonia de Sacramento.
The quality of tourist facilities varies according to price and location.
Travelers are encouraged to seek travel agency assistance in making plans to visit Uruguay .
Read the Department of State Background Notes on Uruguay for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
All United States citizens entering Uruguay for business or pleasure must have a valid passport.
U.S. citizens traveling on a regular passport do not need a visa for a visit of less than three months.
U.S. citizens traveling on diplomatic or official passports require a visa.
Air travelers are required to pay an airport tax upon departure.
This fee may be paid in U.S. dollars or in Uruguayan pesos.
For further information on entry requirements, contact the Embassy of Uruguay at 1913 “Eye” Street NW, Washington, DC 20006, tel. (202) 331-4219; e-mail: conuruwashi@uruwashi.org.
Travelers may also contact the Consulate of Uruguay in New York, Miami, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Puerto Rico.
Visit the Embassy of Uruguay web site at http://www.uruwashi.org/ for the most current visa information.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Regular protests, some with an anti-American flavor, take place outside Congress, City Hall and the “University of the Republic.”
U.S. citizens visiting or residing in Uruguay are advised to take common-sense precautions and avoid any large gatherings or any other event where crowds have congregated to demonstrate or protest.
If travelers encounter a protest they should walk the other way or enter a commercial establishment until the protest passes.
Taking pictures of protesters is not a good idea.

Although there have been no past instances of violence directed at U.S. citizens from cross-border extremist groups, U.S. citizens traveling or residing in the more remote areas of Uruguay near the border with Argentina and Brazil are urged to exercise caution.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up to date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada , a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays.)

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
Petty street crime is prevalent in Montevideo .
The criminals tend to be non-violent.
However, criminals often resort to violence if the victims resist.
Travelers should exercise reasonable caution to minimize their exposure to crime.
Criminals prey on the unaware, particularly those carrying cameras, pocketbooks, laptops, or backpacks.
Travelers are advised to lock most valuables in secure hotel safes and to download their wallets of excess credit cards and cash.
If dining at an outdoor restaurant take extra care with pocketbooks or bags.
There are no “off limits” areas of the city and parts of “Ciudad Vieja” are popular tourist attractions.
However the only sections of Ciudad Vieja with continual police patrols are Plaza Independencia, the pedestrian street Sarandi, and the Mercado del Puerto.
Mugging is common in other parts of Ciudad Vieja - particularly for travelers walking alone, or couples walking at night.
A smart alternative is to call for a taxi for evening travel between restaurants, bars, and hotels.

Victims are usually foreign tourists, individuals openly carrying valuable items, and motorists in unlocked vehicles stopped at busy intersections, particularly on Montevideo 's riverfront road known as the Rambla. Drivers should keep all car doors locked, the driver's window open only one inch, and purses, bags, briefcases and other valuables out of sight on the floor or in the trunk. Parked cars, particularly in the Carrasco neighborhood, are also increasingly targeted for break-ins. During the summer months (December-March), beach resort areas such as Punta del Este attract tourists, and petty street crimes and residential burglaries--similar to those that occur in Montevideo --rise significantly. Visitors are advised to exercise common sense in the conduct of their activities around Montevideo and in Uruguayan resort areas. They should be very attentive to personal security and their surroundings in the aforementioned areas.

Those planning to live in Montevideo should note that burglaries and attempted burglaries seem to be on the rise in upscale neighborhoods.
The perpetrators are mostly non-confrontational but determined teenagers.
A combination of preventive measures including rigorous use of locks and alarms, strong grillwork on all windows, guard dogs, keeping a residence occupied as much as possible, and using a security service is highly recommended.

Montevideo continues to experience armed robberies of patrons at crowded restaurants in the Pocitos neighborhood.
Most of these crimes have occurred very late at night.
Restaurant patrons should exercise extreme caution for late night dining.

Uruguayan law enforcement authorities have increased the number of uniformed policemen on foot in areas where criminal activity is concentrated and the number of patrol cars in residential areas. The clearly marked patrol cars are equipped with cellular phones and the phone numbers are conspicuously painted on the vehicles.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Facilities for medical care are considered adequate. Serious medical problems requiring hospitalization and/or medical evacuation to the United States can cost tens of thousands of dollars.


Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States .
The information below concerning Uruguay is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in particular location or circumstance.

The Uruguayan Ministry of Transportation is responsible for maintaining safe road conditions countrywide. The Uruguayan Ministry of Interior highway police (tel. 1954) are responsible for traffic safety on highways and other roads beyond city limits. In urban and suburban areas, transit police and municipal employees share road safety responsibilities.

Driving is on the right-hand side of the road. Wearing seat belts and using headlights on highways and other inter-city roads 24 hours a day are mandatory. Children under 12 must ride in the back seat. Motorcyclists must wear helmets. The use of cellular phones while driving is prohibited. Right turns on red lights and left turns at most intersections marked with a stoplight are not permitted. Drivers approaching an intersection from the right or already in traffic circles have the right of way.
Flashing high beams indicate intent to pass or continue through unmarked intersections.
Many drivers ignore speed limits and traffic signs.
If you plan to drive, use extreme caution and drive defensively.

For driving under the influence, violators are fined and confiscated licenses may be retained for up to six months. In accidents causing injury or death, drivers are brought before a judge who decides if incarceration is warranted.

Inter-city travel is via bus, taxi, car service (remise), car, and motorcycle. Speed limits are posted on highways and some main roads. Most taxis have no seat belts in the back seat. Cycling outside the capital or small towns is hazardous due to a scarcity of bike paths, narrow road shoulders and unsafe driving practices.

Illumination, pavement markings, and road surfaces are sometimes poor. Route 1, which runs between Montevideo and Colonia or Punta del Este, and Route 2, between Rosario and Fray Bentos, are particularly accident-ridden because of heavy tourist traffic. Road accidents rise during the austral summer beach season (December to March), Carnaval (mid-to-late February), and Easter Week.

Within Montevideo , the emergency number to contact the police, fire department, rescue squad, or ambulance service is 911. In the rest of the country, dial 02-911 to connect with the Montevideo central emergency authority, which will then contact the local emergency service. The Automobile Club of Uruguay responds to emergency calls for roadside assistance at 1707, “Car Up” at 0800-1501 and the Automobile Center of Uruguay at 2-408-6131/2091. SEMM (tel. 159) and UCM (tel. 147), Montevideo-based ambulance services manned by doctors, have agreements with emergency medical units in other cities.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
You may also telephone Uruguay ’s national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety in Miami at (305) 443-7431.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed Uruguay ’s Civil Aviation Authority as not being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Uruguay ’s air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Uruguay 's customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from Uruguay of items such as precious jewels, gold, firearms, pornography, subversive literature, inflammable articles, acids, prohibited drugs (medications), plants, seeds, and foodstuffs as well as some antiquities and business equipment. It is advisable to contact the Embassy of Uruguay in Washington, D.C., or one of Uruguay 's consulates in the U.S. for specific information regarding customs requirements. Note: Travelers entering Uruguay with precious jewels or gold worth more than $500.00 ( U.S. ) must declare them to customs officers at the port of entry or face possible detention or seizure of the goods and charges of contraband or evasion of customs controls. Visitors are expected to comply with local law and regulations by approaching a customs officer before routine inspection of all incoming baggage, conducted on standard security equipment.
Please see our Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Uruguay ’s laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Uruguay are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States .
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

The Uruguayan Ministry of Agriculture and Fishing strictly enforces all regulations regarding hunting permits, as well as seasonal and numerical limits on game. Visitors who contravene local law have been detained by the authorities and had valuable personal property (weapons) seized. Under Uruguayan law, seized weapons can only be returned after payment of a sum equivalent to the value of the property seized. Hunters are also subject to stiff fines for practicing the sport without all appropriate permits.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages onintercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Uruguay are encouraged to register with the U.S. Embassy through the State Department's travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Uruguay .
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the U.S. Embassy.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located at Lauro Muller 1776; telephone (598) (2) 418-7777; fax (598) (2) 418-4110 or -8611. Internet: http://uruguay.usembassy.gov/, email: MontevideoACS@state.gov. Consular Section hours for American Citizen Services are Monday to Thursday, 9:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. and 2:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m., except U.S. and Uruguayan holidays.
* * *
This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated August 28, 2007 to update Sections on Entry/Exit Requirements, Safety and Security, Crime, Aviation Safety Oversight, Children’s issues, and Registration/Embassy Location.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

20th June 2019
https://en.mercopress.com/2019/06/20/torrential-rains-in-uruguay-forces-7.400-to-abandon-their-homes
Troops will continue monitoring the situation because “there are many people who do not want to leave their homes due to fear of being looted” Bayardi said.Torrential rains in central and southern Uruguay in the past several days have caused massive floods and forced some 7,400 people to leave their homes, according to the latest update by the country's National Emergency System.  The central city of Durazno is the most affected, with 5,299 evacuees, according to official reports.

Defense Minister Jose Bayardi visited one of the camp sites managed by the military to help the displaced.  ”We have established a high level of experience (in the face of these catastrophes) which we have succeeded in institutionalizing,“ he told the media. Troops will continue monitoring the situation because ”there are many people who do not want to leave their homes due to fear of being robbed and looted” Bayardi said.

The National Highway Police also said that 12 national highways remain cut-off in different directions. Uruguay's National Meteorological Institute said that between June 11 and 16, some southern regions of the country received around 270 mm of rain.  On Wednesday morning, the Yi River, which had been 11.8 meters higher than its normal water level in the Durazno area, was falling at a rate of 11 cm per hour, according to local media reports.

Date: Tue 12 Mar 2019
Source: Carmelo Portal [in Spanish, trans. Mod. TY, edited]

The departmental health director, Dr Jorge Mota, confirmed for Carmelo Portal the death in our city of a young 17 year old girl from [a] hantavirus [infection]. "In Colonia department, there are on average 3 cases per year. The evolution of the disease is in thirds. One-third of the [infected] people do not have notable symptoms; another third have serious symptoms, especially respiratory symptoms and ones in all the systems, but with adequate treatment, [the infected people] survive, sometimes with sequelae. There is another third that die. It is those few with the virus that die with an evolution so drastic, such as is the case of this girl, sadly," Dr Mota stated.

The department health director said that hantaviruses are not contagious person-to-person. "It is transmitted from an intermediate animal, the field mouse. Only 3% of these mice have [a] hantavirus. To become infected, one must be in contact with an [infected] mouse's secretions that have dried, are mixed with dust, and are in a closed space, away from sunlight and ventilation. A spa, a shed, or a wood pile [are examples of such a space]. The person had to have been moving around there and inhaled the dust," he explained.

Dr Mota spoke about the epidemiological surveillance that is carried out. "We tracked places where the person was, even those that could be identified 2 months before contracting the virus; sometimes we found the place, but sometimes not." As a preventive measure, Mota stated that in these cases, ventilate these closed spaces for at least half an hour. Wet down floors and shelves with water [with 10% bleach]. Use masks [and gloves].
==========================
[The report above does not mention the circumstances under which the infection might have been acquired nor which hantavirus was responsible for this or earlier cases in Uruguay. Hantaviruses that cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (with rodent hosts found in Uruguay) include Laguna Negra virus (_Calomys laucha_), Maciel virus (_Necromys benefactus_), Central Plata virus, Lechiguanas virus (_Oligoryzomys flavescens_, complex of rodents), and Anajatuba virus and Juquitiba virus (_Ologoryzomys fornesi_).

The rodent reservoir hosts shed the virus in its saliva, urine, and faeces, contaminating the environment in which they live and breed.

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map showing the location of Uruguay in South America can be accessed at
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/28995>.

A map of Colonia department in southern Uruguay is available at
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonia_del_Sacramento>
and <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/27367>. - ProMED Mod.TY]
Date: Thu, 19 Jul 2018 03:23:55 +0200
By Lucia LACURCIA

Montevideo, July 19, 2018 (AFP) - Enrique Curbelo is delighted. Selling cannabis has allowed the affable 76-year-old to keep his privately owned pharmacy in Montevideo open in a market dominated by big chains.   "I had to sell what they didn't sell," he told AFP. "For me it's like selling aspirin."   It's been this way for a year now.   Every Wednesday, Ismael Fernandez receives a WhatsApp message from his local pharmacist telling him a new stock of cannabis has arrived.   After leaving work, he heads there and buys the 10 grams that Uruguayan law permits, costing 400 pesos, around $13.

Fernandez then heads home and rolls a joint "to relax" with his partner Stefania Fabricio.   No longer do they need to surreptitiously contact a dealer and pay more for Paraguayan or Brazilian marijuana that's been "pressed, mixed (and is) sometimes very bad and full of chemicals."   "Now it's much easier than when it started," Fernandez, a 31-year-old who works for a cleaning company, told AFP.   It has been four and a half years since marijuana use became legal in Uruguay and a year since it has been sold in pharmacies -- up to 40 grams a month per person.

Initially, there was insufficient supply, leaving people standing in long queues as stocks sometimes ran out. Pharmacies are better prepared now.   "They send you a message with a number which you use later to go and collect it, and in my pharmacy you can order it online," added Fernandez, the father of a three-year-old.   Hairdresser Fabricio, also 31, says "it's good quality," but not too strong.   "It doesn't send your head spinning, but it's not meant to. You get a hit but you can still do things perfectly."   - 'Privileged' -   She says she feels "privileged" to live in a country that enacted a law to "get tons of people out of the black market."   As a result, she said, the stigma attached to those who smoke pot is changing, "albeit slowly."

The system is simple: to buy cannabis in a pharmacy you must be at least 18, live in Uruguay and sign up as a "buyer" at the post office.   An initial stumbling block arose when banks refused to work with establishments selling cannabis due to international rules against drug-trafficking.   But the country plowed on, and last year it became the first in the world to fully legalize its sale.   But Enrique Curbelo had to get over his own prejudices before deciding to join the select band of pharmacies selling the plant.   There are 14, half of them in the capital, serving the 24,812 registered buyers.

- 'Normal people' -
Users can choose between two brands and two types of cannabis -- sativa and indica -- both provided by an official distributor.   Customers are generally not the stereotypical grubby-looking student or idle waster.    On this day in Curbelo's store they include two young women, a man in his 50s and an older lady -- "normal people," says the pharmacist.   Official statistics say 70 percent of buyers are male and 49 percent are between the ages of 18 and 29.

To keep anyone from exceeding their monthly allowance, a fingerprint machine is used to register every sale.   Along with the ability to purchase cannabis in a pharmacy, Uruguayans have the right to grow their own -- up to a six-plant maximum -- or to join a cannabis club, which can have up to 45 members and 99 plants.   Federico Corbo, a 41-year-old gardener, grows cannabis in his garden on the outskirts of Montevideo. He experiments by crossing species in an attempt to improve quality and optimize the flowering period.   Corbo is not impressed with the quality on offer in pharmacies.   "It's not the worst, but it's low," he said, insisting quality control needs to be improved.   "Marijuana that doesn't reach the minimum standards -- with crushed flowers, no aroma, low quality -- shouldn't be sold in the pharmacy.   "Maybe, as I'm a grower, I'm very demanding, but there is a cost associated to the product and it must be offered to the public in the best way possible."

According to the Institute of Cannabis Regulation and Control (Ircca), an average cultivator or club member supplies cannabis to two other people, while those who buy it in a pharmacy share it with one other.   "Approximately half of marijuana users have access to regulated cannabis," says Ircca.   The rest prefer to continue buying the drug on the black market, put off by the need to register as a user.   "It's wrong -- if they legalize it they have to do so in a way in which the state doesn't keep a paternalistic role in overseeing how much you smoke or stop smoking," one clandestine user, who wished to remain anonymous, told AFP.   This 48-year-old lawyer simply doesn't trust the authorities. He pointed to the danger a change of government could bring, or even the return of dictatorship.   "Right now that seems impossible," he said, "but you can never discount it."
Date: Thu 1 Feb 2018 23:02hs UYT
Source: LaRed 21 [in Spanish, machine trans. edited]

The Ministry of Public Health (MSP) issued a statement through which it reports that it has detected cases of infection by the bacterium _Vibrio vulnificus_ in Montevideo, Canelones, and Maldonado [departments]. The State Secretariat assured that every year there are cases of this bacterium, but so far in 2018, 4 serious cases have been reported, of which 3 died. All of them had underlying illnesses.

"90 percent of these cases, in the world, are associated with the consumption of undercooked or raw seafood. Infrequently, the infection can be acquired when entering the sea with open wounds, especially in elderly people or people with diseases that affect the immune system," explained the MSP. It is an event "extremely rare in our country," said the State Secretariat. It also indicated that fewer than 10 cases per year are registered per year for this bacterium.

It is an infection that "can be serious and in some cases fatal, so it is recommended to avoid the consumption of undercooked or raw sea products (as well as their handling without protection measures) and in the same way, avoid entering the sea with wounds or cuts on the skin." The bacteria can be found in coastal marine waters and estuaries in areas of tropical and subtropical climates that have a moderate degree of salinity and temperatures that usually exceed 18 C [64.4 F].
====================
[The following is extracted from the previous edition of the "Bad Bug Book," Center for Safety and Applied Nutrition, US FDA (Food and Drug Administration). The newest version is available at:  <https://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/FoodborneIllnessContaminants/UCM297627.pdf>:

"_Vibrio vulnificus_, a lactose-fermenting, halophilic, Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen, is found in estuarine environments and associated with various marine species such as plankton, shellfish (oysters, clams, and crabs), and finfish. Environmental factors responsible for controlling numbers of _V. vulnificus_ in seafood and in the environment include temperature, pH, salinity, and amounts of dissolved organics. It may be normal flora in salt water, and acquiring this organism from shellfish or water exposure does not imply that the water is contaminated by sewage.

"Wound infections result either from contaminating an open wound with sea water harbouring the organism, or by lacerating part of the body on coral, fish, etc., followed by contamination with the organism. The ingestion of _V. vulnificus_ by healthy individuals can result in gastroenteritis."

The "primary septicaemia" form of the disease follows consumption of raw seafood containing the organism by individuals with underlying chronic disease, particularly liver disease. The organism can also enter through damaged skin. In these individuals, the microorganism enters the blood stream, resulting in septic shock, rapidly followed by death in many cases (about 50 percent). Over 70 percent of infected individuals have distinctive bullous skin lesions (shown at <http://safeoysters.org/medical/diagnosis.html>).

There are 2 points to be emphasized: that vibrios are normal flora in warm saltwater (not indicative of any sewage contamination) and that most of the life-threatening illnesses occur in individuals with underlying medical illnesses, including immunocompromised states, chronic liver disease, and diabetes. So-called normal individuals often just develop gastroenteritis. The range of disease due to _V. vulnificus_ can involve more northern geographical areas as overall global warming takes effect. - ProMED Mod.LL]

Date: Mon 29 Jan 2018
Source: Monte Carlo [in Spanish, trans. ProMED Mod.TY, edited]

Personnel of the Ministry of Public Health are investigating the death of a young --28-years old -- agronomist caused by [a] hantavirus [infection]. After completion of the specific studies, which could take 48 hours, they will be able to determine if the young woman died as a consequence of the virus [infection].

The disease is contracted by the inhalation of excretions or secretions of rodents infected by the hantavirus.

As a preventive measure, personnel of the Department of Epidemiology of the Ministry of Health will go to the rural area in Canelones, where the young woman resided.  [Byline: Enrique Puig]
====================
[No information is given about the symptoms that the young woman experienced prior to her death, nor the date of her illness and death. Presumably, the diagnosis of a suspected hantavirus infection leading to death was hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HPS).

The report above does not mention which hantavirus was responsible for this or earlier cases in Uruguay. Central Plata hantavirus could be the etiological agent responsible (for this and previous HPS cases). Its rodent host is the yellow pygmy rice rat, _Oligoryzomys flavescens_, complex of rodents. This rodent reservoir host sheds the virus in its saliva, urine and faeces, contaminating the environment in which it lives and breeds.

An image of this rodent can be accessed at

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map showing the location of Uruguay in South
America can be accessed at: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/28995> and
Canelones department in southern Uruguay at
More ...

Estonia

Estonia US Consular Information Sheet
October 28, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Estonia is a stable democracy with an economy that has developed rapidly in recent years.
Tourist facilities in Tallinn are comparable to other western Europe
n cities, but some amenities may be lacking in rural areas.
Some goods and services may not be available outside of major cities.
Please read the Department of State Background Notes on Estonia for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A valid passport is required.
Estonia is a party to the “Schengen” –Agreement. As such, U.S. citizens may enter Estonia for up to 90 days for tourist or business purposes without a visa. The passport should be valid for at least three months beyond the period of stay. For further details about travel into and within Schengen countries, please see our Schengen Fact Sheet.
For further information concerning entry requirements and residency permits, contact the Estonian Embassy, located at 2131 Massachusetts Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20008, telephone (202)588-0101, or the Consulate General of Estonia in New York City, telephone (212) 883-0636. Visit the Embassy of Estonia web site at http://www.estemb.org for the most current visa information. American citizens who wish to reside in Estonia (e.g. for work, studies, retirement, etc.) can also consult with the Estonian Citizenship and Migration Board at http://www.mig.ee
Information about dual nationality and the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Civil unrest generally is not a problem in Estonia, and there have been no incidents of terrorism directed toward American interests. Large public gatherings and demonstrations may occur on occasion in response to political issues, but these have been, with few exceptions,
without incident in the past.

During periods of darkness, (roughly October through April), reflectors must be worn by pedestrians.
Violators of this law may be subject to a fine of up to 600 EEK (Estonian Kroon), or up to 6,000 EEK if the pedestrian is under the influence of alcohol. Reflectors are inexpensive and are available at most supermarkets and many smaller shops.
To meet legal requirements, the reflector’s packaging must include a reference to European safety standard EN13356.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department’s web site where the current Worldwide Caution, Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts can be found.
Americans are reminded to remain vigilant with regard to their personal security and to exercise caution.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll-free in the U.S. and Canada, or for others callers, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
Estonia is a relatively safe country, although crime in Tallinn’s “Old Town” is an ongoing concern, particularly during the summer tourist season.
Travelers should exercise the same precautions with regard to their personal safety and belongings they would take in major U.S. cities.
The most common crimes encountered by foreign tourists are purse snatching, pick-pocketing, and mugging.
Tourists are often targeted by individuals and small groups of thieves working together.
In public places such as the “Old Town,” in particular the Town Hall Square (“Raekoja Plats”), as well as the airport, train stations, bus stations and the Central Market, one must exercise special care in safeguarding valuables against purse-snatchers and pickpockets.
Valuables should never be left unattended in vehicles and car doors should be kept locked at all times.
Some violent crime does occur, mainly at night and often in proximity to nightlife areas.
Public drunkenness, car theft and break-ins also continue to be a problem in Tallinn.

The Estonian Police agencies are modern, well-equipped law enforcement entities on a standard comparable to most Western European police, with only isolated instances of corruption. However, large-scale reductions in the police force are scheduled for this year, which may decrease some of their capabilities. Many police officers speak only very limited English.

Credit card fraud is an ongoing concern, as is internet-based financial fraud and “internet dating” fraud.
Travelers should take precautions to safeguard their credit cards and report any suspected unauthorized transaction to the credit card company immediately.
Racially motivated verbal harassment and, on occasion, physical assault of Americans and other nationals of non-Caucasian ethnicity has occurred.
If an incident occurs, it should be reported to the police and to the Embassy.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft of a U.S. passport abroad should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

The local equivalent to the “911” emergency line in Estonia is: 112. The level of English spoken by the operator answering may be minimal.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
The quality of medical care in Estonia continues to improve but still falls short of Western standards.
Estonia has many highly trained medical professionals, but hospitals and clinics still suffer from a lack of equipment and resources.
Elderly travelers and those with health problems may be at increased risk.
Visitors to forest areas in warm weather should also guard against tick-borne encephalitis.

The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Estonia.
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith
MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
In recent years, a number of American citizens have been disembarked from cruise ships and hospitalized due to serious medical problems. Holding a policy providing for medical evacuation coverage can be critical to ensure access to timely emergency medical care. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Driving in Estonia can be more dangerous than in much of the United States.
Many roads, especially in rural areas, are poorly lit and are not up to Western standards.
Some drivers can be aggressive, recklessly overtaking vehicles and traveling at high speed, even in crowded urban areas.
Despite strict Estonian laws against driving under the influence of alcohol, accidents involving intoxicated drivers are very frequent. It is not uncommon for the police to set up checkpoints on major streets and highways; drivers should pull over when asked.
Drivers should always remain alert to the possibility of drunk drivers and drunken pedestrians.

Estonian traffic laws require drivers to stop for all pedestrians in marked crosswalks.
Nevertheless, Estonian motorists do not always comply with this regulation, and pedestrians should always be careful when crossing the streets.
In rural areas, wild animals, such as deer and moose, and icy road conditions can create unexpected hazards.
Dark-clothed or drunken pedestrians walking along unlit roads or darting across dimly-lit streets or highways pose a risk to unsuspecting drivers.
Winter roads are usually treated and cleared of snow, but drivers should remain vigilant for icy patches and large potholes.

Estonian laws against driving under the influence are strict and follow a policy of zero tolerance. Penalties are severe for motorists caught driving after consumption of even a small amount of alcohol. Local law requires that headlights be illuminated at all times while driving.
Use of a seatbelts by all passengers is required, and children too small to be secure in seatbelts must use child car seats.
The speed limit is 50 km/h in town and 90 km/h out of town unless otherwise indicated.
A right turn on a red light is prohibited unless otherwise indicated by a green arrow.
According to Estonian law vehicles involved in accidents should not be moved to the side of the road until the police reach the scene. Americans planning to drive in Estonia must obtain an international driving permit prior to arrival.

For information about international driving permits, contact AAA or the American Automobile Touring Alliance.
The Eesti Autoklubi (Estonian Auto Club – www.autoclub.ee), which is affiliated with AAA, provides emergency roadside assistance.
Drivers do not need to be a member to receive assistance; however, the fees charged are higher for non-members.
The number to call for roadside vehicle assistance and towing service is 1888.
For ambulance, fire or police assistance the number is 112.
Please note that for both numbers, the level of English spoken by the operator answering may be minimal.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
You may also visit the website of Estonia’s national tourist office at http://www.visitestonia.com.
For specific information concerning Estonian driving permits, vehicles inspections and road tax mandatory insurance, contact the Estonian Motor Vehicle Registration Center at http://www.ark.ee/atp.
Additional information may be obtained from the website of the Estonian Road Administration at http://www.mnt.ee/atp, or from Baltic Roads at http://www.balticroads.net
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Estonia, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed the Estonian Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Commercial and financial transactions in Estonia are increasingly automated and on-line.
Cash is almost always acceptable. The national currency is the Estonian Kroon (EEK), the value of which is pegged to the Euro (15.65 EEK= 1 Euro). Most credit cards are widely recognized throughout the country.
ATM machines are common and many U.S.-issued bankcards are compatible with them. Bank checks are virtually unknown, and checks drawn on a U.S. bank are of little use in the country.

Estonia’s customs authorities encourage the use of an ATA (Admission Temporaire/Temporary Admission) Carnet for the temporary admission of professional equipment, commercial samples, and/or goods for exhibitions and fair purposes.
ATA Carnet Headquarters, located at the U.S. Council for International Business, 1212 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036, issues and guarantees the ATA Carnet in the United States.
For additional information call (212) 354-4480, send and email to acarnet@uscib.org, or visit http://www.uscib.org for details.

Please see our information on Customs Regulations.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Estonian laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Estonia are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable both in Estonia as well as in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

DUAL NATIONALITY:
Estonian law requires that individual with dual nationality must choose between Estonian citizenship and his of her other citizenship at age 18. After that time, Estonian law does not permit the individual to carry passports of two (or more) different countries. However, the Estonian government reportedly has not regularly enforced this law in the past with respect to persons of Estonian background, and thus a number of individuals have continued to carry both Estonian and American passports. Any American citizen who also carries an Estonian passport should be aware that the Estonian government may not recognize the person as an American citizen in certain circumstances, thus limiting the consular services that can be provided by the U.S. Embassy (e.g. in case of arrest, etc.).

Please note that this discussion of dual nationality relates only to person who have a claim to Estonian citizenship, and not to persons who merely acquire an Estonian “residence” permit. For more information on citizenship and dual nationality, please see our web page.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on international adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Estonia are encouraged to register with the U.S Embassy in Tallinn through the State Department’s travel registration web site, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Estonia.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the U.S. Embassy in Tallinn by visiting in person.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.
The latest security information is available from the Embassy, including on its web site, http://estonia.usembassy.gov.

The U.S. Embassy is available 24 hours a day for emergency assistance for American citizens visiting or residing in Estonia. The Embassy is located approximately 1 km outside of Tallinn’s “Old Town.” The address is: Kentmanni 20, 15099 Tallinn, Estonia.
The Embassy’s main switchboard number is telephone (372) 668-8100.
The Consular Section can be reached directly at (372 668-8128, 8111, 8197 or 8129. The Consular Section’s fax number is (372) 668-8267. The Consular Sections’ email address for American Citizen Services is ACSTallin@state.gov. For after-hours emergencies, an Embassy Duty Officer may be contacted by mobile phone at (372) 509-2129, if dialing from the U.S., and 509-2129 if dialed from within Estonia.
The Embassy’s web site is http://estonia.usembassy.gov.
The American Citizen Services Unit email address is ACSTallinn@state.gov
* * *
This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated March 26, 2008 to update sections on Country Description, Entry/Exit Requirements, Safety and Security, Crime, Medical Insurance, Traffic Safety and Road Conditions, Special Circumstances, Criminal Penalties, Dual Nationality, and Registration/Embassy location.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Sat 14 Apr 2018 09:35
Source: Err [edited]

A man who had returned from an overseas trip and a woman with whom he came in contact were diagnosed with measles in Saaremaa this week [week of Sun 8 Apr 2018].

This year [2018], 4 cases of measles have been diagnosed in Estonia, which in 2016 had been listed by the World Health Organization (WHO) as among the countries which had eliminated endemic measles. Last month [March 2018], an unvaccinated child contracted the disease on an overseas trip; their mother caught it in turn upon their return to Estonia.

It is not currently known whether the woman to contract measles this week [week of Sun 8 Apr 2018] was vaccinated or not; the man had been vaccinated with only 1 of 2 doses of the measles vaccine.

In the course of the Health Board's epidemiological study, persons who have been in contact with the 2 individuals as well as their vaccination status were determined. Those who have come in contact with them were also advised regarding the nature of the disease, prevention measures as well as vaccination.

Last week [week of Sun 1 Apr 2018], a case of rubella was diagnosed in Rapla County as well. The previous 2 instances of rubella in Eesti were recorded in 2013.

Measles and rubella are considered highly contagious diseases, but the modern measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine is over 95 percent effective in preventing measles and rubella.

According to the immunization schedule in Estonia, children are administered the 1st dose of the MMR vaccine at 1 year of age and the 2nd dose at age 13. The MMR vaccine is free for children in Estonia.

Measles symptoms
Some of the earliest symptoms in the onset of measles include fever, malaise, cough, runny nose, conjunctivitis and light sensitivity. A few days later, the signature rash appears, which begins behind the ears and spreads to the face and neck before covering the entire body. A measles patient is contagious beginning 4 -- 5 days before and for up to 5 days following the onset of the rash.

There is no treatment for the disease itself; only symptoms can be treated. Complications can include pneumonia, middle ear infections and inflammation of the brain.  [Byline editor: Aili Vahtla]
====================
[According to <https://news.err.ee/591626/number-of-unvaccinated-children-in-estonia-on-rise>, despite the fact that a number of serious infectious diseases have been beaten due to vaccination [in Estonia], there has been a steady increase in the number of parents refusing vaccination and number of children being left unprotected from various diseases.

"While the percentage of refusals in relative to the total number of vaccinations isn't high -- 3-3.9 percent in 2016 -- the steady increase of those refusing and the steady growth in the number of children being left unprotected from a number of infectious diseases is worrisome," said Director General of the Health Board Tiiu Aro.

For example, at the end of 2016, 95.4 percent of children ages 1-14 were vaccinated against measles, mumps and rubella (MMR).

"Considering the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommended level of vaccination for halting the spread of diseases, which is 95 percent, we should be satisfied, however the coverage level among children up to 2 years of age was 93.2 percent, which means that we did not achieve the recommended level of coverage," Aro noted.

As of the end of 2016, a total of 7481 children were unvaccinated against MMR, over 60 percent of whom live in Tallinn.

A Healthmap/ProMED of Estonia can be found at
Date: Wed, 13 Feb 2013 13:51:13 +0100 (MET)

TALLINN, Feb 13, 2013 (AFP) - Officials in Estonia raised the alarm Wednesday after a report into drug use in Europe found that the small Baltic nation had the highest incidence of deaths from drug overdoses in the EU. Last year, 160 people died from overdoses, data from the Europe Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addictions (EMCDDA) showed, an increase of 21 percent from last year. Most of the deaths were caused by taking a highly addictive form of synthetic heroin known as China White, which is often smuggled in from Russia.

"More people per million inhabitants perish in Estonia than in any other EU country due to drug overdoses, and most of these deaths are related to drugs called 'China White'," Ave Talu, head of Estonia's Drug Monitoring Centre, told AFP. While the average number of deaths from overdoses across the 27-member EU bloc stands at up to 20 people per million, in Estonia the figure is five times higher, at over 100 per million. In 2011, 132 people died from overdoses in the former Soviet nation of 1.3 million people.

Most of the people who died in 2012 were ethnic Russian men, the EMCDDA data showed. Using a new antidote to synthetic heroin, naloxone, could "cut the death rates from overdose nearly in half," Talu said. But the drug is not yet available on a community outreach basis, she said. "In Estonia, naloxone is used only by medical staff and unlike some other countries like the US, we do not yet have community-based naloxone distribution and training programmes, but they are urgently needed."
Date: Fri, 21 Dec 2012 16:42:17 +0100 (MET)

TALLINN, Dec 21, 2012 (AFP) - Pilots at the struggling Baltic carrier Estonian Air announced on Friday they would go on strike from January 7, demanding a return to a collective pay deal that was voided by the company.   The Estonian Airline Pilots Association, which represents all of the carrier's 75 pilots, warned that it could not accept plans to end a five-year-old agreement from February.   "We expect most of the pilots to be on strike," Rauno Menning, chairman of the association's board, told AFP.   In a statement, Estonian Air said the strike call was a surprise.

"Estonian Air has offered pilots a collective agreement that is line with the market and competitive situation and follows all EU flight safety requirements," the carrier's chief executive Jan Palmer was quoted as saying.   Menning faulted that stance.   "We are surprised that the company is surprised by the strike news, because we made the decision in November to go strike if needed, so Estonian Air knew this was a possibility," he told AFP.   Estonian Air had just warded off industrial action by other employees through a deal last week with the Estonian Air Cabin Crew Union, which is valid to the end of 2013.   State-controlled Estonian Air has made repeated efforts to cut its losses.   In November, the airline said it would slash staff numbers by half, from 318 to 146.   Estonian Air operates a small fleet of 10 planes.

Created in 1991, the year the Baltic republic of 1.3 million regained its independence from the Soviet Union, the airline has had mixed fortunes.   It was privatised in 1996, and from 2003 to 2010 was almost evenly split between the state, which owned 51 percent, and Scandinavian carrier SAS, with 49 percent.   Since then, the state has gradually raised its holding to the current 97 percent, but says its wants to find a new strategic investor.   Estonian Air's revenues in the first nine months of 2012 were 70.4 million euros ($93 million), compared with 58.7 million euros in the same period of 2011.   But nine-month losses reached 20.2 million euros, up from 11.2 million euros in the same period a year earlier.
Date: Mon, 8 Oct 2012 14:00:20 +0200 (METDST)

TALLINN, Oct 08, 2012 (AFP) - Striking Estonian doctors on Monday extended their week-long labour action to major hospitals in the Baltic state's capital and second city Tartu and curbed inpatient care in some other regions. The Estonian Doctors' Union said however that emergency care and treatment for children, pregnant women and patients with cancer would not be affected.

Terming the union's wage demands "unrealistic", the Estonian authorities last week repeated an offer to raise doctors' salaries by 6.6 percent as of January, but the union turned it down. It is demanding a 20 percent increase in the minimum wage to 1,400 euros ($1,800) next year and another 20 percent hike in 2014. The average monthly income of doctors in the EU state and eurozone member was 1,700 euros ($2,185) in 2011, compared to a national average of 839 euros ($1,078), according to Estonia's social affairs ministry.

After failed talks last week between the Estonian Health Insurance Fund, Hospital Union and the Doctors' Union, the delegations were to resume negotiations Monday. European Commission deputy chief Siim Kallas, a former Estonian prime minister, weighed into the dispute at the weekend saying the Estonian health care system created 20 years ago "has failed" and called for major reforms to give patients the option to choose from a number of health insurance providers. "Patients are not the priority in Estonia's current health care system," Kallas added.
Date: Mon, 1 Oct 2012 11:13:00 +0200 (METDST)

TALLINN, Oct 1, 2012 (AFP) - Doctors in Estonia's capital Tallinn and the Baltic state's second city of Tartu went on strike on Monday over pay, threatening to extend their protest nationwide if their demands are not met. The Estonian Doctors' Union said members at Tallinn and Tartu's hospitals were cancelling outpatient appointments, but that emergency room treatment would not be affected. In addition, the union pledged that the strike would not affect children, pregnant women and patients with cancer.

Estonian health authorities had on Friday tried to head off the strike by offering a 6.6 percent pay increase, double their previous offer, from next January, but the union turned it down. The union is demanding a written pledge for a gradual 20 percent increase of its members' minimum wage to 1,400 euros ($1,800). According to Estonia's ministry of social affairs, the average monthly income of doctors in the country was 1,700 euros ($2,185) in 2011, compared to an average national salary of 839 euros ($1,078). The doctors' union has said if its demands are not met, the strike will expand next week to other towns.

Patients' rights groups are angry, saying work stoppage is not the way to resolve problems in the health sector in the former Soviet-ruled nation of 1.3 million, which joined the European Union in 2004. "We do not support the doctors' strike, because it's not in the interest of patients," Anne Veskimeister, spokeswoman of the Estonian Patients' Association, told AFP. "The main problems in Estonian healthcare are the lack of choice of doctor or medical institution, too long a waiting time to see the doctor even in some urgent cases, an unwillingness of state and medical officials to admit and deal with medical errors, and complete lack of objective surveillance in healthcare," she added.
More ...

Canada

Canada - US Consular Information Sheet
February 17, 2009
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: Canada is a highly developed, stable democracy. Tourist facilities are widely available in much of the country, but the northern and wilderness areas are less develop
d and facilities there can be vast distances apart. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Canada for additional information.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: Entry into Canada is solely determined by Canadian Border Services Agency (CBSA) officials in accordance with Canadian law. Canadian law requires that all persons entering Canada carry both proof of citizenship and proof of identity. A valid U.S. passport, passport card or NEXUS card (see below) satisfies these requirements for U.S. citizens. If U.S. citizen travelers to Canada do not have a passport, passport card or approved alternate document such as a NEXUS card, they must show a government-issued photo ID (e.g. Driver’s License) and proof of U.S. citizenship such as a U.S. birth certificate, naturalization certificate, or expired U.S. passport. Children under sixteen need only present proof of U.S. citizenship.

It is very important to note that all Americans traveling to the U.S. by air, including from Canada, must present a valid U.S. passport to enter or re-enter the U.S. Effective June 1, 2009, a similar requirement goes into effect for entry into the U.S. via land and sea borders. All Americans will need to present a U.S. passport, passport card, NEXUS card, Enhanced Drivers License or other Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative (WHTI)-compliant document in order to enter the U.S. by land or sea. American travelers are urged to obtain WHTI-compliant documents before entering Canada well in advance of their planned travel. For the most recent information on WHTI and WHTI-compliant documents, please see our web site.

One of the WHTI-compliant documents for crossing the land border is the U.S. Passport Card. The card may not be used to travel by air and is available only to U.S. citizens. You can read further information on the U.S. Passport Card on our web site. We strongly encourage all American citizen travelers to apply for a U.S. passport well in advance of anticipated travel. American citizens can visit travel.state.gov or call 1-877-4USA-PPT (1-877-487-2778) for information on how to apply for their passports.

Both the U.S. and Canadian governments urge frequent travelers to join the NEXUS trusted traveler program. NEXUS members receive a special travel card that allows expedited border crossings for both private and commercial travelers through both U.S. and Canadian border controls very quickly. The CBP has detailed information about the NEXUS program.
U.S. citizens entering Canada from a third country must have a valid U.S. passport. A visa is not required for U.S. citizens to visit Canada for up to 180 days. Anyone seeking to enter Canada for any purpose other than a visit (e.g. to work, study or immigrate) must qualify for the appropriate entry status, and should contact the Canadian Embassy or nearest consulate and visit the Canadian immigration web site.

Anyone with a criminal record (including misdemeanors or Driving While Impaired (DWI) charges may be barred from entering Canada and must obtain a special waiver well in advance of any planned travel. To determine whether you may be inadmissible and how to overcome this finding, refer to the Canadian citizenship and immigration web site.
For further information on entry requirements, travelers may contact the Canadian Embassy at 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington DC 20001, tel. (202) 682-1740; or the Canadian consulates in Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas, Detroit, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, San Juan or Seattle.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site. For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.
SAFETY AND SECURITY: For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll-free in the U.S. and Canada or, for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME: Although Canada generally has a lower crime rate than the U.S., violent crimes do occur throughout the country, especially in urban areas. Visitors to large cities should be aware that parked cars are regularly targeted for opportunistic smash-and-grab thefts, and they are cautioned to avoid leaving any possessions unattended in a vehicle, even in the trunk. Due to the high incidence of such crimes, motorists in Montreal, Vancouver and some other jurisdictions can be fined for leaving their car doors unlocked or for leaving valuables in view. Auto theft in Montreal and Vancouver, including theft of motor homes and recreational vehicles, may even occur in patrolled and apparently secure parking lots and decks. SUVs appear to be the particular targets of organized theft. While Canadian gun control laws are much stricter than those of the U.S., such laws have not prevented gun-related violence in certain areas.
INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed. Each of Canada’s provinces has a Crime Victim Compensation Board from which American victims of crime in Canada may seek redress.

As in the U.S., emergency assistance can be reached by dialing “911.
See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: The level of public health and sanitation in Canada is high. Canada’s medical care is of a high standard but is government-controlled and rationed. Quick and easy access to ongoing medical care is difficult for temporary visitors who are not members of each province’s government-run health care plans. Many physicians will not take new patients. Access to a specialist is by only by referral and may take months to obtain. Emergency room waits can be very long. Some health care professionals in the province of Quebec may speak only French. No Canadian health care provider accepts U.S. domestic health insurance, and Medicare coverage does not extend outside the United States. Visitors who seek any medical attention in Canada should be prepared to pay in cash in full at the time the service is rendered. Traveler’s medical insurance is highly recommended even for brief visits.

The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Canada.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad, consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site. Further health information for travelers is available from the WHO.

MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.
TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Canada is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance. As in the United States, all emergency assistance in Canada can be reached by dialing 911.

Transport Canada is the Canadian federal government agency responsible for road safety, although each province or territory has the authority to establish its own traffic and safety laws and issue driving licenses. For detailed information on road conditions throughout Canada, as well as links to provincial government web sites, please see the Transport Canada web site or the Canadian Automobile Association web site. The CAA honors American Automobile Association membership. Some automobile warranties of vehicles purchased in the U.S. may be invalid in Canada; please check the warranty of your vehicle.

Driving in Canada is similar to driving in many parts of the United States. Distances and speeds, however, are posted in kilometers per hour, and some signs, particularly in Quebec, may only be in French. U.S. driver’s licenses are valid in Canada. Proof of auto insurance is required. U.S. auto insurance is accepted as long as an individual is a tourist in Canada. U.S. insurance firms will issue a Canadian insurance card, which should be obtained and carried prior to driving into Canada. For specific information concerning Canadian driving permits, mandatory insurance and entry regulations, please contact the Canadian National Tourist Organization.
Unless otherwise posted, the maximum speed limit in Canada is 50km/hr in cities and 80km/hr on highways. On rural highways, the posted speed limit may be 100km/hr (approximately 60 miles/hr). Seat belt use is mandatory for all passengers, and child car seats must be used by children under 40 pounds. Some provinces require drivers to keep their vehicles’ headlights on during the day. Motorcycles cannot share a lane, and safety helmets for motorcycle riders and passengers are mandatory. Many highways do not have merge lanes for entering traffic. Tailgating and rapid lane-changes without signaling are common. Emergency vehicles frequently enter the oncoming traffic lane to avoid congestion. Drivers should be aware that running a red light is a serious concern throughout Canada, and motorists are advised to pause before proceeding when a light turns green.
Driving while impaired (DWI) is a criminal offense in Canada. Penalties are heavy, and any prior conviction (no matter how old or how minor the infraction) is grounds for exclusion from Canada. Americans with a DWI record must seek a waiver of exclusion from Canadian authorities before traveling to Canada, which requires several weeks or months to process. It is illegal to take automobile radar detectors into Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, the Yukon or the Northwest Territories, regardless of whether they are used or not. Police there may confiscate radar detectors, operational or not, and impose substantial fines.

Winter travel can be dangerous due to heavy snowfalls and hazardous icy conditions. Some roads and bridges are subject to periodic winter closures. Snow tires are required in some Provinces. The Canadian Automobile Association has tips for winter driving in Canada. Travelers should also be cautious of deer, elk and moose while driving at night in rural areas.

Highway 401, from Detroit to Montreal, is one of the busiest highways in North America. It has been the scene of numerous, deadly traffic accidents due to sudden, severe and unpredictable weather changes, high rates of speed, and heavy truck traffic. There have been numerous incidents involving road racing and dangerous truck driving. Drivers tend to be aggressive, often exceeding speed limits and passing on both sides, and police enforcement is spotty. In addition, approaches to border crossings into the United States may experience unexpected traffic backups. Drivers should be alert, as lane restrictions at border approaches exist for drivers in NEXUS and FAST expedited inspection programs.
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. Visit Canada’s national authority responsible for road safety.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Canada’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Canada’s air carrier operations. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA web site.
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: IMPORTATION OF FIREARMS: Firearms are much more strictly controlled in Canada than in the United States. Violation of firearms restrictions may result in prosecution and imprisonment. As of January 1, 2001, visitors bringing any firearms into Canada, or planning to borrow and use firearms while in Canada, must declare the firearms in writing using a Non-Resident Firearm Declaration form. Visitors planning to borrow a firearm in Canada must obtain in advance a Temporary Firearms Borrowing License. These forms must be signed before a Canadian Border Services Agency (CBSA) officer at the border and no photocopies are available at the border. Full details and downloadable forms are available from the Canada Firearms Program. Canadian law requires that officials confiscate firearms and weapons from persons crossing the border who deny having the items in their possession. Confiscated firearms and weapons are never returned. Possession of an undeclared firearm may result in arrest and imprisonment.

Canada has three classes of firearms: non-restricted, restricted, and prohibited. Non-restricted firearms include most ordinary hunting rifles and shotguns. These may be brought temporarily into Canada for sporting or hunting use during hunting season, use in competitions, in-transit movement through Canada, or personal protection against wildlife in remote areas of Canada. Anyone wishing to bring hunting rifles into Canada must be at least 18 years old, must properly store he firearm for transport, and must follow the declaration requirements described above. Restricted firearms are primarily handguns; however, pepper spray, mace, and some knives also are included in this category. A restricted firearm may be brought into Canada, but an Authorization to Transport permit must be obtained in advance from a Provincial or Territorial Chief Firearms Officer. Prohibited firearms include fully automatic, converted automatics, and assault-type weapons. Prohibited firearms are not allowed into Canada.
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: PORNOGRAPHY AND CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES: Canada has strict laws concerning child pornography, and in recent years there has been an increase in random checks of electronic media of travelers entering Canada. Computers are subject to search without a warrant at the border, and illegal content can result in the seizure of the computer as well as detention, arrest and prosecution of the bearer.

Please see our Customs Information.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Canada’s laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Canada are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Canadian law prohibits the unlawful importation or trafficking of controlled substances and narcotics. A number of travelers, including Americans, have been arrested for attempting to smuggle khat, a narcotic from East Africa, into Canada. Smugglers risk substantial fines, a permanent bar from Canada and imprisonment.

Please also see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.
REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION: Americans living or traveling in Canada are encouraged to register with the U.S. Embassy or nearest U.S. Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Canada. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.

The U.S. Embassy is in Ottawa, Ontario, at 490 Sussex Drive, K1N 1G8, telephone (613) 238-5335, fax (613) 688-3082. The Embassy's consular district includes Ottawa, Easter Ontario (Kingston, Lanark, Leeds, Prescott, Refrew, Russell, and Stormont); and those parts of the Quebec Regions of Outaouais and Abitibi-Temiscamingues near Ottawa.
U.S. Consulates General are located at:
Calgary, Alberta, at 10th Floor, 615 Macleod Trail SE, telephone (403) 266-8962; emergency-after hours-to report the death or arrest of an American (403) 2 66 -8962 then press '0'; fax (403) 264-6630. The consular district includes Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and the Northwest Territories, excluding Nunavut.
Halifax, Nova Scotia, at 1969 Upper Water Street, Suite 904, Purdy's Wharf Tower II, telephone (902) 429-2480; emergency-after hours-to report the death or arrest of an American (902) 429-2485; fax (902) 423-6861. The consular district includes New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and the French islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon.

Montreal, Quebec, at 1155 St. Alexander Street, telephone (514) 398-9695; emergency-after hours-to report the death or arrest of an American (514) 981-5059; fax (514) 398-0702. The consular district includes Greater Montreal and the regions of Southern Quebec Province (Laurentides, Lanaudiere, Laval, Montreal, Montregie, Estrie, and the southern parts of Centre-du-Quebec); including Joliete, Drummondville and Sherbrooke.
Quebec City, Quebec, at 2 rue de la Terrasse Dufferin, telephone (418) 692-2095; emergency-after hours-to report the death or arrest of an American (418) 692-2096; fax (418) 692-4640. The consular district includes Quebec City and those regions of Quebec Province to the North and East of the Montreal and Ottawa Districts (indicated above), plus the Territory of Nunavut.

Toronto, Ontario, at 360 University Avenue, telephone (416) 595-1700; emergency-after hours-to report the death or arrest of an American (416) 201-4100; fax (416) 595-5466. The consular district includes the province of Ontario except the six counties served by the U.S. Embassy in Ottawa.

Vancouver, British Columbia, at 1095 West Pender Street, telephone (604) 685-4311; fax (604) 685-7175. The consular district includes British Columbia and the Yukon Territory.

All visa applicants are seen by appointment only. Information on visa appointments is available from www.nvars.com. Information on visa services for foreigners and consular/passport services for Americans who live in Canada is available from the U.S. Embassy web site. No visa or consular/passport information is available by calling the embassy or consulate switchboards.
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information for Canada dated December 11, 2007, to update sections on Entry/Exit Requirements, Crime, Traffic Safety and Road Conditions, and Registration/Embassy Location.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Fri 4 Oct 2019
Source: CTV News [edited]

Newfoundland and Labrador's provincial health department is advising residents of an outbreak of _E. coli_ bacteria. There have been 22 cases of _E. coli_ confirmed in the province this week, according to an advisory issued Friday afternoon [4 Oct 2019]. The statement says provincial public health officials and regional authorities are investigating.

The Department of Health and Community Services advises people experiencing symptoms of _E. coli_, including severe or bloody diarrhea and abdominal pain, to seek medical attention. The illness spreads mostly through ingestion of contaminated food or water but can also spread through person-to-person contact.

A provincial medical officer of health says most cases are within the province's eastern health authority, including the capital city of St. John's, but others are in the central and western authorities.

Dr. Janice Fitzgerald said some of the cases are connected to an advisory issued by Memorial University earlier this week, saying Eastern Health was investigating reports of students experiencing gastrointestinal illness.

The university said Wednesday [2 Oct 2019] that test results indicated one student living in residence "may have contracted the _E. coli_ bacteria" and 21 students had reported similar symptoms. Fitzgerald said it's too early in the investigation to determine a cause of the outbreak.
======================
[The news report above alerts people experiencing severe or bloody diarrhoea to seek medical care because there have been 22 cases of a "gastrointestinal illness" due to _Escherichia coli_ in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador; most cases are occurring within the province's eastern health authority, including the capital city of St. John's.

Although the report fails to characterize the students' GI illness in any detail, most likely the illness is due to an enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). EHEC is a type of _E. coli_ that produces a toxin called Shiga toxin and causes damage to the lining of the intestinal wall and bloody diarrhoea.

The infection is said to have involved one student "living in residence," perhaps a communal home, and 21 other students developed similar symptoms. But the report fails to say if the students lived together or had some other common exposure. Most EHEC is transmitted by ingestion of contaminated food or water, but EHEC can also spread through person-to-person contact or contact with animals and their environment (<https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2020/travel-related-infectious-diseases/escherichia-coli-diarrheagenic>).

More information on this outbreak would be appreciated from knowledgeable sources.

Newfoundland and Labrador, which incorporates the island of Newfoundland and mainland Labrador to the northwest, is the most easterly province of Canada, with a combined population of 526 702 (<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newfoundland_and_Labrador>). Approximately 92% of the province's population lives on the island of Newfoundland (including its associated smaller islands). Half of the province's population (262 410) lives on Newfoundland's Avalon Peninsula, which includes the city of St. John's, the province's capital and largest city (<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avalon_Peninsula>). - ProMED Mod.ML]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Newfoundland, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/375>]
Date: Wed 2 Oct 2019
Source: Benzinga.com [edited]

This update reflects 14 illnesses that have been added to the outbreak investigation. There are now 110 illnesses under investigation. The Public Health Agency of Canada continues to remind Canadians to always handle raw turkey and raw chicken carefully, and to cook it thoroughly to prevent food-related illnesses like _Salmonella_ infection. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency has not issued any food recall warnings related to this outbreak.

The Public Health Agency of Canada is collaborating with provincial and territorial public health partners, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency and Health Canada to investigate an outbreak of _Salmonella_ infections.
 
Based on the investigation findings to date, exposure to raw turkey and raw chicken products has been identified as the likely source of the outbreak. Many of the individuals who became sick reported eating different types of turkey and chicken products before their illnesses occurred. The outbreak appears to be ongoing, as recent illnesses continue to be reported to the Public Health Agency of Canada.

As of 1 Oct 2019, there have been 110 confirmed cases of _S._ Reading illness investigated in the following provinces and territories: British Columbia (26), Alberta (36), Saskatchewan (8), Manitoba (24), Ontario (7), Quebec (1), New Brunswick (1), Northwest Territories (1), and Nunavut (6). Individuals became sick between April 2017 and August 2019. 32 individuals have been hospitalized. One individual has died. Individuals who became ill are between 0 and 96 years of age. The illnesses are equally distributed among males (50%) and females (50%).

The collaborative outbreak investigation was initiated due to an increase of _S._ Reading illnesses that occurred in October and November 2018. Cases have continued to be reported since the investigation was initiated. Through the use of a laboratory method called whole genome sequencing, some _Salmonella_ illnesses dating back to 2017 were identified to have the same genetic strain as the illnesses that occurred in late 2018. More than half of the illnesses under investigation occurred between October 2018 and August 2019.

It is possible that more recent illnesses may be reported in the outbreak because there is a period of time between when a person becomes ill and when the illness is reported to public health officials. This period of time is called the case reporting delay. In national _Salmonella_ outbreak investigations, the case reporting delay is usually between 5 and 6 weeks.

The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S. CDC) previously investigated similar _Salmonella_ illnesses in several states that were linked to raw turkey exposure. There were some turkey products recalled in the U.S. that were associated with that outbreak. These products were not imported or distributed in the Canadian marketplace. The U.S. investigation was closed in April 2019.

Infants, children, seniors and those with weakened immune systems are at higher risk of serious illness because their immune systems are more fragile. Most people who become ill from a _Salmonella_ infection will recover fully after a few days. It is possible for some people tobe infected with the bacteria and to not get sick or show any symptoms, but to still be able to spread the infection to others.

Raw turkey and raw chicken products carrying _Salmonella_ may look, smell and taste normal, so it's important to always follow safe food-handling tips if you are buying, chilling, thawing, cleaning, cooking and storing any type of raw poultry food products.

Always handle raw turkey and raw chicken carefully, and cook it thoroughly to prevent food-related illnesses like salmonellosis. You can use the following food safety tips to help protect you and your family: Always wash your hands before and after you touch raw turkey and raw chicken. Wash with soap and warm water for at least 20 seconds. Use an alcohol-based hand rub if soap and water are not available. Always cook turkey and chicken products to a safe internal temperature that has been checked using a digital thermometer. Turkey and chicken breasts, as well as ground poultry, including turkey and chicken burgers, should always be cooked to an internal temperature of 74 C (165 F) to kill any harmful bacteria. Whole turkey and chicken should be cooked to an internal temperature of 82 C (180 F). Leftovers should be reheated to 74 C (165 F). Use a digital food thermometer to check, and place it in the thickest part of the food.

Thaw frozen raw turkey and raw chicken in the fridge. Thawing raw turkey and raw chicken at room temperature can allow bacteria to grow. Never rinse raw turkey or raw chicken before cooking it because the bacteria can spread wherever the water splashes. Use a separate plate, cutting board, utensils and kitchen tools when preparing raw turkey and raw chicken. Clean everything that has come in contact with raw turkey or raw chicken with a kitchen cleaner or bleach solution and then rinse with water: Kitchen cleaner (follow the instructions on the container) Bleach solution (5 mL household bleach to 750 mL of water). Keep raw turkey and raw chicken away from other food while shopping, storing, repackaging, cooking and serving foods. If you have been diagnosed with a _Salmonella_ infection or any other gastrointestinal illness, do not cook food for other people. Do not feed raw ground turkey or raw ground chicken to your pets. Bacteria like _Salmonella_ in raw pet food can make your pets sick. Your family also can get sick by handling the raw food or by taking care of your pet.
======================
[_Salmonella_ are widely distributed in animals. In terms of human consumption, poultry and eggs from poultry are often the sources of human infection, but any animal product if not cooked properly is a potential source of salmonellosis. Pets including dogs, cats, birds, snakes, turtles, etc. can be sources of _Salmonella_ infection. The pets develop infection from _Salmonella_ in what they eat and excrete the bacteria in their feces. - ProMED Mod.DK]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Date: Fri 27 Sep 2019
Source: CBC [edited]

The Windsor Essex County Health Unit [WECHU] said that recently collected data has identified a single mosquito capable of transmitting the Zika virus. The routine mosquito surveillance program, conducted by WECHU in the summer and fall, tested the adult _Aedes aegypti_ mosquito found, and it has tested negative for any vector-borne diseases.

That type of mosquito is capable of transmitting Zika, dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. The 1st mosquito capable of transmitting these diseases was discovered in 2016. The 1st such mosquito was found in Canada in 2017 for the 1st time.

WECHU is also testing mosquitos collected for eastern equine encephalitis, a mosquito-borne disease that has recently caused fatalities in Michigan and a number of other states.

"Until the 1st freeze hits, we are still at risk for mosquito bites, and it is important that everyone take steps to avoid being bitten," said Dr. Ahmed, medical officer of health.
=====================
[_Aedes aegypti_ mosquitoes sporadically appear in north temperate zones in the Americas, this time in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. As the above comment indicates, they will not survive the winter and will disappear with the onset of killing frosts, likely to occur in the next 2-3 weeks. The only way that local transmission of Zika, dengue, or chikungunya viruses could occur is in the unlikely event that a viremic individual came to a locality where there was a population of _Aedes aegypti_ large enough to permit ongoing transmission. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Windsor, Ontario, Canada: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/1458>]
Date: Thu 22 Aug 2019
Source: The Canadian Jewish News [abridged, edited]

About 350 children in the Tosh Hasidic community north of Montreal have been vaccinated against measles, after 5 cases of the disease were confirmed there this summer (2019).

The 2nd of 2 temporary clinics set up by the public health authority within the community closed on [16 Aug 2019] after vaccinating at least 150 youngsters over 4 days, said Isaac Weiss, who is one of the people responsible for security and public safety in the community, which is located in the town of Boisbriand, Quebec. He said the 1st clinic took place about a month earlier, after "one suspected case" was discovered. About 200 children were vaccinated at that time. The immunization was offered to those whose medical records showed they were unvaccinated or not up to date, but was voluntary.

Community leaders are co-operating fully with the CISSS des Laurentides, which ran the clinics, said Weiss. The public health director, Dr Eric Goyer, said these were the 1st cases of measles in the region since 2011. There are about 500 Tosh families in Boisbriand, or 3000 people.
 
No one knows for sure how the infection spread. Weiss said it is thought that a young man from the community who went to New York to take part in a recreational after-school program may have contracted the virus and brought it back to Boisbriand. It appears that he had been vaccinated, but his shots were not up to date.
The community's leaders are informing members about the necessity of vaccinations and trying to dispel any fear about the risk of negative side effects. Unvaccinated children will not be permitted to attend the community's schools until the outbreak is deemed contained, Weiss said, but parents can only be persuaded, not forced, to vaccinate their children.

A father of 5 who asked that his name not be published, said, "We are outraged that there are parents -- a few -- who are so irresponsible as to refuse (vaccination). The rabbis are talking about it, everyone is talking about it, but some are difficult to convince."

Last spring (2019), when there was a serious measles outbreak in New York, Montreal public health authorities stepped up an educational campaign targeting ultra-Orthodox communities. While the rate of vaccination among those communities is believed to be similar to that of the general population, there is frequent contact between the Montreal and New York communities.

At the time, Rabbi Yonasan Binyomin Weiss, who serves as the chief rabbi of Montreal and heads the medical ethics committee of the Jewish Community Council, stated, "From a religious perspective, and also from an ethical and moral perspective, our message is very clear: families are required to follow the directions of the health authorities."

In April (2019), many Montreal doctors were among over 500 medical professionals serving Orthodox Jewish communities throughout North America who signed a public letter confirming the need for everyone to be vaccinated according to US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. The doctors rejected "the dangerous misinformation campaign being spread and reject any unproven unscientific statements that contradict all available current science-based studies on vaccinations" against measles and other illnesses.  [byline: Janice Arnold]
Date: Fri, 2 Aug 2019 04:54:00 +0200 (METDST)
By Julien BESSET

King's Point, Canada, Aug 2, 2019 (AFP) - At dusk, tourists marvel at the sensational collapse of an iceberg at the end of its long journey from Greenland to Canada's east coast, which now has a front row seat to the melting of the Arctic's ice.   While the rest of the world nervously eyes the impact of global warming, the calving of Greenland's glaciers -- the breaking off of ice chunks from its edge -- has breathed new life into the remote coastal villages of Newfoundland and Labrador.

Once a hub of cod fishing, the province now plays host to hordes of amateur photographers and tourists hoping to capture the epic ice melt for posterity. As winter ends, iceberg spotting begins.   "It keeps getting better every year," says Barry Strickland, a 58-year-old former fisherman who now takes tourists in his small boat around King's Point in the north of the province.    "We've got 135, 140 tour buses with older people coming into the town every season so it's great for the economy."   For the past four years, Strickland has taken visitors to bear witness to the death throes of these ice giants, which can measure dozens of meters in height and weigh hundreds of thousands of tons.    Winds and ocean currents bring the icebergs from northwest Greenland, thousands of kilometers (miles) away, to Canada's shores.    In a matter of weeks, ice frozen for thousands of years can quickly melt into the ocean.

- 'Incredible' rise in tourism -
Strickland's boat excursions are often fully booked during the high season from May to July, with tourists coming from all around the world to King's Point, a village of just 600 inhabitants.   The villagers keep track of the icebergs on an interactive satellite tracking map put online by the provincial government.   "There's not much in these small outport towns anymore to keep people around, so tourism is a big part of our economy," said Devon Chaulk, who works in a souvenir shop in Elliston, a small town of 300 on "Iceberg Corridor," as the coastline is now known.   "I've lived here my entire life, and the increase in tourism around here in the past 10 to 15 years has been incredible. It's not surprising to have thousands of people here over the next couple of months," said the 28-year-old.    Last year, a total of 500,000 tourists visited Newfoundland and Labrador, a number roughly equivalent to the province's total population.    Those visitors spent nearly Can $570 million (US $433 million), government figures show.

- Melting ice -
The tourism boom has helped offset the decline in the region's traditional fishing industry, which is in crisis because of overfishing at the end of the last century.   Some are even marketing "iceberg water" as the purest on Earth -- and selling it as a high-end luxury item. The melt is also used in vodka, beer and cosmetics.    But beneath the shiny surface of economic success is the dark truth that the area is in part profiting from accelerated global warming in the Arctic, and that the industry is precarious at best.

In the village of Twillingate, employees at the Auk Island Winery -- which makes its product from iceberg water and locally picked wild berries -- have already seen that business can be unpredictable.   "We see the difference in the number of tourists from year to year, depending on the amount of icebergs in the area," says Elizabeth Gleason, who works at the winery.   "This year was a good year. Last year, we had almost none."   The Arctic is warming three times faster than the rest of the world. In mid-July, record temperatures were recorded near the North Pole.   In recent years, the icebergs have drifted further and further south, posing a threat to shipping on this busy route between Europe and North America.

For now, tourists are enjoying the view and the experience while they can.    "The prevalence of icebergs has good things and bad things about it," says Melissa Axtman, an American traveller.   Laurent Lucazeau, a 34-year-old French tourist, says seeing an iceberg was sobering.   "It is a concrete image of global warming to see icebergs making it to these places where the water is warm," he told AFP.   "There's something mysterious and impressive about it, but knowing too that they are not supposed to be here makes you wonder, and it's a little scary."
More ...

Solomon Islands

Solomon
Islands - US Consular Information Sheet
August 13, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
The Solomon Islands form an Archipelago in the southwest Pacific Ocean about 1,200 miles northeast of Australia.
The capital, Honiara, is locate
on the Island of Guadalcanal.
The Solomon Islands are a parliamentary democracy within the British Commonwealth.
Tourism facilities are limited, particularly outside Honiara.
Read the Department of State Background notes on the Solomon Islands for additional information.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
U.S. passport holders do not require visas to enter the Solomon Islands.
Passports, onward/return tickets and proof of sufficient funds for the duration of stay are required.
Visitor permits are granted upon arrival at Henderson International Airport in Honiara.
Visitors may enter any number of times provided the total period in the Solomon Islands does not exceed 90 days in a 12-month period.
Persons arriving on one-way airline tickets must have documentation stating their business, for example, a work permit if taking up employment in the Solomon Islands.
The Solomon Islands government strictly enforces immigration laws, and travelers may face fines and other penalties if they remain in the country beyond the authorized period of stay.
Persons arriving on yachts should visit the nearest immigration office to complete arrival forms for issuance of visitors' permits.

Travelers who plan to
arrive in the Solomon Islands by plane or some other conveyance
but who plan to depart on a yacht should apply for a visitor’s permit before their arrival in the Solomon Islands, to the Director of Immigration (via fax to the U.S. Consular Agent in Honiara at 677-27429).
The application should state the traveler’s arrival date, vessel name and registration details, vessel’s arrival date, approximate time traveler will spend in the Solomon Islands, and it should request entry on a one-way (arrival only) airline ticket.
The Director will issue a permit to be presented at airline check-in.
If the traveler does not have this permit, she/he may be denied boarding.
For more information about entry requirements, travelers may contact the Solomon Islands Mission to the United Nations at 800 Second Avenue, Suite 8008, New York, NY 10017-4709; Tel: (212) 599-6192 or 6193.
Travelers who anticipate the possibility of transiting or visiting Australia are advised to obtain an electronic travel authority (ETA) or visa for Australia before leaving the United States.
An ETA may be obtained for a small service fee at http://www.eta.immi.gov.au/.
Airlines and many travel agents in the United States are also able to issue ETAs.
Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Since July 24, 2003, the Regional Assistance Mission in the Solomon Islands (RAMSI), a coalition of Pacific Island states that includes military and police forces from Australia and several other Pacific Island nations, has helped the Solomon Islands improve law and order.
.
It is generally safe to walk alone during the day; however, walking alone at night is discouraged.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).
The U.S. Consular Agent in Honiara also has available up-to-date safety and security information at (677) 23426 and (677) 94731, or Fax (677) 27429.
The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME:
Major crimes against travelers are uncommon, although incidences of theft, mugging, and extortion are increasing.
Some 350 RAMSI Police are working alongside Royal Solomon Islands Police (RSIP) to respond to any situation requiring police.

Lawlessness is increasing in Honiara, mostly in the form of petty crime (theft and harassment for money).
The isolated incidents of harassment of expatriates that have increased in Honiara since April 2006 are generally minor and associated with alcohol and fringe elements of the community. House and vehicle break-ins occur, with expatriates particularly targeted.
Some recent episodes have involved violence and the use or threatened use of knives.
Gang-based criminal activity has increased in and around the Burns Creek area in East Honiara, and in the Borderline area, which is close to the Japanese memorial.
It is not advisable to go alone to the Japanese memorial.

Americans should be aware that the public does not distinguish between Australians and Americans.
INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and to the nearest U.S. Consular Agent in Honiara, or the U.S. Embassy in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the U.S. Consular Agent or the U.S. Embassy for assistance.
The Consular Agent or Embassy staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends, and explain how funds may be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

The local equivalent to the “911” emergency line in the Solomon Islands is: 999.
Other emergency numbers are:
Ambulance, Hospital - 911
National Disaster - 955
Fire - 988

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Hospitals and pharmacies in the Solomon Islands are limited to population centers and missions.
Since 2001, the quality of medical services has deteriorated seriously, although it is expected to improve as the country’s overall economic condition continues to improve.
The nearest reliable medical facilities are in Australia or New Zealand.
There is a hyperbaric recompression chamber in Honiara at the In-the-Zone Medical Centre, phone (677) 23485 or (677) 23482; however, medical conditions resulting from diving accidents may require medical evacuation to Australia or New Zealand.
Serious medical conditions requiring hospitalization and/or medical evacuation to Australia, New Zealand or the United States can cost thousands of dollars.
The incidence of malaria is high.
Doctors and hospitals often expect immediate cash payment for health services. Travelers who anticipate the possible need for medical treatment in Australia should obtain entry permission for Australia in advance.
Entry permission for Australia can be granted by the Australian High Commission in Honiara, but it is easier to obtain it prior to leaving the United States (see section above on Entry/Exit Requirements)
Some HIV/AIDS entry restrictions exist for visitors to and foreign residents of Solomon Islands.
Per Solomon Islands Immigration Act Cap 60, Section 4 (1) (d) and section 11, subsection (2), an immigration officer can bar a visitor from entering the country or deport an immigrant if he or she refuses to submit to an examination by a government medical officer after being required to do so.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s website at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning the Solomon Islands is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Vehicular traffic in the Solomon Islands moves on the left.
Paved roads are found only in and around Honiara, located on Guadalcanal Island.
These two-lane paved roads are poorly marked and have many potholes.
Roads are not well lit at night.
The remaining roads in the Solomon Islands are made of coral or gravel, or are dirt tracks.
Travelers must take care when driving off main roads to avoid trespassing on communal land.
For information concerning the rental and operation of motor vehicles in the Solomon Islands, contact our Consular Agent in Honiara.
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
For specific information concerning Solomon Islands driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, visit the Solomon Islands Department of Commerce web site at http://www.commerce.gov.sb/.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in the Solomon Islands, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed the Solomon Islands’ Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: Customs Information: The Solomon Islands' customs authorities enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from the Solomon Islands of items such as firearms and ammunition, sexually explicit material, and certain prescription drugs.
Other items may be subject to quarantine regulations or import duty.
The Solomon Islands' government prohibits the export of military artifacts from World War II.
It is advisable to contact the Solomon Islands' Mission to the United Nations for specific information regarding customs requirements.
Natural Disasters:
The Solomon Islands lie in the South Pacific cyclonic trajectory, and are vulnerable to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and sudden tidal movements.
The Pacific cyclone season extends from November through March.
General information regarding disaster preparedness is available via the Internet from the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) at http://www.fema.gov.

Please see our Customs Information.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating the Solomon Islands laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession or use of, or trafficking in illegal drugs in the Solomon Islands are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
There is no U.S. Embassy in the Solomon Islands.
However, there is a U.S. Consular Agent in Honiara.
The Consular Agent has general information and forms, such as passport applications, and can be contacted at the United States Consular Agency, Commonwealth Avenue, Point Cruz, telephone number is (677) 23426 or (677) 98367, cell number is (677) 94731, home number is (677) 22539; fax (677) 27429; e-mail keithieusa@solomon.com.sb or us_consular@solomon.com.sb.
For additional information and to download forms, please visit our Virtual Embassy for the Solomon Islands at http://www.usvpp-solomonislands.org/
The U.S. Embassy in Papua New Guinea provides primary assistance for U.S. citizens in the Solomon Islands.
The Embassy is located on Douglas Street, adjacent to the Bank of Papua New Guinea, in Port Moresby.
Use that address for courier service deliveries.
The mailing address is PO Box 1492, Port Moresby, N.C.D. 121, Papua New Guinea; the telephone number is (675) 321-1455; after hours duty officer telephone number is (675) 683-7943; Fax (675) 321-1593.
American citizens may submit consular inquiries via e-mail to ConsularPortMoresby@state.gov.
The web site for the U.S. Embassy in Port Moresby is http://portmoresby.usembassy.gov/.
Americans living or traveling in the Solomon Islands are encouraged to register with the U.S. Embassy in Port Moresby through the State Department’s travel registration web site, and to visit the Consular Agency in Honiara to obtain updated information on travel and security within the Solomon Islands.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the Embassy or Consular Agency.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy to contact them in case of emergency.
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information for the Solomon Islands dated January 17, 2008, to update sections on Crime, Information for Victims of Crime, Medical Facilities and Health Information.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Mon, 23 Oct 2017 06:02:34 +0200

Wellington, Oct 23, 2017 (AFP) - Residents in the Solomon Islands' southeast were warned to stay indoors Monday to avoid showers of ash from a volcanic eruption.   Officials said a lack of scientific equipment made it difficult to monitor the situation on Tinakula island, which lies just north of Vanuatu where 11,000 people were evacuated last month following an eruption on Ambae island.

While the Vanuatu government decided on Friday that the situation on Ambae had settled and people could return home, Solomon Islands officials said they had no indication how long the eruption on Tinakula would continue.    Although Tinakula is uninhabited, about 10,600 people live on the neighbouring Santa Cruz islands.   "Authorities do not have a scientific way to monitor the situation and determine when it will end," the Solomon Islands Broadcasting Corporation (SIBC) quoted National Disaster Management Office director Loti Yates as saying. 

Yates said ashfall on nearby communities and the impact on air travel were the main concerns. An aviation warning has been issued for the Santa Cruz Islands.    "As much as possible, people need to stay indoors," he said, while downplaying the significance of the eruption.   "From what we know currently, the danger of the volcano's impact on Santa Cruz is very small or very limited," he said.   Tinakula, which is frequently active, once had a population of about 130 until an eruption in 1971 forced their permanent evacuation.
Date: Sun, 19 Mar 2017 18:23:14 +0100

Hong Kong, March 19, 2017 (AFP) - A 6.0-magnitude earthquake hit off the Solomon Islands in the early hours of Monday, the US Geological Survey said.   The quake struck at 02:43 am local time (1543 GMT Sunday) at a depth of 4.0 kilometres (2.5 miles), some 170 kilometres north-northeast of the capital city Honiara, the USGS said.   No tsunami warning was issued.

The Solomon Islands are part of the Pacific "Ring of Fire", a zone of tectonic activity known for frequent quakes and volcanic eruptions.    In 2007 an 8.0-magnitude quake in the Solomon Islands claimed 52 lives and left thousands homeless when it created a 10-metre tsunami.
Date: Fri, 20 Jan 2017 01:16:56 +0100

Sydney, Jan 20, 2017 (AFP) - A 6.8-magnitude earthquake hit off the Solomon Islands on Friday, seismologists said, with officials in the Pacific island nation saying there were no initial reports of damage.   The US Geological Survey said quake struck at 10:04 am local time (2304 GMT Thursday) at a depth of 33 kilometres (20 miles) some 70 kilometres west of Kirakira -- the same region where several large tremors struck last month.   The Hawaii-based Pacific Tsunami Warning Center said there was no tsunami threat from the latest shake.   Three strong tremors were felt off Kirakira in December without causing serious damage.

The Solomons National Disaster Management Office (NDMO) said it had not received any damage reports from the remote area.   "We haven't had any information come through," NDMO director Loti Yates told AFP from the capital Honiara.   "It's in the same area as the tremors last month and there are large cracks in the ground. Combined with heavy rain, that could cause landslips but it's too early to say at this stage and we're not making assumptions."   The Solomon Islands are part of the Pacific "Ring of Fire", a zone of tectonic activity known for frequent quakes and volcanic eruptions.    In 2007 an 8.0-magnitude quake in the Solomon Islands claimed 52 lives and left thousands homeless when it created a 10-metre tsunami.
Date: Tue, 20 Dec 2016 06:28:29 +0100

Sydney, Dec 20, 2016 (AFP) - The Solomon Islands was rattled by a strong 6.7-magnitude earthquake Tuesday, the US Geological Survey said, but no tsunami warning was issued and no immediate damage reported.   The quake struck 164 kilometres (101 miles) from the capital Honiara at a depth of 35 kilometres -- the fourth big tremor is just over a week.

"Based on all available data, a destructive Pacific-wide tsunami is not expected," the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center said, while Geoscience Australia estimated damage would only be likely up to 74 kilometres away.   The Solomon Islands are part of the Pacific "Ring of Fire", a zone of tectonic activity known for frequent quakes and volcanic eruptions.    On December 9, a 7.7-magnitude tremor triggered severe shaking and a tsunami warning in the same area, although there were no reports of serious damage. This was followed by a 6.9-magnitude aftershock a day later and another of 6.0 magnitude on Sunday.
Date: Sun, 18 Dec 2016 07:26:39 +0100

Sydney, Dec 18, 2016 (AFP) - A 6.0-magnitude earthquake struck off the Solomon Islands on Sunday, the US Geological Survey said, the third strong tremor off the Pacific nation in less than two weeks.   The quake hit at 4.46pm (0546 GMT) at a depth of 39 kilometres (24 miles) about 83 kilometres west-northwest of Kirakira, the USGS added.   On December 10 a 6.9-magnitude quake struck off Kirakira. The previous day a 7.7-magnitude tremor triggered severe shaking and a tsunami warning, although there were no reports of serious damage.
More ...

Bahrain

Bahrain - US Consular Information Sheet
June 27, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Bahrain is a hereditary kingdom governed by the Al-Khalifa family. In 2002, the country adopted a new constitution that reinstated a parliament, which consists of o
e elected and one appointed chamber. Islamic ideals and beliefs provide the conservative foundation of the country's customs, laws and practices. Bahrain is a modern, developed country and tourist facilities are widely available. The capital is Manama. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Bahrain for additional information.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport and a visa are required. Passports should be valid for at least six months after the date of arrival. U.S. passport holders outside of Bahrain may apply and pay for a two-week tourist visa online through the Bahraini government web site at http://www.evisa.gov.bh, or may obtain it upon arrival at the airport. U.S. diplomatic passport holders receive a no-fee two-week visa. Prior to travel, visitors may obtain five-year multiple-entry visas valid for stays as long as one month from Bahraini embassies overseas. Bahrain assesses heavy fines on visitors who fail to depart Bahrain at the end of their authorized stay. The amount of the fine is determined by a formula related to the visa type, duration, and location of issuance. An exit tax is included in the ticket price for flights out of Bahrain, and no additional exit fees are required upon departure. Residents of Bahrain who intend to return must obtain a re-entry permit before departing. For further information on entry/exit requirements, travelers may contact the Embassy of the Kingdom of Bahrain, 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008, telephone (202) 342-1111; or the Bahrain Permanent Mission to the U.N., 2 United Nations Plaza, East 44th St., New York, NY 10017, telephone (212) 223-6200. Visit the Embassy of Bahrain web site at www.bahrainembassy.org for the most current visa information.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site. For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.
SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Americans in Bahrain should maintain a high level of security awareness. Spontaneous demonstrations take place in Bahrain from time to time in response to world events or local developments. We remind American citizens that even demonstrations intended to be peaceful can turn confrontational and possible escalate into violence. American citizens are therefore urged to avoid the areas of demonstrations if possible, and to exercise caution if within the vicinity of any demonstrations. American citizens should stay current with media coverage of local events and be aware of their surroundings at all times. Information regarding demonstrations in Bahrain can be found on the U.S. Embassy Manama’s web site at http://bahrain.usembassy.gov/information_for_travelers.html.

Visiting U.S. citizens should register with the U.S. Embassy in Manama upon arrival. The Department of State remains concerned about the possibility of terrorist attacks against U.S. citizens and interests throughout the world. Americans should maintain a low profile, vary routes and times for all required travel, and treat mail and packages from unfamiliar sources with caution. In addition, U.S. citizens are urged to avoid contact with any suspicious, unfamiliar objects, and to report the presence of the objects to local authorities. Please report any security concerns to the U.S. Embassy's Regional Security Office at telephone (973) 1724-2700 during office hours or (973) 1727–5126 after hours.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department’s web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Worldwide Caution, Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts can be found.
Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada or, for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).
The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME:
The crime rate in Bahrain is low and violent crime is rare. However, burglary, petty theft, and robberies do occur. Visiting Americans are urged to take the same security precautions in Bahrain that one would practice in the United States. Hotel room doors should be locked when visitors are in their rooms, and travelers are encouraged to store valuables in hotel room safes when they are available. Women are encouraged to keep their purses firmly under their arms, and men should avoid keeping their wallets in their hip pockets while in the old market area. The U.S. Embassy in Manama recommends that travelers using local taxis insist on the use of a meter since unexpectedly high fares may otherwise be charged. Bahrain has a professional police force, and visitors are encouraged to contact the police if problems are encountered.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the U.S. Embassy. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the U.S. Embassy for assistance. The Embassy staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how to transfer funds. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

The local equivalent to the “911” emergency line in Bahrain is 999.
See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Basic modern medical care and medicines are available in several hospitals and health centers in Bahrain. Two government hospitals, several private hospitals, and numerous private clinics located throughout the country offer a wide range of medical services. Cardiac care, general surgery, internal medicine, obstetrics, gynecology, pediatrics, orthopedics and dentistry services are readily available, as are x-rays, CT-scan and MRI testing. The government hospitals house both trauma and ICU units. Pharmacies are common throughout Bahrain and carry a wide range of medications. Prescriptions are normally required.
Payment at all medical facilities is due at the time of service. Some hospitals have limited direct billing capability for certain insurance carriers. Billing and insurance practices vary among the medical facilities.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.
MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Bahrain is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Travel by road in Bahrain is generally safe although unsafe driving practices are common. Highways and major roads in the northern third of Bahrain are four to six lanes wide and well maintained; roads in villages and older parts of Manama and Muharraq are narrow and twisting. As in the United States, traffic in Bahrain moves on the right. Roundabouts (traffic circles) follow the British system, with those automobiles within the traffic circle having right of way over those attempting to enter. Although the Bahraini penal code calls for fines of up to 100 dinars ($270.00) or imprisonment of up to six months for driving above posted speed limits, it is not uncommon for drivers to drive well over the posted speed limits of 50-120 km per hour. The law allows the police to detain drivers for traffic violations until they can appear before a magistrate. It is illegal to use a cell phone while driving.

Under Bahraini law, any sign of having consumed alcohol may be taken as prima facie evidence of driving under the influence, which can lead to imprisonment and/or fines of up to 1,000 Bahraini Dinars (2,700 U.S. dollars). Except for minor accidents, drivers may not move their vehicles after an accident until a report has been filed with the traffic police. This is true even in cases of single-car accidents. Insurance companies may not provide coverage if the cars are moved. However, drivers involved in minor, non-injury accidents no longer need to wait at the scene for the police. Individuals should get their vehicles off the road to avoid further accidents. Drivers can call the accident hotline at 199 (if there are no injuries) or 999 (when someone is injured) where they will be directed to one of five centers to file the accident report. This report must be filed within 24 hours of the accident. Both drivers may be prohibited from leaving the country until the matter is resolved if an accident results in legal proceedings. The main switchboard at the traffic department is 1787-2222.
Emergency numbers are as follows:
Fire/Ambulance/Police: 999
Traffic/Accidents: 199 (no injuries) OR 999 (injuries)
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. Visit the web site of Bahrain’s national authority responsible for road safety at http://www.traffic.gov.bh/main.htm.
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Bahrain, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Bahrain’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Individuals subject to Bahraini court orders arising from indebtedness, labor disagreements, or other legal disputes may be prevented from departing Bahrain until their cases are resolved. Instances have occurred in which departure was prohibited for several years, since the legal process can be both lengthy and complex. The Consular Section of the U.S. Embassy in Manama maintains a list of local attorneys capable of representing Americans.
Please see our Customs Information.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Persons violating Bahrain’s laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Disrespect to officials in word or deed can result in heavy fines. Travelers who are driving should be aware that one drink may be sufficient grounds for a DUI arrest. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Bahrain are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Bahrain are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Bahrain. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located at Bldg. 979, Road no. 3119, Zinj District (next to Al Ahli Sports Club). The mailing address is P.O. Box 26431, Manama, Bahrain. The telephone number is (973) 1724-2700. The after-hours number is (973) 1727-5126. The Consular Section’s fax number is (973) 1725-6242. The Embassy's web site, which includes consular information and the most recent messages to the American community in Bahrain is at http://bahrain.usembassy.gov/. The workweek in Bahrain is Sunday through Thursday.
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information for Bahrain dated November 23, 2007 without substantive changes.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Mon, 2 Oct 2017 19:26:47 +0200

Dubai, Oct 2, 2017 (AFP) - A "terrorist explosion" during a Shiite procession commemorating Ashura lightly wounded five policemen on Monday, the interior ministry in Sunni-ruled Bahrain announced.   "A terrorist explosion caused five light injuries among policemen deployed as security for a procession along Budaiya Avenue" in western Manama, a tweet from the ministry said.

Shiites in the tiny Gulf kingdom mark Ashura with processions in Manama and in villages around the capital.   The annual Ashura commemorations mark the killing of Imam Hussein by the forces of the Caliph Yazid in 680 AD -- a formative event in Shiite Islam.   Imam Hussein's death was part of a dispute over who should succeed the Prophet Mohammed, which eventually developed into a bitter schism between the Sunni and Shiite branches of Islam.

Bahrain, home to the US Fifth Fleet, has seen sporadic violence since the repression in 2011 of a protest movement by the Shiite majority, demanding a constitutional monarchy and an elected prime minister.   Hundreds of protesters, mainly but not all Shiites, were arrested and sentenced to lengthy prison terms for their role in the demonstrations.   Bahrain says it does not discriminate towards the country's Shiites, and regularly accuses Shiite Iran of meddling in its internal affairs, an allegation Tehran denies.
Date: Sun, 26 Feb 2017 20:11:48 +0100

Dubai, Feb 26, 2017 (AFP) - Four Bahraini policemen were wounded in a bomb attack Sunday near the village of Jaw, south of the capital Manama, the interior ministry said.   "Terrorist blast in police bus near Jua village. 4 policemen injured and they are in a stable condition. Necessary steps are being taken," the ministry said on its Twitter account.   It gave no further details.

On January 1, gunmen attacked the prison in Jaw, killing a policeman and allowing 10 inmates to escape.   Shiites convicted over anti-government protests in Sunni-ruled Bahrain were held at Jaw.   Tiny but strategic Bahrain, home to the US Fifth Fleet, has been rocked by unrest since the authorities crushed Shiite-led protests in 2011 demanding a constitutional monarchy and an elected prime minister.

Hundreds of Shiites have been arrested and many have faced trials over their role in the demonstrations.   One of those on trial is Sheikh Issa Qassem, the country's Shiite spiritual leader.   He was stripped of his citizenship last year for "serving foreign interests" -- a reference to Shiite Iran.   On Sunday, clashes broke out between security forces and protesters in several Shiite villages as a new hearing in Qassem's case was underway, witnesses said.   Protesters chanted anti-government slogans and carried portraits of Qassem, they said.
Date: Wed, 15 Feb 2017 11:55:11 +0100

Dubai, Feb 15, 2017 (AFP) - An explosion wounded two civilian passers-by in Bahrain, the interior ministry said early Wednesday, as demonstrators were marking the sixth anniversary of an anti-government uprising that was bloodily suppressed.   The ministry did not say what caused Tuesday evening's blast in a village outside the capital Manama but demonstrators sometimes throw petrol bombs during the sporadic protests that still grip the Sunni-ruled but Shiite-majority kingdom.   "Terrorist blast in Sitra causes minor injuries to a married couple passing the site. Police at the scene," the ministry said on its Twitter account without elaborating.   It also tweeted a picture of a black 4X4 with a shattered windscreen and significant damage to the front bonnet.   The blast came as demonstrators clashed with police in Manama and several nearby villages.   The demonstration in the capital ended when police fired tear gas and stun grenades, witnesses said.

Activists posted pictures of injured protesters online, but the interior ministry has not published any official statements about the reported demonstrations.   The Shiite-led protests of February 2011 sought a constitutional monarchy and an elected prime minister to replace the current government dominated by the ruling Al-Khalifa family.   Authorities crushed them the following month with the support of Saudi-led forces who secured key installations.   Since then, the authorities have banned the Shiite opposition and handed long jail terms to many of its leaders. Some have been stripped of their citizenship.   Tiny but strategic Bahrain lies just across the Gulf from Iran and is home to the US Navy's Fifth Fleet.
Date: Thu, 19 May 2016 21:53:48 +0000
From: Dr Manaf Alqahtani <drmanaf@gmail.com> [edited]
BDF Hospital, Bahrain
-----------------------------------
Measles is a highly infectious virus that spreads easily from person to person through the air, through breathing, coughing and sneezing. Although measles is largely considered a disease of children, we have noticed increasing numbers of adults infected. Since 9 May 2016, we had a total of 7 cases with measles. 4 were adults (30-40 years old) and 3 children (less than 12 months old). All adults were Bahraini (3 originally born in Yemen and one in Pakistan). All of the adults either have no documentation of MMR or received one dose MMR only.

Regarding the 3 children with measles, all were non-vaccinated and got infected from their infected adult family member.

3 out of 7 cases needed to be admitted for hydration and symptomatic treatment. Luckily, all our HCWs [health care workers] have documented 2 doses of MMR.

In the 2014 measles outbreak in Bahrain, 32 cases were registered, of which 27 were among children under 15 years and 5 among adults. Of the total, 14 cases were detected among expatriates.

Bahrain and the other member states of the EMR [Eastern Mediterranean Region] adopted a resolution for elimination of measles from the region by 2010. In 1996, the Ministry of Health (MOH) developed a plan for measles elimination that included a revised measles immunization schedule, introduction of case-based surveillance, and annual immunization campaigns of school children.

Most of recent measles cases are imported.
------------------------------
Dr. Manaf Alqahtani
BDF Hospital
Bahrain
=================
[ProMED thanks Dr. Alqahtani for sending this information.

Also see: JS Jawad et al. Toward Measles Elimination in Bahrain -- A Middle East Country Experience. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 2011;204:S299-S304

"Abstract
---------
Measles was a leading cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality in Bahrain before the introduction of measles vaccine in 1974. With the establishment of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in 1981 and the introduction of a 2nd dose of measles vaccine in 1985, coverage for 1st and 2nd doses of measles vaccine increased to 94 percent by 1997 and has been sustained greater than 97 percent since 2001. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) immunization campaigns targeting 12-year-old students were conducted annually during 1998-2006 and achieved coverage of greater than 95 percent. As a result, the incidence of measles in Bahrain has declined markedly over the past 4 decades, to 2.7 cases per million persons in 2009. Recent confirmed measles cases have occurred sporadically, in under-vaccinated children or in infants too young or adults too old to receive measles vaccine. Bahrain has made significant progress toward measles elimination by sustaining high immunization coverage and strengthening case-based measles surveillance activities. Further success will depend on improved identification and immunization of under-vaccinated expatriate workers and their families."

A map of Bahrain can be accessed at <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/127>.
Bahrain is an archipelago in the middle of the Arabian Gulf encompassing 33 islands, the largest of which is Bahrain Island. - ProMED Mod.LK]
Date: Fri 6 Nov 2015
Source: Reuters [edited]

A cholera outbreak in Iraq has spread to Kuwait and Bahrain, and risks turning into a region-wide epidemic as millions of pilgrims prepare to visit the country, UNICEF's Iraq director has said. The disease, which can lead to death by dehydration and kidney failure within hours if left untreated, was detected west of Baghdad in September 2015 and has since infected at least 2200 people in Iraq and has killed 6.

"It [the outbreak] already has a regional dynamic and the risk of that can only be increased by people from all over the region coming into Iraq," UNICEF country director, Peter Hawkins, said on Thu 5 Nov 2015. Hawkins said cholera had spread to Bahrain, Kuwait and Syria, but in a later statement, UNICEF said the cases in Syria were not confirmed: "However, given the scale of the outbreak in Iraq the risk of cholera spreading across Iraq's borders remains high," it said.

Millions of Shi'ite Muslims are due to visit Iraq in December for Arbaeen, a religious ritual marking the end of an annual mourning period for the Prophet Mohammad's grandson Hussein, whose death in 680 AD entrenched the schism between Shi'ites and Sunnis.

Hawkins said UNICEF was working with clerics in the Shi'ite shrine cities of Najaf and Kerbala to convey information about how to guard against cholera, which is endemic in Iraq and the wider region. The outbreak can be traced to a number of factors including low water levels in the Euphrates and winter flooding that has contaminated the river and shallow wells with sewage water.

The war against [the so-called] Islamic State militants who control large swathes of territory in northern and western Iraq has also contributed to the outbreak. The conflict has displaced more than 3 million people, with many living in camps where conditions are conducive to the spread of cholera -- a bite of contaminated food or a sip of contaminated water is enough to cause infection.

Hawkins said UNICEF has only limited access to areas controlled by Islamic State, which swept across the Syrian border in mid-2014 in a bid to establish a modern caliphate.

Higher military expenditure and other costs associated with the battle against Islamist militancy has aggravated a cash crunch for Iraq, a major OPEC oil producer that has suffered from the drop in global crude prices over the past year. A higher proportion of the government budget is also being spent on security at the expense of other services and infrastructure such as water supply, Hawkins said.

1 in 5 of the confirmed cases in Iraq is among children, and in large parts of the country the start of the school year was delayed by a month as a precaution, UNICEF said in a statement. In response to the outbreak, UNICEF is providing bottled water, oral rehydration salts and installing community water tanks, but like most humanitarian operations in Iraq it is severely underfunded.  [byline: Isabel Coles]
=====================
[The conflicts in the Middle East have exacerbated the endemic cholera in Iraq, and it has spread beyond Iraq's borders. The number of cases of cholera in Kuwait and Bahrain are not reported, nor is it clear whether the cases were acquired in these countries or imported. UNICEF has not confirmed any cases in war-torn Syria, but there are informal reports circulating. - ProMED Mod.LL]

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
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World Travel News Headlines

Date: Mon, 18 Nov 2019 08:37:15 +0100 (MET)

Jakarta, Nov 18, 2019 (AFP) - An endangered Sumatran Tiger has mauled to death an Indonesian farmer and seriously injured a domestic tourist, a conservation official said Monday.   The fatal attack happened Sunday at the farmer's coffee plantation on Sumatra island where the 57-year-old wrestled with the big cat before it killed him, according to Genman Hasibuan, head of the South Sumatra conservation agency.   "The farmer was attacked while he was cutting a tree at his plantation," he told AFP on Monday.   The mauling came a day after the same tiger attacked a group of Indonesian tourists who were camping at a local tea plantation in South Sumatra's Mount Dempo region.

One of the tourists was rushed to hospital for wounds to his back after the cat stormed into his tent, Hasibuan said.   The animal, which remains loose in the protected-forest area, is believed to be one of just 15 critically endangered tigers in South Sumatra, which has seen five tiger attacks this year, including two fatal incidents, Hasibuan said.

Human-animal conflicts are common in the vast Southeast Asian archipelago, especially in areas where the clearing of rainforest to make way for palm oil plantations is destroying animals' habitats and bringing them into closer contact with people.   In March last year, a man was killed by a tiger in Sumatra's Riau province while several months earlier a tiger also killed a plantation worker in the area.   Sumatran tigers are considered critically endangered by protection group the International Union for Conservation of Nature, with 400 to 500 remaining in the wild.
Date: Fri, 15 Nov 2019 17:12:24 +0100 (MET)

Karachi, Nov 15, 2019 (AFP) - Pakistan has become the first country in the world to introduce a new typhoid vaccine, officials said Friday, as the country grapples with an ongoing outbreak of a drug-resistant strain of the potentially fatal disease.   The vaccine, approved by the World Health Organization (WHO), will be used during a two-week immunisation campaign in southern Sindh province.

Sindh is where most of Pakistan's 10,000 cases of typhoid have been documented since 2017.    "The two-week campaign beginning from today would target over 10 million children of nine months to 15 years of age," Azra Pechuho, the health minister in Sindh province, said in Karachi on Friday.   The new vaccines have been provided by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, to the Pakistani government free of cost.

After the two-week campaign, it will be introduced into routine immunisations in Sindh, and in other areas of Pakistan in the coming years.   Pakistan spends a meagre amount of its national resources on public health and a majority of its population remains vulnerable to contagious diseases such as typhoid.   In 2017, 63 percent of the typhoid cases documented and 70 percent of the fatalities were children, according to a joint press release from the Pakistani government, WHO and Gavi.
Date: Sat, 16 Nov 2019 05:50:25 +0100 (MET)
By Abhaya SRIVASTAVA

New Delhi, Nov 16, 2019 (AFP) - A thick grey smog choked New Delhi for the fifth day Saturday, adding to a mounting pollution health crisis, but retired naval commander Anil Charan is one of the vast majority of the city's 20 million inhabitants who do not wear a mask.   Indian media is packed with warnings about the risk of premature death, lung cancer and particular danger to children from PM2.5 -- tiny particles that get into the bloodstream and vital organs -- carried in the smog.   But the smartly-dressed Charan was among shoppers in Delhi's upmarket Khan Market district browsing the luxury clothes and jewellery stores without a mask, seemingly oblivious to the risk.   Many are too poor to afford protection but others simply do not like the way a pollution mask looks.

Charan, wearing aviator sunglasses, said it did not fit his "rough and tough" image.   "I have been brought up in this kind of atmosphere, the smog and all, so I am kind of used to it. And being a naval officer I think if I wear a mask I will think I am a sissy," he said.   Doctors say face masks must be worn and air purifiers used at home and in offices.   There are a variety of masks to choose from. A basic cloth version can cost as little as 50 rupees (70 US cents) but the protection they offer is debatable.    More reputable types start from 2,500 rupees ($34) while some Khan Market stores charge more than 5,500 rupees ($75) for top of the range imported models.

- Bare-faced bravado -
The mask-look worried a lot of the Khan Market shoppers and diners however. Some said the danger had been overblown.   "I know I am risking my health but I am not very comfortable wearing them (masks)," said Ritancia Cardoz, who works for a private company.   "I don't find it appealing," she told AFP.   Lopa Diwan, on a visit to the capital from the provinces, said the Delhi air was "not as bad as it is being made out to be."   "So many people advised me not to go to Delhi because of the pollution but I don't think it's that bad. I don't see people dying," she said.

Pollution -- blamed on industrial and car emissions mixed with stubble fires on thousands of farms surrounding the city -- has been building up each winter for the past decade. The past five years have been particularly bad.   The toxic air cuts short the lives of one million people in India every year, according to government research published earlier this year.    Concentrations of the most harmful airborne pollutants in Delhi are regularly about 20 times the World Health Organisation safe limit. That rams home the city's reputation as the world's most polluted capital.   Some foreign companies and embassies now do not let families move to Delhi, or at least give strong warnings about the pollution.

The Delhi government has given out hundreds of thousands of masks to children and closed schools for four of the past five days. Construction is banned and cars can only go on the roads on alternate days.   But still only a tiny number of inhabitants follow medical advice when outside. Rickshaw drivers who earn about $7 a day on an average say they cannot afford masks.   Chand Babu, a car park attendant at Khan Market, said he could buy one of the cheaper masks but it was too much of a hassle to wear.   "I have to blow the whistle all the time so it's inconvenient."   Babu does worry, however, about his three children who also do not have masks. "They go outside to play. The problem is real, but what do we do, tell me?"
Date: Sun, 17 Nov 2019 14:28:44 +0100 (MET)
By Filippo MONTEFORTE with Charles ONIANS in Rome

Venice, Nov 17, 2019 (AFP) - Venice's St Mark's Square was closed on Sunday as the historic city suffered its  third major flooding in less than a week, while rain lashing the rest of Italy prompted warnings in Florence and Pisa.   Venice's latest "acqua alta", or high water, hit 150 centimetres (just under five feet) on Sunday, lower than Tuesday's 187 centimetres -- the highest level in half a century -- but still dangerous.   "The water has stopped rising," tweeted mayor Luigi Brugnaro, who has estimated damage so far from the invading salt water at over one billion euros (dollars).   "High of 150 centimetres... Venice is working to restart," Brugnaro said after the sea water swamped the already devastated city where authorities have declared a state of emergency.   To the south, Tuscany president Enrico Rossi tweeted a warning of a "flood wave" on the Arno and said boards were being installed on the swollen river's banks in Pisa "as a precautionary measure".

The Italian army tweeted photos of paratroopers helping to bolster river defences in Pisa, with authorities monitoring the same river in Florence after heavy rain made it rise dramatically overnight.   Arno flooding devastated Renaissance jewel Florence in 1966, killing around 100 people and destroying thousands of priceless works of art. Civil protection units in Florence advised citizens "not to stand near the Arno's riverbanks".   Firefighters tweeted footage of a hovercraft being deployed to rescue stranded citizens in southern Tuscany's Grossetano province.

- Brief respite -
The renewed threat from exceptionally high tides in Venice came after a brief respite on Saturday.   Emergency workers removed temporary walkways from St Mark's Square as the water started to rise on Sunday, with only police and soldiers visible at around midday.   The top tourist site had already been shut for several hours on Friday as strong storms and winds battered the region, leaving it submerged by sea surges.

Churches, shops and homes have also been inundated in the Renaissance city, a UNESCO World Heritage site.   A massive infrastructure project called MOSE has been under way since 2003 to protect the city, but the multi-billion euro project has been plagued by cost overruns, corruption scandals and delays.   "We weren't expecting the high waters to be so exceptionally high," said Guido Fulgenzi, who had planned to open his cafe on St Mark's square this week.   "We're paying the price" for the MOSE project not being completed, he said, sloshing around in his flooded kitchen and pointing to Tuesday's high water mark on the wall.   The crisis has prompted the government to release 20 million euros ($22 million) in funds to tackle the devastation.   Culture Minister Dario Franceschini has warned that the task of repairing the city, where more than 50 churches have suffered damage, will be huge.

- Hotel reservations cancelled -
Residents whose houses have been hit are eligible for up to 5,000 euros in immediate government aid, while restaurant and shop owners can receive up to 20,000 euros and apply for more later.   Most of the city's cash machines were no longer working, making life even more difficult for tourists and Venetians.   "We didn't expect there to be so much water, now we're soaked," said French tourist Magali Mariolou, visiting Venice for her wedding anniversary.   "We'll come back another year when it's a bit drier. The boots are heavy, they're full of water!"

Older residents who remember the infamous "acqua alta" of 1966, when the water rose to 1.94 metres, say they have not seen such frequent flooding before.   Hotels reported cancelled reservations, some as far ahead as December, following the widespread diffusion of images of Venice underwater.   Tuesday's high waters submerged around 80 percent of the city, officials said.   Many, including Venice's mayor, have blamed the disaster on global warming and warned that the country prone to natural disasters must wake up to the risks posed by ever more volatile seasons.   The Serenissima, as the floating city is called, is home to 50,000 residents but receives 36 million visitors each year.
Date: Mon, 18 Nov 2019 06:41:11 +0100 (MET)

Wellington, Nov 18, 2019 (AFP) - Samoa finalised plans for a compulsory measles vaccination programme Monday, after declaring a state of emergency as a deadly epidemic sweeps the Pacific nation.   At least six fatalities, including five children, have been linked to the outbreak of the virus, which has also hit other island states such as Tonga and Fiji.   Samoa is the worst affected with more than 700 cases reported from across all areas of the country, prompting the government on Friday to invoke emergency powers.

Declaring a state of emergency, the government said plans for compulsory measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) immunisations would be published on Monday.   "MMR vaccinations for members of the public who have not yet received a vaccination injection is now a mandatory legal requirement for all of Samoa," it said.   A national emergency operations centre to coordinate the measles response in the nation of 200,000 people was opened on Monday, with children aged six months to 19 years and non-pregnant females aged 20-35 given priority.

However, no information was immediately available on how the vaccinations would be administered or whether those who were not immunised would face sanctions.   Children are the most vulnerable to measles, which typically causes a rash and fever but can also lead to brain damage and death.   Samoa has closed all schools, kindergartens and the country's only university in a bid to halt the spread of the virus.   New Zealand, which is experiencing its own measles outbreak in the Auckland region, will this week send 30 nurses, 10 doctors and 3,000 MMR doses to Samoa.

University of Auckland immunologist Helen Petousis-Harris said even though measles was already widespread, the mass rollout of vaccinations could help limit the number of cases and reduce the death count.   She said it was also important to boost Samoa's low levels of immunisation and help prevent future outbreaks.   "In Samoa, the proportion of people who are immune to measles is very, very low, one of the lowest in the world," she told AFP.   "So if they aren't able to improve that, this is going to happen again."   The country's vaccination programme was briefly suspended last year when two babies died shortly after being given the MMR vaccine.   Subsequent investigations found the problem was not the widely used vaccine but the fact that nurses had prepared it incorrectly.

Neighbouring Tonga last week announced government primary schools and kindergartens would be closed until later this month as the number of measles cases in the kingdom approaches 200.   Fiji has reported four cases but says they are contained to a township west of the capital Suva.
Date: Sun, 17 Nov 2019 18:10:23 +0100 (MET)

Johannesburg, Nov 17, 2019 (AFP) - South African unions on Sunday called on all aviation workers to join striking South African Airways (SAA) staff after the cash-strapped airline failed to meet their demands.   The country's embattled flag carrier has been losing 52 million rand ($3.5 million) per day since more than 3,000 workers started an open-ended strike on Friday -- forcing the airline to cancel hundreds of flights.   Talks with the two unions representing the striking workers ended without resolution on Saturday, prompting threats of further action.   "In response to this deliberate provocation by the SAA board and its executive management, (the) NUMSA (metalworkers' union) is in the process of consulting workers for a secondary strike in aviation," NUMSA spokeswoman Phakamile Hlubi-Majola told reporters outside the SAA headquarters in Johannesburg.

NUMSA and the South African Cabin Crew Association (SACCA) first threatened to strike after SAA announced this week that almost 1,000 employees could lose their jobs as part of a restructuring process.   Initial talks with management deadlocked after they failed to agree on wage hikes, prompting the unions to press on with their threats.   SAA is offering a 5.9 percent pay rise, while unions are demanding an eight percent across-the-board hike and a three-year guaranteeof job security.   They are also asking the airline to in-source more jobs.    "We are fighting against retrenchment, corruption and privatisation," Hlubi-Majola told journalists.   She said discussions with SAA subsidiaries, South Africa's airport management company and airline service providers were under way.   Two transport unions have also been called on to join the action.   "This secondary strike will have the impact of shutting down the entire aviation sector," NUMSA and SACCA said in a joint statement.   SAA CEO Zuks Ramasia voiced "concern" about the unions' intentions and urged them to "reconsider".   "The intent of a secondary strike is to cause disruption, bring all airport operations to a halt and create huge damage to the South African economy," Ramasia said in a statement on Sunday.

- Embattled airline -
The CEO added that SAA could not "afford to pay any salary increases" and reiterated the 5.9 percent rise offer.   "The company has repeatedly communicated the precarious financial position of the company," Ramasia said.      More than 300 SAA flights have been grounded as a result of the open-ended strike.   International flights started slowly resuming on Sunday, while regional and domestic flights remain grounded.   "We hope all our customers understand that the cancellations have been beyond our control," Ramasia said.   South Africa is struggling to get its state-owned companies back on track after nine years of corruption and mismanagement under former president Jacob Zuma.   SAA -- one of Africa's biggest airlines -- is deep in debt and has not posted a profit since 2011, despite several government bailouts.   Finance Minister Tito boweni announced in February that the government would reimburse the company's 9.2 billion rand ($620 million) debt over the next three years.   Ramasia said discussions with unions would resume once the airline had considered "options on the way forward".
Date: Tue, 12 Nov 2019 13:10:01 +0100 (MET)
By Holly ROBERTSON, Andrew BEATTY, with Daniel De Cartert in Hillville

Sydney, Nov 12, 2019 (AFP) - Bushfires raging across eastern Australia singed Sydney's suburbs on Tuesday, with firefighters scrambling planes and helicopters to douse a built-up neighbourhood with water and red retardant.   Experts have described the conditions as the worst on record, as spring temperatures climbed toward 40 degrees Celsius (104 Fahrenheit) and winds topped 80 kilometres (50 miles) per hour across a zone which has been plagued by persistent drought.   Although the bushfire season is in its infancy, scientists predict it to be one of Australia's toughest ever, with climate change and unfavourable weather cycles helping created a tinderbox of strong winds, low humidity and high temperatures.

Twin blazes in the north shore suburb of Turramurra -- around 15 kilometres (nine miles) from the centre of Australia's largest city -- tore through a eucalypt forest park and sparked spot fires in homes, before eventually being brought under control.   As night fell, authorities said they were bringing another "clearly suspicious" blaze in a national park in the city's southern suburbs under control.    Throughout the day, more than 300 bushfires burned up and down Australia's east coast, fanned by gale-force winds, scorching temperatures and tinder-dry bushland that has brought some of the most dangerous conditions the country has seen.

In Turramurra, gardens smouldered, thick smoke hung heavy in the air and cars, houses and roads were caked in raspberry-red retardant as if hit by a giant paintball.   "It was the embers that floated up that actually went across and set off spot fires in the front yards" resident Nigel Lush told AFP, adding that one roof had been set alight.   Another resident, Julia Gretton-Roberts, said the blaze spread shockingly quickly.   "Next thing I know the fire was opposite our house and it was massive and the police came and grabbed our kids and took them away," she said.   "My daughter is pretty freaked out."   Firefighter Andrew Connon told AFP "a number of homes were threatened but it was contained by the aerial bombing".

- 'Catastrophic conditions' -
From early morning thousands of firefighters spread out across New South Wales in anticipation of what they called "off the scale" fire risk and "catastrophic" conditions.   They were unable to prevent several bushfires from breaching containment lines and trapping residents who had not already evacuated.   New South Wales Rural Fire Service Commissioner Shane Fitzsimmons said so far only a dozen buildings had been damaged Tuesday and a handful non-life-threatening injuries were reported, but the crisis was far from over.

Firefighters will be "working on these fires for days and weeks given the enormity of the firegrounds," he said.    Even before unfavourable weather hit, days of fires had killed three people and destroyed at least 150 homes.   "The conditions are expected to get worse," Fitzsimmons said, warning residents in adjacent areas to stay alert.   "Complacency kills," he added.   Up to 600 schools were closed, as well as many national parks, a total fire ban was introduced for the affected area and Rally Australia -- due to be held in Coffs Harbour at the weekend -- was cancelled.   The military pitched in, helping firefighters with logistics and water-dropping sorties using more than 100 aircraft.

- 'We'll fight it first' -
In the town of Hillville a fire that has ripped through an area the size of 25,000 soccer fields approached the home of Daniel Stevens.   Like many, his family -- including his mother nursing a broken leg -- have packed their bags, but have resisted leaving their house and everything they own.    "We'll fight it first," he told AFP, "but if it jumps the fence line into the paddock, we'll go."

In the nearby town of Taree, dozens of people have already moved to a showground that has become a makeshift evacuation centre.   Fifty-nine-year-old Caroline Watson arrived last night with her husband and their dog.    "The fires are just rife. They are absolutely everywhere" she told AFP. "They didn't ask us to get out, but we figured it was coming."

Further south in the Blue Mountains on the outskirts of Sydney, veteran Winmalee firefighter Alan Gardiner said locals were "terrified and on edge".    The town still bears the scars of a 2013 blaze that destroyed 200 homes, and residents are acutely aware that with few roads in and out of the mountains, a decision to leave late can be fatal.   Efforts to burn fuel in a controlled way have been limited by months of drought-like conditions that made it too dangerous.
Date: Tue, 12 Nov 2019 10:03:07 +0100 (MET)

Denpasar, Indonesia, Nov 12, 2019 (AFP) - An Australian tourist who fly-kicked a motorcyclist and assaulted a man in his own home during a drunken rampage was jailed for four months on Tuesday.   The ruling comes after Nicholas Carr's antics were caught in a viral video that saw him carry out a campaign of destruction in Seminyak, a popular tourist area on the Indonesian holiday island.   "The defendant Nicholas Carr is found guilty and is sentenced to four months" in jail, presiding judge Soebandi, who goes by one name, told the Denpasar District Court.    A lawyer for Carr, charged with assault and property damage, said the 26-year-old would not appeal the ruling.    He is expected to be released next month because of time already served.   In August, Carr ran barefoot on to a street and shouted expletives before the apprentice builder slammed into the bonnet of a moving car and then fly-kicked an unsuspecting motorcycle rider.

The biker, who was thrown from the moving scooter, sustained minor injuries -- later the pair embraced during a court hearing as Carr apologised to the victim.   Carr also shattered a convenience store's glass door before stealing a motorcycle.   Later, he broke into a house where he assaulted the sleeping homeowner, leaving him with injuries, police said earlier.    He was eventually caught by locals and police and taken to hospital.    Pictures that circulated on social media showed at the time showed Carr bloodied and bruised, and trussed with hosepipe and rope.   Shortly after his arrest, Carr apologised and admitted drinking more than 10 small bottles of vodka as well as other alcohol.

After a string of embarrassing incidents by tourists, Bali officials recently warned that boorish visitors may be kicked off the island, which attracts millions annually to its palm-fringed beaches, colourful nightlife and ancient temples.   Australian professional rugby league player David Fifita returned home this week after he was briefly arrested in Bali for assaulting a nightclub security guard.   Several days after Carr's arrest, a Czech couple who were slammed for disrespecting a Balinese temple took part in a ritual purification ceremony.
Date: Mon, 11 Nov 2019 16:19:54 +0100 (MET)

Lyon, Nov 11, 2019 (AFP) - An unusually strong earthquake hit south-eastern France on Monday, injuring four people, one of them seriously, authorities said.   A physicist at a geophysics institute the IPGP said that quakes of this strength are rare in that region, but warned of possible aftershocks and said people should leave fragile buildings.   The quake, with a magnitude of 5.4, was felt in a vast area between the cities of Lyon and Montelimar which are about 150 kilometres (93 miles) apart, the national seismological office said.   "I was leaning against the oven in my mother's bakery when I felt the tremor," said Victoria Brielle, a resident in Privas, some 25 kilometres from the quake's epicentre.   "A customer said her sideboard had moved and all her crockery was broken,"  she said.

Another resident in the area, Didier Levy, who lives in a 15th century castle, told AFP that "chandeliers were still trembling" several minutes after the quake.   Levy, who said his dog starting barking even before humans felt the tremors, added: "I have never experienced anything like it, I could feel the trembling even though these wall are one metre thick."   One person was seriously hurt when some scaffolding collapsed, the regional prefect's office said.   Three other people in the neighbouring Ardeche region were slightly injured.

Quakes in this region are rarely higher than Magnitude 5, said Mustapha Meghraoui of the IPGP's office in Strasbourg.   "We can say that this is a rare one," he added. But he said there might be an aftershock of around 4.5.   "If people are in a fragile house, they would be better leaving it" for something more robust for a while, he said.   The scale of the damage suggested the quake happened at a depth of between five and 10 kilometres, he added. But they were working on a more accurate reading.
Date: Mon, 11 Nov 2019 13:19:54 +0100 (MET)

Goma, DR Congo, Nov 11, 2019 (AFP) - A local radio station that has been involved in the fight against Ebola in eastern DR Congo said Monday it was closing down after one of its broadcasters was murdered.   Joel Musavuli, head of Lwemba radio in Mambasa in Ituri province, told AFP that the station had been targeted by armed groups hostile to the campaign to roll back the Ebola epidemic.

"Each of us have received threats since last month. We have now decided to stop broadcasting, Musavuli said, adding that he himself had escaped two kidnap attempts.   "We are victims of our commitment to the awareness campaign about the spread of Ebola virus disease. We don't know why the militiamen are targeting us."   Nearly 2,200 people have died since the notorious haemorrhagic disease erupted in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo in August 2018, according to the latest official figures.

The fight against the outbreak has been hampered by local fears and superstititions, exploited by militia groups that are rampant in the remote region.   Several health workers have been killed and media that have supported the campaign have received threats.

Several radio stations in the Mambasa area say they have stopped broadcasting anti-Ebola messages because of intimidation.   On November 2, Lwemba broadcaster Papy Mahamba was killed at his home by unidentified men. His wife was injured and their house set ablaze.    The station said the authorities had failed to take action against the threats. It said it would resume broadcasts after "the state has restored authority in the area".