WORLD NEWS

Getting countries ...
Select countries and read reports below or

Antartica

General:
**********************************
Cuba is an independent island country situated in the Caribbean. It is the largest of the islands and covers 42,000sq miles. The climate is sub tropical throughout the year with most of the rainfall in
the northern parts of the country. Temperatures of between 20C to 35C are fairly standard throughout the year. Generally the winter effects of the American continent only last for short periods.
Safety & Security:
**********************************
The majority of tourists visiting Cuba will have no difficulty but bag snatching and other street crime appears to be increasing. The old Havana area and other major tourist resorts may be particular areas of concern in this regard. On arrival be careful to only use your recognised tour operator. If you are taking a taxi at any stage make sure it is a registered one and not a private vehicle. It is unwise to carry large quantities of money or jewellery away from your hotel and try not to flaunt wealth with your belongings. Pickpockets are too common an occurrence on buses and trains and at train stations so be careful with your essential documents and credit cards. Valuables should not be stored in suitcases when arriving in or departing from Havana as there have been a number of thefts from cases during the time the cases are coming through baggage handling. There is an airport shrink-wrap facility for those departing Havana which reduces the risk of tampering. Remember to carry a photocopy of your main documents (passport, flight tickets etc).
Road Safety:
**********************************
Following a number of serious road accidents involving tourists, you are advised not to use mopeds for travelling around Cuba or in Havana. Also, if you are involved in any accident a police investigation will be required to clear you and this may significantly delay your travel plans. On unlit roads at night there have been a number of accidents associated with roaming cattle (sounds like Ireland!). The traffic moves on the right side of the roads. There is a main highway running the length of the country but many of the country roads are in poor repair.
Local Laws & Customs:
**********************************
When arriving into Cuba make sure you are not carrying any items which could be considered offensive. Any illicit drug offense is treated very seriously and Cuban law allows for the death penalty to be used under these circumstances. If you require personal medication for your health, make sure it is in original packing and carry a letter from your doctor describing the medication. Never agree to carry any item for another individual and always secure your cases once they are packed. Taking photographs of military or police installations or around harbours, rail and airport facilities is strictly forbidden.

Currency:
**********************************
Since 1993 it is now possible to use US dollars for all transactions within Cuba. Remember, there is a 20$ airport departure tax. Certain travellers cheques and credit cards may not be acceptable within Cuba. This is particularly true of American Express cheques and cards but check your situation with the travel operator before departure.
Health Facilities:
**********************************
Generally healthcare facilities outside of Havana are limited and many standard medications may not be available. It is important to carry sufficient quantities of any medications which may be required for the duration of your time in Cuba.
Food & Water:
**********************************
The level of food and water hygiene varies throughout the country and between resorts. On arrival check the hotel cold water supply for the smell of chlorine. If it is not present then use sealed bottled water for both drinking and brushing your teeth throughout your stay. Cans and bottles of drinks are safe but take care to avoid pre-cut fruit. Peel it yourself to make sure it is not contaminated. Food from street vendors should be avoided in most cases. Bivalve shellfish are also a high risk food in many countries and Cuba is no exception in this regard. (Eg Mussels, Oysters, Clams etc)
Malaria & Mosquito Borne Diseases:
***********************************************
Malaria transmission does not occur within Cuba and so prophylaxis is not required. However, a different mosquito borne disease called Dengue has begun to reoccur in the country over the past few years. This viral disease can be very sickening and even progress to death. It is rare for tourists to become infected but avoiding mosquito bites is a wise precaution.
Swimming, Sun & Dehydration:
************************************
The extent of the Cuban sun (particular during the summer months (April to October) can be very excessive so make sure your head and shoulders are covered at all times when exposed. Watch children carefully as they will be a significant risk. Drink plenty of fluids to replace what will be lost through perspiration and, unless there is a reason not to,
take extra salt either on your food or in crisps, peanuts etc. Take care if swimming in the Caribbean to stay with others and to listen to local advice. Never swim after a heavy meal or alcohol.
Rabies Risk in Cuba:
**********************************
This viral disease does occur throughout Cuba and it is essential that you avoid any contact with all warm blooded animals. Dogs, cats and monkeys are the most commonly involved in spreading the disease to humans. Don't pick up a monkey for a photograph! If bitten, wash out the wound, apply an antiseptic and seek urgent medical attention.
Vaccinations for Cuba:
**********************************
There are no essential vaccines for entry / exit if coming from Ireland. However, for your own personal protection travellers are advised to have cover against the following;
*
Tetanus (childhood booster)
*
Typhoid (food & water borne disease)
*
Hepatitis A (food & water borne disease)
For those planning a longer or more rural trip vaccine cover against conditions like Hepatitis B and Rabies may also need to be considered.
Summary:
**********************************
Cuba is becoming a popular destination for tourists and generally most will stay very healthy. However commonsense care against food and water borne disease is essential at all times. Also take care with regard to sun exposure, dehydration and mosquito bites.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Fri, 6 Dec 2019 03:03:18 +0100 (MET)
By Pierre-Henry DESHAYES

Half Moon Island, Antarctica, Dec 6, 2019 (AFP) - The swimsuit-clad tourists leap into the icy water, gasping at the shock, and startling a gaggle of penguins.   They are spectators at the end of the world, luxury visitors experiencing a vulnerable ecosystem close-up.   And their very presence might accelerate its demise.   Antarctica, a vast territory belonging to no one nation, is a continent of extremes: the coldest place on Earth, the windiest, the driest, the most desolate and the most inhospitable.   Now, it's also a choice destination for tourists.

All around Half Moon Island, off the Antarctic Peninsula, blocks of ice of all sizes float by on a calm sea, their varying forms resembling weightless origami shapes.    On this strip of land, that juts out of the Antarctic Polar and towards South America, visitors can see wildlife normally only viewed in zoos or nature documentaries along with spectacular icy landscapes.   The ethereal shades of white that play across the pillowy peaks change with the light, acquiring pastel hues at dawn and dusk.   "Purity, grandeur, a scale that's out of this world," says Helene Brunet, an awestruck 63-year-old French pensioner, enjoying the scene.    "It's unbelievable, totally unbelievable. It's amazing just to be here, like a small speck of dust."

AFP joined the 430 passengers on board the Roald Amundsen, the world's first hybrid electric cruise ship, on its maiden voyage in the Southern Ocean.    "It's not your typical beach, but it's awesome to do it," says a numb Even Carlsen, 58, from Norway, emerging from his polar plunge in the three-degree C (37.4 F) water.   When tourists go ashore, bundled up in neon-coloured windbreakers and slathered in SPF50 sunscreen, they have to follow strict rules: clean your personal effects so you don't introduce invasive species, keep a respectful distance from wildlife to avoid distressing them, don't stray from the marked paths and don't pick up anything.   "We mucked up the rest of the world. We don't want to muck up Antarctica too," says an English tourist, as she vacuums cat hair off her clothes before going ashore.

- 'Heart of the Earth' -
The Antarctic peninsula is one of the regions on Earth that is warming the fastest, by almost three degrees Celsius in the past 50 years, according to the World Meteorological Organization -- three times faster than the global average.    In March 2015, an Argentinian research station registered a balmy 17.5 degrees Celsius, a record.    "Every year you can observe and record the melting of glaciers, the disappearance of sea ice... (and) in areas without ice, the recolonisation of plants and other organisms that were not present in Antarctica before," said Marcelo Leppe, director of the Chilean Antarctic Institute.

Antarctica is "like the heart of the Earth," he added, saying that it expands and contracts like a heart beating, while the mighty current which revolves around the continent is like a circulatory system as it absorbs warm currents from other oceans and redistributes cold water.   The Antarctic Treaty, signed 60 years ago by 12 countries -- it now has 54 signatories -- declared the area a continent dedicated to peace and science, but tourism has gradually increased, with a sharp rise in the past few years.   Tourism is the only commercial activity allowed, apart from fishing -- the subject of international disputes over marine sanctuaries -- and is concentrated mainly around the peninsula, which has a milder climate than the rest of the continent and is easier to access.

Cruise ships have roamed the region for around 50 years, but their numbers only started to increase from 1990, as Soviet ice-breakers found new purposes in the post-Cold War era.   Some 78,500 people are expected to visit the region between November and March, according to the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO).   That's a 40-percent increase from last year, due in part to short visits by a few new cruise ships carrying more than 500 passengers, too many to disembark under IAATO regulations.     "Some might say 'Well, 80,000 people, that doesn't even fill a national stadium'... (and that it) is nothing like Galapagos which welcomes 275,000 a year," says IAATO spokeswoman Amanda Lynnes.    "But Antarctica is a special place and you need to manage it accordingly."

- 'Leave Antarctica to the penguins' -
It is Antarctica's very vulnerability that is attracting more and more visitors.   "We want to see this fantastic nature in Antarctica before it's gone," Guido Hofken, a 52-year-old IT sales director travelling with his wife Martina, says.    They said they had paid a supplement to climate compensate for their flight from Germany.

But some question whether tourists should be going to the region at all.   "The continent probably would be better off being left to penguins and researchers, but the reality is, that is probably never going to happen," said Michael Hall, professor and expert on polar regions at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand.   "Vicarious appreciation never seems to be enough for humans. So with that being the case, it needs to be made as low risk to the Antarctic environment and as low carbon as possible," said Hall.    "However, when the average tourist trip to Antarctica is over five tonnes of CO2 emissions per passenger (including flights), that is a serious ask."

Soot or black carbon in the exhaust gases of the scientific and cruise ships going to the region is also of concern, said Soenke Diesener, transport policy officer at German conservation NGO Nabu.   "These particles will deposit on snow and ice surfaces and accelerate the melting of the ice because the ice gets darker and will absorb the heat from the sun and will melt much faster," he told AFP.   "So the people who go there to observe or preserve the landscape are bringing danger to the area, and leave it less pristine than it was," he added.

- Responsible tourism -
Antarctic tour operators insist they are promoting responsible tourism.   The trend is for more intimate, so-called expedition cruises, in contrast to popular giant cruise liners elsewhere which are criticised for being invasive and polluting.   With greener ships -- heavy fuel, the most commonly used for marine vessels, has been banned in Antarctica since 2011 -- cruise companies have sought to make environmental awareness a selling point, occasionally earning them accusations of greenwashing.

Global warming, pollution and microplastics are the result of human activities on other, faraway continents, say tour operators.   Here, their motto is "Take nothing but photographs, leave nothing but footprints, keep nothing but memories".   But before they've even set foot on the cruise ships departing from South America -- the most common itinerary -- visitors to Antarctica will already have flown across the world, causing emissions that harm the very nature they have come so far to admire.

Most visitors hail from the Northern Hemisphere, and almost half are from the United States and China, IAATO says.   "I'm a tourist who feels a little guilty about taking a flight to come here," admits Francoise Lapeyre, a 58-year-old globetrotter om France.   "But then again, there are priorities. There are some trips I just won't take, because they leave a big footprint and they're not worth it.   "Crisscrossing the planet to go to a beach for example," she says.

- Don't mention climate change -
Like other expedition cruises where accessible science is part of their trademark, the Roald Amundsen, owned by the Hurtigruten company, has no dance floor or casino.  Instead, there are microscopes, science events and lectures about whales and explorers like Charles Darwin.   But they steer clear of climate change, which is only mentioned indirectly.   That's a deliberate decision as the subject has proven "quite controversial", said Verena Meraldi, Hurtigruten's science coordinator.   "We held several lectures dedicated specifically to climate change but it leads to conflicts. There are people who accept it as a fact, others who don't," she said.   Onboard, "passengers" are referred to as "guests" and "explorers" rather than "cruisers".   "Explorers" are typically older, well-heeled, often highly travelled pensioners who are handed walking sticks as they step ashore.   "My 107th country," says a Dane, stepping ashore onto Antarctica.

The Roald Amundsen "guests" choose between three restaurants, from street food to fine dining -- a far cry from the conditions endured by the Norwegian adventurer for whom the ship is named, who had to eat his sled dogs to survive his quest to reach the South Pole in 1911.   They have paid at least 7,000 euros ($7,700) each for an 18-day cruise in a standard cabin, and up to 25,000 euros ($27,500) for a suite with a balcony and private jacuzzi.   Other cruises are banking on ultra-luxury, with James Bond-like ships equipped with helicopters and submarines, suites of more than 200 square metres (2,153 square feet) and butler services.   With a seaplane to boot, the mega-yacht SeaDream Innovation will offer 88-day cruises "from Pole to Pole" starting in 2021. The two most expensive suites, with a price tag of 135,000 euros per person, are already booked.
 
- Worlds collide -
Outside, in the deafening silence, wildlife abounds.   All around are penguins, as awkward on land as they are agile in water. Massive and majestic whales slip through the waves, and sea lions and seals laze in the sun.   On Half Moon Island, chinstrap penguins -- so called because of a black stripe on their chin -- strut about in this spring breeding season, raising their beaks and screeching from their rocky nests.   "This is to tell other males 'This is my space' and also, maybe, 'This is my female'," ornithologist Rebecca Hodgkiss, a member of the Hurtigruten's scientific team, explains, as a group of tourists stroll around ashore.   The colony of 2,500 penguins has been gradually declining over the years, but it's not known if that is man's fault or they have just moved away, according to Karin Strand, Hurtigruten's vice president for expeditions.   Invisible to the naked eye, traces of humankind are however to be found in the pristine landscape.   Not a single piece of rubbish is in sight but microplastics are everywhere, swept in on ocean currents.   "We've detected them in the eggs of penguins for example," Leppe told AFP.

- Venice under water -
The Antarctic, which holds the world's largest reserve of freshwater, is a ticking time bomb, warn experts and studies.   They say that the future of millions of people and species in coastal areas around the world depends on what is happening here.   As a result of global warming, the melting ice sheet -- especially in the western part of the continent -- will increasingly contribute to rising sea levels, radically re-drawing the map of the world, says climate scientist Anders Levermann, of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research.   This meltwater will contribute 50 centimetres (almost 20 inches) to the global sea level rise by 2100, and much more after that, he said.   "For every degree of warming, we get 2.5 metres of sea level rise. Not in this century, but in the long run," he said.

Even if the international community meets its obligations under the Paris Agreement to limit global warming to under two degrees Celsius, sea levels will still rise by at least five metres.   "Which means that Venice is under water, Hamburg is under water, New York, Shanghai, Calcutta," he said.   It's impossible to predict when, but the scenario appears unavoidable, says Levermann.   In the same way that a cruise ship powering ahead at full speed can't immediately stop, sea levels will continue to rise even if all greenhouse gas emissions were to cease immediately, a study has said.

- Changing the world? -
The tourism industry says it hopes to make "ambassadors" out of Antarctica visitors.   "It's good for the animal life and for the protection of Antarctica that people see how beautiful this area is, because you cherish what you know and understand," said Hurtigruten chief executive Daniel Skjeldam.   Texan tourist Mark Halvorson, 72, says he is convinced.   "Having seen it, I am that much more committed to having a very high priority in my politics, in my own inner core convictions to being as environmentally friendly in my life as I can," he said.   So, do Guido and Martina Hofken see themselves as future "ambassadors of Antarctica"?    "Just a little bit, probably. But I don't think I will change the world," Guido Hofken concedes.    "The best thing would be for nobody to travel to Antarctica."
Date: Thu, 17 May 2018 09:57:07 +0200

Buenos Aires, May 17, 2018 (AFP) - Tourism regulation in Antarctica has become an urgent matter due to environmental threats, officials from the 53 member countries of the Antarctic Treaty warned at their annual meeting, held this week in Buenos Aires.

In the absence of rules, travel agencies offer trips to the region on boats sometimes equipped with helicopters or submarines, according to Segolene Royal, French ambassador for the Arctic and Antarctic poles.   "This activity creates considerable disturbance ... we are witnessing a race toward large-scale tourism that is dangerous for ecosystems," she said at the assembly on Wednesday.

During the austral summer of 2016/2017, around 44,000 tourists set off for Antarctica, compared with just 9,000 in 1995/1996, according to French authorities.   However, the push for regulation is not about banning tourism, former environmental minister Royal said, but rather about ensuring it is managed in compliance with the treaty and its environmental protection protocol.

In Buenos Aires, the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting  -- whose mission is to regulate human activity on the continent -- also sought to encourage scientific cooperation between countries that have collectively set up around 100 research bases across the ice.   Also up for analysis is China's proposed fifth permanent scientific station in Antarctica, which would be located in the Ross Sea area south of New Zealand.
Date: Wed, 5 Jul 2017 13:01:49 +0200
By Marlowe HOOD

Paris, July 5, 2017 (AFP) - A chunk of ice bigger than the US state of Delaware is hanging by a thread from the West Antarctic ice shelf, satellite images revealed Wednesday.   When it finally calves from the Larsen C ice shelf, one of the biggest icebergs in recorded history will be set adrift -- some 6,600 square kilometres (2,550 square miles) in total, according to the European Space Agency (ESA).

The iceberg's depth below sea level could be as much as 210 metres (almost 700 feet), or about 60 storeys, it said.   "The crack in the ice is now around 200 kilometres (125 miles) long, leaving just five kilometres between the end of the fissure and the ocean," the ESA said in a statement.   "Icebergs calve from Antarctica all the time, but because this one is particularly large its path across the ocean needs to be monitored as it could pose a hazard to maritime traffic."

Scientists tracking the berg's progression expect it to break of within months.    The Larsen C shelf will lose more than 10 percent of its total surface area.   The massive ice cube will float in water and by itself will not add to sea levels when it melts.   The real danger is from inland glaciers.   Ice shelves float on the sea, extending from the coast, and are fed by slow-flowing glaciers from the land.    They act as giant brakes, preventing glaciers from flowing directly into the ocean.   If the glaciers held in check by Larsen C spilt into the Antarctic Ocean, it would lift the global water mark by about 10 centimetres (four inches), researchers have said.

The calving of ice shelves occurs naturally, though global warming is believed to have accelerated the process.   Warming ocean water erodes the underbelly of the ice shelves, while rising air temperatures weaken them from above.   The nearby Larsen A ice shelf collapsed in 1995, and Larsen B dramatically broke up seven years later.   The ESA is keeping an eye on Larsen C with its Copernicus and CryoSat Earth orbiters.

Man-made global warming has already lifted average global air temperatures by about one degree Celsius (1.8 degrees Fahrenheit) since pre-industrial levels.    Antarctica is one of the world's fastest-warming regions.   The world's nations undertook in the Paris Agreement, inked in 2015, to cap average global warming at "well under" 2 C.
Date: Wed, 22 Jun 2016 21:35:09 +0200
By Jean-Louis SANTINI

Washington, June 22, 2016 (AFP) - Two sick workers were evacuated from a remote US research station near the South Pole on Wednesday in a risky rescue mission carried out in the dead of Antarctica's winter, a US official said.   A Twin Otter turboprop plane flew in dark and cold conditions to pick up the workers from the Amundsen-Scott station, about 250 meters from the geographic South Pole, a spokesman for the US National Science Foundation (NSF), Peter West told AFP.

The plane's crew and a medical team had made the 10-hour journey to the South Pole in the middle of Antarctica's 24-hour winter on Tuesday night to reach the unidentified patients, who could not be treated on site.   The NSF -- the US research agency that operates the Amundsen-Scott Station -- organized the rescue mission last week given the condition of the first patient, which was not disclosed for privacy reasons.   "It was really an emergency," West said.   It later became apparent that the second worker also needed to be evacuated.

The sick workers -- employees of the US company Lockheed Martin who worked on base logistics -- were then taken to the Rothera base, a British research station some 2,200 kilometers (about 1,365 miles) away, the spokesman said.   The pair, who were not identified, were then to be transferred to a hospital in South America, West said, without giving further details.   The Amundsen-Scott base was home to 48 people -- 39 men and nine women -- who work on-site throughout the austral winter, which spans February through October.

- Rare rescue mission -
Near the world's southernmost point, workers spend this period withstanding nearly complete darkness and dramatically low temperatures -- on Tuesday, the thermometer dropped to -60 degrees Celsius (-76 degrees Fahrenheit).   It was only the third time that an emergency rescue operation has been launched in the middle of winter.   In 2001, the only doctor at the Amundsen-Scott station was suffering from a life-threatening pancreatic condition and required urgent evacuation. A second medical evacuation was carried out that year.

In 1999, the US station's doctor Jerri Nielsen, who was self-treating her own breast cancer, required medical evacuation but weather conditions were more favorable, as the mission took place in the spring.  The Twin Otter plane, operated by the Canadian company Kenn Borek Air, is specially designed to operate in extremely cold temperatures.

Research projects at the Amundsen-Scott station include monitoring long-term levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere.     The station also operates two telescopes that observe "cosmic microwave background" radiation -- the faint light signature left by the Big Bang -- to study the origins of the universe, dark energy and dark matter.
Date: Wed, 18 Jun 2014 09:04:56 +0200 (METDST)
by Martin PARRY

SYDNEY, June 18, 2014 (AFP) - Antarctic scientists warned Wednesday that a surge in tourists visiting the frozen continent and new roads and runways built to service research facilities were threatening its fragile environment.   Tourist numbers have exploded from less than 5,000 in 1990 to about 40,000 a year, according to industry figures, and most people go to the fragmented ice-free areas that make up less than one percent of Antarctica.   A growing number of research facilities are also being built, along with associated infrastructure such as fuel depots and runways, in the tiny ice-free zones.

It is these areas which contain most of the continent's wildlife and plants, yet they are among the planet's least-protected, said a study led by the Australian government-funded National Environmental Research Programme (NERP) and the Australian Antarctic Division.   "Many people think that Antarctica is well protected from threats to its biodiversity because it's isolated and no one lives there," said Justine Shaw from the NERP of the study published in the journal PLoS Biology.   "However, we show that there are threats to Antarctic biodiversity.   "Most of Antarctica is covered in ice, with less than one percent permanently ice-free," she added.   "Only 1.5 percent of this ice-free area belongs to Antarctic Specially Protected Areas under the Antarctic Treaty System, yet ice-free land is where the majority of biodiversity occurs."   Five of the distinct ice-free areas have no protection at all while all 55 of the continent's protected zones are close to sites of human activity.

- Fragile ecosystems -
Steven Chown of Monash University, another collaborator in the study, said the ice-free areas contain very simple ecosystems due to Antarctica's low species diversity.   This makes its native wildlife and plants extremely vulnerable to invasion by outside species, which can be introduced by human activity.   "Antarctica has been invaded by plants and animals, mostly grasses and insects, from other continents," he said.    "The very real current and future threats from invasions are typically located close to protected areas.    "Such threats to protected areas from invasive species have been demonstrated elsewhere in the world, and we find that Antarctica is, unfortunately, no exception."

The study said the current level of protection was "inadequate by any measure" with Shaw saying more was needed to guard against the threat posed by the booming tourism industry.   "(We need) to protect a diverse suite of native insects, plants and seabirds, many of which occur nowhere else in the world," she said.   "We also need to ensure that Antarctic protected areas are not going to be impacted by human activities, such as pollution, trampling or invasive species."   Antarctica is considered one of the last frontiers for adventurous travellers.   Most travel by sea, some paying in excess of US$20,000 for a luxury cabin in the peak period from November to March. There is also a healthy market for sightseeing flights.

Approximately 30 nations operate permanent research stations on the continent including the US, China, Russia, Australia, Britain, France and Argentina, and more are on the way.   China's state media said in December that the country was building its fourth base and a fifth was being planned.   Fellow study author Hugh Possingham, from NERP, said that without better protection "this unique and fragile ecosystem could be lost".   "Although we show that the risks to biodiversity from increasing human activity are high, they are even worse when considered together with climate change," he added.    "This combined effect provides even more incentive for a better system of area protection in Antarctica."
More ...

Sudan

Sudan US Consular Information Sheet
August 29, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Sudan is a diverse, developing country in northeastern Africa. The capital city is Khartoum. The civil war between the northern and southern regions, which began in 1
83, ended in 2005. A multi-party conflict continues in the west in Darfur, and the armed Ugandan group known as The Lord’s Resistance Army is present in the south. Security conditions are adverse in these and some other regions. Transportation networks and other forms of infrastructure are poor and do not meet western standards. Even where available, water and electric services suffer frequent outages. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Sudan for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: The Government of Sudan requires all travelers to present a passport and an entry visa. Most travelers must obtain the entry visa before arrival; only American citizens who also possess a Sudanese national identification document (such as a Sudanese passport or national identification card) may apply for an entry visa at Khartoum International Airport. The Government of Sudan routinely denies visas to travelers whose passports contain visas issued by the Government of Israel or other evidence of travel to Israel such as exit or entry stamps.

Travelers must obtain an exit visa before departure from Sudan as well as pay any airport departure tax not included in the traveler’s airline ticket. Visitors may obtain the latest information and further details from the Embassy of Sudan, 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008, tel.: 202-338-8565.

Travel permits issued by the semi-autonomous Government of Southern Sudan (GOSS) or by the South Sudan Relief and Rehabilitation Commission (SSRRC) are not adequate for entry to the country, although travelers may find these documents useful to present to local authorities when in the south. Personal baggage, including computers, is routinely searched upon arrival to and departure from Sudan. The authorities will seize material deemed objectionable, such as alcohol or pornography, and may detain or arrest the traveler. Travelers intending to bring electronic items should inquire about entry requirements when they apply for a visa; restrictions apply to many devices, including video cameras, satellite phones, facsimile machines, televisions, and telephones. Travelers are not allowed to depart Sudan with ivory, some other animal products, or large quantities of gold.

All visitors must register with the authorities within three days of arrival. Travelers must register within 72 hours of arrival in Sudan at the Ministry of Interior. All foreigners traveling more than 25 kilometers outside of Khartoum must obtain a travel permit from the Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs in Khartoum. This applies to all travel, including private, commercial, and humanitarian activities. Americans risk detention by Sudanese authorities when traveling more than 25 kilometers outside of Khartoum without a travel permit issued by the Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs. Travelers must register again with the police within 24 hours of arrival. The government requires a separate travel permit for travel to Darfur. These regulations are strictly enforced and even travelers with proper documentation may expect delay or temporary detention from the security forces, especially outside the capital. Authorities expect travelers to strictly respect roadblocks and other checkpoints.

Travelers who wish to take any photographs must obtain a photography permit from the Government of Sudan, Ministry of Interior, Department of Aliens.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site. For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
On January 1, 2008, unknown assailants shot and killed two U.S. Embassy employees - an American USAID officer and a Sudanese national driver. Terrorists are known to operate in Sudan and continue to seek opportunities to carry out attacks against U.S. interests. Terrorist actions may include suicide operations, bombings, or kidnappings. U.S. citizens should be aware of the risk of indiscriminate attacks on civilian targets in public places, which include tourist sites and locations where westerners are known to congregate, and commercial operations associated with U.S. or Western interests. Terrorists are known to have targeted both official facilities and residential compounds. Anti-American sentiment is prevalent and Americans should exercise utmost caution at all times.

The U.S. Embassy’s ability to provide consular services in Sudan, including emergency assistance, is severely limited. Many areas outside the capital of Khartoum are extremely difficult to access.

Travel in many parts of Sudan is hazardous. Outside the major cities infrastructure is extremely poor, medical care is limited, and very few facilities for tourists exist.

Conflict among various armed groups and government forces continues in western Sudan, in the states of North Darfur, South Darfur, and West Darfur. Banditry and lawlessness are also common in the west. Many local residents are in camps for internally-displaced persons, and receive humanitarian assistance for basic needs such as food, water, and shelter. Expatriate humanitarian workers have been the targets of carjackings and burglaries.

Land mines remain a major hazard in southern Sudan, especially south of the city of Juba. Visitors should travel only on main roads unless a competent de-mining authority such as the UN has marked an area as clear of mines. The armed Ugandan group known as The Lord’s Resistance Army is present along the southern border and reportedly has announced it will target Americans.
Occasional clashes between armed groups representing communal interests continue to occur in the centrally-located states of Upper Nile, Blue Nile, and Bahr al Ghazal. Banditry also occurs.
Sudan shares porous land borders with nine other countries, including Chad, the Central African Republic, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, and Eritrea. Conflict in these countries occasionally spills over into Sudan.

Americans considering sea travel in Sudan's coastal waters should exercise caution as there have been incidents of armed attacks and robberies by unknown groups in recent years, including one involving two American vessels. Exercise extreme caution, as these groups are considered armed and dangerous. When transiting in and around the Horn of Africa and/or in the Red Sea near Yemen, it is strongly recommended that vessels convoy in groups and maintain good communications contact at all times. Marine channels 13 and 16 VHF-FM are international call-up and emergency channels, and are commonly monitored by ships at sea. 2182 Mhz is the HF international call-up and emergency channel. Wherever possible, travel in trafficked sea-lanes. Avoid loitering in or transiting isolated or remote areas. In case of emergency, contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. In the event of an attack, consider activating Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME: Crime is on the increase throughout Sudan. Additional security measures should be taken at places of residence to protect life and property. Anti-American sentiments can be found throughout the country. Americans should exercise caution by avoiding crowded public areas and public gatherings. Americans should avoid traveling alone. Report all instances of anti-American acts and crime targeting westerners to the American Embassy, and report incidents of crime to the Sudanese Police.

Americans should guard their backpacks or hand luggage. When traveling by air, travelers should maintain constant contact with their baggage and assure that they do not contain illicit items, such as alcohol or military ordinance. Americans have been removed from international airlines and detained when suspect items have been detected in checked baggage.

Carjacking and armed robbery continue to occur in western and southern Sudan. Sexual assault is more prevalent in the areas of armed conflict. Travelers who do not use the services of reputable travel firms or knowledgeable guides or drivers are especially at risk. Travel outside of Khartoum should be undertaken with a minimum of two vehicles so that there is a backup in case of mechanical failure or other emergency. Solo camping is always risky.

The Sudanese mail system can be unreliable. International couriers provide the safest means of shipping envelopes and packages, although anything of value should be insured.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Individuals with medical conditions which may require treatment are discouraged from traveling to Sudan. Medical facilities in Khartoum fall short of U.S. standards; outside the capital, very few facilities exist and hospitals and clinics are poorly equipped. Travelers must pay cash in advance for any medical treatment. Ambulance services are not available. Medicines are available only intermittently; travelers should bring sufficient supplies of needed medicines in clearly-marked containers.

Malaria is prevalent in all areas of Sudan. The strain is resistant to chloroquine and can be fatal. Consult a health practitioner before traveling, obtain suitable anti-malarial drugs, and use protective measures, such as insect repellent, protective clothing, and mosquito nets. Travelers who become ill with a fever or a flu-like illness while in Sudan, or within a year after departure, should promptly seek medical care and inform their physician of their travel history and the kind of anti-malarial drugs used. For additional information about malaria and anti-malarial drugs please see the Center for Disease Control travelers’ health web site, http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/index.htm.

Officially, people with HIV are not granted a visa and are not permitted to enter Sudan. A negative HIV test result must be presented at a Sudanese embassy or at Khartoum airport in order to obtain a visa. However, anecdotal reports indicate this requirement is not enforced in practice. Please confirm this requirement with the Embassy of Sudan at www.sudanembassy.org.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Sudan is provided for general reference only, and may not be accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Road conditions throughout Sudan are hazardous due to erratic driver behavior, pedestrians and animals in the roadways, and the lack of basic safety equipment on many vehicles. Only major highways and some streets in the cities are paved; many roads are narrow, rutted, and poorly maintained. Local drivers do not observe conventions for the right-of-way, stop in the road without warning, and frequently exceed safe speeds for road, traffic, and weather conditions. Driving at night is dangerous and should be avoided if possible; many vehicles operate without lights.

In the north and west, dust storms and sand storms, known locally as haboobs, greatly reduce visibility when they occur. Roads in these areas can be quickly covered with shifting sand at any season of the year. Roads in southern Sudan often are impassable during the rainy season, from March to October.
U.S. citizens are subject to the laws of the country in which they are traveling, including traffic laws. In Sudan vehicles have the steering wheel on the left side and drivers use the right side of the road.

Traffic from side streets on the right has the right-of-way when entering a cross street, including fast-moving main streets. Traffic on the right has the right-of-way at stops. Right turns on a red light are prohibited. Speed limits are not posted, but the legal speed limit for passenger cars on inter-city highways is 120 kph (about 70 mph), while in most urban areas the limit is 60 kph (about 35 mph.) The speed limit in congested areas and school zones is 40 kph (about 25 mph).

Many local drivers carry no insurance despite the legal requirement that all motor vehicle operators purchase third-party liability insurance from the government. Persons involved in an accident resulting in death or injury must report the incident to the nearest police station or police officer as soon as possible. Persons found at fault can expect fines, revocation of driving privileges, and jail sentences, depending on the nature and extent of the accident. Persons convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol face fines, jail sentences, and corporal punishment.

Americans may use their U.S. driver's licenses for up to 90 days after arrival in Sudan, and then must carry either an International Driving Permit (IDP) or a Sudanese driver's license. There are no restrictions on vehicle types, including motorcycles and motorized tricycles.

Public transportation is limited to within and between major urban areas. Passenger facilities are basic and crowded, especially during rush hours and periods of seasonal travel. Schedules are unpublished and subject to change without notice. Vehicle maintenance does not meet U.S. standards. There is routine passenger train service on the route from Khartoum to Wadi Halfa (on the border with Egypt) and to Port Sudan (on the Red Sea.) Bus service between major cities is regular and inexpensive. Intra-city bus service in the major urban areas is regular, but most buses and bus stops are privately-operated and unmarked. Taxis are available in the major cities at hotels, tourist sites, and government offices. The motorized rickshaws in common use in Khartoum are unsafe. Travelers are encouraged to hire cars and drivers from reputable sources with qualified drivers and safe vehicles. Irregularly-scheduled mini-buses provide some public transit to rural communities; many areas lack any public transportation.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Sudan, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Sudan’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

Enforcement of aviation safety standards in Sudan is uneven; civil aviation in Sudan continues to experience air incidents and accidents, including 5 crashes with at least 64 fatalities between November 8, 2007, and June 30, 2008. Incidents included engine failures, collapsed landing gear, and planes veering off the runway. Whenever possible, Americans traveling to Sudan despite the ongoing travel warning are advised to travel directly to their destinations on international carriers from countries whose civil aviation authorities meet international aviation safety standards for the oversight of their air carrier operations under the FAA’s International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) program. Adverse seasonal weather conditions, such as dust or sand storms in the north between April and June and severe rain storms in the south between March and October, cause frequent flight cancellations.

Two hijackings originated in Sudan in 2007; no passengers were harmed.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: In November 1997, the U.S. imposed comprehensive financial and commercial sanctions against Sudan, prohibiting U.S. transactions with Sudan. Travelers intending to visit Sudan despite the Travel Warning should contact the Department of the Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC), Office of Compliance, telephone 1-800-540-6322 or 202-622-2490, regarding the effect of these sanctions.

Travelers must be prepared to pay cash for all purchases, including hotel bills, airfares purchased locally, and all other travel expenses. Major credit cards, including Visa, MasterCard, or American Express, cannot be used in Sudan due to U.S. sanctions. Sudan has no international ATMs. Local ATMs draw on local banks only.

Travelers, including journalists, must obtain a photography permit before taking any photographs. Even with a photography permit, photographing military areas, bridges, drainage stations, broadcast stations, public utilities, slum areas, and beggars is prohibited.

Sudan is a conservative society, particularly in the capital and other areas where the Muslim population is the majority. Alcohol is prohibited by law and modest dress is expected. Loose, long-sleeved shirts and full-length skirts or slacks are recommended attire for women visitors. Women who are not Muslim are not expected or required to cover their heads. Men may wear short-sleeved shirts but short pants are not acceptable in public.

Please see our information on Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Sudanese laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in alcohol or illegal drugs in Sudan are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States as well in Sudan.

Sudan’s Public Order Courts have continued to serve as the state mechanism for morality enforcement since the early 1980's. Today the court still issues punishments ranging from fines, to lashings, to lengthy prison sentences for offences such as drinking alcohol, wearing inappropriate clothing, or associating with unmarried women.

Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Sudan are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Sudan. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located at Sharia Ali Abdel Latif, Khartoum, Sudan; tel: 249 1 83 774-701, http://sudan.usembassy.gov/.
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information dated March 12, 2008, to update sections on Entry/Exit Requirements, Medical Facilities and Health Information, Aviation Safety Oversight, and Criminal Penalties.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Sat, 9 May 2020 08:43:35 +0200 (METDST)

Khartoum, May 9, 2020 (AFP) - Sudan extended a curfew in and around the capital Khartoum for 10 days from Saturday as coronavirus cases mount, state media reported.    The Sudanese health ministry has so far reported 1,111 COVID-19 cases including 59 deaths, with Khartoum state hardest hit.

Authorities initially imposed a curfew in Khartoum for three weeks from April 18. With its twin city Omdurman, the capital has a population of more than five million.   "The health emergency committee decided to extend the curfew in Khartoum state starting Saturday and for 10 days," the official SUNA news agency reported late Friday.   Travel between the capital and other Sudanese states will be banned, the news agency added.

Since March, Sudan has imposed a state of emergency, shuttering schools and universities, and almost totally closing its borders.    The country's dilapidated healthcare system is already strained by acute shortages of medicines and medical supplies.    Last Sunday, the government announced that a minister of state in the transport and infrastructure ministry, Hashim Ibn Auf, had tested positive for the novel coronavirus. 
Date: Thu, 7 May 2020 20:27:34 +0200 (METDST)

Juba, May 7, 2020 (AFP) - South Sudan on Thursday announced the easing of restrictions to combat the coronavirus, including re-opening bars and restaurants and shortening a curfew, even as cases continue to rise.

South Sudan confirmed 16 new cases on Thursday, bringing the total to 90 in the country -- up from a total of six cases at the beginning of last week.    President Salva Kiir took the decision which will be effective "in 72 hours", according to Richard Laku, a member of the country's task force on the virus.

The measures include re-opening internal travel by air, land and river and allowing regional flights back to South Sudan, Laku said. Markets, shops, bars and restaurants will also be allowed to re-open.   Schools, mosques, churches and night clubs will remain shut, while sports activities and other public gatherings remain banned.

The curfew which had been from 7pm to 6am has been shortened to start only at 10pm.   The task force decided to maintain other measures such as requiring all travellers coming to and exiting South Sudan to present a certificate proving they are free of the virus.     It is unclear how this will work in practice given limited testing capacity and inconclusive evidence on immunity to the disease.   Motorbike taxis and rickshaws will once again be allowed to operate, while passenger buses and taxis are still only allowed to operate at half-capacity.

Laku said masks were mandatory in meetings, public places, and public transport.   South Sudan put in place the strict measures at the end of March, before it had registered a single case.   Rwanda, Uganda and Mauritius are among the countries in the region where measures have been relaxed, after they appeared to have flattened the curve of new cases.
Date: Fri 10 Apr 2020
Source: WHO Disease Outbreak News [edited]

On 3 Mar 2020, the Ministry of Health of South Sudan reported 2 presumptive positive cases of yellow fever in Kajo Keni County, Central Equatoria State, South Sudan. Both the cases were subsequently confirmed positive by plaque reduction neutralization testing (PRNT) at the regional reference laboratory, Uganda Viral Research Institute (UVRI) on 28 Mar [2020].

The cases were identified through a cross-border rapid response team investigation mounted in response to the recently declared outbreak in the bordering Moyo district, Uganda. During the investigation, the team collected 41 blood samples from 5 villages that were in close proximity to the bordering Moyo district, Uganda. Of the 41 individuals whose samples were collected, 9 (22%) had history of fever, but none had history of jaundice. The individuals represented a spectrum of occupations typical for the area (farming, forestry, homemaker, soldier). Most of the individuals investigated were between 20 and 45 years of age, and 18 (44%) of these individuals were female.

In addition, a rapid entomology survey in the villages found evidence of multiple mosquito breeding sites and abundant _Aedes_ species mosquitos (e.g., _ Aedes aegypti_, _Aedes albopictus_, _Aedes simpsoni_).

As of 28 Mar 2020, these are the only 2 cases (no deaths) that have been confirmed from Kajo Keji County.

South Sudan has experienced several yellow fever outbreaks in the past. The last outbreak was declared on 29 Nov 2018, in Sakure payam, Nzara County, Gbudue State when 3 laboratory-confirmed cases with no associated deaths was reported. To respond to the outbreak, a targeted reactive vaccination campaign was mounted in the affected area. Prior to this outbreak, in May 2003, a total of 178 cases with 27 deaths were reported in Imatong region, Torit County, South Sudan. A reactive vaccination campaign was mounted to respond to the outbreak in 2003.

Public health response
- The country rapidly mounted an in-depth multidisciplinary investigation in Kajo Keji County in response to the cross-border notification of the outbreak in Moyo, Uganda. The investigations included enhanced surveillance, active case finding and entomological surveys from 12-18 Feb [2020], supported by WHO country office and headquarters.
- Surveillance has been enhanced within the context of integrated disease surveillance and response (IDSR) through training of health workers and disseminating the yellow fever case definition to the health facilities to enhance case detection and reporting.
- The Ministry of Health, with support from the WHO Country office, has planned a reactive vaccination campaign in Kajo Keji County for which an International Coordination Group (ICG) request has been submitted.
- The Ministry of Health has also proposed implementation of preventive mass vaccination campaigns and introduction of yellow fever vaccination into the routine immunization schedule by 2022.

WHO risk assessment
Yellow fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes and has the potential to spread rapidly and cause serious public health impact. Vaccination is the most important means of preventing the infection, which provides immunity for life.

The risk of ongoing and further transmission of yellow fever is concerning in South Sudan due to:
- Confirmed outbreak in the bordering area of Uganda, coupled with the continuous savannah and forest biome with common mosquito vectors and non-human primates;
- Gaps in surveillance and weaknesses in health services could delay rapid detection of additional yellow fever cases;
- Negligible population immunity;
- Ongoing resettlement in Kajo Keji including more than 13,200 returnees to the county primarily from Uganda in recent weeks represents an influx of new susceptible population to the county;
- The ongoing COVID-19 related controls on borders (air/land) is anticipated; however, as the borders between Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda and South Sudan are highly porous with substantial cross-border social and economic activities, risk of transmission cannot be excluded;
- The current rainy season, which started in early March, is anticipated to increase the vector burden in coming weeks, thereby increase the risk of ongoing yellow fever transmission.
- Close monitoring of the situation with active cross-border coordination and information sharing is needed.

Based on available information, WHO assesses the overall risk to be high at the national level and regional level.

WHO advice
South Sudan is classified as a high-risk country in the "Eliminate Yellow Fever Epidemics" (EYE) initiative. Epidemic spread of yellow fever is a risk in South Sudan, as the estimated overall population immunity is negligible with nearly 0% immunity in Kajo Keji County.

Vaccination is the primary means for prevention and control of yellow fever and provides immunity for life. In urban centres, targeted vector control measures are also helpful to interrupt transmission. The country plans to introduce yellow fever vaccination into the routine immunization program and complete preventive mass vaccination activities to rapidly boost population immunity. Expedited planning and implementation of these activities to protect the population will help avert risk of future outbreaks.

WHO recommends vaccination against yellow fever for all international travellers aged 9 months and above going to South Sudan, as there is evidence of persistent or periodic yellow fever virus transmission. Yellow fever vaccination is safe, highly effective and provides life-long protection. However, yellow fever vaccination is not recommended for infants aged 6 to 8 months, except during epidemics when the risk of yellow fever virus transmission may be very high. The risks and benefits of vaccination in this age-group should be carefully considered before vaccination. The vaccine should be used with caution during pregnancy or breastfeeding. However, pregnant or breastfeeding women may be vaccinated during epidemics or if travel to a country or area with risk of transmission is unavoidable. South Sudan also requires, as a condition of entry, a valid yellow fever vaccination certificate for travelers aged 9 months and above.

In accordance with the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005), 3rd Edition, the validity of the international certificate of vaccination against yellow fever extends throughout the life of the person vaccinated. The International Certificate of Vaccination becomes valid 10 days after vaccination. A single dose of WHO-approved yellow fever vaccine is sufficient to confer sustained immunity and life-long protection against yellow fever disease. A booster dose of the vaccine is not needed and is not required of international travellers as a condition of entry.

WHO encourage its Member States to take all actions necessary to keep travellers well informed of risks and preventive measures including vaccination. As a general precaution, WHO also recommends avoidance of mosquito bites. The highest risk for transmission of yellow fever virus is during the day and early evening. Travellers should be made aware of yellow fever symptoms and signs and instructed to rapidly seek medical advice if presenting signs and symptoms suggestive of yellow fever infection. Travellers returning to South Sudan who may be infected with possible high levels of the virus in the blood may pose a risk for the establishment of local cycles of yellow fever transmission in areas where the competent vector is present.

WHO does not recommend any restrictions on travel and trade to Republic of South Sudan on the basis of the information available on this outbreak.
===================
[It is fortunate that these 2 positive yellow fever (YF) cases were detected early on, before ongoing transmission of the virus resulted in a significant outbreak. The risk of an outbreak is high given that the population is largely unvaccinated, and hence not immune, and populations of vector _Aedes_ mosquitoes are present. The 6-year-long civil war in South Sudan has doubtless made routine vaccination efforts across the country difficult or impossible. Now with a national unity government in place since February 2020 ending the war, one hopes that the planned vaccination campaign can be initiated swiftly. - ProMed Mod.TY]

[Maps of South Sudan:
Date: Thu 19 Mar 2020
Source: VOA News [abridged, edited]

SM sits beside her children in front of their makeshift home in a shanty community in South Sudan's capital Juba. Six of her children have died of various illnesses. She's got 3 left.  "The 1st one died at 9 months. Another one died at the age of 10 months. Another one died when he was crawling, about 3 months," she tells VOA.  Moni's story highlights a sad fact: Millions of children in South Sudan do not get routine vaccinations. They are vulnerable to preventable illnesses.

While South Sudan is currently free of the coronavirus pandemic alarming the global community, the country is battling a severe measles outbreak, with over 4700 confirmed cases and 26 deaths since January 2019.  The government of South Sudan has partnered with the World Health Organization, UNICEF, Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance and ONE, the anti-poverty campaign co-founded by Irish musician and celebrity-activist Bono, to carry out a nationwide measles vaccination drive that aims to reach 2.5 million children by April 2020.

The campaign was launched in February 2020 at the only paediatric medical facility in the entire country, Al-Shabbah Children's Hospital. Situated in the heart of Juba, it provides healthcare to more than 5000 people monthly, reaching some of the poorest people in the city.  "We need to boost the vaccination coverage to protect children against measles outbreaks," says Dr. Makur Matur Kariom, the Ministry of Health's undersecretary. "Unfortunately, in South Sudan, routine vaccination coverage against measles remains low at only 59 percent."

Public health specialists recommend coverage not to fall below 90 percent. It's crucial to maintain that standard for measles, which is highly infectious. With poor coverage, outbreaks reoccur.  "[Measles] can cause rashes, eye infection, respiratory infections, diarrhoea and even death," says Dr. Olushayo Olu, the WHO's South Sudan country representative.

One reason why childhood immunization coverage against measles is low in the country is due to the logistical challenges involved in keeping vaccines at near-freezing temperatures. It's not easy to do in South Sudan, the least electrified country in the world, where temperatures often soar above 40 C [104 F].  "We are able to keep these things at the correct temperature in the hospital here. That is the most important thing," says Dr. Felix Nyungura, the hospital's executive director. "Public electricity has not yet arrived in our place here. Although in some places, it is there. But now we are depending on solar power and electricity from a generator."

UNICEF is helping to restore what is known in healthcare terms as the cold-chain system, which was severely disrupted during the civil war that broke out in 2013.  "With the conflict, more than 50 percent of the cold chain equipment installed in the country was vandalized, and some of it looted," Dr. Patti Samuel, a UNICEF health specialist, tells VOA. He says UNICEF has installed cold-chain equipment, such as refrigerators, to run in about 55 percent of health facilities across the country.

South Sudan faces huge developmental challenges as a young nation mired in historic conflict, economic crisis, and grappling with rapid population growth. Only one percent of the government's 2019-2020 fiscal budget has been allocated to healthcare. In 2018, it was 2 percent.  "When your house is on fire, you just want to put out the fire, and, unfortunately, in South Sudan, the fire has been burning for so long and some of the basics of development have just not been prioritized," says Edwin Ikhuoria, ONE's Africa executive director.

He says governments in Africa do not adequately fund healthcare because politicians don't see it as a "sexy campaign," compared to other areas like infrastructure.  "But if health care is not well invested in, you're going to lose a lot in human capital," he says.

ONE tries to convince governments to increase domestic financing for primary healthcare and pushes for investments that help to end preventable childhood deaths.  Another reason immunization coverage is low is because people aren't informed. That's where community mobilizers like Agnes Anjack Alphonse come in. Volunteering for UNICEF, she's on the frontline in the effort to get the word out.  "Sometimes I knock on the doors," she says. "If they do not come, and I know that this house has kids, and they did not come, I'll go knock on the door. 'Hi, we are doing vaccine, why are you not coming?' They'll say, 'I'm busy.' I'll say, 'can I have your kids and I'll return them back?' They'll say it's OK."

Making the rounds in her neighborhood, she meets a mother whose daughter has not been vaccinated and gently persuades her to go to a medical facility. The efforts are paying off. So far, the vaccination campaign has reached more than a million children, including Shejirina Moni's.  [Byline: Chika Oduah]
Date: Fri, 13 Mar 2020 11:11:15 +0100 (MET)
By Nick Perry

Juba, March 13, 2020 (AFP) - The cattle rustlers were asleep, resting ahead of a raid, when automatic gunfire tore through their camp. Ambushed by rival herdsmen, encircled and outgunned, they were cut down, one by one.   Koba Ngacho was lucky. Shot three times and left for dead, the young rustler was found alive in the carnage, the bullets having missed his vital organs, and airlifted to Juba for surgery.   "I'm grateful to be alive," the 20-year-old told AFP as he was wheeled to one of the few operating theatres in South Sudan equipped to deal with complicated gunshot injuries.

In February, after months of protracted negotiations, President Salva Kiir and his rival Riek Machar joined forces in government, drawing a line under a long-running conflict that left around 380,000 people dead.    South Sudan's civil war may have been declared over. But armed violence has anything but slowed in the troubled young country awash with guns, and riven by ethnic turmoil.   Hospital wards overflow with young men like Ngacho -- not soldiers, but farmers and herdsmen disfigured by machine gun fire in brutal fighting over land, cattle and revenge.

These clashes between communities have surged even as violence between Kiir and Machar's forces has eased.   Thousands of armed men from the Nuer and Murle communities have been fighting in Jonglei, an eastern state, since February, leaving towns in ashes and untold dead and injured.   UN special envoy to South Sudan, David Shearer, who toured the conflict-ravaged region this month, said bodies were lying in the open and women and children had been abducted by both sides.

- 'Unconscionable' -
"This is unconscionable," he told reporters in Juba on March 9 after visiting Pibor, where 8,000 civilians -- mainly women, children and the elderly -- have sought shelter at a UN base.    Large-scale battles between government and rebel forces ebbed considerably in the aftermath of a September 2018 ceasefire between Kiir and Machar, who is once again vice-president in a unity government with his old rival.   But in 2019, the International Committee of the Red Cross actually treated more patients for serious gunshot wounds than the previous year -- 769 compared to 658.    The fear is that 2020 could follow the same trajectory.   Since December, UN peacekeepers have been deployed to Jonglei, greater Tonj in the northwest, and Rumbek, in central South Sudan, where ethnic violence has left scores dead and wounded, and thousands more on the run.

Every bed is taken at the ICRC ward at Juba Military Hospital, where Ngacho, a Murle cattle raider from Jonglei, nervously awaits his turn.     "I don't know if these wounds will heal, or if I'll walk again," he says.   Many here endure multiple rounds of surgery to put their bullet-riddled bodies back together.   His Ethiopian surgeon, Dr Belayneh Assefa, assures he'll recover. Thirteen other patients have arrived in the past two days, all victims of a vicious cattle raid, and he is busy.   "During the dry season, we will have an influx of patients," Dr Assefa tells AFP, as a team of surgeons operate on a 26-year-old man with gaping gunshot wounds.    "He is lucky to have survived this."

- Lucky ones -
Especially so in South Sudan, where healthcare is non-existent in remote parts, and there are about 180 doctors for a population of 12 million.   Only the lucky few gunned down in remote bush conflicts get medevaced to Juba. The rest take their chances at local clinics or simply bleed out in the field.   "Natural triage has often worked, rather sadly, before patients can get to definitive care. Patients who would be described as red -- needing immediate surgery -- may well have already perished," said Dr Colin Berry, an ICRC anaesthetist.   Left unchecked, these local conflicts risk spiralling further out of control, prolonging misery in a country that has known little but war since its independence from Sudan in 2011.

The EU, among others, has urged Kiir and Machar's government to "redouble efforts" to calm tensions.   But the pair have been busy haggling over key positions in their administration. A new cabinet was announced late Thursday, but the seats of state governors remain unfilled.   "The absence of authority at the state level has caused a vacuum of power and decision-making... emboldening those involved in the recent violent intercommunal clashes," Shearer said.   A new army of their combined forces, meanwhile, is not ready to deploy and restore security to areas where lawlessness has allowed violence to flourish.

- Revenge -
The fighting in Jonglei followed bad floods in the region in late 2019 which wiped out livestock, and left cattle-rearing communities desperately short on assets.   Herders like Ngacho resorted to cattle raiding -- a generations-old phenomenon in South Sudan, but one that has turned increasingly deadly.    Spears and other traditional weapons have been replaced by easily-available automatic rifles, a poisonous legacy from decades of war.    Raids turn into wholesale massacres, spurring vicious cycles of retribution.   Margaret Malweyi, the Kenyan head nurse at the ICRC ward, said patients from rival clans flown to Juba were sometimes placed in separate wards so "they don't again start fighting".

Others, once recuperated, would "go back home and want revenge", she said.   "They get shot again, then they come back here (and) we treat them," Malweyi told AFP, surrounded by young men in wheelchairs and stretchers, nursing grisly wounds.   Those who pull through confront an uncertain future. Some have lost limbs, or will never walk again.   For others, the trauma leaves indelible scars.   "I don't want to go back," said Peter Majok, a softly-spoken 22-year-old, propped up in a wheelchair after being shot by cattle raiders.   "If I go home... they'll come and shoot me."
More ...

Djibouti

Djibouti - US Consular Information Sheet
May 30, 2006

COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: Djibouti is a developing African country located on the Gulf of Aden. It is a multi-party democracy with a legal system based on French civil law (Djibouti was a Fr
nch colony until 1977), though modified by traditional practices and Islamic (Sharia) law. Although exact statistics are unavailable, unemployment is estimated in excess of 50% of the working-age population. About two-thirds of the country's 650,000 residents live in the capital, also called Djibouti. Modern tourist facilities and communications links are limited in the city of Djibouti and are virtually non-existent outside the capital. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Djibouti for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: A passport, visa, and evidence of yellow fever vaccination are required. Travelers may obtain the latest information on entry requirements from the Embassy of the Republic of Djibouti, 1156 15th Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005, telephone (202) 331-0270, or at the Djibouti Mission to the United Nations, 866 United Nations Plaza, Suite 4011, New York, N.Y. 10017, telephone (212) 753-3163. Overseas, inquiries may be made at the nearest Djiboutian embassy or consulate. In countries where there is no Djiboutian diplomatic representation, travelers may sometimes obtain visas at the French Embassy. See our Foreign Entry Requirements brochure for more information on Djibouti and other countries. Visit the Embassy of Djibouti web site at www.embassy.org/embassies/dj.html for the most current visa information.
American journalists or any American connected with the media must contact the U.S. Embassy's Public Affairs section prior to travel to facilitate entry into Djibouti. If you are unclear whether this applies to you, please contact the U.S. Embassy for more information.

See Entry and Exit Requirements for more information pertaining to dual nationality and the prevention of international child abduction . Please refer to our Customs Information to learn more about customs regulations

SAFETY AND SECURITY: Djibouti enjoys a stable political climate. However, its international borders are porous and lightly patrolled. In particular, Somalia, Djibouti's neighbor to the south, is considered by many to be a haven for terrorists and other insurgent elements. In addition, tensions exist between neighboring Ethiopia and Eritrea due to the unsettled nature of their long-running border dispute. Civil unrest or armed conflict in neighboring countries could disrupt air travel to and from Djibouti or otherwise negatively affect its security situation.
Terrorism continues to pose a threat in East Africa. U.S. citizens should be aware of the potential for indiscriminate attacks on civilian targets in public places, including tourist sites and other sites where Westerners are known to congregate.
Travelers should exercise caution when traveling to any remote area of the country, including the borders with Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia. Djiboutian security forces do not have a widespread presence in those regions. In recent years, acts of sabotage have occurred along the Djibouti-Ethiopia railway. Although Americans were not specifically targeted in any of these attacks, U.S. citizens should exercise caution.
Demonstrations have become more frequent due to the recent increase in energy prices. Americans are advised to avoid all demonstrations as they may become violent.
Americans considering seaborne travel around Djibouti's coastal waters should exercise extreme caution, as there have been several recent incidents of armed attacks and robberies at sea by unknown groups. These groups are considered armed and dangerous. When transiting in and around the Horn of Africa and/or the Red Sea near Yemen, it is strongly recommended that vessels convoy in groups and maintain good communications contact at all times. Marine channels 13 and 16 VHF-FM are international call-up and emergency channels and are commonly monitored by ships at sea. 2182 Mhz is the HF international call-up and emergency channel. In the Gulf of Aden, transit routes farther offshore reduce, but do not eliminate, the risk of contact with suspected assailants. Wherever possible, travel in trafficked sea-lanes. Avoid loitering in or transiting isolated or remote areas. In the event of an attack, consider activating the Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons. Due to distances involved, there may be a considerable delay before assistance arrives. Vessels may also contact the Yemeni Coast Guard 24-hour Operations Center at 967 1 562-402. Operations Center staff members speak English.
U.S. citizens are encouraged to carry a copy of their U.S. passports with them at all times for readily available proof of identity and U.S. citizenship if questioned by local officials. Police occasionally stop travelers on the main roads leading out of the capital to check identity documents.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department's Internet web site where the current Worldwide Caution Public Announcement , Travel Warnings and Public Announcements can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State's pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad .
CRIME: Accurate crime statistics are not available, but crime appears to be on the rise. Petty thefts and pickpockets are common, and a few home invasions have been reported. Major crimes involving foreigners are rare, but are increasing in frequency. In the past year the number of murders has increased in Djibouti, involving mainly Djiboutian and third country nationals (TCNs). This increase in crime is possibly linked to declining economic conditions and a deepening resentment toward the increasing number of TCN workers brought in to assist with major construction projects in Djibouti.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime .
MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Adequate medical facilities in the capital of Djibouti are limited and medicines are often unavailable. Medicines that are available are extremely expensive. Medical services in some outlying areas may be completely nonexistent. Motorists especially should be aware that in case of an accident outside the capital, emergency medical treatment would depend almost exclusively on passersby. In addition, cell phone coverage in outlying areas is often unavailable, making it impossible to summon help.
Malaria and dengue fever are prevalent in Djibouti. Travelers who become ill with a fever or flu-like illness while traveling in a malaria-risk area and up to one year after returning home should seek prompt medical attention and tell the physician their travel history and what anti-malarial drugs they have been taking.

In 2005, polio was found in all of Djibouti's neighbors (Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea and Yemen) and health professionals strongly suspect it is present in Djibouti. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that all infants and children in the United States should receive four doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) at 2, 4, and 6-18 months and 4-6 years of age. Adults who are traveling to polio-endemic and epidemic areas and who have received a primary series with either IPV or oral polio vaccine should receive another dose of IPV. For adults, available data does not indicate the need for more than a single lifetime booster dose with IPV.

In May 2006, avian influenza was confirmed in three chickens and one human in Djibouti. For more information about this illness, see the Department of State's Avian Flu Fact Sheet .

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC's internet site at . For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's (WHO) website at . Further health information for travelers is available at .

MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas .
TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Djibouti is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

The Djiboutian Ministry of Defense and the national police force share responsibility for road safety in Djibouti. While Djibouti has been declared a "mine-safe" country, this indicates landmines have been identified and marked, not that they have been removed. Landmines are known to be present in the northern districts of Tadjoureh and Obock. In addition, there may be mines in the Ali Sabieh district in the south. Travelers should stay on paved roads and should check with local authorities before using unpaved roads.
The two main international routes to the capital city via Dire Dawa, Ethiopia, and Yoboki, Djibouti, are both in poor condition due to heavy truck traffic, whose presence demands that drivers remain vigilant. Major roads outside the capital are paved but lack guardrails. Railroad crossings are often not clearly marked.
Roads are often narrow, poorly maintained, and poorly lit. Drivers and pedestrians should exercise extreme caution. Excessive speed, unpredictable local driving habits, pedestrians and livestock in the roadway, and the lack of basic safety equipment on many vehicles are daily hazards. Speed limits are posted occasionally but are not enforced. The leafy narcotic khat is widely used, particularly in the afternoons, creating another traffic hazard. Travelers should be aware that police set up wire coils as roadblocks on some of the major roads, and these may be difficult to see at night.
The only means of public inter-city travel is by bus. Buses are poorly maintained and their operators often drive erratically with little regard for passenger safety.
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. Visit the web site of Djibouti's national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at .

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: As there is no direct commercial air service between the United States and Djibouti, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Djibouti's Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with ICAO international aviation safety standards. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA's Internet website at .

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: Although the narcotic khat is legal and widely chewed in Djibouti, it is considered an illegal substance in many countries, including the United States.
Djiboutians are generally conservative in dress and manner, especially in rural areas.
Photography of public infrastructure (including, but not limited to, public buildings, seaports, the airport, bridges, military facilities or personnel) is not allowed in Djibouti. Use extreme caution when photographing anyone or anything near prohibited areas. Photographic equipment will be confiscated, and the photographer may be arrested.
Djibouti is a cash-based economy and credit cards are not widely accepted. Reliable automated teller machines (ATMs) are not available. Changing money on the street is legal, but be aware of possible scams as well as personal safety considerations if people observe you carrying large amounts of cash. The exchange rate on the street will be similar to that at a bank or hotel. It is important that the U.S. banknotes that you carry have a date of 2003 or newer because some currency exchanges will not accept U.S. paper money older than 2003.

Djiboutian customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from Djibouti of firearms. It is advisable to contact the Embassy of Djibouti in Washington, D.C., for specific information regarding customs requirements.

Please see our information on Customs Information .
CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Djiboutian law, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Djibouti are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties .

CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children's Issues website.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION: Americans living or traveling in Djibouti are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department's travel registration website and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Djibouti. Americans withoutInternet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.

The U.S. Embassy is located at Plateau du Serpent, Boulevard Marechal Joffre, Djibouti City. The mailing address is Ambassade Americaine, B.P. 185, Djibouti, Republique de Djibouti. The telephone number is (253) 35-39-95. The fax number is (253) 35-39-40. Normal working hours are Sunday through Thursday, 7:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.
* * *
This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated November 2, 2005, to update sections on Safety and Security, Crime, Medical Facilities and Health Information, Special Circumstances, and Registration/Embassy Location.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Sun, 10 May 2020 12:26:15 +0200 (METDST)

Djibouti, May 10, 2020 (AFP) - Djibouti, the tiny Horn of Africa nation with the highest number of coronavirus cases on the continent per capita, on Sunday reversed course on a plan to begin lifting lockdown measures this week, saying it was premature.   "The government, through the voice of the prime minister, has decided to extend the confinement for another week until May 17," Foreign Minister Mahmoud Ali Youssouf said in a Twitter post.   "Noting that the prerequisite conditions are not yet in place, the government made this decision just now," he said.    The tiny but strategically important country that hosts major US and French military bases has recorded 1,189 positive cases -- few on a global scale, but the highest number in East Africa. Three people have died.

The Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention says Djibouti has the highest number of cases in Africa relative to its population, though its testing has also outpaced many of its neighbours.   On March 23 the government announced a nationwide lockdown, closing borders and places of worship, banning public transport and allowing only workers in essential industries to go outside. 

Yet the measures have been largely ignored, with large crowds still common in the capital city.   President Ismail Omar Guelleh, in power since 1999, warned last month of "even tougher measures" if the population did not respect confinement rules.   But the imposition of the lockdown has prompted criticism of Guelleh, who could run for the presidency again next year after term limits were abolished in a constitutional change.   In his earlier posts announcing that lockdown rules would be relaxed, Youssouf said public transport would resume and places of worship would be reopened provided "very strict measures" on masks and physicial distancing were observed.   Even if such measures were taken, Youssouf said "new epicentres of contamination could emerge in the capital city". 
Date: Mon, 26 Feb 2018 08:27:14 +0100

Djibouti, Feb 26, 2018 (AFP) - President Ismael Omar Guelleh's ruling party claimed a resounding victory in Friday's parliamentary elections in Djibouti, taking nearly 90 percent of seats after the opposition largely boycotted the poll.   Mohamed Abdallah Mahyoub, a senior member of Guelleh's UMP party and campaign spokesman, told AFP late Sunday the party had won 58 out of 65 parliamentary seats, an increase of three since the last vote in 2013.   There was no immediate figure for turnout among the tiny Horn of Africa nation's 194,000 registered voters.   Guelleh has ruled Djibouti since 1999 and was last re-elected in 2016 with 87 percent of the vote.

The UMP's victory has helped by the badly-divided opposition with two parties -- MRD and RADDE and a faction of a third party, ARD -- refusing to put forward any candidates, saying the elections would neither be fair nor transparent while others accused the election commission of bias.   The UMP claimed every seat outside of the capital and all but seven seats in Djibouti city with the remainder going to the UDJ party.   The law stipulates that 25 percent of seats must go to women, an increase from just 10 percent in the outgoing parliament. According to Mahyoub, this threshold was nearly met as 15 women won parliamentary seats, 14 of them from the UMP.
Date: Thu, 12 Jun 2014 16:56:37 +0200 (METDST)

GENEVA, June 12, 2014 (AFP) - Nearly a quarter of the population in drought-hit Djibouti is in desperate need of aid, with malnutrition and a dramatic lack of water causing a mass exodus from rural areas, the UN said on Thursday.   "Persistent and recurring droughts have resulted in a general lack of water for both people and livestock," said the UN's Djibouti coordinator Robert Watkins.   The crisis, which has dragged on since 2010, has left a full 190,000 of the country's 850,000 residents in need of humanitarian assistance.   They include 27,500 refugees, mainly from neighbouring Somalia, Watkins told reporters in Geneva.

Yet the crisis in Djibouti has received little international attention, with a UN appeal for aid last year reaching only a third of its target -- the lowest level of funding for any such appeal worldwide.   The appeal comes amid warnings from Britain on Thursday that Somalia's Al-Qaeda-linked Shebab insurgents were planning further attacks in the tiny and traditionally tranquil Horn of Africa country.   Shebab suicide bombers hit a crowded restaurant in Djibouti last month, killing at least one, in an attack apparently linked to the country's participation in the African Union force in Somalia.   Djibouti's port also serves as a key base for international anti-piracy operations off the Somali coast.

Watkins also said on Thursday that some 60,000 migrants -- most of them Ethiopians trying to reach the Gulf for work -- were also in need of aid inside Djibouti.   Last year alone, 100,000 passed through the country, he said. Most migrants come on foot, staggering alongside the roads in the extreme heat.   "Many die from dehydration," he said.   Foreigners are not the only ones on the move in the country, where most people still live off livestock which have been hard-hit by the drought.   "There has been a huge exodus of people living in rural areas," Watkins said, adding that the population in the capital Djibouti City had more than doubled since 2010, now home to 85 percent of the population.

Nationwide, a full 18 percent of the population is considered acutely malnourished, rising to 26 percent in some areas -- well above the 15-percent emergency threshold, Watkins said.   Sixty percent of the country's population was also suffering from diarrhoeal diseases, he said.   Watkins said he hoped the lack of interest from funders would change, pointing out that a new appeal last month for $74 million (55 million euros) was already 13 percent funded, with contributions from the United States, the EU and Japan among others.
Date: Mon, 26 Nov 2012 18:20:54 +0100 (MET)

RIYADH, Nov 26, 2012 (AFP) - The United Nations said on Monday that the number of people in Arab countries infected with HIV more than doubled to 470,000 in the eight years to 2009. "The number of adults and children living with HIV has more than doubled between 2001 and 2009 from 180,000 to 470,000," according to data from UNAIDS, the UN programme on HIV and AIDS. New HIV infections increased from 43,000 in 2001 to 59,000 in 2009, it said at a meeting in Riyadh on combatting AIDS, organised by the Arab League and the Saudi government. The number of deaths from AIDS also surged from about 8,000 in 2001 to 24,000 in 2009.

In Djibouti and Somalia, the percentage of infected people represents 2.5 percent and 0.7 percent of the countries' respective populations. "These figures are very worrying and need an immediate response," it said in an Arabic-language statement. The figures appear in contrast with the global trend. UNAIDS said last week that 25 low- and middle-income countries had managed to at least halve their rate of new HIV infections since 2001, representing a reduction of 700,000 new HIV infections. Globally, new HIV infections fell to 2.5 million last year from 2.6 million in 2010 and represented a 20-percent drop from 2001, it said.
Date: Wed 23 Nov 2011
Source: IC Publications [edited]

Authorities in Djibouti have reported a serious outbreak of a potentially fatal diarrhea infection in the capital [Djibouti], with 2 deaths since October 2011 and 127 new cases this month [November 2011], the WHO said on Tuesday [22 Nov 2011]. WHO said 5000 cases of acute watery diarrhea (AWD) have already been reported this year [2011] compared to 2000 in the Red Sea port in 2010.

Poor hygiene and sanitation along with recent rainfall in some areas had led to the contamination of already limited and unsafe water supplies, according to the UN health agency, which said the drought in the Horn of Africa had exacerbated the situation.

"The effects of the recurring drought on several parts of Djibouti and neighbouring countries have resulted in a malnourished, poorer and more vulnerable population," a WHO statement said. [WHO] is working with the Djibouti ministry of health to train health workers and set up treatment centres.
More ...

Uruguay

Uruguay - US Consular Information Sheet
May 01, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Uruguay is a constitutional democracy with a large, educated middle class and a robust developing economy.
The capital city is Montevideo .
Tourist facilit
es are generally good with many 5-star accommodations at resort destinations such as Punta del Este and Colonia de Sacramento.
The quality of tourist facilities varies according to price and location.
Travelers are encouraged to seek travel agency assistance in making plans to visit Uruguay .
Read the Department of State Background Notes on Uruguay for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
All United States citizens entering Uruguay for business or pleasure must have a valid passport.
U.S. citizens traveling on a regular passport do not need a visa for a visit of less than three months.
U.S. citizens traveling on diplomatic or official passports require a visa.
Air travelers are required to pay an airport tax upon departure.
This fee may be paid in U.S. dollars or in Uruguayan pesos.
For further information on entry requirements, contact the Embassy of Uruguay at 1913 “Eye” Street NW, Washington, DC 20006, tel. (202) 331-4219; e-mail: conuruwashi@uruwashi.org.
Travelers may also contact the Consulate of Uruguay in New York, Miami, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Puerto Rico.
Visit the Embassy of Uruguay web site at http://www.uruwashi.org/ for the most current visa information.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Regular protests, some with an anti-American flavor, take place outside Congress, City Hall and the “University of the Republic.”
U.S. citizens visiting or residing in Uruguay are advised to take common-sense precautions and avoid any large gatherings or any other event where crowds have congregated to demonstrate or protest.
If travelers encounter a protest they should walk the other way or enter a commercial establishment until the protest passes.
Taking pictures of protesters is not a good idea.

Although there have been no past instances of violence directed at U.S. citizens from cross-border extremist groups, U.S. citizens traveling or residing in the more remote areas of Uruguay near the border with Argentina and Brazil are urged to exercise caution.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up to date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada , a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays.)

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
Petty street crime is prevalent in Montevideo .
The criminals tend to be non-violent.
However, criminals often resort to violence if the victims resist.
Travelers should exercise reasonable caution to minimize their exposure to crime.
Criminals prey on the unaware, particularly those carrying cameras, pocketbooks, laptops, or backpacks.
Travelers are advised to lock most valuables in secure hotel safes and to download their wallets of excess credit cards and cash.
If dining at an outdoor restaurant take extra care with pocketbooks or bags.
There are no “off limits” areas of the city and parts of “Ciudad Vieja” are popular tourist attractions.
However the only sections of Ciudad Vieja with continual police patrols are Plaza Independencia, the pedestrian street Sarandi, and the Mercado del Puerto.
Mugging is common in other parts of Ciudad Vieja - particularly for travelers walking alone, or couples walking at night.
A smart alternative is to call for a taxi for evening travel between restaurants, bars, and hotels.

Victims are usually foreign tourists, individuals openly carrying valuable items, and motorists in unlocked vehicles stopped at busy intersections, particularly on Montevideo 's riverfront road known as the Rambla. Drivers should keep all car doors locked, the driver's window open only one inch, and purses, bags, briefcases and other valuables out of sight on the floor or in the trunk. Parked cars, particularly in the Carrasco neighborhood, are also increasingly targeted for break-ins. During the summer months (December-March), beach resort areas such as Punta del Este attract tourists, and petty street crimes and residential burglaries--similar to those that occur in Montevideo --rise significantly. Visitors are advised to exercise common sense in the conduct of their activities around Montevideo and in Uruguayan resort areas. They should be very attentive to personal security and their surroundings in the aforementioned areas.

Those planning to live in Montevideo should note that burglaries and attempted burglaries seem to be on the rise in upscale neighborhoods.
The perpetrators are mostly non-confrontational but determined teenagers.
A combination of preventive measures including rigorous use of locks and alarms, strong grillwork on all windows, guard dogs, keeping a residence occupied as much as possible, and using a security service is highly recommended.

Montevideo continues to experience armed robberies of patrons at crowded restaurants in the Pocitos neighborhood.
Most of these crimes have occurred very late at night.
Restaurant patrons should exercise extreme caution for late night dining.

Uruguayan law enforcement authorities have increased the number of uniformed policemen on foot in areas where criminal activity is concentrated and the number of patrol cars in residential areas. The clearly marked patrol cars are equipped with cellular phones and the phone numbers are conspicuously painted on the vehicles.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Facilities for medical care are considered adequate. Serious medical problems requiring hospitalization and/or medical evacuation to the United States can cost tens of thousands of dollars.


Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States .
The information below concerning Uruguay is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in particular location or circumstance.

The Uruguayan Ministry of Transportation is responsible for maintaining safe road conditions countrywide. The Uruguayan Ministry of Interior highway police (tel. 1954) are responsible for traffic safety on highways and other roads beyond city limits. In urban and suburban areas, transit police and municipal employees share road safety responsibilities.

Driving is on the right-hand side of the road. Wearing seat belts and using headlights on highways and other inter-city roads 24 hours a day are mandatory. Children under 12 must ride in the back seat. Motorcyclists must wear helmets. The use of cellular phones while driving is prohibited. Right turns on red lights and left turns at most intersections marked with a stoplight are not permitted. Drivers approaching an intersection from the right or already in traffic circles have the right of way.
Flashing high beams indicate intent to pass or continue through unmarked intersections.
Many drivers ignore speed limits and traffic signs.
If you plan to drive, use extreme caution and drive defensively.

For driving under the influence, violators are fined and confiscated licenses may be retained for up to six months. In accidents causing injury or death, drivers are brought before a judge who decides if incarceration is warranted.

Inter-city travel is via bus, taxi, car service (remise), car, and motorcycle. Speed limits are posted on highways and some main roads. Most taxis have no seat belts in the back seat. Cycling outside the capital or small towns is hazardous due to a scarcity of bike paths, narrow road shoulders and unsafe driving practices.

Illumination, pavement markings, and road surfaces are sometimes poor. Route 1, which runs between Montevideo and Colonia or Punta del Este, and Route 2, between Rosario and Fray Bentos, are particularly accident-ridden because of heavy tourist traffic. Road accidents rise during the austral summer beach season (December to March), Carnaval (mid-to-late February), and Easter Week.

Within Montevideo , the emergency number to contact the police, fire department, rescue squad, or ambulance service is 911. In the rest of the country, dial 02-911 to connect with the Montevideo central emergency authority, which will then contact the local emergency service. The Automobile Club of Uruguay responds to emergency calls for roadside assistance at 1707, “Car Up” at 0800-1501 and the Automobile Center of Uruguay at 2-408-6131/2091. SEMM (tel. 159) and UCM (tel. 147), Montevideo-based ambulance services manned by doctors, have agreements with emergency medical units in other cities.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
You may also telephone Uruguay ’s national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety in Miami at (305) 443-7431.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed Uruguay ’s Civil Aviation Authority as not being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Uruguay ’s air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Uruguay 's customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from Uruguay of items such as precious jewels, gold, firearms, pornography, subversive literature, inflammable articles, acids, prohibited drugs (medications), plants, seeds, and foodstuffs as well as some antiquities and business equipment. It is advisable to contact the Embassy of Uruguay in Washington, D.C., or one of Uruguay 's consulates in the U.S. for specific information regarding customs requirements. Note: Travelers entering Uruguay with precious jewels or gold worth more than $500.00 ( U.S. ) must declare them to customs officers at the port of entry or face possible detention or seizure of the goods and charges of contraband or evasion of customs controls. Visitors are expected to comply with local law and regulations by approaching a customs officer before routine inspection of all incoming baggage, conducted on standard security equipment.
Please see our Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Uruguay ’s laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Uruguay are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States .
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

The Uruguayan Ministry of Agriculture and Fishing strictly enforces all regulations regarding hunting permits, as well as seasonal and numerical limits on game. Visitors who contravene local law have been detained by the authorities and had valuable personal property (weapons) seized. Under Uruguayan law, seized weapons can only be returned after payment of a sum equivalent to the value of the property seized. Hunters are also subject to stiff fines for practicing the sport without all appropriate permits.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages onintercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Uruguay are encouraged to register with the U.S. Embassy through the State Department's travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Uruguay .
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the U.S. Embassy.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located at Lauro Muller 1776; telephone (598) (2) 418-7777; fax (598) (2) 418-4110 or -8611. Internet: http://uruguay.usembassy.gov/, email: MontevideoACS@state.gov. Consular Section hours for American Citizen Services are Monday to Thursday, 9:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. and 2:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m., except U.S. and Uruguayan holidays.
* * *
This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated August 28, 2007 to update Sections on Entry/Exit Requirements, Safety and Security, Crime, Aviation Safety Oversight, Children’s issues, and Registration/Embassy Location.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Sun, 29 Mar 2020 11:48:20 +0200 (METDST)

Montevideo, March 29, 2020 (AFP) - Uruguay reported its first death linked to the novel coronavirus on Saturday, a former minister and ally of the ruling party, the government said.   "With deep sadness we announce the first death due to coronavirus in Uruguay," Secretary of the Presidency Alvaro Delgado told a press conference, naming the victim as Rodolfo Gonzalez Rissotto.

Gonzalez Rissotto was one of nine patients with the coronavirus who were in intensive care, Delgado said, adding his death was "all the more reason to reinforce the request to everyone to take care of themselves and stay home."   President Luis Lacalle Pou paid tribute in a tweet.   "A big hug for the family and friends of Rodolfo Gonzalez Risotto. Friend and counselor. RIP."   Uruguay has reported 304 confirmed cases of the virus.
20th June 2019
https://en.mercopress.com/2019/06/20/torrential-rains-in-uruguay-forces-7.400-to-abandon-their-homes
Troops will continue monitoring the situation because “there are many people who do not want to leave their homes due to fear of being looted” Bayardi said.Torrential rains in central and southern Uruguay in the past several days have caused massive floods and forced some 7,400 people to leave their homes, according to the latest update by the country's National Emergency System.  The central city of Durazno is the most affected, with 5,299 evacuees, according to official reports.

Defense Minister Jose Bayardi visited one of the camp sites managed by the military to help the displaced.  ”We have established a high level of experience (in the face of these catastrophes) which we have succeeded in institutionalizing,“ he told the media. Troops will continue monitoring the situation because ”there are many people who do not want to leave their homes due to fear of being robbed and looted” Bayardi said.

The National Highway Police also said that 12 national highways remain cut-off in different directions. Uruguay's National Meteorological Institute said that between June 11 and 16, some southern regions of the country received around 270 mm of rain.  On Wednesday morning, the Yi River, which had been 11.8 meters higher than its normal water level in the Durazno area, was falling at a rate of 11 cm per hour, according to local media reports.

Date: Tue 12 Mar 2019
Source: Carmelo Portal [in Spanish, trans. Mod. TY, edited]

The departmental health director, Dr Jorge Mota, confirmed for Carmelo Portal the death in our city of a young 17 year old girl from [a] hantavirus [infection]. "In Colonia department, there are on average 3 cases per year. The evolution of the disease is in thirds. One-third of the [infected] people do not have notable symptoms; another third have serious symptoms, especially respiratory symptoms and ones in all the systems, but with adequate treatment, [the infected people] survive, sometimes with sequelae. There is another third that die. It is those few with the virus that die with an evolution so drastic, such as is the case of this girl, sadly," Dr Mota stated.

The department health director said that hantaviruses are not contagious person-to-person. "It is transmitted from an intermediate animal, the field mouse. Only 3% of these mice have [a] hantavirus. To become infected, one must be in contact with an [infected] mouse's secretions that have dried, are mixed with dust, and are in a closed space, away from sunlight and ventilation. A spa, a shed, or a wood pile [are examples of such a space]. The person had to have been moving around there and inhaled the dust," he explained.

Dr Mota spoke about the epidemiological surveillance that is carried out. "We tracked places where the person was, even those that could be identified 2 months before contracting the virus; sometimes we found the place, but sometimes not." As a preventive measure, Mota stated that in these cases, ventilate these closed spaces for at least half an hour. Wet down floors and shelves with water [with 10% bleach]. Use masks [and gloves].
==========================
[The report above does not mention the circumstances under which the infection might have been acquired nor which hantavirus was responsible for this or earlier cases in Uruguay. Hantaviruses that cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (with rodent hosts found in Uruguay) include Laguna Negra virus (_Calomys laucha_), Maciel virus (_Necromys benefactus_), Central Plata virus, Lechiguanas virus (_Oligoryzomys flavescens_, complex of rodents), and Anajatuba virus and Juquitiba virus (_Ologoryzomys fornesi_).

The rodent reservoir hosts shed the virus in its saliva, urine, and faeces, contaminating the environment in which they live and breed.

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map showing the location of Uruguay in South America can be accessed at
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/28995>.

A map of Colonia department in southern Uruguay is available at
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonia_del_Sacramento>
and <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/27367>. - ProMED Mod.TY]
Date: Thu, 19 Jul 2018 03:23:55 +0200
By Lucia LACURCIA

Montevideo, July 19, 2018 (AFP) - Enrique Curbelo is delighted. Selling cannabis has allowed the affable 76-year-old to keep his privately owned pharmacy in Montevideo open in a market dominated by big chains.   "I had to sell what they didn't sell," he told AFP. "For me it's like selling aspirin."   It's been this way for a year now.   Every Wednesday, Ismael Fernandez receives a WhatsApp message from his local pharmacist telling him a new stock of cannabis has arrived.   After leaving work, he heads there and buys the 10 grams that Uruguayan law permits, costing 400 pesos, around $13.

Fernandez then heads home and rolls a joint "to relax" with his partner Stefania Fabricio.   No longer do they need to surreptitiously contact a dealer and pay more for Paraguayan or Brazilian marijuana that's been "pressed, mixed (and is) sometimes very bad and full of chemicals."   "Now it's much easier than when it started," Fernandez, a 31-year-old who works for a cleaning company, told AFP.   It has been four and a half years since marijuana use became legal in Uruguay and a year since it has been sold in pharmacies -- up to 40 grams a month per person.

Initially, there was insufficient supply, leaving people standing in long queues as stocks sometimes ran out. Pharmacies are better prepared now.   "They send you a message with a number which you use later to go and collect it, and in my pharmacy you can order it online," added Fernandez, the father of a three-year-old.   Hairdresser Fabricio, also 31, says "it's good quality," but not too strong.   "It doesn't send your head spinning, but it's not meant to. You get a hit but you can still do things perfectly."   - 'Privileged' -   She says she feels "privileged" to live in a country that enacted a law to "get tons of people out of the black market."   As a result, she said, the stigma attached to those who smoke pot is changing, "albeit slowly."

The system is simple: to buy cannabis in a pharmacy you must be at least 18, live in Uruguay and sign up as a "buyer" at the post office.   An initial stumbling block arose when banks refused to work with establishments selling cannabis due to international rules against drug-trafficking.   But the country plowed on, and last year it became the first in the world to fully legalize its sale.   But Enrique Curbelo had to get over his own prejudices before deciding to join the select band of pharmacies selling the plant.   There are 14, half of them in the capital, serving the 24,812 registered buyers.

- 'Normal people' -
Users can choose between two brands and two types of cannabis -- sativa and indica -- both provided by an official distributor.   Customers are generally not the stereotypical grubby-looking student or idle waster.    On this day in Curbelo's store they include two young women, a man in his 50s and an older lady -- "normal people," says the pharmacist.   Official statistics say 70 percent of buyers are male and 49 percent are between the ages of 18 and 29.

To keep anyone from exceeding their monthly allowance, a fingerprint machine is used to register every sale.   Along with the ability to purchase cannabis in a pharmacy, Uruguayans have the right to grow their own -- up to a six-plant maximum -- or to join a cannabis club, which can have up to 45 members and 99 plants.   Federico Corbo, a 41-year-old gardener, grows cannabis in his garden on the outskirts of Montevideo. He experiments by crossing species in an attempt to improve quality and optimize the flowering period.   Corbo is not impressed with the quality on offer in pharmacies.   "It's not the worst, but it's low," he said, insisting quality control needs to be improved.   "Marijuana that doesn't reach the minimum standards -- with crushed flowers, no aroma, low quality -- shouldn't be sold in the pharmacy.   "Maybe, as I'm a grower, I'm very demanding, but there is a cost associated to the product and it must be offered to the public in the best way possible."

According to the Institute of Cannabis Regulation and Control (Ircca), an average cultivator or club member supplies cannabis to two other people, while those who buy it in a pharmacy share it with one other.   "Approximately half of marijuana users have access to regulated cannabis," says Ircca.   The rest prefer to continue buying the drug on the black market, put off by the need to register as a user.   "It's wrong -- if they legalize it they have to do so in a way in which the state doesn't keep a paternalistic role in overseeing how much you smoke or stop smoking," one clandestine user, who wished to remain anonymous, told AFP.   This 48-year-old lawyer simply doesn't trust the authorities. He pointed to the danger a change of government could bring, or even the return of dictatorship.   "Right now that seems impossible," he said, "but you can never discount it."
Date: Thu 1 Feb 2018 23:02hs UYT
Source: LaRed 21 [in Spanish, machine trans. edited]

The Ministry of Public Health (MSP) issued a statement through which it reports that it has detected cases of infection by the bacterium _Vibrio vulnificus_ in Montevideo, Canelones, and Maldonado [departments]. The State Secretariat assured that every year there are cases of this bacterium, but so far in 2018, 4 serious cases have been reported, of which 3 died. All of them had underlying illnesses.

"90 percent of these cases, in the world, are associated with the consumption of undercooked or raw seafood. Infrequently, the infection can be acquired when entering the sea with open wounds, especially in elderly people or people with diseases that affect the immune system," explained the MSP. It is an event "extremely rare in our country," said the State Secretariat. It also indicated that fewer than 10 cases per year are registered per year for this bacterium.

It is an infection that "can be serious and in some cases fatal, so it is recommended to avoid the consumption of undercooked or raw sea products (as well as their handling without protection measures) and in the same way, avoid entering the sea with wounds or cuts on the skin." The bacteria can be found in coastal marine waters and estuaries in areas of tropical and subtropical climates that have a moderate degree of salinity and temperatures that usually exceed 18 C [64.4 F].
====================
[The following is extracted from the previous edition of the "Bad Bug Book," Center for Safety and Applied Nutrition, US FDA (Food and Drug Administration). The newest version is available at:  <https://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/FoodborneIllnessContaminants/UCM297627.pdf>:

"_Vibrio vulnificus_, a lactose-fermenting, halophilic, Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen, is found in estuarine environments and associated with various marine species such as plankton, shellfish (oysters, clams, and crabs), and finfish. Environmental factors responsible for controlling numbers of _V. vulnificus_ in seafood and in the environment include temperature, pH, salinity, and amounts of dissolved organics. It may be normal flora in salt water, and acquiring this organism from shellfish or water exposure does not imply that the water is contaminated by sewage.

"Wound infections result either from contaminating an open wound with sea water harbouring the organism, or by lacerating part of the body on coral, fish, etc., followed by contamination with the organism. The ingestion of _V. vulnificus_ by healthy individuals can result in gastroenteritis."

The "primary septicaemia" form of the disease follows consumption of raw seafood containing the organism by individuals with underlying chronic disease, particularly liver disease. The organism can also enter through damaged skin. In these individuals, the microorganism enters the blood stream, resulting in septic shock, rapidly followed by death in many cases (about 50 percent). Over 70 percent of infected individuals have distinctive bullous skin lesions (shown at <http://safeoysters.org/medical/diagnosis.html>).

There are 2 points to be emphasized: that vibrios are normal flora in warm saltwater (not indicative of any sewage contamination) and that most of the life-threatening illnesses occur in individuals with underlying medical illnesses, including immunocompromised states, chronic liver disease, and diabetes. So-called normal individuals often just develop gastroenteritis. The range of disease due to _V. vulnificus_ can involve more northern geographical areas as overall global warming takes effect. - ProMED Mod.LL]

More ...

Estonia

Estonia US Consular Information Sheet
October 28, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Estonia is a stable democracy with an economy that has developed rapidly in recent years.
Tourist facilities in Tallinn are comparable to other western Europe
n cities, but some amenities may be lacking in rural areas.
Some goods and services may not be available outside of major cities.
Please read the Department of State Background Notes on Estonia for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A valid passport is required.
Estonia is a party to the “Schengen” –Agreement. As such, U.S. citizens may enter Estonia for up to 90 days for tourist or business purposes without a visa. The passport should be valid for at least three months beyond the period of stay. For further details about travel into and within Schengen countries, please see our Schengen Fact Sheet.
For further information concerning entry requirements and residency permits, contact the Estonian Embassy, located at 2131 Massachusetts Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20008, telephone (202)588-0101, or the Consulate General of Estonia in New York City, telephone (212) 883-0636. Visit the Embassy of Estonia web site at http://www.estemb.org for the most current visa information. American citizens who wish to reside in Estonia (e.g. for work, studies, retirement, etc.) can also consult with the Estonian Citizenship and Migration Board at http://www.mig.ee
Information about dual nationality and the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Civil unrest generally is not a problem in Estonia, and there have been no incidents of terrorism directed toward American interests. Large public gatherings and demonstrations may occur on occasion in response to political issues, but these have been, with few exceptions,
without incident in the past.

During periods of darkness, (roughly October through April), reflectors must be worn by pedestrians.
Violators of this law may be subject to a fine of up to 600 EEK (Estonian Kroon), or up to 6,000 EEK if the pedestrian is under the influence of alcohol. Reflectors are inexpensive and are available at most supermarkets and many smaller shops.
To meet legal requirements, the reflector’s packaging must include a reference to European safety standard EN13356.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department’s web site where the current Worldwide Caution, Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts can be found.
Americans are reminded to remain vigilant with regard to their personal security and to exercise caution.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll-free in the U.S. and Canada, or for others callers, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
Estonia is a relatively safe country, although crime in Tallinn’s “Old Town” is an ongoing concern, particularly during the summer tourist season.
Travelers should exercise the same precautions with regard to their personal safety and belongings they would take in major U.S. cities.
The most common crimes encountered by foreign tourists are purse snatching, pick-pocketing, and mugging.
Tourists are often targeted by individuals and small groups of thieves working together.
In public places such as the “Old Town,” in particular the Town Hall Square (“Raekoja Plats”), as well as the airport, train stations, bus stations and the Central Market, one must exercise special care in safeguarding valuables against purse-snatchers and pickpockets.
Valuables should never be left unattended in vehicles and car doors should be kept locked at all times.
Some violent crime does occur, mainly at night and often in proximity to nightlife areas.
Public drunkenness, car theft and break-ins also continue to be a problem in Tallinn.

The Estonian Police agencies are modern, well-equipped law enforcement entities on a standard comparable to most Western European police, with only isolated instances of corruption. However, large-scale reductions in the police force are scheduled for this year, which may decrease some of their capabilities. Many police officers speak only very limited English.

Credit card fraud is an ongoing concern, as is internet-based financial fraud and “internet dating” fraud.
Travelers should take precautions to safeguard their credit cards and report any suspected unauthorized transaction to the credit card company immediately.
Racially motivated verbal harassment and, on occasion, physical assault of Americans and other nationals of non-Caucasian ethnicity has occurred.
If an incident occurs, it should be reported to the police and to the Embassy.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft of a U.S. passport abroad should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

The local equivalent to the “911” emergency line in Estonia is: 112. The level of English spoken by the operator answering may be minimal.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
The quality of medical care in Estonia continues to improve but still falls short of Western standards.
Estonia has many highly trained medical professionals, but hospitals and clinics still suffer from a lack of equipment and resources.
Elderly travelers and those with health problems may be at increased risk.
Visitors to forest areas in warm weather should also guard against tick-borne encephalitis.

The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Estonia.
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith
MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
In recent years, a number of American citizens have been disembarked from cruise ships and hospitalized due to serious medical problems. Holding a policy providing for medical evacuation coverage can be critical to ensure access to timely emergency medical care. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Driving in Estonia can be more dangerous than in much of the United States.
Many roads, especially in rural areas, are poorly lit and are not up to Western standards.
Some drivers can be aggressive, recklessly overtaking vehicles and traveling at high speed, even in crowded urban areas.
Despite strict Estonian laws against driving under the influence of alcohol, accidents involving intoxicated drivers are very frequent. It is not uncommon for the police to set up checkpoints on major streets and highways; drivers should pull over when asked.
Drivers should always remain alert to the possibility of drunk drivers and drunken pedestrians.

Estonian traffic laws require drivers to stop for all pedestrians in marked crosswalks.
Nevertheless, Estonian motorists do not always comply with this regulation, and pedestrians should always be careful when crossing the streets.
In rural areas, wild animals, such as deer and moose, and icy road conditions can create unexpected hazards.
Dark-clothed or drunken pedestrians walking along unlit roads or darting across dimly-lit streets or highways pose a risk to unsuspecting drivers.
Winter roads are usually treated and cleared of snow, but drivers should remain vigilant for icy patches and large potholes.

Estonian laws against driving under the influence are strict and follow a policy of zero tolerance. Penalties are severe for motorists caught driving after consumption of even a small amount of alcohol. Local law requires that headlights be illuminated at all times while driving.
Use of a seatbelts by all passengers is required, and children too small to be secure in seatbelts must use child car seats.
The speed limit is 50 km/h in town and 90 km/h out of town unless otherwise indicated.
A right turn on a red light is prohibited unless otherwise indicated by a green arrow.
According to Estonian law vehicles involved in accidents should not be moved to the side of the road until the police reach the scene. Americans planning to drive in Estonia must obtain an international driving permit prior to arrival.

For information about international driving permits, contact AAA or the American Automobile Touring Alliance.
The Eesti Autoklubi (Estonian Auto Club – www.autoclub.ee), which is affiliated with AAA, provides emergency roadside assistance.
Drivers do not need to be a member to receive assistance; however, the fees charged are higher for non-members.
The number to call for roadside vehicle assistance and towing service is 1888.
For ambulance, fire or police assistance the number is 112.
Please note that for both numbers, the level of English spoken by the operator answering may be minimal.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
You may also visit the website of Estonia’s national tourist office at http://www.visitestonia.com.
For specific information concerning Estonian driving permits, vehicles inspections and road tax mandatory insurance, contact the Estonian Motor Vehicle Registration Center at http://www.ark.ee/atp.
Additional information may be obtained from the website of the Estonian Road Administration at http://www.mnt.ee/atp, or from Baltic Roads at http://www.balticroads.net
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Estonia, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed the Estonian Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Commercial and financial transactions in Estonia are increasingly automated and on-line.
Cash is almost always acceptable. The national currency is the Estonian Kroon (EEK), the value of which is pegged to the Euro (15.65 EEK= 1 Euro). Most credit cards are widely recognized throughout the country.
ATM machines are common and many U.S.-issued bankcards are compatible with them. Bank checks are virtually unknown, and checks drawn on a U.S. bank are of little use in the country.

Estonia’s customs authorities encourage the use of an ATA (Admission Temporaire/Temporary Admission) Carnet for the temporary admission of professional equipment, commercial samples, and/or goods for exhibitions and fair purposes.
ATA Carnet Headquarters, located at the U.S. Council for International Business, 1212 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036, issues and guarantees the ATA Carnet in the United States.
For additional information call (212) 354-4480, send and email to acarnet@uscib.org, or visit http://www.uscib.org for details.

Please see our information on Customs Regulations.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Estonian laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Estonia are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable both in Estonia as well as in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

DUAL NATIONALITY:
Estonian law requires that individual with dual nationality must choose between Estonian citizenship and his of her other citizenship at age 18. After that time, Estonian law does not permit the individual to carry passports of two (or more) different countries. However, the Estonian government reportedly has not regularly enforced this law in the past with respect to persons of Estonian background, and thus a number of individuals have continued to carry both Estonian and American passports. Any American citizen who also carries an Estonian passport should be aware that the Estonian government may not recognize the person as an American citizen in certain circumstances, thus limiting the consular services that can be provided by the U.S. Embassy (e.g. in case of arrest, etc.).

Please note that this discussion of dual nationality relates only to person who have a claim to Estonian citizenship, and not to persons who merely acquire an Estonian “residence” permit. For more information on citizenship and dual nationality, please see our web page.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on international adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Estonia are encouraged to register with the U.S Embassy in Tallinn through the State Department’s travel registration web site, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Estonia.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the U.S. Embassy in Tallinn by visiting in person.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.
The latest security information is available from the Embassy, including on its web site, http://estonia.usembassy.gov.

The U.S. Embassy is available 24 hours a day for emergency assistance for American citizens visiting or residing in Estonia. The Embassy is located approximately 1 km outside of Tallinn’s “Old Town.” The address is: Kentmanni 20, 15099 Tallinn, Estonia.
The Embassy’s main switchboard number is telephone (372) 668-8100.
The Consular Section can be reached directly at (372 668-8128, 8111, 8197 or 8129. The Consular Section’s fax number is (372) 668-8267. The Consular Sections’ email address for American Citizen Services is ACSTallin@state.gov. For after-hours emergencies, an Embassy Duty Officer may be contacted by mobile phone at (372) 509-2129, if dialing from the U.S., and 509-2129 if dialed from within Estonia.
The Embassy’s web site is http://estonia.usembassy.gov.
The American Citizen Services Unit email address is ACSTallinn@state.gov
* * *
This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated March 26, 2008 to update sections on Country Description, Entry/Exit Requirements, Safety and Security, Crime, Medical Insurance, Traffic Safety and Road Conditions, Special Circumstances, Criminal Penalties, Dual Nationality, and Registration/Embassy location.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Fri, 15 May 2020 15:00:11 +0200 (METDST)
By Imants Liepinsh

Grenctale, Latvia, May 15, 2020 (AFP) - Baltic states Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania reopened their shared borders on Friday, allowing citizens to move freely for business and pleasure in a travel bubble after two months of coronavirus restrictions.    The sister countries, which are members of the European Union and the passport-free Schengen zone, had been closed since mid-March to all traffic except commercial cargo and returning citizens.

Their borders with Belarus and Russia remain sealed however, with military patrols reinforcing regular guards.    "The reopening of Baltic borders is an important milestone. Hotels and restaurants are looking forward with renewed hope," said Janis Pinnis, head of Latvia's hospitality association.   "We're already seeing the first reservations come in," he told public broadcaster Latvijas Radio.

Ticket sales for international bus travel between Baltic cities are back up and running, while flights between the countries are expected to resume at the end of the month.    Also happy to see borders reopen are Latvia's "alco supermarkets" which have sprung up in recent years to cater to Estonians and Lithuanians crossing over for cheaper, lower-taxed alcohol.   "Let's hope that reopening the borders brings back our neighbours, starting today," said the cashier at the Alko 1000 Market warehouse just a short distance from the border in the Latvian village of Grenctale.    Over the last couple months, "only locals had been coming in. Our liquor store's income has gone down tenfold," she told AFP.

- Time for ice-cream -
Before the time of coronavirus, Estonians had enjoyed going over to Latvia for dessert.   "Cross-border shopping was very popular before COVID-19. Our border town of Rujiena was full of Estonians on weekends. They love our ice cream," said Ilona Dukure, editor of the Latvian regional weekly Rujienas Vestnesis.    "However, people on this side of the border are concerned that Estonia's epidemic is a bit worse than ours," she told AFP.    To date 19 people have died from coronavirus in Latvia, a country of 1.9 million people. Estonia has a lower population of 1.3 million but a higher death toll of 63, while Lithuania has reported 54 fatalities out of population of 2.8 million   Not all the Baltic border posts are yet up and running.

In the Latvian border village of Skaistkalne, the bridge over the river will be out of commission until next week because of unremoved roadblocks on the Lithuanian side.    "We were hoping to cross the border here and finally get to Lithuania, but it looks like we'll have to find another entry point," said Valeriy, a construction worker driving over Thursday with his friend.    "We're working in Norway and are returning home to Vilnius after months of hard work," he told AFP.

They were redirected some 50 kilometres (30 miles) west to Grenctale, where an abandoned checkpoint has been manned by border guards since March.    On Thursday, around 20 large trucks could still be spotted in line there, as Lithuanian border guards checked the temperature of their drivers.   But by Friday, both sides of the border post were free of queues.
Date: Thu, 27 Feb 2020 09:58:42 +0100 (MET)

Tallinn, Feb 27, 2020 (AFP) - Estonia reported its first coronavirus case on Thursday, a day after the man returned to the Baltic nation of just 1.3 million people from his homeland Iran.    "The person, a permanent resident of Estonia who is not a citizen, arrived in Estonia on Wednesday evening," Social Affairs Minister Tanel Kiik told public broadcaster ERR.   He said the Iranian citizen is currently hospitalised.

Local media said the man arrived in Tallinn by bus from the Latvian capital Riga.   "For now, there are no plans of putting cities in quarantine following this one case," Kiik said.    "The patient is isolated, there is no risk of the disease spreading, now we have to identify all the people the patient was in contact with."   Iran has announced a total of 19 deaths and more than 130 infections, including the country's deputy health minister.   Iran's coronavirus death toll is the highest after that of China, where more than 2,700 people have died from the disease.
Date: Sat 14 Apr 2018 09:35
Source: Err [edited]

A man who had returned from an overseas trip and a woman with whom he came in contact were diagnosed with measles in Saaremaa this week [week of Sun 8 Apr 2018].

This year [2018], 4 cases of measles have been diagnosed in Estonia, which in 2016 had been listed by the World Health Organization (WHO) as among the countries which had eliminated endemic measles. Last month [March 2018], an unvaccinated child contracted the disease on an overseas trip; their mother caught it in turn upon their return to Estonia.

It is not currently known whether the woman to contract measles this week [week of Sun 8 Apr 2018] was vaccinated or not; the man had been vaccinated with only 1 of 2 doses of the measles vaccine.

In the course of the Health Board's epidemiological study, persons who have been in contact with the 2 individuals as well as their vaccination status were determined. Those who have come in contact with them were also advised regarding the nature of the disease, prevention measures as well as vaccination.

Last week [week of Sun 1 Apr 2018], a case of rubella was diagnosed in Rapla County as well. The previous 2 instances of rubella in Eesti were recorded in 2013.

Measles and rubella are considered highly contagious diseases, but the modern measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine is over 95 percent effective in preventing measles and rubella.

According to the immunization schedule in Estonia, children are administered the 1st dose of the MMR vaccine at 1 year of age and the 2nd dose at age 13. The MMR vaccine is free for children in Estonia.

Measles symptoms
Some of the earliest symptoms in the onset of measles include fever, malaise, cough, runny nose, conjunctivitis and light sensitivity. A few days later, the signature rash appears, which begins behind the ears and spreads to the face and neck before covering the entire body. A measles patient is contagious beginning 4 -- 5 days before and for up to 5 days following the onset of the rash.

There is no treatment for the disease itself; only symptoms can be treated. Complications can include pneumonia, middle ear infections and inflammation of the brain.  [Byline editor: Aili Vahtla]
====================
[According to <https://news.err.ee/591626/number-of-unvaccinated-children-in-estonia-on-rise>, despite the fact that a number of serious infectious diseases have been beaten due to vaccination [in Estonia], there has been a steady increase in the number of parents refusing vaccination and number of children being left unprotected from various diseases.

"While the percentage of refusals in relative to the total number of vaccinations isn't high -- 3-3.9 percent in 2016 -- the steady increase of those refusing and the steady growth in the number of children being left unprotected from a number of infectious diseases is worrisome," said Director General of the Health Board Tiiu Aro.

For example, at the end of 2016, 95.4 percent of children ages 1-14 were vaccinated against measles, mumps and rubella (MMR).

"Considering the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommended level of vaccination for halting the spread of diseases, which is 95 percent, we should be satisfied, however the coverage level among children up to 2 years of age was 93.2 percent, which means that we did not achieve the recommended level of coverage," Aro noted.

As of the end of 2016, a total of 7481 children were unvaccinated against MMR, over 60 percent of whom live in Tallinn.

A Healthmap/ProMED of Estonia can be found at
Date: Wed, 13 Feb 2013 13:51:13 +0100 (MET)

TALLINN, Feb 13, 2013 (AFP) - Officials in Estonia raised the alarm Wednesday after a report into drug use in Europe found that the small Baltic nation had the highest incidence of deaths from drug overdoses in the EU. Last year, 160 people died from overdoses, data from the Europe Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addictions (EMCDDA) showed, an increase of 21 percent from last year. Most of the deaths were caused by taking a highly addictive form of synthetic heroin known as China White, which is often smuggled in from Russia.

"More people per million inhabitants perish in Estonia than in any other EU country due to drug overdoses, and most of these deaths are related to drugs called 'China White'," Ave Talu, head of Estonia's Drug Monitoring Centre, told AFP. While the average number of deaths from overdoses across the 27-member EU bloc stands at up to 20 people per million, in Estonia the figure is five times higher, at over 100 per million. In 2011, 132 people died from overdoses in the former Soviet nation of 1.3 million people.

Most of the people who died in 2012 were ethnic Russian men, the EMCDDA data showed. Using a new antidote to synthetic heroin, naloxone, could "cut the death rates from overdose nearly in half," Talu said. But the drug is not yet available on a community outreach basis, she said. "In Estonia, naloxone is used only by medical staff and unlike some other countries like the US, we do not yet have community-based naloxone distribution and training programmes, but they are urgently needed."
Date: Fri, 21 Dec 2012 16:42:17 +0100 (MET)

TALLINN, Dec 21, 2012 (AFP) - Pilots at the struggling Baltic carrier Estonian Air announced on Friday they would go on strike from January 7, demanding a return to a collective pay deal that was voided by the company.   The Estonian Airline Pilots Association, which represents all of the carrier's 75 pilots, warned that it could not accept plans to end a five-year-old agreement from February.   "We expect most of the pilots to be on strike," Rauno Menning, chairman of the association's board, told AFP.   In a statement, Estonian Air said the strike call was a surprise.

"Estonian Air has offered pilots a collective agreement that is line with the market and competitive situation and follows all EU flight safety requirements," the carrier's chief executive Jan Palmer was quoted as saying.   Menning faulted that stance.   "We are surprised that the company is surprised by the strike news, because we made the decision in November to go strike if needed, so Estonian Air knew this was a possibility," he told AFP.   Estonian Air had just warded off industrial action by other employees through a deal last week with the Estonian Air Cabin Crew Union, which is valid to the end of 2013.   State-controlled Estonian Air has made repeated efforts to cut its losses.   In November, the airline said it would slash staff numbers by half, from 318 to 146.   Estonian Air operates a small fleet of 10 planes.

Created in 1991, the year the Baltic republic of 1.3 million regained its independence from the Soviet Union, the airline has had mixed fortunes.   It was privatised in 1996, and from 2003 to 2010 was almost evenly split between the state, which owned 51 percent, and Scandinavian carrier SAS, with 49 percent.   Since then, the state has gradually raised its holding to the current 97 percent, but says its wants to find a new strategic investor.   Estonian Air's revenues in the first nine months of 2012 were 70.4 million euros ($93 million), compared with 58.7 million euros in the same period of 2011.   But nine-month losses reached 20.2 million euros, up from 11.2 million euros in the same period a year earlier.
More ...

Svalbard

General:
**********************************
Cuba is an independent island country situated in the Caribbean. It is the largest of the islands and covers 42,000sq miles. The climate is sub tropical throughout the year with most of the rainfall in
the northern parts of the country. Temperatures of between 20C to 35C are fairly standard throughout the year. Generally the winter effects of the American continent only last for short periods.
Safety & Security:
**********************************
The majority of tourists visiting Cuba will have no difficulty but bag snatching and other street crime appears to be increasing. The old Havana area and other major tourist resorts may be particular areas of concern in this regard. On arrival be careful to only use your recognised tour operator. If you are taking a taxi at any stage make sure it is a registered one and not a private vehicle. It is unwise to carry large quantities of money or jewellery away from your hotel and try not to flaunt wealth with your belongings. Pickpockets are too common an occurrence on buses and trains and at train stations so be careful with your essential documents and credit cards. Valuables should not be stored in suitcases when arriving in or departing from Havana as there have been a number of thefts from cases during the time the cases are coming through baggage handling. There is an airport shrink-wrap facility for those departing Havana which reduces the risk of tampering. Remember to carry a photocopy of your main documents (passport, flight tickets etc).
Road Safety:
**********************************
Following a number of serious road accidents involving tourists, you are advised not to use mopeds for travelling around Cuba or in Havana. Also, if you are involved in any accident a police investigation will be required to clear you and this may significantly delay your travel plans. On unlit roads at night there have been a number of accidents associated with roaming cattle (sounds like Ireland!). The traffic moves on the right side of the roads. There is a main highway running the length of the country but many of the country roads are in poor repair.
Local Laws & Customs:
**********************************
When arriving into Cuba make sure you are not carrying any items which could be considered offensive. Any illicit drug offense is treated very seriously and Cuban law allows for the death penalty to be used under these circumstances. If you require personal medication for your health, make sure it is in original packing and carry a letter from your doctor describing the medication. Never agree to carry any item for another individual and always secure your cases once they are packed. Taking photographs of military or police installations or around harbours, rail and airport facilities is strictly forbidden.

Currency:
**********************************
Since 1993 it is now possible to use US dollars for all transactions within Cuba. Remember, there is a 20$ airport departure tax. Certain travellers cheques and credit cards may not be acceptable within Cuba. This is particularly true of American Express cheques and cards but check your situation with the travel operator before departure.
Health Facilities:
**********************************
Generally healthcare facilities outside of Havana are limited and many standard medications may not be available. It is important to carry sufficient quantities of any medications which may be required for the duration of your time in Cuba.
Food & Water:
**********************************
The level of food and water hygiene varies throughout the country and between resorts. On arrival check the hotel cold water supply for the smell of chlorine. If it is not present then use sealed bottled water for both drinking and brushing your teeth throughout your stay. Cans and bottles of drinks are safe but take care to avoid pre-cut fruit. Peel it yourself to make sure it is not contaminated. Food from street vendors should be avoided in most cases. Bivalve shellfish are also a high risk food in many countries and Cuba is no exception in this regard. (Eg Mussels, Oysters, Clams etc)
Malaria & Mosquito Borne Diseases:
***********************************************
Malaria transmission does not occur within Cuba and so prophylaxis is not required. However, a different mosquito borne disease called Dengue has begun to reoccur in the country over the past few years. This viral disease can be very sickening and even progress to death. It is rare for tourists to become infected but avoiding mosquito bites is a wise precaution.
Swimming, Sun & Dehydration:
************************************
The extent of the Cuban sun (particular during the summer months (April to October) can be very excessive so make sure your head and shoulders are covered at all times when exposed. Watch children carefully as they will be a significant risk. Drink plenty of fluids to replace what will be lost through perspiration and, unless there is a reason not to,
take extra salt either on your food or in crisps, peanuts etc. Take care if swimming in the Caribbean to stay with others and to listen to local advice. Never swim after a heavy meal or alcohol.
Rabies Risk in Cuba:
**********************************
This viral disease does occur throughout Cuba and it is essential that you avoid any contact with all warm blooded animals. Dogs, cats and monkeys are the most commonly involved in spreading the disease to humans. Don't pick up a monkey for a photograph! If bitten, wash out the wound, apply an antiseptic and seek urgent medical attention.
Vaccinations for Cuba:
**********************************
There are no essential vaccines for entry / exit if coming from Ireland. However, for your own personal protection travellers are advised to have cover against the following;
*
Tetanus (childhood booster)
*
Typhoid (food & water borne disease)
*
Hepatitis A (food & water borne disease)
For those planning a longer or more rural trip vaccine cover against conditions like Hepatitis B and Rabies may also need to be considered.
Summary:
**********************************
Cuba is becoming a popular destination for tourists and generally most will stay very healthy. However commonsense care against food and water borne disease is essential at all times. Also take care with regard to sun exposure, dehydration and mosquito bites.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

More ...

Uganda

Uganda - US Consular Information Sheet
March 02, 2009
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Uganda is a landlocked, developing country in central eastern Africa. Infrastructure is adequate in Kampala, the capital, but is limited in other areas.
Read t
e Department of State Background Notes on Uganda for additional information.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport valid for three months beyond the date of entry, visa and evidence of yellow fever vaccination are required.
Visas are available at Entebbe Airport upon arrival or may be obtained from the Embassy of the Republic of Uganda.
The current fee for a three month tourist visa obtained upon arrival at Entebbe Airport is $50.00.
Travelers should be aware that a visa does not determine how long a person may remain in Uganda.
The Ugandan immigration officer at the port of entry will determine the length of authorized stay, which is generally from one to three months as a tourist.
Extensions of duration of stay may be requested at Ugandan immigration headquarters on Jinja Road in Kampala.
Airline companies may also require travelers to have a visa before boarding.
Travelers should obtain the latest information and details from the Embassy of the Republic of Uganda at 5911 16th Street, NW, Washington, DC
20011; telephone (202) 726-7100.
The Ugandan Embassy may also be contacted by email.
Travelers may also contact the Ugandan Permanent Mission to the United Nations, telephone (212) 949-0110. Overseas, inquiries may be made at the nearest Ugandan embassy or consulate.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
U.S. citizens residing in or planning to visit Uganda should be aware of threats to their safety posed by insurgent groups operating in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and southern Sudan, and the potential of cross border attacks carried out by these armed groups.
In addition, U.S. citizens traveling to the area commonly known as Karamoja in northeastern Uganda should also be aware of ongoing conflict and armed banditry in this region.

Northern Uganda:
After years of conflict, relative stability has returned to northern Uganda with the departure of the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) insurgent group in 2006.
Recent LRA activity has been restricted to the remote region of Garamba National Park in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), where LRA insurgents have continued to attack and terrorize civilian populations.
LRA attacks have also occurred in the neighboring Central African Republic and southern Sudan.
The Governments of Uganda, the DRC, and southern Sudan initiated joint military operations against LRA bases in Garamba National Park on December 14, 2008, after LRA leader Joseph Kony refused to sign a peace agreement following two years of negotiations.
These military operations continue and in order to deter an LRA return to Uganda, the Uganda Peoples Defense Force (UPDF) maintains a significant presence in the northern districts.
Given the continued threat to regional security posed by the LRA, American citizens should exercise caution when traveling in those districts of northwestern Uganda that border the DRC and southern Sudan and which could potentially be subject to LRA incursions.
The Ugandan Government also continues to expand and improve the capacity of the civilian police force in northern Uganda by deploying additional personnel and concentrating resources to further recovery and re-development activities throughout the north.

American citizens traveling to northern Uganda are advised to ensure that they have made appropriate travel, lodging, and communication arrangements with their sponsoring organization before visiting the region.
Local officials in northern Uganda have expressed concern for the safety and security of foreigners visiting the area to assist with relief efforts, but without any specific arrangements with a sponsoring organization.
Foreign citizens who travel to the region without a sponsoring organization may not find secure lodging or safe transport, and may become more susceptible to crime.
They may also find that local officials are unable to provide assistance in the event of an emergency.
There is a general lack of infrastructure throughout northern Uganda, and services such as emergency medical care are nonexistent.
Given crime and other security concerns in northern Uganda, American citizens are advised to restrict travel to primary roads and during daylight hours only.

Cattle rustling, armed banditry, and attacks on vehicles are very common in the Karamoja region of northeastern Uganda, and the UPDF continues to implement a program to disarm Karamojong warriors.
Past incidents have included ambushes of UPDF troops, and attacks on vehicles, residences, and towns that resulted in multiple deaths.
Most of the violence occurred in the districts of Kaabong, Kotido, and Abim, although some violent incidents also occurred in Moroto and Nakapiripirit Districts.
American citizens are advised to avoid travel to the Karamoja region given the frequent insecurity.
Any travel to Karamoja (excluding charter flights to Kidepo National Park) by U.S. Embassy personnel must first be authorized by the Chief of Mission.

Southwestern Uganda:
American citizens traveling in southwestern Uganda should also exercise caution given the ongoing conflict in the districts of North and South Kivu in the DRC, and the close proximity of fighting to the Ugandan border.
During spikes in the conflict, refugee flows across the border number in the thousands and there is also a risk of incursions by armed combatants.
American citizens should review the Travel Warning for the Democratic Republic of the Congo for the most up-to-date information regarding the conflict in the DRC.

On August 8, 2007, a group of armed assailants entered Uganda from the DRC and raided Butogota, a town in Kanungu District, southwestern Uganda.
Three Ugandans were killed and many others assaulted during the raid.
Ugandan officials believe that the perpetrators of the attack were members of one of the various militia groups operating in the southeastern region of the DRC or possibly remnants of the "Interahamwe," a group that participated in the 1994 genocide in Rwanda and was also responsible for the 1999 attack on Bwindi Impenetrable National Park.
The 1999 Bwindi attack killed four Ugandans and eight foreign tourists.
The 2007 raid on Butogota is in an area transited by tourists traveling to Bwindi, a popular gorilla-trekking destination.
Within Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, armed security personnel accompany tourists on the daily gorilla hikes and the UPDF maintains a military presence.
At Ishasha Camp, another popular tourist destination located in the southern sector of Queen Elizabeth National Park, the UPDF also maintains a small military base near the park headquarters for security purposes.

Eastern Uganda:
In February 2008, an isolated incident occurred in Mount Elgon National Park in eastern Uganda that resulted in the death of a foreign tourist.
A Belgian tourist climbing Mt. Elgon in the company of park rangers was shot and killed.
The attack occurred while the group was camped for the night and assailants fired into the campsite.
The tourist was reportedly struck by gunfire when exiting her tent in the darkness.
Ugandan security and park officials suspected that the attack was perpetrated by smugglers engaged in cattle rustling or other illicit activities that are common in the border area.

Demonstrations:
Demonstrations take place in Kampala and other Ugandan cities from time to time in response to world events or local developments.
In most cases, these demonstrations occur with no warning and demonstrations intended to be peaceful can turn confrontational and possibly violent.
American citizens are therefore urged to avoid the areas of demonstrations if possible, and to exercise caution if they find themselves in the vicinity of any demonstration.
American citizens should stay current with media coverage of local events and be aware of their surroundings at all times.
Because many demonstrations are spontaneous events, the U.S. Embassy may not always be able to alert American citizens that a demonstration is taking place and to avoid a specific area.
If employed with an institution or other large organization, American citizens may find it helpful to request that local employees notify expatriates when they learn of a demonstration from local radio reports or other sources.
Recent protests have occurred over land disputes involving Kampala market areas, university closures and strikes, opposition political party demonstrations, and protests by taxi drivers over the enforcement of traffic regulations.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State's, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll-free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
Crimes such as pick pocketing, purse snatching, and thefts from hotels and parked vehicles or vehicles stalled in traffic jams are common.
The Embassy receives frequent reports of theft of items from locked vehicles, even when the stolen items were secured out of sight and the vehicle was parked in an area patrolled by uniformed security personnel.
Pick pocketing and the theft of purses and bags is also very common on public transportation.
Armed robberies of pedestrians also occur, sometimes during daylight hours and in public places.
Although infrequent, the Embassy also receives reports of armed carjackings and highway robbery.
In May 2007, two American citizens reported an attempted robbery when they were traveling near the town of Bugiri in eastern Uganda.
The Americans reported that a second vehicle with at least one armed assailant tried to stop their vehicle by forcing it off the road.
This incident occurred during daylight hours.
On June 27, 2007, two American citizens were robbed and held at gunpoint when the vehicle transporting them to Entebbe Airport was stopped by a group of armed men.
This incident occurred during the early morning hours on Entebbe Road.
Although some of these attacks are violent, victims are generally injured only if they resist.
U.S. Embassy employees are advised against using roads at night, especially in areas outside the limits of cities and large towns. Home burglaries also do occur and sometimes turn violent.
In April 2008, the Ugandan police reported an increase in armed robberies in the Kampala neighborhoods of Bukoto, Kisaasi, Kiwatule, Naalya, Najera, and Ntinda.
Several of these robberies occurred as the victims were arriving at their residences after nightfall and the assailants struck as they were entering their residential compounds.

Women traveling alone are particularly susceptible to crime.
In early 2008, there was an increase in reports of sexual assaults against expatriate females.
In some instances, the victims were walking alone, or were single passengers on one of the common modes of public transport which include "boda boda" motorcycle taxis.
If the victim of a sexual assault, medical assistance should be sought immediately and counseling provided regarding prophylactic treatment to help prevent the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. The U.S. Embassy provides a list of local medical providers for those with medical needs.

American citizens visiting Uganda are advised not to accept food or drink offered from a stranger, even a child, because such food may contain narcotics used to incapacitate a victim and facilitate a robbery or sexual assault.
In addition, patrons of bars, casinos, nightclubs, and other entertainment centers should never leave their drink or food unattended.
When visiting such establishments, it is advisable to remain with a group of friends as single individuals are more likely to be targeted.
Victims have included female patrons who reported they were drugged, and taken to another location and sexually assaulted.
Robberies have been facilitated on public transportation under similar circumstances.
In 2006, an American citizen traveling by bus from Kenya to Uganda was incapacitated and robbed on the bus when the passenger accepted a sealed beverage from a fellow traveler.
Expatriates traveling by bus to the popular tourist destination of Bwindi Impenetrable National Forest in southwest Uganda were also incapacitated and robbed when they accepted snacks from fellow bus passengers.

There has been a recent, marked increase in financial crime, including fraud involving wire transfers, credit cards, checks, and advance fee fraud perpetrated via email.
The U.S. Embassy recommends using money orders for all fund transfers and protecting all bank account and personally identifiable information such as social security numbers and other types of information.

An increasing number of U.S. exporters (primarily vendors of expensive consumer goods such as computers, stereo equipment, and electronics) have been targeted by a sophisticated check fraud scheme.
A fictitious company in Uganda locates a vendor on the Internet, makes e-mail contact to order goods, and pays with a third-party check.
The checks, written on U.S. accounts and made out to entities in Uganda for small amounts, are intercepted, chemically "washed" and presented for payment of the goods with the U.S. vendor as payee and an altered amount.
If the goods are shipped before the check clears, the U.S. shipper will have little recourse, as the goods are picked up at the airport and the company cannot be traced.
American companies receiving orders from Uganda are encouraged to check with the Political - Economic Section of the Embassy to verify the legitimacy of the company.
The Embassy strongly cautions U.S. vendors against accepting third-party checks as payment for any goods to be shipped to Uganda.

Additional information about the most common types of financial fraud can also be found in the State Department Financial Scams brochure.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate for assistance.
The embassy/consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

The local equivalent to the "911" emergency line in Uganda is: 999.
Please see our information on Victims of Crime, including possible victim compensation programs in the United States.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Ugandan laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Uganda are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Please note that U.S. currency notes in $20 and $50 denominations are exchanged at a lower rate than $100 currency notes.
In addition, travelers often find that they cannot exchange or use U.S. currency printed earlier than the year 2000.
Travelers who find they cannot pay for accommodation or expenses often must request that friends or family wire money to them in Uganda.
There are offices that facilitate Western Union, MoneyGram, and other types of money transfers in Kampala and other cities throughout the country.
ATMs are available in Uganda, particularly in downtown Kampala, but usually only customers who have an account with a specific Ugandan bank may use them.
A few machines function with overseas accounts.

The U.S. Embassy frequently receives requests from American citizens to verify the bona fides of nongovernmental (NGO) and charity organizations operating in Uganda.
The Embassy is unable to provide information regarding the bona fides of these organizations and American citizens traveling to Uganda to work for an organization are encouraged to request that the charity provide references of past volunteers whom they may contact.
American citizens have also reported intimidation and harassment by directors of organizations, when the Americans questioned the organization's activities or use of donated funds.
While the vast majority of NGOs operating in Uganda are legitimate organizations aiding development efforts, there have been reports from concerned Americans regarding the suspected diversion of charity funds for personal gain, etc.

Ugandan Customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning the importation of pets.
A Ugandan import permit is required, along with an up-to-date rabies vaccination certificate and a veterinary certificate of health issued by a USDA-approved veterinarian no more than thirty days before arrival.
Travelers are advised to contact the Ugandan Embassy in the United States for specific information regarding customs requirements.
Please see our Customs Information sheet.

Photography in tourist locations is permitted.
However, taking pictures of military/police installations or personnel is prohibited.
Military and police officers have detained tourists for taking photographs of Entebbe Airport and of the area around Owen Falls Dam, near Jinja, although the prohibition on taking photographs is not publicly displayed on signs.

The U.S. Embassy receives frequent inquiries from American citizens wishing to register a nongovernmental organization (NGO) in Uganda.
Information about registering an NGO can be obtained from the Ugandan NGO Board which has offices within the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
The NGO Board can be reached on phone number: 256 414 341 556.
One of the requirements for registering an NGO is that a foreign national employee or volunteer must provide a Certificate of Good Conduct/Criminal Background Check.
The U.S. Embassy Kampala cannot provide a Certificate of Good Conduct or Criminal Background Check, so American citizens intending to travel to Uganda as an employee an NGO or who plan to register an NGO should obtain a Certificate of Good Conduct from their local police or the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) before departing the United States.
More information on how to obtain a Criminal Background Check can be found on the FBI web page about Identification Record Requests.
MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Medical facilities in Uganda, including Kampala, are limited and not equipped to handle most emergencies, especially those requiring surgery. Outside Kampala, hospitals are scarce and offer only basic services.
Recently, American citizens involved in automobile accidents required immediate evacuation from Uganda as surgery could not be performed due to insufficient blood supplies at the hospital where they sought treatment.
Equipment and medicines are also often in short supply or unavailable.
Travelers should carry their own supplies of prescription drugs and preventive medicines.
A list of medical providers is available at the U.S. Embassy.

Tuberculosis is an increasingly serious health concern in Uganda.
For further information, please consult the CDC's Travel Notice on TB.

Malaria is prevalent in Uganda.
Travelers who become ill with a fever or flu-like illness while traveling in a malaria-risk area and up to one year after returning home should seek prompt medical attention and tell the physician their travel history and what antimalarials they have been taking.
For additional information on malaria, including protective measures, see the CDC’s information on malaria.

In January, 2009, the CDC’s Special Pathogens Branch retrospectively diagnosed a case of Marburg hemorrhagic fever in a U.S. traveler, who had returned from Uganda in January, 2008. The patient developed illness four days after returning to the United States.
The Amcit had visited the “python cave” in Queen Elizabeth Park, western Uganda, which is a popular destination among tourists to see the bat-infested cave.
For additional information on Marburg hemorrhagic fever, including protective measures, visit the CDC web site.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad, consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site.
Further health information for travelers is available from the WHO. Uganda has experienced recent outbreaks of Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever, Pneumonic Plague, Meningitis, and other types of infectious diseases.

The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Uganda.
MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
American citizens who are seriously injured in vehicle or other types of accidents in Uganda generally seek medical evacuation to Kenya or other destinations for more advanced emergency medical treatment.
These medical evacuations can be very expensive, and in the event the American citizen does not have sufficient insurance coverage, the evacuation is carried out at their personal expense.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Uganda is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Most inter-city transportation in Uganda is by small van or large bus.
Many drivers of these vehicles have little training and some are reckless.
Small vans and large buses are often poorly maintained, travel at high speeds, and are the principal vehicles involved in the many deadly single and multi-vehicle accidents along Ugandan roads.
Accident victims have included American citizens traveling in small vans and personal cars, passengers on motorcycle taxis locally known as "boda bodas," and pedestrians.
Large trucks on the highways are often over-loaded, with inadequately secured cargo and poor braking systems.
Alcohol frequently is a contributing factor in road accidents, particularly at night.
Drivers are advised to take extra care when driving.
Nighttime driving and road transportation should be avoided whenever possible.
Pedestrians often walk in the roads and may not be visible to motorists.
Large branches or rocks in the road sometimes indicate an upcoming obstruction or other hazard.
Highway travel at night is particularly dangerous, including the road between Entebbe Airport and Kampala.
The Embassy recommends caution on this road and use of a reliable taxi service to and from the airport.

Traffic accidents draw crowds.
Ugandan law requires that the drivers stop and exchange information and assist any injured persons.
In some cases where serious injury has occurred, there is the possibility of mob anger.
In these instances, Ugandans often do not get out of their cars, but drive to the nearest police station to report the accident.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
For specific information concerning Ugandan driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, please contact Tourism Uganda, IPS building, 14, Parliament Avenue, Kampala, Uganda; telephone 256-414-342 196. You may also wish to consult the Tourism Uganda web site or, for information on government agencies, see the My Uganda web site.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Uganda, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Uganda's Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA web site.

International airlines offer several weekly flights to Europe and the United Arab Emirates, and Kenya Airways has daily flights between Entebbe Airport and Nairobi.
Other regional airlines operate weekly flights to other destinations in Africa, such as Dar es Salaam, Addis Ababa, Cairo, and Johannesburg.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Uganda are encouraged to register with the U.S. Embassy in Kampala through the State Department’s travel registration web site to obtain updated information on travel and security within Uganda.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy is located at 1577 Ggaba Road, Kampala; telephone 256-414-259-791 or 256 414 306 001; fax 256-414-258-451.
You may contact the Embassy via e-mail.
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information dated May 6, 2008, to update sections on Entry/Exit Requirements, Safety and Security, Crime, Information for Victims of Crime, Medical Facilities and Health Information, Medical Insurance, Traffic Safety and Road Conditions, Special Circumstances, Aviation Safety Oversight, Special Circumstances, and Registration/Embassy Location.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Mon, 30 Mar 2020 21:41:43 +0200 (METDST)

Kampala, March 30, 2020 (AFP) - Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni on Monday ordered an immediate 14-day nationwide lockdown in a bid to halt the spread of the coronavirus which has so far infected 33 people in the country.   Uganda last week banned public transport and sealed its borders and urged the population to stay home, but stopped short of a full shutdown.

Museveni said that from 10:00pm Monday private vehicles would also be banned, seeking to avoid give a more advanced warning that would see people flee the city, as has happened across the continent where many poor residents see better chances of survival in the countryside.   "I would have given the public time to adjust but... a longer time would give people time to go to the villages and in so doing they would transfer the very sickness we're trying to prevent. This freezing of movement will last for 14 days," he said in a televised address.

Museveni also ordered a 14-day nationwide curfew from 7:00pm.   Shopping malls and businesses selling non-food items were ordered to close.   Food market vendors who continue to trade are forbidden to return to their homes for the duration of the 14-day lockdown, while factories could stay open if remain on the premises for the duration of the shutdown.

People are still allowed to move around on foot but not gather in groups of more than five at a time.    In recent days, opposition leaders Kizza Besigye and Bobi Wine had undertaken small-scale food deliveries to people who had ost their incomes due to earlier restrictions but Museveni criticised such actions as "cheap politics".   "I direct the police to arrest the opportunistic and irresponsible politicians who tried to distribute food," he said.   "Anybody arrested in that effort will be charged with attempted murder."   Museveni said the government would begin distributing food to those who needed it, without providing details.

A weary looking Museveni, 75, pleaded with the population to change their behaviour in the face of the threat from the virus.   "This virus would not do much damage if it was not for the carelessness of people. Don't go into a group of people if you have a cold. Stay at home," he pleaded.   Last week police and Local Defence Units (LDUs) -- a uniformed militia under the control of the military - violently cleared streets in central Kampala.   Following a public outcry, army chief General David Muhoozi on Monday apologised for those actions, describing them as "high-handed, unjustified and regrettable" and said the culprits would be "dealt with".
Date: Fri 6 Mar 2020
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020;69:241-244 [edited]

Intervention To Stop Transmission of Imported Pneumonic Plague -- Uganda, 2019
----------------------------------------
Plague, an acute zoonosis caused by _Yersinia pestis_, is endemic in the West Nile region of northwestern Uganda and neighbouring north-eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) (1-4). The illness manifests in multiple clinical forms, including bubonic and pneumonic plague. Pneumonic plague is rare, rapidly fatal, and transmissible from person to person via respiratory droplets. On 4 Mar 2019, a patient with suspected pneumonic plague was hospitalized in West Nile, Uganda, 4 days after caring for her sister, who had come to Uganda from DRC and died shortly thereafter, and 2 days after area officials received a message from a clinic in DRC warning of possible plague. The West Nile-based Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI) plague program, together with local health officials, commenced a multipronged response to suspected person-to-person transmission of pneumonic plague, including contact tracing, prophylaxis, and education. Plague was laboratory-confirmed, and no additional transmission occurred in Uganda. This event transpired in the context of heightened awareness of cross-border disease spread caused by ongoing Ebola virus disease transmission in DRC, approximately 400 km to the south. Building expertise in areas of plague endemicity can provide the rapid detection and effective response needed to mitigate epidemic spread and minimize mortality. Cross-border agreements can improve ability to respond effectively.

Investigation and Findings
-----------------------
The index patient (patient A) was a Ugandan woman, aged 35 years, living in DRC, approximately 5 km from the Ugandan border. On 27 Feb 2019, Ugandan family members traveled to DRC for the funeral of patient A's child, aged 4 years, and found patient A severely ill. They transported her to her ancestral Ugandan village in Zombo District of West Nile. While there, she complained of chest pain, experienced at least one episode of hemoptysis, and was admitted to a nearby clinic around midday the following day, 28 Feb 2019. She died a few hours later; no clinical samples were collected. She was buried in her ancestral village, preparation for which began the day of her death and culminated 2 days later, on 2 Mar 2019 [Table, for table, see original URL. - ProMED Mod.LL].

Meanwhile, on 1 Mar 2019, a local government office in Uganda received an alert from a private health clinic in DRC warning of possible plague circulation in a village near the border, the village from which patient A had come. Consequently, a team from UVRI's plague program, along with local health officials, initiated plague education and risk communication at area health clinics and with village residents, in concert with the burial of patient A. Reportedly, her husband in DRC died of an acute illness at approximately the same time, and others in patient A's family in DRC were ill, some with "fever and swellings."

On 3 Mar 2019, in Uganda, patient B, aged 23 years (the sister of patient A), developed fever. In a health care facility on the following day, she tested positive for malaria and lacked signs of pneumonia. She received intravenous artesunate for malaria, but in light of the suspicion for plague in the area, she was admitted and empirically started on gentamicin. Approximately 8 hours later, she coughed up blood-tinged sputum. Other patients were removed from the room, and droplet precautions were instituted.

Blood from patient B tested negative for Ebola virus disease and other hemorrhagic fever viruses at UVRI using established methods (5). Sputum yielded the maximal positive reaction (4+) on a commercial rapid diagnostic test (RDT) (New Horizons Diagnostics) for detection of _Yersinia pestis_ fraction 1 (F1) antigen. Cultures of blood and sputum (obtained approximately 8 hours after initiation of antibiotic treatment) were negative. Subsequent testing of plasma and sputum by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) yielded evidence of _Y. pestis_ DNA. The patient was treated with gentamicin for 7 days and doxycycline for 4 days and was discharged on 14 Mar 2019. _Y. pestis_ infection was confirmed by seroconversion on a total immunoglobulin F1 antigen passive hemagglutination assay (acute titer = 0 [collected 4 Mar 2019]; convalescent titer = 1:2,048 [collected 18 Mar 2019]).

Patient B did not travel to DRC for the burial of patient A's child and did not arrive in the ancestral village to care for her sister until the morning of 28 Feb 2019. Patient B cared for patient A that morning, including using her hand to clean around patient A's mouth, feeding her, transporting her to the clinic via motorbike, and attending to her at the clinic. She was not involved in transport of patient A's body back to the village or in burial preparations.

Public Health Response
---------------------
On 5 Mar 2019, UVRI and district representatives rapidly mobilized and executed contact tracing and prophylaxis administration. In total, 129 persons were identified as contacts of patient A or B, including 8 (6%) clinic staff members; 127 were placed on a 5-day prophylactic course of doxycycline, co-trimoxazole, or ciprofloxacin. Most persons identified as contacts (80; 62%) reported physical contact with or exposure within one meter or less of either patient. 98 (76%) persons reported contact with patient A, including those involved in handling her body after her death. 53 traced contacts (41%) had high-risk exposure, as determined by subjective assessment of their distance from either patient and presumed patient infectiousness [Figure, for figure, see original URL. - ProMED Mod.LL].

During a 10-day follow-up period, no identified contacts developed plague-like symptoms, and no indication of plague activity in Uganda was detected despite active clinic-, community-, and rodent-based surveillance for plague in the region. Comprehensive public health response was limited by jurisdiction; the UVRI team was unable to provide expertise and resources to support plague control just over the border in DRC. The fate of patient A's DRC-based family and community members, given the likely ongoing circulation of _Y. pestis_ among rodents and fleas in that village, is not known.

Discussion
----------
Plague persists in transmission cycles involving rodents and fleas on several continents, including Africa (1). Although plague generates fear because of its historical reputation, pneumonic plague transmission in modern times can be controlled by implementing droplet precautions, antimicrobial therapy, and prophylaxis of contacts (6,7). This report summarizes importation of plague from DRC into Uganda. Rapid and effective response curtailed epidemic spread of pneumonic plague beyond a single transmission event from patient A to patient B in Uganda.

Worldwide, most plague occurs following the bite of an infected flea and results in bubonic plague, characterized by acute fever and a painful swollen lymph node (1,4). Untreated, infection can spread to the lungs (2). Pneumonic plague transmission occurs via respiratory droplets and requires close contact with severely ill persons (7). The highest-risk exposures are those within 2 meters of persons coughing blood-tinged sputum; transmission might also occur during body preparation in traditional burials (8). The typical incubation period for primary pneumonic plague is less than one day to 4 days, and the condition is often fatal if effective antibiotics are not initiated within 24-36 hours of illness onset (2).

Patient B's exposure to patient A was limited to the morning hours of 28 Feb 2019 and was followed by patient B's illness onset approximately 72 hours later. Persons with high-risk exposures to patient A as identified upon contact tracing were 3-5 days postexposure when antibiotic prophylaxis was initiated on 5 Mar 2019. Because only patient B became ill, the secondary attack rate among all persons with high-risk exposures was 2%. Postexposure prophylaxis might have prevented illness among some of those who received it, particularly those exposed to patient B, who were all still within the incubation period. This outcome highlights that pneumonic plague is not as transmissible as is often believed; and spread typically occurs among persons with close and substantial, rather than incidental, contact with a patient with late-stage disease (7). Secondary transmission rates in outbreaks in Madagascar and Uganda have been estimated at approximately 8%; however, transmission also depends on cultural and behavioral factors that might place persons at increased risk above the inherent transmissibility of the organism (8,9). Engagement with community leaders, members, health workers, and traditional healers in areas where plague is endemic can improve early recognition and implementation of simple interventions to curtail epidemic spread (7,10).

Even in areas with endemic plague, clinical diagnosis is challenging because of the nonspecific nature of the febrile illness in the absence of painful lymphadenopathy or blood-tinged sputum (3). RDT, real-time PCR, and paired serology testing were all positive for plague in patient B, despite collection of clinical specimens after initiation of effective antibiotic treatment, which did, however, hinder recovery of the organism in culture. RDT use occurred as part of ongoing research jointly conducted by CDC and UVRI to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of RDTs for plague on human clinical specimens. Validated RDTs used by trained personnel might have value in providing rapid information to guide public health response but should be supported by additional diagnostic tests. Even in the remote setting of northwestern Uganda, collection of multiple clinical samples and use of multiple tests allowed for confirmation of the etiology.

CDC has worked with Uganda's Ministry of Health and UVRI since 2003 to provide technical support for clinic- and animal-based plague surveillance, laboratory capacity, and community education and to conduct multifaceted research into improved diagnostics and effectiveness of environmental plague prevention approaches. Despite initial cross-border notification of suspected plague in DRC, lack of an established local cross-border collaboration prevented the resources and plague expertise in Uganda from supporting mitigation of ongoing risk just over the porous geopolitical boundary. Cross-border collaboration can improve capability to effectively respond to public health threats that affect border regions.

References
---------
1. Pollitzer R. Plague. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1954. <https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/41628>
2. Mead PS. Plague (_Yersinia pestis_) [Chapter 229A]. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R and Blaser MJ, eds. Principles and practices of infectious diseases. 9th ed. Vol. 2. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:2779-87. <https://www.us.elsevierhealth.com/mandell-douglas-and-bennetts-principles-and-practice-of-infectious-diseases-9780323482554.html>
3. Forrester JD, Apangu T, Griffith K, et al. Patterns of human plague in Uganda, 2008-2016. Emerg Infect Dis 2017;23:1517-21.
4. Dennis DT, Gage KL, Gratz ND, Poland JD, Tikhomirov E. Plague manual: epidemiology, distribution, surveillance and control. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1999. <https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/66010>
5. Shoemaker TR, Balinandi S, Tumusiime A, et al. Impact of enhanced viral haemorrhagic fever surveillance on outbreak detection and response in Uganda. Lancet Infect Dis 2018;18:373-5.
6. Mead PS. Plague in Madagascar--a tragic opportunity for improving public health. N Engl J Med 2018;378:106-8.
7. Kool JL. Risk of person-to-person transmission of pneumonic plague. Clin Infect Dis 2005;40:1166-72.
8. Ratsitorahina M, Chanteau S, Rahalison L, Ratsifasoamanana L, Boisier P. Epidemiological and diagnostic aspects of the outbreak of pneumonic plague in Madagascar. Lancet 2000;355:111-3.
9. Begier EM, Asiki G, Anywaine Z, et al. Pneumonic plague cluster, Uganda, 2004. Emerg Infect Dis 2006;12:460-7.
10. CDC. Bubonic and pneumonic plague--Uganda, 2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2009;58:778-81.  [Authors: Apangu T, Acayo S, Atiku LA, et al]
======================
[This reports poetically highlights how a rapid response to a single case of a highly transmissible infectious disease in a rapid manner can minimize secondary cases.  This is a followup to ProMED post: Plague - Uganda: Congo DR border, pneumonic, fatal http://promedmail.org/post/20190312.6363171  - ProMED Mod.LL]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Zombo District, Uganda: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/24924>]
Date: Fri 21 Feb 2020
Source: WHO Emergencies preparedness, response, Disease Outbreak News [edited]

From 4 Nov [2019] through 14 Feb 2020, 8 laboratory-confirmed cases of yellow fever in Buliisa (3), Maracha (1), and Moyo (4), including 4 deaths (CFR 50%), were detected through the national surveillance system.

On 10 Dec 2019, the Ministry of Health (MoH) was notified by the Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI) Regional Reference Laboratory of a case of yellow fever confirmed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The case was a 37-year-old male with suspected viral haemorrhagic fever (VHF). His occupation was cattle farming with a history of travel to trade milk between Kizikya cell, Buliisa district in Uganda, and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). On 30 Oct 2019, he presented to hospital with symptoms of fever and headache of a 5-day duration. His symptoms worsened with vomiting, abdominal pain, and epistaxis, and he died on 4 Nov 2019.

During an in-depth investigation in December [2019], 8 samples were collected from close contacts, including family members and neighbours, and tested for yellow fever. On 22 Jan 2020, UVRI notified the MoH of a 2nd case of yellow fever confirmed by serological testing (IgM and PRNT) in Buliisa with connection to the index case and with a similar occupation. The other samples collected during the investigation were negative for yellow fever.

Also, 2 other confirmed cases of yellow fever were identified in Moyo district in West Nile region, which shares a border with South Sudan. The cases were aged 18 and 21 years, traded timber between Uganda and South Sudan, and spent time in both countries. Onset of illness for both cases was 3 Jan 2020, and they were admitted at a health center in Moyo District. They were later referred to a General Hospital with symptoms of fever, vomiting, diarrhoea, fatigue, headache, abdominal and joint pains, confusion, and unexplained bleeding. The cases deteriorated and died in the hospital on 5 and 6 Jan 2020, respectively. Results from UVRI confirmed yellow fever infection by RT-PCR performed at UVRI.

Subsequently, Moyo district notified a 2nd cluster of suspected and confirmed yellow fever infection in a different village. The confirmed case in the suspected cluster was a 59-year-old patient who presented with symptoms including unexplained bleeding and fever on 22 Jan [2020] and died on 23 Jan 2020. A blood sample collected tested positive for yellow fever by RT-PCR at UVRI. His death was preceded by the death of 2 of his family members in early January [2020] with similar symptoms.

The Minister of Health of the Government of Uganda declared an outbreak of yellow fever on 23 Jan 2020.

Subsequent to the declaration of an outbreak, 3 additional cases were confirmed in Buliisa (1), Moyo (1), and Maracha (1). Detailed investigations of these cases are ongoing.

Public health response
National rapid response teams have been deployed to Moyo and Buliisa districts to conduct further investigations and initiate outbreak response. Other response activities include enhanced surveillance and active case finding in all districts in the northwest region and entomological surveys in the affected districts of Buliisa and Moyo. Cross-border notification with South Sudan in reference to the cases in Moyo district has been done. Investigations are ongoing in DRC and South Sudan, and WHO AFRO is supporting coordination.

The Ministry of Health is planning a reactive campaign, approved by the International Coordinating Group on Vaccine Provision for Yellow Fever Control. This reactive campaign will target approximately 1.7 million people to stop transmission and prevent imminent risk of the outbreak spreading in the northwest part of country particularly in Buliisa, Koboko, Maracha, Moyo, and Yumbe districts. To achieve sustained protection across the country, the MoH is preparing to apply for the introduction of yellow fever vaccination into the routine immunization programme in 2021 and implementation of preventive mass vaccination campaigns nationally.

WHO risk assessment
Yellow fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes and has the potential to spread rapidly and cause serious public health impact. Uganda is classified as a high-risk country in the "Eliminate Yellow Fever Epidemics" (EYE) initiative, with history of recent outbreaks in 2019, 2018, 2016, and 2011. Epidemic spread of yellow fever is a risk in Uganda, as the estimated overall population immunity is low (4.2%) and attributable to past reactive vaccination activities in focal districts that are not affected by the current outbreak.

Due to the negligible population immunity in the affected districts, the detection of yellow fever cases is concerning. The affected districts share international borders with both DRC and South Sudan and are marked by frequent population movements and high interconnectivity. Population immunity for yellow fever in the cross-border areas is also low, and the forest biome between countries is continuous, indicating that there is a risk of international spread. Close monitoring of the situation with active cross-border coordination and information sharing is needed, as the possibility of cases in neighbouring countries and risk of onward spreading to DRC and South Sudan cannot be completely excluded.

WHO advice
Vaccination is the primary means for prevention and control of yellow fever and provides immunity for life. In urban centres, targeted vector control measures are also helpful to interrupt transmission. The country plans to introduce yellow fever vaccination into the routine immunization program and complete preventive mass vaccination activities to rapidly boost population immunity. Expedited planning and implementation of these activities to protect the population will help avert risk of future outbreaks.

WHO recommends vaccination against yellow fever for all international travellers aged 9 months and above going to Uganda as there is evidence of persistent or periodic yellow fever virus transmission. Yellow fever vaccination is safe and highly effective and provides lifelong protection. However, yellow fever vaccination is not recommended for infants aged 6-8 months, except during epidemics when the risk of yellow fever virus transmission may be very high. The risks and benefits of vaccination in this age group should be carefully considered before vaccination. The vaccine should be used with caution during pregnancy or breastfeeding. However, pregnant or breastfeeding women may be vaccinated during epidemics or if travel to a country or area with risk of transmission is unavoidable. Uganda also requires, as a condition of entry, a valid yellow fever vaccination certificate for travelers aged one year and above.

In accordance with the International Health Regulations (2005) 3rd edition, the international certificate of vaccination against yellow fever is valid from 10 days after vaccination and throughout the life of the person vaccinated. A single dose of WHO-approved yellow fever vaccine is sufficient to confer sustained immunity and lifelong protection against yellow fever disease. A booster dose of the vaccine is not needed and is not required of international travellers as a condition of entry.

WHO encourages its member states to take all actions necessary to keep travellers well informed of risks and preventive measures including vaccination. As a general precaution, WHO also recommends avoidance of mosquito bites. The highest risk for transmission of yellow fever virus is during the day and early evening. Travelers should be made aware of the signs and symptoms of yellow fever and instructed to rapidly seek medical advice if experiencing signs and symptoms suggestive of yellow fever infection. Viraemic returning travelers may pose a risk for the establishment of local cycles of yellow fever transmission in areas where a competent vector is present.

WHO does not recommend any restrictions on travel and trade to Uganda on the basis of the information available on this outbreak.
===================
[The earlier ProMED-mail post reported 2 small (2 infected individuals in each locality) yellow fever (YF) outbreaks that were not interconnected, having occurred at 2 sites at far distances from each other (see Yellow fever - Africa (03): Uganda (BL, MY) http://promedmail.org/post/20200124.6913409). The number of confirmed YF cases has now increased to 8 with new localities. The Ministry of Health is wise to increase YF surveillance and to mount a prompt vaccination campaign. The current vaccination coverage (4.2%) is extremely low and far short of the 80% that would provide adequate immunity for the population.

Yellow fever is no stranger in Uganda, and outbreaks occur sporadically. A recent previous outbreak reported by the Ugandan Ministry of Health was in May 2019 after laboratory-confirmed cases were reported from Koboko in the Northern region and Masaka in the Central region districts, 600 km (373 mi) apart. These cases are spillover from endemic sylvan (forest) maintenance of the virus. Maintaining adequate vaccination coverage in these areas is important to prevent initiation of urban transmission of the virus, which can quickly get out of hand. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Date: Wed, 19 Feb 2020 16:12:54 +0100 (MET)
By Michael O'HAGAN

Otuke, Uganda, Feb 19, 2020 (AFP) - Under a warm morning sun scores of weary soldiers stare as millions of yellow locusts rise into the northern Ugandan sky, despite hours spent spraying vegetation with chemicals in an attempt to kill them.   From the tops of shea trees, fields of pea plants and tall grass savanna, the insects rise in a hypnotic murmuration, disappearing quickly to wreak devastation elsewhere.   The soldiers and agricultural officers will now have to hunt the elusive fast-moving swarms -- a sign of the challenge facing nine east African countries now battling huge swarms of hungry desert locusts.

They arrived in conflict-torn South Sudan this week, with concerns already high of a humanitarian crisis in a region where 12 million are going hungry, according to the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).    "One swarm of 40 to 80 million can consume food" for over 35,000 people in a day, Priya Gujadhur, a senior FAO official in Uganda, told AFP.

In Atira -- a remote village of grass-thatched huts in northern Uganda -- some 160 soldiers wearing protective plastic overalls, masks and goggles sprayed trees and plants with pesticide from before dawn in a bid to kill the resting insects.   But even after hours of work they were mostly able to reach only lower parts of the vegetation.   Major General Kavuma sits in the shade of a Neem Tree alongside civilian officials as locusts sprayed with pesticide earlier that morning fall around them, convulsing as they die.   An intense chemical smell hangs in the air.

- 'They surrounded me' -
Zakaria Sagal, a 73-year-old subsistence farmer was weeding his field in Lopei village some 120 kilometres (75 miles) away, preparing to plant maize and sorghum, when without warning a swarm of locusts descended around him.   "From this side and this side and this side, they surrounded me," Sagal said, waving his arms in every direction.    "We have not yet planted our crops but if they return at harvest time they will destroy everything. We are not at all prepared."

East Africa's regional expert group, the Climate Prediction and Applications Centre (ICPAC), warned Tuesday that eggs laid across the migratory path will hatch in the next two months, and will continue breeding as the rainy season arrives in the region.   This will coincide with the main cropping season and could cause "significant crop losses... and could potentially worsen the food security situation", ICPAC said in a statement.

- 'Panic mode' -
Since 2018 a long period of dry weather followed by a series of cyclones that dumped water on the region created "excessively ideal conditions" for locusts to breed, says Gujadhur.    Nevertheless, governments in East Africa have been caught off guard and are currently in "panic mode" Gujadhur said.   The locusts arrived in South Sudan this week after hitting Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Djibouti, Eritrea, Tanzania, Sudan and Uganda.   Desert locusts take over on a dizzying scale.

One swarm in Kenya reached around 2,400 square kilometres (about 930 square miles) -- an area almost the size of Moscow -- meaning it could contain up to 200 billion locusts.   "A swarm that size can consume food for 85 million people per day," said Gujadhur.   Ugandan authorities are aware that subsequent waves of locusts may pose problems in the weeks to come, but in the meantime they are attempting to control the current generation.

Gujadhur is quick to praise the "quite strong and very quick" response from the Ugandan government but is concerned that while the army can provide valuable personnel, a military-led response may not be as effective as is necessary.    "It needs to be the scientists and (agriculture officials) who take the lead about where the control operations need to be and how and when and what time," she said.

- 'They eat anything green' -
The soldiers have been working non-stop for two days, criss-crossing the plains on the few navigable roads, trying to keep up with the unpredictable swarms.    Major General Kavuma recognises that the biggest threat is from the eggs which are yet to hatch but is confident the army will be able to control this enemy.   "We have the chemicals to spray them, all we need is to map the places they have been landing and sleeping," he said.   "In two weeks time we will come back and by that time they will have hatched and that will be the time to destroy them by praying."

Back in Lopei village, Elizabeth Namoe, 40, a shopkeeper in nearby Moroto had been visiting family when the swarm arrived.   "When the locusts settle they eat anything green, the animals will die because they have nothing to feed on, then even the people (will suffer)," she said.   "The children will be affected by hunger and famine since all life comes from all that is green. I fear so much."
Date: Sun, 9 Feb 2020 04:22:39 +0100 (MET)

Kampala, Feb 9, 2020 (AFP) - Four endangered mountain gorillas, including three adult females, have been killed by an apparent lightning strike in a Ugandan national park, a conservation group has said.   A post-mortem examination has been performed on the four, including a male infant, who died on February 3 in Mgahinga National Park in southwest Uganda.   "Based on the gross lesions from the post-mortem... the tentative cause of death for all four individuals is likely to be electrocution by lightning," the Greater Virunga Transboundary Collaboration (GVTC) said in a statement Saturday, although laboratory confirmation will take two to three weeks.

The four were members of a group of 17 known as the Hirwa family which had crossed into the Mgahinga National Park in August last year from Volcanoes National Park in neighbouring Rwanda.   "This was extremely sad," GVTC executive secretary Andrew Seguya told the BBC.   "The potential of the three females for their contribution to the population was immense."   The other 13 members of the group had been found.

In 2008, there were estimated to be only 680 of the great apes left but thanks to conservation efforts and anti-poaching patrols, their population has grown to more than 1,000.   Due to these efforts, in 2018 the mountain gorilla, a subspecies of the eastern gorilla, was moved from "critically endangered" to "endangered" on the IUCN's "Red List" of threatened species.   Covering the northern slopes of three volcanoes, Mgahinga National Park is part of the Virunga massif shared with Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo.   The massif is one of the most important conservation sites in the world and one of only two places where mountain gorillas are found.
More ...

World Travel News Headlines

Date: Tue, 19 May 2020 16:23:23 +0200 (METDST)

Dublin, May 19, 2020 (AFP) - This year's Dublin marathon scheduled for October 25 was cancelled on Tuesday despite Ireland's move to lift coronavirus lockdown measures, indicating potential long-term disruption caused by the outbreak.   Ireland plans to have fully lifted restrictions well before October, in a staggered process that began on Monday.   But organisers indicated the race -- which had 22,500 entrants last year -- would still not go ahead because of safety fears.   "We made the difficult decision in the best interest of the health and well-being of all those involved in making our events such a success from runners, supporters, volunteers, sponsors, to suppliers," said race director Jim Aughney.   "We explored many alternatives for running the events safely but ultimately none were viable."    Ireland's five-stage "roadmap" to reopen the nation is due to be completed in August, when the current ban on mass gatherings of more than 5,000 people is set to expire.   The cancellation suggests coronavirus fallout may last longer than suggested by official plans and could hit similar events.

The London Marathon, which attracts tens of thousands of runners, has been postponed until October 4.    "We need to be aware that we will continue to be in the acute emergency phase of this crisis for some time with further waves an ever present danger," the health department Secretary-General Jim Breslin told a special parliamentary committee on the crisis.   "This is not a one, a two or even a three-day storm, after which we move to a recovery phase. The acute phase of this crisis will definitely be measured in months and most probably in years."   Ireland has suffered 1,547 deaths from COVID-19, according to the department of health.   On Monday the number of daily deaths had fallen from a peak of 77 to just four.   "We have suppressed the virus and limited its impact on public health," said chief medical officer Tony Holohan on Monday.   "We need to sustain this in the weeks and phases ahead."
Date: Mon, 18 May 2020 18:54:14 +0200 (METDST)

Paris, May 18, 2020 (AFP) - Air France said Monday it hoped to double the number of cities it serves, including over 40 European destinations, by the end of June as nations begin to lift coronavirus travel restrictions.   "Between now and the end of June and subject to travel restrictions being lifted, Air France plans to gradually resume its flights,"  the airline said.   Like other airlines, Air France grounded most of its planes as governments imposed stay-at-home orders and demand for travel evaporated. 

Air France said it was currently operating between three and five percent of its usual schedule and serving 43 destinations for essential passenger traffic as well as cargo.   The airline, which received a 7-billion-euro rescue package from the French government, listed more than 90 destinations it hopes to serve by the end of June.   That would be equivalent to 15 percent of its normal schedule, and use 75 of its fleet of 224 aircraft.
Date: Mon, 18 May 2020 18:20:03 +0200 (METDST)

Abuja, May 18, 2020 (AFP) - Nigeria's government on Monday extended a coronavirus lockdown on the northern region of Kano after it became a hotspot for new infections.    The head of the country's coronavirus taskforce, Boss Mustapha, said the lockdown on the economic hub -- which includes Nigeria's second biggest city -- would be prolonged for two weeks.    The authorities will also start to impose "precision" lockdowns in any other areas that report a "rapidly increasing number of cases, when the need arises", he said.    The outbreak in Kano has become a major cause of concern after medics and residents last month began reporting a spike in deaths.

Regional officials at first put the "unexplained" fatalities down to other ailments, but government investigators later said coronavirus was suspected in most cases.    Neighbouring states to Kano have also begun reporting suspicious surges in death tolls that authorities are scrambling to investigate.    Nigeria has confirmed 5,959 infections and 182 deaths from the novel coronavirus across the country.    Kano is the second hardest hit region with 825 confirmed cases and 36 fatalities.   The region has already been under lockdown for a month but enforcement has been lax and measures have been eased sporadically for people to buy food during the Muslim holy month of Ramadan.

Testing has been a key problem across Nigeria and only 35,345 samples have so far been screened in Africa's most populous nation of 200 million people.    Mustapha insisted there had been a slowdown in the transmission rate of the virus, "elongating the doubling time" from seven to 11 days.    But he announced that measures would remain in place limiting businesses and restricting crowds across the rest of the country despite earlier plans to gradually roll them back.     "Nigeria is not yet ready for full opening of the economy and tough decisions have to be taken for the good of the greater majority," he said.   The government has also imposed a night-time curfew and made mask wearing mandatory in all regions.     Mustapha complained that "non-compliance was rampant" with social distancing measures.     "The fight against COVID-19 is long-term as the virus is not likely to go away very soon," he said.
Date: Mon, 18 May 2020 17:21:58 +0200 (METDST)

Stockholm, May 18, 2020 (AFP) - Sweden, whose softer approach to the new coronavirus pandemic has garnered worldwide attention, recorded its deadliest month in almost three decades in April, according to statistics released on Monday.   Sweden has stopped short of introducing the restrictive lockdowns seen elsewhere in Europe, instead opting for an approach based on the "principle of responsibility".

The Scandinavian country has kept schools open for children under the age of 16, along with cafes, bars, restaurants and businesses, and urged people to respect social distancing guidelines.   A total of 10,458 deaths were recorded in the country of 10.3 million inhabitants in April, Statistics Sweden said.   "We have to go back to December 1993 to find more dead during a single month," Tomas Johansson, population statistician at Statistics Sweden, said in a statement.

In total, 97,008 deaths were recorded in Sweden during the whole of 1993, which in turn was the deadliest year since 1918, when the Spanish flu pandemic ravaged the country.   Johansson told AFP there was no official breakdown explaining the high death toll in December 1993 but said there was a flu epidemic at the time.   According to preliminary data, the number of deaths has been on the decline since the end of April, including in Stockholm -- the epicentre of the Swedish epidemic -- where the highest number of deaths were recorded in early April.

The Swedish approach to the novel coronavisrus has come under criticism both at home and abroad, particularly as the number of deaths has far exceeded those in neighbouring Nordic countries, which have all imposed more restrictive containment measures.   On Monday, Sweden reported a total of 30,377 confirmed cased of the new coronavirus and 3,698 deaths.
Date: Mon, 18 May 2020 16:52:05 +0200 (METDST)

Helsinki, May 18, 2020 (AFP) - Finland's national airline will restart routes between Europe and Asia in July once countries begin to lift coronavirus restrictions on travel, the company announced on Monday.   Beijing and Shanghai will be the first long-haul destinations to reopen, alongside Hong Kong, Seoul, Singapore, Bangkok and three Japanese routes, Finnair said in a statement.

Flights to Delhi and New York will follow in August.    The move makes Finnair one of the first European carriers to restart intercontinental flights, after the Lufthansa Group announced on Friday it would resume 19 long-haul routes by early June.   "We expect aviation to recover gradually, starting in July," Finnair chief commercial officer Ole Orver said in a statement, adding that the company intends to bring its operations back to one-third of normal capacity.

Finnair cut 90 percent of its flights on April 1 and issued a profit warning as coronavirus restrictions brought international passenger travel almost to a standstill.     Facemasks will be mandatory on all Finnair flights "until at least the end of August," Finnair spokeswoman Paivyt Tallqvist told AFP.     "We have also taken a number of steps to avoid unnecessary movement on board," Tallqvist said, including having passengers disembark in smaller groups, and limiting capacity of shuttle bus transport between aircraft and the terminal to 50 percent.

Flights along the so-called "shorter northern route" between Helsinki and Asia, bypassing the Middle East, have been a key part of the Finnish carrier's growth strategy in recent years, with passenger numbers on its Asian routes doubling between 2010 and 2018.    On Monday, Finnair also announced it would restart 26 European routes in July, including to Brussels, Moscow, Prague and Paris.    Destinations including Rome, Madrid and Warsaw would be added in August, the firm said.     Finnair said it would open further routes on a monthly basis depending on demand and how travel restrictions change over the summer.
Date: Mon, 18 May 2020 10:28:18 +0200 (METDST)

Dublin, May 18, 2020 (AFP) - Ireland launched the first tentative step in its plan to lift coronavirus lockdown on Monday, with staff returning to outdoor workplaces as some shops resumed trade and sports facilities unlocked their doors.   The modest tweaks to the restrictions in place since 28 March start a staggered process set to stretch until August.

"I'm both pleased and nervous," health minister Simon Harris told state broadcaster RTE.    "I'm pleased that we've gotten to this point because of the incredible efforts of the Irish people in suppressing this virus."   "I'm nervous because the virus hasn't gone away, there still isn't a vaccine, there's still people in our country getting very sick, and there's still people dying every day."

Shops such as garden centres, hardware stores and farmers markets were permitted to open their doors whilst outdoor staff such as builders and gardeners returned to workplaces.   Football pitches, tennis courts and golf courses were also allowed to resume business whilst maintaining strict social distancing.

Meanwhile citizens were permitted to meet in small gatherings outside of people from different households.   But Harris urged caution as the republic took its first step in trying "to live successfully and safely alongside the virus".   "Just because somewhere is open doesn't mean we need to go," he said.   There have been 1,543 deaths from COVID-19 in Ireland according to the department for health.

Reported daily deaths peaked at 77 on 20 April, but by Sunday the figure had fallen to just 10.   As with other nations officials remain fearful a second wave of infections could inundate the healthcare system.   But Prime minister Leo Varadkar confirmed on Friday that Ireland would press ahead to the first of its five step plan to reopen the nation.   "This gives us reason to hope, but it is not a cause for celebration.  We have a long way to go yet," Varadkar said in a statement.

The fallout of the lockdown changes will be monitored for three weeks before the government decides whether to move to the next stage in the "roadmap" to reopening.   "Coronavirus is an inferno that is raging around the world", said Varadkar.   "In Ireland it is now a fire in retreat but it's not defeated -- we must extinguish every spark."
Date: Sun, 17 May 2020 22:46:20 +0200 (METDST)
By Román ORTEGA, Iván DUARTE y Germán CAMPOS

Puebla, Mexico, May 17, 2020 (AFP) - Scores of Mexicans are dying from drinking adulterated liquor, a consequence of the shortage of mainstream alcoholic beverages during the coronavirus pandemic, authorities say.   The first of at least 121 deaths in recent weeks occurred at the end of April in the western state of Jalisco, almost exactly a month after the government declared a health emergency over the spread of COVID-19.   Much of Mexico has run out of beer after factories producing liquor and beer were shut down, along with other non-essential firms.

Beer stocks were practically depleted within a month, and in some areas the prices of what was left doubled, according to industry sources.    Many of the 53 deaths in central Puebla province have been linked to a wake where people drank moonshine containing methanol -- a wood alcohol that in non-lethal doses can cause blindness and liver damage.    Twenty-three people died in the hours following the gathering in the town of Chiconcuautla, according to authorities.   The town's mayor said the popular "refino" drink, made from sugarcane, had been adulterated.

German Hernandez said his father died after being poisoned by drink known locally as "tejon" -- a blend of brandy with tejocote fruit (a type of hawthorn), in the Puebla town of Cacaloxuchitl.   "They sell it in the stores, and you can buy it and take it out. My father began trembling and feeling weak. He told us he felt bad, and we took him to the hospital," Hernandez told AFP.   "This has never happened before."    Deaths have also been recorded in the central state of Morelos and Yucatan and Veracruz in the east.

- Mafia trade -
Gangs specializing in bootleg booze are trying to take advantage of the lack of alternative alcohol sources during the shutdown.    "They usually have very well-structured mafias, and some escape the surveillance of the authorities," Ricardo Cardenas of the Federal Commission for Protection against Sanitary Risks told AFP.   "We presume that, as a result of this shortage and demand being very high, some people are offering or trying to sell methanol instead of ethyl alcohol," said Denis de Santiago, head of Sanitary Risks in Jalisco.

Methanol is used in fuel, solvents and antifreeze.   The country's largest beer producers, Grupo Modelo -- which makes the popular Corona beer -- and Heineken, which makes Sol, halted production in early April.   Alcohol sales have been banned in some states, including Yucatan. In others, alcoholic beverages can only be purchased at certain times.   Some drinks companies have switched production to antibacterial gel that they are donating to the federal government and health workers.

- 'Who would have thought?' -
In Yucatan, where 38 people have died so far, victims unknowingly drank methanol in their usual "pajaretes" -- a common cocktail that includes milk, coffee, vanilla and brand-name sugarcane alcohol.   Humberto Macias, 36, said he saw three of his relatives die within days of each other after drinking a pajarete cocktail, made using a trusted brand of alcohol.   "We had always drunk it, including myself, many people. Who would have thought it was like this?" Macias said.

In the Yucatan peninsula town of Acanceh, seven people have died from alcohol poisoning.   "It's the first time I've heard of a case like this. I don't remember anything similar," the town's mayor Felipe Medina told AFP.   In Veracruz, Morelos and Yucatan, investigators are still trying to determine what drinks the victims consumed.
Date: Sun, 17 May 2020 19:55:15 +0200 (METDST)
By Gregory WALTON

Doha, May 17, 2020 (AFP) - Qatar on Sunday began enforcing the world's toughest penalties of up to three years' in prison for failing to wear masks in public, in a country with one of the highest coronavirus infection rates.   More than 32,000 people have tested positive for COVID-19 in the tiny Gulf country -- 1.2 percent of the 2.75 million population -- although just 15 people have died.   Only the micro-states of San Marino and the Vatican have had higher per-capita infection rates, according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.   Violators of Qatar's new rules will face up to hree years in jail and fines of as much as $55,000.

Drivers alone in their vehicles are exempt from the requirement, but police erected checkpoints across the capital Doha on Sunday evening to check compliance by motorists.   Most customers gathered outside money lenders on Banks Street wore masks, while others produced a face covering when asked.   "From today it's very strict," said Majeed, a taxi driver waiting for business in the busy pedestrian area, who wore a black mask.   Heloisa, an expat resident, saw the steep penalties as "a bit of a scare tactic".   Wearing a mask is currently mandatory in around 50 countries, although scientists are divided on their effectiveness.

Authorities in Chad have made it an offence to be unmasked in public, on pain of 15 days in prison. In Morocco, similar rules can see violators jailed for three months and fined up to 1,300 dirhams ($130).   Qatari authorities have warned that gatherings during the Muslim fasting month of Ramadan may have increased infections.   Abdullatif al-Khal, co-chair of Qatar's National Pandemic Preparedness Committee, said Thursday that there was "a huge risk in gatherings of families" for Ramadan meals.   "(They) led to a significant increase in the number of infections among Qataris," he said.   Neighbouring Saudi Arabia will enforce a round-the-clock nationwide curfew during the five-day Eid al-Fitr holiday later this month to fight the coronavirus.

- Labourers at risk -
Mosques, along with schools, malls, and restaurants remain closed in Qatar to prevent the disease's spread.   But construction sites remain open as Qatar prepares to host the 2022 World Cup, although foremen and government inspectors are attempting to enforce social distancing rules.    Officials have said workers at three stadiums have tested positive for the highly contagious respiratory virus. Masks have been compulsory for construction workers since April 26.   A 12-strong team of masked labourers kept their distance from one another as they worked under baking sun on a road project in Doha's blue-collar Msheireb district on Sunday.

Tens of thousands of migrant workers were quarantined in Doha's gritty Industrial Area after a number of infections were confirmed there in mid-March, but authorities have begun to ease restrictions.   Khal said that most new cases were among migrant workers, although there has been a jump in infections among Qataris. He said the country had not yet reached the peak of its contagion.   Rights groups have warned that Gulf labourers' cramped living conditions, communal food preparation areas and shared bathrooms could undermine social distancing efforts and speed up the spread of the virus.
Date: Sun, 17 May 2020 13:43:50 +0200 (METDST)

Tehran, May 17, 2020 (AFP) - Iran said Friday it had recorded nearly 7,000 deaths from the novel coronavirus, warning of infection clusters in new regions after it partially eased lockdown measures.   Health ministry spokesman Kianoush Jahanpour said the COVID-19 illness had claimed a further 51 lives over 24 hours into Sunday.   The ministry raised the overall death toll to 6,988 since Iran announced its first fatalities in the Shiite pilgrimage city of Qom in February.   Jahanpour warned that cases were rising "in the province of Lorestan, and to some extent in Kermanshah, Sistan and Baluchistan".   "Khuzestan province is still in a critical situation," he added.

The southwestern province has become Iran's new coronavirus focal point, with the most critical "red" ranking on the country's colour-coded risk scale.   It is the only region so far where authorities have reimposed business lockdowns after a country-wide relaxation in April.   Iran stopped publishing provincial figures for the coronavirus last month, but the health ministry's latest report said there is a "rising trend or the beginning of a peak" in eight provinces, including Khuzestan.   The country on Friday reported its highest number of new infections in more than a month.   A virus taskforce official said Sunday that the increase was due to a surge in testing, not just of COVID-19 patients with severe symptoms.

Early in the outbreak "our focus was on severe cases that had to be hospitalised, but as we started to manage the disease we looked at those infected and not hospitalised," said Ali Akbar Haghdoost, head of the taskforce's epidemiology committee.   "It is possible that the reported number of infections have gone up, but this in no way means more have been infected with COVID-19," he told ISNA news agency.   According to Jahanpour, 1,806 new cases had been confirmed across Iran in the past day, bringing the total to 120,198.   Over 1,460 of the new cases were "outpatients, including those who had been in close contact with the infected," he said.

The ministry said 94,464 people hospitalised with the virus have recovered and been discharged.   Experts both at home and abroad have voiced scepticism about Iran's official figures, saying the real toll could be much higher.   Iran also cancelled rallies held annually in solidarity with the Palestinians, set for Friday next week.    President Hassan Rouhani had said Saturday that the Qods (Jerusalem) Day parades would go ahead with some measures against the virus.    But organisers said Sunday the event could not be held "decently" and would be scrapped apart from a televised speech by the supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei.
Date: Sun, 17 May 2020 13:31:10 +0200 (METDST)

Antananarivo, May 17, 2020 (AFP) - Madagascar on Sunday reported the first death of a patient suffering from novel coronavirus nearly two months after it was first detected in the country, official statistics showed.   The Indian ocean island which has reported 304 cases has hit the headlines over a home-grown herbal concoction that President Andry Rajoelina claims can cure people infected with the virus.

Several African countries have ordered or expressed interest in the purported remedy, which is known as Covid-Organics.   The tonic drink is derived from artemisia -- a plant with proven efficacy in malaria treatment -- and other indigenous herbs.   But the World Health Organization has warned against "adopting a product that has not been taken through tests to see its efficacy".