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Argentina

Irish Diplomatic and Consular Information for Argentina
**********************************************************************
Address:
Embassy of Ireland
Suipacha 1380
2nd Floor
1011 Buenos Aires
Telephone:
+54-1
-4325-8588 / 4325-0849
Fax:
+54-11-4325-7572
Email:

Ambassador:
Her Excellency Paula Ní Shlattara
Secretary:

Jonathan Conlon
***************************************
Argentina - US Consular Information Sheet
October 02, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Last year, Argentina's charm, natural beauty and diversity attracted more than 400,000 American citizen visitors, and this year's total is expected to be even higher. Buenos Aires and other large cities have well-developed tourist facilities and services, including many four- and five-star hotels. The quality of tourist facilities in smaller towns outside the capital varies. The country suffered a major financial crisis in 2001-2002. While it has made a dramatic recovery, continued economic hardship has been linked to a rise in street crime. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Argentina for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: A valid passport is required for U.S. citizens to enter Argentina. U.S. citizens do not need a visa for visits of up to 90 days for tourism and business. U.S. citizens who arrive in Argentina with expired or damaged passports may be refused entry and returned to the United States at their own expense. The U.S. Embassy cannot provide guarantees on behalf of travelers in such situations, and therefore encourages U.S. citizens to ensure their travel documents are valid and in good condition prior to departure from the United States. Different rules apply to U.S. citizens who also have Argentine nationality, depending on their dates of U.S. naturalization. For more information, check the Argentine Ministry of the Interior web site at www.mininterior.gov.ar/migraciones/. Most dual nationals are permitted 60-day visits. Dual nationals who stay beyond their permitted time are required to depart on an Argentine passport.
The application process for an Argentine passport is lengthy, and the U.S. Embassy is not able to provide assistance in obtaining Argentine passports or other local identity documents. Children under 21 years of age who reside in Argentina, regardless of nationality, are required to present a notarized document that certifies both parents' permission for the child's departure from Argentina when the child is traveling alone, with only one parent, or in someone else's custody (click on the "international child abduction" link below for more information). An airport tax is collected upon departure, payable in dollars or Argentine pesos.

American citizens wishing to enter Brazil are required to obtain a visa in advance from the Brazilian Embassy or consulate nearest to the traveler's place of residence. The U.S. Embassy in Buenos Aires cannot assist travelers to obtain Brazilian visas. For more information, see the Country Specific Information for Brazil.
Visit the Embassy of Argentina’s web site at http://www.embassyofargentina.us/ for the most current visa information. Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site. For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Traffic accidents are the primary threat to life and limb in Argentina. Pedestrians and drivers should exercise caution. Drivers frequently ignore traffic laws and vehicles often travel at excessive speeds. The rate and toll of traffic accidents has been a topic of much media attention over the past year. The Institute of Road Safety and Education, a private Buenos Aires organization dedicated to transportation safety issues, reports that Argentina has the highest traffic mortality rate in South America per 100,000 inhabitants.

Care should be exercised when traveling in Brazil and Paraguay, near the Argentine border, where criminal entities are known to operate. These organizations are involved in the trafficking of illicit goods, and some individuals in the area have been designated by the U.S. Treasury Department for financially supporting terrorist organizations.
The U.S. government is supportive of coordinated efforts by Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay to combat illegal activity in that region. Americans crossing from Argentina into Paraguay or Brazil may wish to consult the most recent Country Specific Information for those countries.

Demonstrations are common in metropolitan Buenos Aires and occur in other major cities as well. Protesters on occasion block streets, highways, and major intersections, causing traffic jams and delaying travel. While demonstrations are usually nonviolent, hooligans in some of the groups sometimes seek confrontation with the police and vandalize private property. Groups occasionally protest in front of the U.S. Embassy and U.S.-affiliated businesses. U.S. citizens should take common-sense precautions and avoid gatherings or any other event where crowds have congregated to protest. Information about the location of possible demonstrations is available from a variety of sources, including the local media. Additional information and advice may be obtained from the U.S. Embassy at the telephone numbers or email address listed at the end of this document.

Domestic flight schedules can be unreliable. Occasional work stoppages, over-scheduling of flights and other technical problems can result in flight delays, cancellations, or missed connections. Consult local media for information about possible strikes or slow-downs before planning travel within Argentina.
Public transportation is generally reliable and safe. The preferred option for travel within Buenos Aires and other major cities is by radio taxi or "remise" (private car with driver). The best way to obtain safe taxis and remises is to call for one or go to an established stand, rather than hailing one on the street. Hotels, restaurants, and other businesses can order remises or radio taxis, or provide phone numbers for such services, upon request. Passengers on buses, trains, and the subway should be alert for pickpockets and should also be aware that these forms of transport are sometimes interrupted by strikes or work stoppages.

Argentina is a geographically diverse country with mountains, forests, expansive deserts, and glaciers, making it a popular destination for outdoor and adventure sports. Despite the best efforts of local authorities, assisting visitors lost or injured in such remote areas can be problematic. American citizens have been killed in recent years while mountain climbing, skiing, trekking, and hunting. Travelers visiting isolated and wilderness areas should learn about local hazards and weather conditions and always inform park or police authorities of their itineraries. Reports of missing or injured persons should be made immediately to the police so that a search can be mounted or assistance rendered.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs' web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.
Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the United States, or for callers outside the United States and Canada, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME: Most American citizens visit Argentina without incident. Nevertheless, street crime in the larger cities, especially greater Buenos Aires and Mendoza, is a problem for residents and visitors alike. As in any big city, visitors to Buenos Aires and popular tourist destinations should be alert to muggers, pickpockets, scam artists, and purse-snatchers on the street, in hotel lobbies, at bus and train stations, and in cruise ship ports. Criminals usually work in groups and travelers should assume they are armed. Criminals employ a variety of ruses to distract and victimize unsuspecting visitors.
A common scam is to spray mustard or a similar substance on the tourist from a distance. A pickpocket will then approach the tourist offering to help clean the stain, and while doing so, he or an accomplice robs the victim. Thieves regularly nab unattended purses, backpacks, laptops, and luggage, and criminals will often distract visitors for a few seconds to steal valuables. While most American victims are not physically injured when robbed, criminals typically do not hesitate to use force when they encounter resistance. Visitors are advised to immediately hand over all cash and valuables if confronted. Thieves will target visitors wearing expensive watches or jewelry.

Your passport is a valuable document and should be guarded. Passports and other valuables should be locked in a hotel safe, and a photocopy of your passport should be carried for identification purposes. The U.S. Embassy has observed a notable rise in reports of stolen passports in the past year. Some travelers have received counterfeit currency in Argentina. Unscrupulous vendors and taxi drivers sometimes pretend to help tourists review their pesos, then trade bad bills for good ones. Characteristics of good currency can be reviewed at the Argentine Central Bank web site at www.bcra.gov.ar.
Along with conventional muggings, so-called express kidnappings continue to occur. Victims are grabbed off the street based on their appearance and vulnerability. They are made to withdraw as much money as possible from ATM machines, and then their family or co-workers are contacted and told to deliver all the cash that they have on hand or can gather in a couple of hours. Once the ransom is paid, the victim is usually quickly released unharmed. There have been some foreign victims. Visitors are particularly advised not to let children and adolescents travel alone.
Travelers worldwide are advised to avoid packing valuables in their checked baggage. In Argentina, officials have publicly acknowledged the systematic theft of valuables and money from checked baggage at Buenos Aires airports. Authorities are working to resolve the problem and have made a number of arrests, but travelers should exercise continued care and caution. In many countries around the world, counterfeit and pirated goods are widely available. Transactions involving such products may be illegal under local law. In addition, bringing them back to the United States may result in forfeitures and/or fines. More information on this serious problem is available at http://www.cybercrime.gov/18usc2320.htm
INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds can be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed. The Argentine Federal Police have established a special Tourist Police Unit to receive complaints and investigate crimes against tourists. The unit, located at Corrientes 436 in Buenos Aires, responds to calls around the clock at 4346-5748 or toll-free 0800-999-5000 from anywhere in the country. The local equivalent to the "911" emergency line in the city of Buenos Aires or in the surrounding Province of Buenos Aires is 911 for police assistance. In the city of Buenos Aires, dial 100 in case of fire and 107 for an ambulance. In the Province of Buenos Aires, fire and ambulance numbers vary by location. See our information for Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: The public health system in Argentina provides emergency and non-emergency services free of charge to all, regardless of nationality or immigration status. However, the quality of non-emergency care in public hospitals is generally below U.S. standards. Medical care in private hospitals in Buenos Aires is generally good, but varies in quality outside the capital. Serious medical problems requiring hospitalization in private facilities and/or medical evacuation to the United States can cost thousands of dollars or more. Private physicians, clinics, and hospitals often expect immediate cash payment for health services.
HIV/AIDS restrictions. The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Argentina.
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC's Internet site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad, consult the World Health Organization (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith
MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policies apply overseas and will cover prior conditions and emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation, which could cost tens of thousands of dollars. If not covered, visitors are encouraged to consider purchasing travel insurance. No Medicare benefits are available abroad. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Argentina is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
Driving in Argentina is generally more dangerous than driving in the United States. By comparison, drivers in Argentina tend to be very aggressive, especially in the capital city of Buenos Aires, and frequently ignore traffic regulations. U.S. driver's licenses are valid in the capital and the province of Buenos Aires, but Argentine or international licenses are required to drive in the rest of the country. For further information, please contact the Argentine Automobile Club, Av. Libertador 1850, 1112 Capital Federal, telephone (011) (54)(11) 4802-6061, or contact the Embassy of Argentina as listed in the above section on Entry Requirements. Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. Visit the websites of Argentina's national tourist office and national roadways office at www.turismo.gov.ar and www.vialidad.gov.ar.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Argentina’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Argentina’s air carrier operations. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: In addition to being subject to all Argentine laws affecting U.S. citizens, dual nationals may also be subject to other laws that impose special obligations on Argentine citizens. In some instances, dual nationality may hamper U.S. Government efforts to provide protection abroad. Please see our information on Customs Regulations.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can also be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Argentina's laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Argentina are strict, and convicted offenders can expect lengthy jail sentences and fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children and using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country are crimes prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information see our Office of Children's Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.
REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION: Americans living or traveling in Argentina are encouraged to register with the U.S. Embassy through the State Department’s travel registration web site, so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Argentina. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the U.S. Embassy. By registering, American citizens make it much easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located at Avenida Colombia 4300 in the Palermo neighborhood of Buenos Aires (near the Plaza Italia stop on the "D" line subway). The main Embassy switchboard telephone is (54) (11) 5777-4533. Recorded consular information, including instructions on whom to contact in case of an American citizen emergency, is available at tel. (54) (11) 4514-1830. The Consular Section fax is (54) (11) 5777-4293. The Consular Section is open to the public from 8:30 a.m. to noon and 2:30 p.m. to 4 p.m. Monday through Friday, except on American and Argentine holidays. Additional information on Embassy services is available on the Internet at http://argentina.usembassy.gov or by e-mail: BuenosAires-ACS@state.gov
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information December 28, 2007 to update Sections on Country Description, Safety and Security, Information for Victims of Crime, Medical Facilities, Traffic Safety and Road Conditions, and Registration/Embassy Locations.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Sun 22 Sep 2019
Source: La Voz [in Spanish trans. Mod.TY, edited]

Viruses transmitted by mosquitoes are emerging in the Americas. To historic dengue in recent years have been added Zika and chikungunya [viruses], 2 pathogens that before were restricted only to Africa. Madariaga has now been added to that list [of viruses new in the Americas].

Researchers from the Instituto de Medicina Regional of the Universidad Nacional del Nordeste (IMR-Unne) and from the Instituto de Virologia, and J. M. Vanella of the Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Inviv, UNC) detected its presence in mosquitoes captured in the Chaco. "Madariaga is a virus that causes disease in equine animals and is of low pathogenicity for humans, but in 2010 caused an outbreak in humans in Panama with 10 cases," said Marta Contigiani, who works in the UNC laboratory. It was also isolated in 2015 and 2016 from human samples in Haiti.

Ornella Stechina, of the IMR-Unne, was the person who detected presence of the virus in the mosquitoes. The work was done with the financial support of this institution with Mariana Stein, a researcher from CONICET [the national science agency] as the person in charge.

Contigiani explained that there have been no subsequent cases in horses since 1988. "In other provinces in the country, serological studies have detected [Madariaga] virus infections. There is a vaccine for equine animals, but its application is not obligatory," she said.

However, she warned that global climate change (including deforestation in the Amazon Basin) influences the geographic distribution and emergence of diseases, with appearance of new environments that are favorable for the development of vectors and that favor the development of the [transmission] cycle.

"To this we must add the genetic changes that are observed in these viruses," she stated.

For some time, experts have been issuing alerts about the emergence and reemergence of arboviruses, pathogens that are transmitted by insects.

"West Nile virus rapidly invaded North America, and now cases are being found in Central and South America. Also, Mayaro and eastern equine encephalitis viruses have increased their activity and have been found in new regions," said Raquel Gleiser, a researcher at the Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal of the UNC (Imbiv) in an article published in the Journal of Medical Entomology.

Madariaga virus is a strain of eastern equine encephalitis virus, which was early on detected in Argentina. Contigiani did not discard the possibility that a variant that had greater capacity to replicate, the proliferation of competent vectors, and propitious environmental conditions could cause an outbreak in the region.

The evidence for warning about Madariaga virus is not at the same level as for chikungunya [virus], although they are in the same family (Togaviridae). "For now, the epidemiological behavior is different. Chikungunya virus has _Aedes aegypti_ as its vector, whereas the vector of Madariaga virus is within the _Culex_ genus," she said.

This study detected the virus in mosquitoes of the _Culex_ genus in wildland areas in Choco province. Thus, they identified this vector in Argentinian territory for the 1st time.

Although the mosquito species or species that had the virus could not be detected, the genus _Culex_ has more than 1000 species, many of which are of urban habits such as _Culex pipiens_ that we hear buzzing at night.

Madariaga virus can infect various mammals that could serve as hosts, such as rats and bats, as well as birds.

In Argentina, it was found for the 1st time in animals in the decade of the 1930s. The strain found in the Chaco belongs to the same lineage discovered in those years, which indicates that the virus is endemic in the region.

For now, the infections studied in humans has been for the most part mild and asymptomatic.

Adrian Diaz of the Cordoba Institute, Griselda Oria (IMR-Unne), and Carolina Torres of the Universidad de Buenos Aires participated as part of the work that was published a week ago in the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene [reference below].

The researchers suggest that more epidemiological studies be done to determine the vectors and potential hosts and do deeper studies about the genetic characteristics of the [virus] strains that circulate in the country in order to know whether this virus is endemic in the region or is reintroduced.

"Ideally, studies will be done [in the field] with sentinel animals to detect virus circulation as well. In other countries, they use sentinel chickens for these types of studies," Contigiani commented, and clarified that in case [virus] circulation was detected, animal health officials must take relevant measures.

"There is no human vaccine, so [human] health officials must indicate measures [needed] for prevention and control," she added.

The vector is the most common, _Culex_. However, there is no virus circulation in Cordoba.

_Culex_ is a genus of hematophagous mosquitoes in the Culiidae family, many species of which act as vectors of important diseases, such as West Nile, filariasis, virus encephalitis (Japanese, Venezuelan, equine, and St. Louis) and avian malaria, as well as Madariaga virus. There are more than 80 varieties [of what?].  [Byline: Lucas Viano]
=================
[The isolation of Madariaga virus from Culex mosquitoes in northern Argentina is interesting, but, as the authors point out, merits additional studies to determine whether it is a human or animal (especially equine) pathogen of importance for human or animal health in Argentina. Studies of the Culex species involved in transmission of the virus and determination of the animal hosts are essential to understand cycles of transmission.

Reference:
Ornela Sofia Stechina, Griselda Ines Oria, Carolina Torres, Luis Adrian Diaz, Marta Contigiani and Marina Stein. First Detection of Madariaga virus in Mosquitoes Collected in a Wild Environment of Northeastern Argentina. 2019. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 00(0), 2019, pp. 1-3 DOI: <https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0475>.

Chaco province is in the far north of Argentina. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Chaco Province, Argentina: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/54342>]
Date: Sun 4 Aug 2019
Source: Diario Uno [in Spanish, trans. ProMED Mod.JG, edited]

A family living in El Borbollon, Las Heras, ate ham and sausages after fixing pork at their home, but after this, 11 persons needed medical attention because of the occurrence of symptoms related to trichinellosis.

It was reported that the Provincial Livestock Direction confiscated homemade ham and sausages after receiving an alert from the Epidemiology Area of Lagomaggiore Hospital, which stated they received and attended (infected) people with symptoms of thichinellosis.

The operation was carried out last Friday in a household located in El Borbollon, which was pointed out as the infection source after 3 persons (2 of them less than legal age) were brought to Lagomaggiore Hospital seeking medical care. As days went by, 8 additional compatible cases -- presenting with similar symptoms -- were reported in Lencinas Hospital.

Once the protocol involving Food Hygiene, Zoonoses, Livestock Farming, and Epidemiology local departments and also the local municipality was activated, 2 pieces of ham, 2 pork shoulders, one piece of pork tenderloin, dry sausages and Bondiola pork were confiscated. Considering the size of these pieces, it is thought a large animal was involved.

Laboratory tests were immediately performed, and because of positive results, the meat products were destroyed and properly disposed of in a local slaughterhouse, aiming to prevent the dissemination of this disease.

Trichinellosis is a parasitic disease caused by ingesting _Trichinella spiralis_ larvae located in muscles (meat). This condition is characterized by high fever, muscle pain and vomiting or diarrhoea. The disease affects humans and many mammals. This condition is acquired by eating infected pork meat.

Common symptoms are diarrhoea, abdominal pain, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and in severe cases also fever.
=====================
[Trichinellosis caused by _Trichinella spiralis_ is common in Argentina, especially in northern Argentina (see ProMED reports below). The source of meat is pigs from small farms or even "backyard pigs" slaughtered and processed without proper veterinary control. - ProMED Mod.EP]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Mendoza, Mendoza, Argentina: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/5900>]
Date: Wed 24 Jul 2019
Source: Jujuy al Momento [in Spanish, trans. ProMED Mod.TY, edited]

The disease [virus], transmitted by rodents, has now taken the life of a man, and there are 18 confirmed cases [of hantavirus infection]. There is concern in the health sector because of the lack of environmental policies to confront the problem of trash dumps, one of the environments where these animals [rodents] proliferate.

- There are now 18 confirmed cases of hantavirus [infections].
- There are 372 suspected cases.
- The increase in the number of trash dumps in the whole province contributes to aggravation of the situation.

The Ministry of Health indicated that there are 372 suspected cases of hantavirus [infections] in Jujuy, with 18 confirmed cases. An adolescent died in the Talar locality, and 17 patients are recuperating favorably.

The majority of the cases are registered in Palma Sola and San Pedro with 4 in each locality.

There was also a case of hantavirus [infection] very close to San Salvador that occurred in the Palpala rural area. This city is one of those with evidence of the greatest increase in trash dumps, to the point that several of them begin to increase in proximity to the plazas and urban neighborhoods.

_Hantavirus_ is a genus that groups various RNA viruses that are transmitted by rodents and, in humans, generally produces 2 types of afflictions: a type of viral hemorrhagic fever, a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome; or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, a very serious affliction.

The disease has a strict relationship to trash deposits since this is where these [reservoir] animals eat and reproduce. Despite this, the Ministry of the Environment, headed by Maria Ines Zigaran, still has not recognized policies to attack the problem.
=====================
[Cases of hantavirus infections have been increasing in Jujuy province since early April 2019. The number of confirmed hantavirus infections in Jujuy province has increased from 11 cases reported on 8 Apr 2019, in the localities of San Pedro, Palma Sola, Libertador General San Martin, and Calilegua, to 15 cases on 10 May 2019, and now to 18 cases reported above. The above report of 372 suspected cases is a surprisingly large number. It will be interesting to learn how many of these cases are ultimately confirmed as hantavirus infections. The confirmed cases are from a variety of locations, indicating that the virus and its reservoir rodent hosts are widespread in the province. The public is well advised to follow the Ministry's recommendations for avoidance of infection.

The hantaviruses responsible for these 18 confirmed cases are not stated in the earlier reports or the one above. An earlier report from Jujuy province this year (2019) apparently presumed that the hantavirus involved in that case was Laguna Negra, although it is not stated that this virus had been laboratory confirmed. As noted in ProMED-mail archive no. http://promedmail.org/post/20110430.1348, several hantaviruses have been associated with human infection and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina: Andes virus (in western Argentina, in the long-tailed pygmy rice rat host, _Oligoryzomys longicaudatus_); related Andes-like viruses Hu39694 (in central Argentina; rodent host unknown); Lechiguana (in central Argentina, in the yellow pygmy rice rat, _O. flavescens_); Oran (in northwestern Argentina, in _O. longicaudatus_); Bermejo (in western Argentina, in _O. flavescens_); and Laguna Negra (in northern Argentina, in _Calomys laucha_). Seoul virus with its brown rat (_Rattus norvegicus_) host (a frequenter of trash dumps) is another possibility. Without laboratory confirmation, it is not possible to say with certainty which hantavirus was involved. Andes virus seems unlikely in these cases in Jujuy province. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[Map of Argentina:

HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Jujuy province, Argentina: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/53166>]
Date: Sat 29 Jun 2019 10:38 ART
Source: La Voz, Argentina [in Spanish, trans. Rapp. Kathryn Soderholm, abridged, edited]

The Ministry of Health of San Luis issued an epidemiological alert after 3 cases of trichinosis were confirmed by laboratory. The cases are one child, his father, and his mother. Another 12 probable cases are under investigation, all from the distant towns of Concaran and Villa Mercedes, 163 [101 mi] and 100 kilometres [62 mi], respectively, from the provincial capital [San Luis].

The affected patients would have contracted the disease after consuming sausages purchased in La Punilla at the beginning of June [2019], and the symptoms were detected 48 hours ago, the News Agency of the provincial state declared.

The head of Epidemiology, Rodrigo Verdugo, confirmed that the analyses were performed last [Thu 27 Jun 2019] after the suspected cases were referred on [26 Jun 2019].

The other 12 cases are being investigated and will be confirmed by blood sample.

The boy, who is 8 years old, remains hospitalized in the San Luis Hospital; another patient hospitalized in Merlo and another in Villa Mercedes.

Representatives from the department of Epidemiology with the Sanitary and Fiscal Control Program (Cosafi) toured La Punilla and Concaran, where the other cases originated, making visits to the premises that may have samples of these foods, explained Claudia Olarte, head of the Epidemiological Surveillance Service.

Verdugo noted that "this is the 1st outbreak" of this year [2019] and recalled that in 2018, 3 cases were detected, one of which also originated in La Punilla, so the Health department is also investigating in nearby towns such as Papagayos and Villa del Carmen.
=====================
[La Punilla is approximately 200 km [about 125 mi] south of Cordoba, in San Luis province. Trichinellosis has been reported often from Argentina. The source is homemade sausages from backyard pigs, slaughtered and used or sold at local markets without veterinary control. - ProMED Mod.EP]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Argentina:
Date: Sat 18 May 2019
Source: Food Safety News [edited>

Two cases of foodborne botulism linked to hummus have been confirmed by Argentinian health authorities. The National Administration of Drugs, Foods and Medical Devices (ANMAT) reported that an investigation confirmed the botulism cases and results of an epidemiological survey determined illness was associated with a hummus product. Hummus was sold under the brand Tsuki Macro Vegan, which is based in Palermo, Buenos Aires.

The general directorate of hygiene and food safety and ANMAT inspected the processing establishment where the product was made and imposed a ban on processing and marketing. It was also detected that the product did not have the relevant sanitary authorization. The processing firm was asked to carry out an immediate withdrawal from the national market of all units of the implicated branded hummus.

ANMAT advised the public to refrain from consuming the product and to keep the containers closed and separated from other foods. The agency also told those who sell the products to stop marketing it.

Botulism is a rare but life-threatening condition caused by toxins produced by _Clostridium botulinum_ bacteria. In foodborne botulism, symptoms generally begin 18-36 hours after eating a contaminated food. However, they can start as soon as 6 hours after, or up to 10 days later. Botulism can cause symptoms including general weakness, dizziness, double vision, and trouble with speaking or swallowing. Difficulty in breathing, weakness of other muscles, abdominal distension, and constipation may also occur. People experiencing these problems should seek immediate medical attention.

The latest incident follows a different outbreak in Rancul, a town in the La Pampa province of Argentina, at the start of May 2019 with 4 suspected cases. Health authorities in La Pampa reported that 4 people older than 57 years old were in a serious condition and needed hospital treatment. The poisoning was a result of a meal shared by 7 friends in Rancul. The suspected source is preserves such as peppers that were prepared in a homemade way by one of the people who fell ill.
===================
[Hummus is an unusual source of botulism but has been reported, also from a commercially produced product.

Mad'arova L, Dorner BG, Schaade L, et al.: Reoccurrence of botulinum neurotoxin subtype A3 inducing food-borne botulism, Slovakia, 2015. Euro Surveill. 2017 Aug 10; 22(32): pii: 30591. doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2017.22.32.30591.

Abstract
--------
A case of foodborne botulism occurred in Slovakia in 2015. _Clostridium botulinum_ type A was isolated from 3 nearly empty commercial hummus tubes. The product, which was sold in Slovakia and the Czech Republic, was withdrawn from the market, and a warning was issued immediately through the European Commission's Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF). Further investigation revealed the presence of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) subtype BoNT/A3, a very rare subtype implicated in only one previous outbreak (Loch Maree in Scotland, 1922). It is the most divergent subtype of BoNT/A with 15.4% difference at the amino acid level compared with the prototype BoNT/A1. This makes it more prone to evading immunological and PCR-based detection. It is recommended that testing laboratories are advised that this subtype has been associated with foodborne botulism for the 2nd time since the 1st outbreak almost 100 years ago, and to validate their immunological or PCR-based methods against this divergent subtype. - ProMED Mod.LL]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
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Rwanda

Rwanda US Consular Information Sheet
May 19, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Rwanda is a landlocked developing country in central Africa which has made considerable progress in rebuilding its infrastructure and establishing security since the 19
4 civil war and genocide in which at least 800,000 people were killed. Economic activity and tourism are on the rise in Rwanda. Hotels and guesthouses are adequate in Kigali, the capital, and in major towns, but are limited in remote areas. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Rwanda for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: A passport and evidence of yellow fever immunization are required. Visas are not required for American citizens entering Rwanda for less than 90 days. U.S. citizens planning on working in Rwanda should apply for a work permit at the Directorate of Immigration as soon as possible after arrival in Rwanda. Detailed entry information may be obtained from Rwanda’s Directorate of Immigration at: http://www.migration.gov.rw/ or from the Embassy of the Republic of Rwanda, 1714 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20009, telephone 202-232-2882, fax 202-232-4544, web site http://www.rwandaembassy.org. Overseas, inquiries may be made at the nearest Rwandan Embassy or Consulate.
Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site. For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
There are currently no travel restrictions in place within Rwanda, but travelers should use caution when traveling near or crossing the border into Burundi, eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and Uganda.

In March 2005, the Congo-based Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR), comprising ex-Rwandese Armed Forces, Interahamwe, and other extremists, announced it would end its armed struggle against the Government of Rwanda, but thousands of combatants are estimated to remain in eastern Congo. The combatants currently are not well-organized or funded, nor do they pose a serious threat to Rwandan security. However, in early March 2007, in Gisenyi Province (near the Volcanoes National Park in northwestern Rwanda) they launched a mortar round and rocket into Rwandan territory. There were no casualties, and it appears to have been an isolated incident. While visitors may travel freely to Volcanoes National Park, they are not permitted to visit the park without permission from Rwanda's Office of Tourism and National Parks (ORTPN). ORTPN stipulates that the park can only be used for gorilla tours and nature walks. Since December 2006, all restrictions have been lifted in the Nyungwe Forest near the Burundian border in southwestern Rwanda. In the past, the FDLR infiltrated Rwanda from Burundi through the Nyungwe Forest, but the last reported incident in the park was in November 2003. However, FDLR rebel factions are known to operate in northeastern DRC, Burundi, Tanzania, and Uganda, including near the popular tourist area of Bwindi Impenetrable Forest National Park. For information on travel to those and other countries, and for the latest security information, American citizens traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.
From time to time, travel by U.S. Embassy personnel may be restricted based on changing security conditions. Visitors are encouraged to contact the appropriate U.S. Embassy Regional Security Office or Consular Section for the latest security information, including developments in eastern Congo, Uganda and Burundi. (See Registration/Embassy Location section below.)

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME: Pick-pocketing in crowded public places is common, as is petty theft from cars and hotel rooms. Although violent crimes such as carjacking, robbery, and home invasion occur in Kigali, they are rarely committed against foreigners. Americans are advised to remain alert, exercise caution, and follow appropriate personal security measures. Although many parts of Kigali are safe at night, walking alone after dark is not recommended since foreigners, including Americans, have occasionally been the targets of robbery.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime. The U.S. Embassy provides some information on its web site about criminal justice in Rwanda at http://rwanda.usembassy.gov/criminal_justice_in_rwanda.html.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Medical and dental facilities are limited, and some medicines are in short supply or unavailable. Travelers should bring their own supplies of prescription drugs and preventive medicines. In Kigali, Americans may go to King Faisal Hospital, a private facility that offers limited services and dental facilities. There is also a missionary dental clinic and a few private dentists. American-operated charitable hospitals with some surgical facilities can be found in Kibagora, in southwestern Rwanda, in Ruhengeri, near the gorilla trekking area, and in Rwinkavu, near the entrance to Akagera National Park. The U.S. Embassy maintains on its website a current list of healthcare providers and facilities in Rwanda at http://rwanda.usembassy.gov/medical_information.html; this list is also included in the Consular Section’s welcome packets for American citizens. There are periodic outbreaks of meningitis in Rwanda. Yellow fever can cause serious medical problems, but the vaccine, required for entry, is very effective in preventing the disease. Malaria is endemic to Rwanda. All visitors are strongly encouraged to take prophylactic medications to prevent malaria. These should be initiated prior to entry into the endemic area. Because of possible counterfeit of antimalarial medications, these should be obtained from a reliable pharmaceutical source. Multiple outbreaks of ebola have been reported in neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda in the past year, but none within Rwanda.
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s website at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.
TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Rwanda is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
Due to safety concerns, the use of motorbikes or van taxis for transportation is not recommended. Regulated orange-striped (along the base of the vehicle) sedan auto taxis are safer, but be sure to agree on a fare before beginning the trip. Public transportation can be dangerous due to overloading, inadequate maintenance, and careless drivers.
While the main roads in Rwanda are in relatively good condition, during the rainy season many side roads are passable only with four-wheel drive vehicles. Nighttime driving, particularly outside major cities, is hazardous and is discouraged. Often, roadways are not marked and lack streetlights and shoulders. Many sections have deteriorated surfaces. Due to possible language barriers and lack of roadside assistance, receiving help may be difficult. Travelers may be stopped at police roadblocks throughout the country, where their vehicles and luggage may be searched. Service stations are available along main roads.
In Rwanda, as in the U.S., traffic moves on the right-hand side of the road. Cars already in a traffic circle have the right of way. Until 2004, cars entering traffic circles had the right-of-way. Drivers should exercise caution at traffic circles, since some drivers might forget this change. Excessive speed, careless driving, and the lack of basic safety equipment on many vehicles are hazards on Rwanda's roads. Many vehicles are not well maintained, and headlights are either extremely dim or not used. Drivers also tend to speed and pass other cars with little discretion. Some streets in Kigali have sidewalks or sufficient space for pedestrian traffic; others do not, and pedestrians are forced to walk along the roadway. With the limited street lighting, drivers often have difficulty seeing pedestrians. Drivers frequently have unexpected encounters with cyclists, pedestrians and livestock.
Third-party insurance is required and will cover any damages from involvement in an accident resulting in injuries, if one is found not to have been at fault. The driver’s license of individuals determined to have caused an accident may be confiscated for three months. Causing a fatal accident could result in three to six months' imprisonment. Drunk drivers are jailed for 24 hours and fined Rwandan Francs 20,000 (approximately $35). In the city of Kigali, contact the following numbers for police assistance in the event of an accident: Kigali Center, 08311112; Nyamirambo, 08311113; Kacyiru, 08311114; Kicukiro, 08311115; Remera, 08311116. Ambulance assistance is very limited. Wear seat belts and drive with care and patience at all times. In case of an emergency, American citizens can contact the Embassy duty officer at 0830-0345.
For specific information concerning Rwandan driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax, and mandatory insurance, please contact the Rwandan Office of Tourism and National Parks, B.P. 905, Kigali, Rwanda, telephone 250-76514, fax 250-76512.
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. Visit the web site of the country’s national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at http://www.gov.rw/.
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Rwanda, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Rwanda’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

In recent months, Rwandair, which charters aircraft to fly its routes, has had difficulties maintaining its schedule, resulting in delayed and cancelled flights which have left passengers stranded for extended periods.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Telephone communication to and from Rwanda is generally reliable. Cellular telephones and Internet connections are available in Kigali and large towns.
Non-biodegradable plastic bags have been banned in Rwanda, and travelers carrying them upon arrival at the Kayibanda International airport may have them confiscated and have to pay approximately $4 for a reusable cloth replacement.
International ATMs are not available in Rwanda. The Rwandan franc is freely exchangeable for hard currencies in banks and the Bureaux de Change. Several Kigali banks can handle wire transfers from U.S. banks, including Western Union. Credit cards are accepted at only a few hotels in Kigali and only to settle hotel bills. Hotels currently accepting credit cards for payment include the Kigali Serena (formerly Intercontinental) Hotel, the Hotel des Mille Collines, the Novotel Umubano, Stipp Hotel and the Kivu Sun Hotel. Note that there may be an added fee for using a credit card. Travelers should expect to handle most expenses, including air tickets, in cash.

Traveler's checks can be cashed only at commercial banks. Because some travelers have had difficulty using U.S. currency printed before the year 2000, the Embassy recommends traveling with newer U.S. currency notes.
Please see our Customs Information.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Rwandan laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Rwanda are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.
The U.S. Embassy provides some information on its website about criminal justice in Rwanda.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction. Both foreigners and Rwandans taking Rwandan children to live outside Rwanda, e.g., after adoption, must obtain an exit permission letter from the Ministry of Family and Gender located within the Primature complex at P.O. Box 969, Kigali, Rwanda; Tel: 011-250-587-128; Fax: 011-250-587-127.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Rwanda are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration website so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Rwanda. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located at 2657 Avenue de la Gendarmerie; the mailing address is B.P. 28, Kigali, Rwanda; tel. (250) 596-400,; fax: (250) 596-591. The Consular Section’s email address is consularkigali@state.gov. The Embassy's web site is http://rwanda.usembassy.gov/. American Citizen Services hours are Tuesdays from 9:00 -17:00 and Fridays from 9:00 - 12:00 except on U.S. and Rwandan holidays.
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information for Rwanda dated October 4, 2007, to update sections on Country Description, Entry/Exit Requirements, Safety and Security, Information for Victims of Crime, Medical Facilities and Health Information, Traffic Safety and Road Conditions, Aviation Safety Oversight, Criminal Penalties, Children’s Issues, and Registration/Embassy Location.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Tue 6 Aug 2018
Source: New Times (Kigali, Rwanda) [summ., edited]
<https://www.newtimes.co.rw/news/livestock-vaccinations>

Livestock farmers have appealed to the government to ensure that cows get timely vaccination in order to effectively control deadly epidemics in cattle. The appeal comes after an outbreak of Rift Valley Fever [RVF] -- a deadly and infectious viral disease -- killed 154 cows countrywide since May [2018], according to figures from Rwanda Agricultural Board (RAB). Gahiga Gashumba, the chairman of Rwanda National Dairy Farmers' Federation, told The New Times that in their performance contracts, districts set themselves targets to inoculate cows, which leaves a gap in achieving effective vaccination.

Efforts to contain the recent outbreak of RVF included vaccinating 257 902 cows countrywide of which 119 520 were from Ngoma, Kirehe, and Kayonza -- the hardest hit by the disease. "All cows should be vaccinated at least in areas prone to given diseases," Gashumba said adding, "We need a clear vaccination calendar detailing the cows that should be immunised in a given period of time. When there are heavy rains, we should be prepared of [immunising cows against] East Coast fever."

Also known as theileriosis, East Coast fever is a deadly tickborne disease in cattle. Ngoma district vice mayor for Finance and Economic Development, Jean Marie Vianney Rwiririza, said that this year [2018], they want many cows to get vaccines against different diseases, including RVF and foot and mouth disease [FMD]. "With using funds from the district's budget alone, we cannot manage to give vaccines to all cows.

We request farmers' cooperatives and the farmers themselves to partake in the activity so that all the cows can be inoculated," he told The New Times. In Kirehe district, there are over 52 000 cows and over 30 000 of them were vaccinated against different diseases, including Rift Valley fever in the 2017/2018 financial year, according to Jean Damascane Nsengiyumva, Kirehe district vice mayor for Finance and Economic Development. "We have increased funding for the vaccination activity so that we inject all cows which we should vaccinate because we do not want the recurrence of such a problem," he said referring to RVF.

Rwanda Agriculture Board (RAB) said that they do not vaccinate all the cows because it can be wastage of resources or poor management when vaccination is done in areas where a disease has not been reported while it can be contained by vaccinating livestock in the risk zone. Instead of spending money on vaccinating all cows, currently estimated at over a million countrywide, appropriate strategies are devised to control the spread of outbreaks, said RAB director general Dr Patrick Karangwa. "We give more attention to diseases that spread faster than others. We do impact assessment based on spread pattern of a disease.

If a disease can be transmitted through air, measures taken to prevent its spreading should be different from the disease that cows or people catch through contact," Karangwa said. He cited FMD which often affects cattle on areas bordering Tanzania, such as Gatsibo, Kayonza, and Nyagatare, observing that when the disease has been checked in those areas, it dose spread elsewhere, pointing out that if all cows in the country are vaccinated, all the funds used [for the development of the livestock] sector might be consumed by such a single activity. Some vaccines are given free of charge, while others have to be paid for by farmers with government subsidy. [byline: Emmanuel Ntirenganya]
=======================
[RVF has become, according to local media, active in Rwanda in April 2018, as reported from the districts of Ngoma, Kirehe, and Kayonza, in the south west of the Eastern province. It was expressed mainly by cattle death and abortions. Later, Kamonyi, a southern province was added. The Rwandan Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources announced on [Mon 30 Jul 2018] the lifting of the ban imposed since mid-June [2018] on the movement of cattle in several parts of Eastern province. According to the ministry, 99 of the 147 604 cows in the affected districts died, and 452 aborted. This differs from other statistics from various sources, including the 154 deaths in cattle, as mentioned in the above media report, quoting the Rwanda Agricultural Board.

Official statistics are expected to be included in Rwanda's RVF report to the OIE, which all member countries are obliged to submit. In the absence of data on the number of susceptible animals on the affected holdings, the mortality rate in cattle is not known. Based on accumulated field observations and experimental RVF infection trials, the mortality in adult cattle would, generally, not exceed 10 per cent. No human cases have been reported in Rwanda during the recent event. Vaccination of livestock against RVF can be applied either with a live attenuated (Smithburn) vaccine (relatively cheap, several years immunity rendered, but may cause foetal abnormalities or abortion in pregnant animals).

Alternatively, particularly in pregnant animals, an inactivated (formalin-killed) RVF vaccine can be selected (more costly, safer in all breeds/ages/reproductive stages of cattle, sheep, and goats, but requires a booster 3-6 months after the initial vaccination, then followed by yearly boosters). For the considerations related to vaccine policies, vaccines to be selected, and other tools for the prevention and control of RVF under various epidemiological situations, please refer to references 1-3.

References
------------------------------
1. Consultative Group for RVF Decision Support. Decision-support tool for prevention and control of Rift Valley fever epizootics in the Greater Horn of Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010. 83(2 Suppl): 75-85. DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.2010.83s2a03; <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2913494/>.

2. Anonymous. Risk-based decision-support framework for prevention and control of Rift Valley fever epidemics in eastern Africa. EU Collaborative Project, Seventh Framework Programme. 2015. (Grant Agreement no. 266327); <http://www.healthyfutures.eu/images/healthy/deliverables/d5.4%20risk-based%20decision-support%20framework.pdf>.

3. Mariner J. Rift Valley fever surveillance. FAO animal production and health manual no. 21. Rome: FAO. 80 pages; <http://www.fao.org/3/i8475en/I8475EN.pdf>. - ProMED Mod.AS]

[Maps of Rwanda: <http://www.geographicguide.com/pictures/map-rwanda.jpg>
and <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/173>.]
Date: Mon 30 Jul 2018
Source: Journalducameroun.com, APA News report [summ., edited]
<https://www.journalducameroun.com/en/rift-valley-fever-rwanda-lifts-quarantine-on-cattle-movement/>

The Rwandan Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources, on [Mon 30 Jul 2018] announced it was lifting the quarantine on the movement of cattle that was imposed to control the deadly Rift Valley fever [RVF] in several parts of Eastern province. A quarantine on cattle in the country's 4 affected eastern districts has been imposed since mid-June [2018] after about 100 heads of cattle were killed by the virus. In a notice issued [Mon 30 Jul 2018], the minister Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources, Gérardine Mukeshimana, said the quarantine is no longer serving the purpose of slowing the spread of the deadly Rift Valley fever.

Reports indicate that the outbreak was first detected on 18 May 2018 in 4 districts in Eastern Rwanda including Ngoma, Kirehe, Rwamagana, and Kayonza. Of the 147 604 cows in the affected districts, the ministry says 99 died while 452 aborted. The ministry says it has treated 1638 cows, with 36 930 sheep and 245 goats vaccinated against the disease. To combat further deaths among animals, the ministry says it has dispatched veterinary doctors across the affected districts. Official reports indicate that no human case has been reported so far in Rwanda, yet the number of affected livestock is thought to be much higher.

According to the Director General of Rwanda Agriculture Board (RAB), Dr Patrick Karangwa, the cause of the outbreak is unusually heavy rains, which have created ponds and lakes where mosquitoes can breed, in this region which is normally dry. "Most human infections result from contact with the blood or organs of infected animals", Dr Karangwa said.
========================
[RVF, expressed mainly by cattle death and abortions, became active in Rwanda in April 2018, in the districts of Ngoma, Kirehe and Kayonza, in the southwest of the Eastern Province. Later, Kamonyi, a southern province was added.

An administrative map of Rwanda and detailed districts maps are available at
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Districts_of_Rwanda#Eastern_Province>.

In the absence of data on the number of susceptible animals on the affected holdings, the mortality rate in cattle is not known. Based on accumulated field observations and experimental RVF infection trials, the mortality in adult cattle would, generally, not exceed 10 percent. No human cases have been reported in Rwanda during the recent event. The tests upon which RVF, an OIE-listed disease, has been confirmed and statistics pertaining to the number, locations, morbidity, and mortality rates in Rwanda's animal population, are expected to be included in an official report to the OIE, as anticipated from all OIE member countries. - ProMED Mod.AS]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Eastern Province, Rwanda:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/15277>]
Date: Sun, 11 Mar 2018 11:43:19 +0100

Kigali, March 11, 2018 (AFP) - At least 16 people were killed and dozens more injured after lightning struck a Seventh-Day Adventist church in Rwanda, a local official said Sunday.   Fourteen victims were killed on the spot as lightning hit the church in the Nyaruguru district in the Southern Province on Saturday, local mayor Habitegeko Francois told AFP over the phone.

Two others died later from their injuries, he said.   He added that 140 people involved in the incident had been rushed to hospital and district health centres, but that many had already been discharged.   "Doctors say that only three of them are in critical condition but they are getting better," he said.   According to the mayor, a similar accident took place on Friday when lightning struck a group of 18 students, killing one of them.
Date: Wed, 26 Jul 2017 11:31:06 +0200
By Fran BLANDY

Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda, July 26, 2017 (AFP) - Nicaraguan singer Hernaldo Zuniga brought his entire family to trek through the lush forests and mist-shrouded volcanoes of northwestern Rwanda in search of mountain gorillas.   He described their encounter with the critically endangered primates as "an almost spiritual" experience, and said it was the only reason they made Rwanda a stop on a trip taking in a safari in Kenya, and a tour of South Africa.

But Rwanda is no longer content with being a whirlwind stop on a tourist's itinerary, and is working hard to broaden its appeal beyond its world-famous mountain gorillas while narrowing its niche market to the wealthiest of visitors.   Zuniga counts himself lucky that his family of five scored their permits to see the gorillas before Rwanda's eyebrow-raising move to double the cost to $1,500 (1,300 euros) per person in May.   "I think that is going to be a drawback for many people. It is just going to be an elite group of people who can pay that," said Zuniga, a well-known star in Latin America.

For Rwanda however, the price hike is part of a careful strategy to boost conservation efforts while positioning itself as a luxury tourist destination.   "The idea behind (the increase) is that it is an exclusive experience which also needs to be limited in numbers. Our tourism is very much based on natural resources and we are very serious about conservation," said Clare Akamanzi, the chief executive of the Rwanda Development Board.   It is a high-value, low-impact strategy that has worked well for countries such as Botswana and Bhutan.

- Safe and clean -
The remote, mountainous border area straddling Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda is the only place in the world where one can see the gorillas, whose numbers have slowly increased to nearly 900 due to conservation efforts.   Permits in the DRC ($400) and Uganda ($600) are far cheaper, but Rwandan officials are not concerned that they will lose tourists to their neighbours, arguing the country offers an experience that is rare in the region.   Ever since the devastating 1994 genocide in which 800,000 mainly Tutsis were killed, the country has been praised for a swift economic turnaround.   "When you come to Rwanda it is a clean, organised, safe country with zero tolerance for corruption. We have concentrated on creating a good experience," said Akamanzi, also highlighting a quick visa process.

The challenge is getting tourists to make Rwanda their main destination, and spend more than the usual four days it takes to visit the gorillas and maybe the genocide museum before heading elsewhere.   "We want to keep it high-end as an anchor for tourism but provide other offerings," said Akamanzi. She said tourism is already the country's top foreign exchange earner, but believes they "have only scratched the surface".   So the country, known as the Land of a Thousand Hills is looking into sports tourism such as cycling, cultural tourism and becoming a Big Five safari destination in its own right.   In the past two years Rwanda has re-introduced both lions and rhino to its Akagera National Park -- which had gone extinct due to poor conservation -- and visitor numbers to the reserve have doubled, said Akamanzi.

- 'There will be an impact' -
However gorillas remain the main lure, and industry players are concerned about the impact the price increase could have on the whole tourism chain.   "We risk losing substantial revenue for the industry and government as a whole. Currently a number of gorilla permits are already not sold in the low season," the Rwanda Tours and Travel Association (RTTA) said in a statement after the decision was announced.   Mid-range hotels around the Volcanoes National Park say it is too soon to tell what the fallout will be, but several managers expressed concerns they would lose their main clientele.   "Either way there will be an impact," said Fulgence Nkwenprana, who runs the La Palme hotel.

Aloys Kamanzi, a guide with Individual Tours, acknowledged there has been an initial slowdown in reservations, but is convinced people will keep coming, adding his clients are mostly "retired tourists who have saved their whole lives", some of whom come three or four times.   The singer Zuniga said coming to Rwanda was a hard decision, as he had not heard much about what the country was like today from Mexico, where he lives with his family.   "Rwanda has a lot of sensitive echoes in my generation, the genocide ... we had to cross over all these personal obstacles to make the decision to come here," he said.   "They have to do better in promoting their tourism. Once you are here it is amazing, the people are unique, the country is beautiful. I would like to stay longer."
Date: Tue, 2 May 2017 16:29:01 +0200
By Cyril BELAUD

Kigali, May 2, 2017 (AFP) - Around 20 of Africa's endangered Eastern black rhinos are returning in an "extraordinary homecoming" to Rwanda after the species disappeared there 10 years ago, the African Parks organisation said Tuesday.   The rhinos are being moved from South Africa to the Akagera national park in eastern Rwanda, according to the non-profit group that manages protected areas for African governments.   "This extraordinary homecoming will take place over the first two weeks of May," it said in a statement.   The Eastern black rhino, one of the sub-species of the rhinoceros, is in critical danger of extinction, according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).   Back in the 1970s, more than 50 black rhinos thrived in the savannah habitat of the Akagera park, but their numbers declined due to wide-scale poaching and the last confirmed sighting was in 2007.

- 'Great symbol of Africa' -
"Rhinos are one of the great symbols of Africa yet they are severely threatened and are on the decline in many places across the continent due to the extremely lucrative and illegal rhino horn trade," said African Parks CEO Peter Fearnhead.    According to the conservationists, there are fewer than 5,000 black rhino in the wild worldwide, with only about 1,000 of the Eastern sub-species.

Since 2010 African Parks has boosted security at  Akagera and has prepared to accept the rhinos with financial help from the Howard Buffett Foundation, headed by the son of US billionaire Warren Buffett.   The measures taken include deploying a helicopter for air surveillance and an expert rhino tracking and protection team as well as a canine anti-poaching unit.   "We are fully prepared to welcome them (rhinos) and ensure their safety for the benefit of our tourism industry and the community at large," said Clare Akamanzi, chief executive of the Rwanda Development Board.

In July 2015, Rwanda had reintroduced lions in the Akagera park, 15 years after they had disappeared. The lions were decimated in the years after Rwanda's genocide in 1994 as Rwandans who had fled the slaughter returned and occupied the park killing the lions to protect their livestock.   The park, which takes its name from the nearby Kagera river, is located near the border with Tanzania.   With the reintroduction of the rhinos, Akagera, which welcomed more than 36,000 visitors last year, will now boast being home to Africa's "big five" -- rhino, lion, elephant, leopard and buffalo.
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Puerto Rico

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Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Tue, 24 Sep 2019 07:27:34 +0200 (METDST)

Miami, Sept 24, 2019 (AFP) - A strong 6.0 magnitude struck off the northwest coast of Puerto Rico late Monday, the United States Geological Survey said, although no casualties or damage were reported.   The quake struck 62km northwest of San Antonio at 11:23 pm local time (03:20 GMT) at a depth of 10km, the agency said.  San Antonio is home to Rafael Hernandez Airport, a key air link to the mainland US.    In 2010 nearby Haiti was struck by a devastating 7.0 magnitude earthquake that killed more than 250,000 people and crippled the nation's infrastructure.
Date: Mon, 12 Feb 2018 05:54:19 +0100

San Juan, Feb 12, 2018 (AFP) - Most of San Juan and a strip of northern Puerto Rico municipalities were plunged into darkness Sunday night after an explosion at a power station, five months after two hurricanes destroyed the island's electricity network.

The state electric power authority (AEE) said the blast was caused by a broken-down switch in Rio Piedras, resulting in a blackout in central San Juan and Palo Seco in the north.   "We have personnel working to restore the system as soon as possible," the AEE said.   San Juan's mayor, Carmen Yulin Cruz, said on Twitter that emergency services and local officials attended the scene in the neighbourhood of Monacillos, but no injuries were reported.

Meanwhile, the Puerto Rican capital's airport said it was maintaining its schedule using emergency generators.   The blackout comes as nearly 500,000 of AEE's 1.6 million customers remain without power since Hurricanes Irma and Maria struck the US territory in September 2017.   AEE engineer Jorge Bracero warned on Twitter that the outage was "serious," and advised those affected that power would not be restored until Monday.
Date: Wed, 13 Dec 2017 03:08:12 +0100
By Leila MACOR

Fajardo, Puerto Rico, Dec 13, 2017 (AFP) - Until Hurricane Maria hit Puerto Rico, Jose Figueroa did brisk business renting kayaks to tourists itching to see a lagoon that lights up by night thanks to millions of microorganisms.   Today, things are so dire he's considering selling water to motorists stopped at red lights.   "Now we are trying to survive," the 46-year-old tour guide said.

It used to be that visitors had to reserve a month in advance to get one of his kayaks and paddle around in the dark on the enchanting, bioluminescent body of water called Laguna Grande.   But tourists are scarce these days as the Caribbean island tries to recover from the ravages of the storm back in September.   "We do not know if we will have any work tonight," Figueroa said. "Last week, we worked only one day."    He and another employee of a company called Glass Bottom PR are cleaning kayaks on the seaside promenade of Fajardo, a tourist town in eastern Puerto Rico whose main attraction is the so-called Bio Bay.

The year started off well for Puerto Rico, with the global success of the song "Despacito" by local musicians Luis Fonsi and Daddy Yankee.   The catchy tune helped promote the US commonwealth island of 3.4 million people, which is saddled with huge debts and declared bankruptcy in May.    But the hurricane turned what should be an island bustling with tourists into one with deserted beaches, shuttered restaurants and hotels full of mainland US officials working on the rebuilding of the island.   "What few tourists we have are the federal officials themselves," said Figueroa.

- Locals only -
The grim outlook spreads up and down the seaside promenade of Fajardo, where many restaurants are closed because there is no electricity.   On this particular day around noon, the only restaurant open is one called Racar Seafood. It has its own emergency generator.   "We get by on local tourists," said its 61-year-old owner, Justino Cruz.   "Our clients are local -- those who have no electricity, no generator, cold food or no food."

Puerto Rico's once-devastated power grid is now back up to 70 percent capacity, but this is mainly concentrated in the capital San Juan.   So while inland towns that depend on tourism are struggling mightily, things are getting better in San Juan as cruise ships are once again docking.   On November 30, the first cruise ship since the storm arrived with thousands of vacationers on board. They were received with great fanfare -- quite literally, with trumpet blaring and cymbals crashing.

- Pitching in to help -
The World Travel & Tourism Council, based in London, says tourism accounted for about eight percent of Puerto Rico's GDP in 2016, or $8.1 billion.   Hurricane Maria's damage has been uneven. Although some tour guides now have no work and many eateries are shut down, hotels that have their own generators are doing just fine.   Thanks to the thousands of US government officials and reconstruction crew members that came in after the storm, the hotels that are open -- about 80 percent of the total -- are pretty much full.

These people are starting to leave the island this month but hotels may receive tourists around Christmas, at least in San Juan, where power has for the most part been restored.   The hurricane "undoubtedly cost billions in lost revenue," said Jose Izquierdo, executive director of the Puerto Rico Tourism Company.    But Izquierdo nevertheless says he is "optimistic" and suggests an alternative: put tourists to work as volunteers in the gargantuan reconstruction effort that the island needs.   "We want to look for travellers who want to travel with a purpose, who might have the commitment to help rebuild," said Izquierdo.

The program, called "Meaningful Travel" and launched in mid-November, organizes trips on which residents, Puerto Ricans living abroad and tourists are invited to help the island get back on its feet.   "The plan aims to create empathy with this tourist destination," said Izquierdo.    "We want to be like New Orleans after Katrina, where 10 years after the hurricane, tourism is the driving force of its economy. We want to build that narrative of recovery," he added.   "There are different ways in which the world wants to help Puerto Rico. The best way is to visit us."
Date: Thu, 9 Nov 2017 12:39:04 +0100
By Marcos PÉREZ RAMÍREZ

San Juan, Nov 9, 2017 (AFP) - Andrea Olivero, 11, consults her classmate Ada about an exercise during their daily English class at San Juan's Sotero Figueroa Elementary School. The task: list the positive and negative aspects of Hurricane Maria's passing almost two months ago.

The girls only have to look around. There is no electricity and they "roast" in the heat, Andrea says. At the back of the room, computers and televisions collect dust.   "We would like to move past the topic of the hurricane a bit. It is already getting repetitive," Andrea told AFP.   She is one of more than 300,000 pupils in the public education system, although only half of schools are functioning. Barely 42 per cent of Puerto Ricans have electricity seven weeks after Maria struck, killing at least 51 in the American territory.

The lack of power has prompted disorienting timetable changes on the tropical island, to avoid both the hottest hours of the day and the use of dining facilities.   "The children are very anxious. We manage to make progress in lessons and they change the hours again. Everything is messed up and we fall behind," English teacher Joan Rodriguez explained.   "We can't use the computers to illustrate classes," she said. "They are reading the novel "Charlotte's Web," and we wanted to do exercises comparing it to the film version. But we cannot use the television.

- Suspicions -
From October 23, some directors reopened their schools in the western region of Mayaguez and San Juan.   But last Thursday, the Department of Education ordered their closure, insisting they must be evaluated by engineering and architectural firms, then certified by the US Army Corps of Engineers.   One of those schools was Vila Mayo, also in San Juan. The community presumed it would open, as it had been used as a shelter, its electrical infrastructure had been inspected and it had not suffered structural damage.

But Luis Orengo, the education department's director in San Juan, told protesters outside the school it was closed as inspectors' findings had not reached the central government.   "This is unacceptable! The school is ready to give classes but they don't want to open it. Our children cannot lose a year," fumed Enid Guzman, who protested with her 11-year-old son, Reanny De la Cruz.   There are suspicions the stalled reopening of schools is, in part, related to the prior closure of 240 schools over the past year during Puerto Rico's long-running financial crisis.   The fiscal difficulties have seen the island's population drop over the past decade by 14 percent, leading in turn to a fall in school enrolment.

Before the storms, 300 schools were at risk of closure -- and for the president of Puerto Rico's federation of teachers, Mercedes Martinez, the government's aim is clear.   "Secretary (Julia) Keleher seems to have an orchestrated plan to close schools," she said, referring to the education secretary. "Why do you have to wait 30 days to get a certification so a school can open?"   Keleher has announced she expects most schools to be open by the middle of November.
Date: Tue 24 Oct 2017
Source: KFOR Oklahoma News4 [edited]

Puerto Rico has reported at least 76 cases of suspected and confirmed leptospirosis, including a handful of deaths, in the month after Hurricane Maria, said Dr. Carmen Deseda, the state epidemiologist for Puerto Rico.

Two deaths involved leptospirosis confirmed through laboratory testing, and "several other" deaths are pending test results, Deseda said. The 76 cases, up from 74 last week, also include one patient with confirmed leptospirosis who is currently hospitalized.

The island typically sees between 63 and 95 cases per year, she said. Health officials had expected that there would be a jump after the hurricane. "It's neither an epidemic nor a confirmed outbreak," Public Affairs Secretary Ramon Rosario Cortes said at a news conference Sunday [22 Oct 2017]. "But obviously, we are making all the announcements as though it were a health emergency."

Leptospirosis may be treated with antibiotics, but many people recover on their own. "The majority of leptospirosis cases is a mild, subclinical disease with no complications," Deseda said. "But one out of 10 people who have leptospirosis develop severe illness." In the 1st stage of leptospirosis, symptoms vary widely from fever and headache to red eyes and rashes. Some people may have no symptoms at all. But a small number will develop dire complications: meningitis, kidney and liver damage, bleeding in the lungs and even death.

Doctors are required to report any potential leptospirosis cases to health authorities, Deseda said. Those cases must then be tested to confirm the bacteria, since the symptoms can be difficult to tell apart from other illnesses. After that, health officials may look for patterns or clusters and determine whether there is an outbreak.

The lab tests on the suspected cases have been sent to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Deseda said. The turnaround time is about 5-6 days.

Doctors on the island have expressed concerns about burgeoning health crises amid hospitals that are overwhelmed, undersupplied and sometimes burning hot. Influenza is another concern on the horizon, Deseda said. Drinking water is also hard to come by on many parts of the island.

Dr. Raul Hernandez, an internist in San Juan, told CNN that people were drinking water from whatever sources they could find, such as rivers and creeks. If that water contains urine from a [leptospirosis-infected rat], those people will be at risk, he said.

Deseda said people should be discouraged from walking barefoot, drinking or swimming in potentially leptospirosis-contaminated waters.

"These diseases are everywhere, and there's a way to prevent them," she said.
=====================
[Leptospirosis is a zoonotic, spirochetal infection that occurs worldwide and is transmitted to humans by exposure to soil or fresh water contaminated with the urine of wild and domestic animals (including dogs, cattle, swine, and especially rodents) that are chronically infected with pathogenic _Leptospira_. _Leptospira_ may survive in contaminated fresh water or moist soil for weeks to months. Outbreaks of leptospirosis frequently follow heavy rainfall, flooding with fresh water, and increasing rodent numbers.

Parts of Puerto Rico saw more than 30 inches of rain and consequent flooding with recent Hurricane Maria. A map showing the estimated rainfall across Puerto Rico with this hurricane is available at <https://twitter.com/NWSSanJuan/status/910983698597777409/photo/1?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw&ref_url>.

With continued absence of potable water, inadequate sanitation, and flooding in the streets for a large proportion of the population in Puerto Rico, food- and water-borne diseases, like leptospirosis, will be a major problem. - ProMED Mod.ML]

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
More ...

Tuvalu

Tuvalu US Consular Information Sheet
December 17, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Tuvalu is a South Pacific island nation consisting of four reef islands and five atolls.
A self governing member of the British Commonwealth, Tuvalu has a par
iamentary system of government.
Read the Department of State Background Notes on Tuvalu for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport, onward/return ticket, and proof of sufficient funds for the stay in Tuvalu are required.
Visitor permits valid for up to three months are issued upon arrival.
For further information about entry requirements, travelers may wish to contact the Tuvalu Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York, Suite 400 B, 800 2nd Avenue, NY 10017, tel.: (212) 490-0534, fax: (212) 808-4975.
This is particularly true for those persons planning to enter by sea.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Americans in Tuvalu requiring immediate emergency assistance should call the 24-hour police command center in Tuvalu at (688) 20726.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll-free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
Tuvalu has a low crime rate.
However, visitors should not be complacent regarding personal safety or the protection of valuables.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate for assistance.
The embassy/consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds may be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Medical and dental care is very limited in Tuvalu, including in the capital, Funafuti.
Serious medical problems are referred to Guam or Hawaii.
Serious medical conditions requiring hospitalization and/or medical evacuation to the United States can cost thousands of dollars.
Doctors and hospitals often expect immediate cash payment for health services.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

HIV/AIDS restrictions:
The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Tuvalu.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Tuvalu is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Traffic moves on the left in Tuvalu.
The main roads on Funafuti have been paved, but roads on these tiny islands are generally unpaved.
Animals and unwary pedestrians walking in the road make night driving on unlit secondary roads hazardous.
For specific information concerning Tuvalu driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, contact the Tuvalu Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
Visit the website of the country’s national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Tuvalu, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Tuvalu’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
In Tuvalu, the Australian dollar is the legal currency.
Traveler’s checks and all major currencies are accepted by banks and may also be exchanged for local currency at some local hotels.
Although Visa and MasterCard are accepted at most hotels, connectivity problems often make credit card payments impossible.
Travelers should be prepared to pay cash for hotel bills.
Tuvalu’s customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from Tuvalu of items such as agricultural products.
It is advisable to contact the Office of the Tuvalu Permanent Representative in New York, for specific information regarding customs requirements.
U.S. citizens are encouraged to carry a copy of their U.S. passports with them at all times, so that, if questioned by local officials, proofs of identity and U.S. citizenship are readily available.
If detained, U.S. citizens are encouraged to request that a consular officer at the U.S. Embassy in Suva, Fiji, be notified.

Please see our Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Tuvalu’s laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession or, use of, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Tuvalu are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
There is no U.S. Embassy or diplomatic post in Tuvalu.
The U.S. Embassy in Fiji provides assistance for U.S. citizens in Tuvalu.
Americans living or traveling in Tuvalu are encouraged to register with the U.S. Embassy in Suva through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Tuvalu.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the U.S. Embassy in Suva, Fiji.
The U.S. Embassy in Fiji is located at 31 Loftus Street in the capital city of Suva.
The telephone number is (679) 331-4466; the fax number is (679) 330-2267.
Information may also be obtained by visiting the Embassy’s home page at http://samoa.usembassy.gov.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.
*

*

*
This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated June 16, 2008, to update Medical Facilities and Health Information, and Special Circumstances.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

10 Aug 2019

Dengue1 outbreak declared on the 27 Mar 2019; 509 dengue-like illness (DLI) cases were reported in Funafuti from 25 Mar-3 Aug [2019], and 210 of them were confirmed. DLI cases in Funafuti peaked in weeks 14, 19, and 25. Only one (1) DLI suspected case was reported on Funafuti week 31. DLI cases from the Southern Outer Islands (OIs) follow the same downward trend now as in Funafuti but had peaked twice and at higher levels from Funafuti since end of June [2019] (week 26). Demographics: age range: 0-65 years; female: male ratio: 1:1.2; total average: 58%; median age: 9 years; majority of cases are children (5-9yrs).

HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Tuvalu:
Date: Fri, 9 Feb 2018 11:06:04 +0100

Wellington, Feb 9, 2018 (AFP) - The Pacific nation of Tuvalu -- long seen as a prime candidate to disappear as climate change forces up sea levels -- is actually growing in size, new research shows.   A University of Auckland study examined changes in the geography of Tuvalu's nine atolls and 101 reef islands between 1971 and 2014, using aerial photographs and satellite imagery.   It found eight of the atolls and almost three-quarters of the islands grew during the study period, lifting Tuvalu's total land area by 2.9 percent, even though sea levels in the country rose at twice the global average.

Co-author Paul Kench said the research, published Friday in the journal Nature Communications, challenged the assumption that low-lying island nations would be swamped as the sea rose.   "We tend to think of Pacific atolls as static landforms that will simply be inundated as sea levels rise, but there is growing evidence these islands are geologically dynamic and are constantly changing," he said.   "The study findings may seem counter-intuitive, given that (the) sea level has been rising in the region over the past half century, but the dominant mode of change over that time on Tuvalu has been expansion, not erosion."   It found factors such as wave patterns and sediment dumped by storms could offset the erosion caused by rising water levels.

The Auckland team says climate change remains one of the major threats to low-lying island nations.   But it argues the study should prompt a rethink on how such countries respond to the problem.   Rather than accepting their homes are doomed and looking to migrate to countries such as Australia and New Zealand, the researchers say they should start planning for a long-term future.   "On the basis of this research we project a markedly different trajectory for Tuvalu's islands over the next century than is commonly envisaged," Kench said.   "While we recognise that habitability rests on a number of factors, loss of land is unlikely to be a factor in forcing depopulation of Tuvalu."

The study's authors said island nations needed to find creative solutions to adapt to climate change that take into account their homeland's evolving geography.   Suggestions included moving populations onto larger islands and atolls, which have proved the most stable and likely to grow as seas rise.   "Embracing such new adaptation pathways will present considerable national scale challenges to planning, development goals and land tenure systems," they said.   "However, as the data on island change shows there is time (decades) to confront these challenges."
Date: Mon 3 Oct 2011
Source: Central News Agency (CNA) report [edited]

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) [of Taiwan] issued a yellow travel alert for Tuvalu Monday 3 Oct 2011, after suspected cases of cholera were reported in the Pacific island nation. The alert, the 2nd-least serious in the MOFA's 4-color travel advisory system, warns travelers there to heighten vigilance over their personal safety and advises would-be visitors to have 2nd thoughts about their travel plans.

The MOFA noted that Tuvalu is suffering from a drought and has declared a state of emergency due to a severe shortage of fresh water. Anyone traveling in Tuvalu should be on guard and should pay close attention to hygiene conditions, the MOFA said.  [Byline: Emmanelle Tzeng, Lilian Wu]
====================
[The Tuvalu Islands are located in the Western Pacific and have had no reported cases of cholera since the early 1990s based on the Weekly Epidemiologic Report (WER) of WHO. In WER, Tuvalu had 27 cases in 1990 and 293 cases in 1992.

The current severe drought involving the islands causes the small population to seek alternative sources of water, which are more likely to be less safe. - ProMed Mod.LL]

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map showing the location of Tuvalu can be seen at
<http://healthmap.org/r/1j9Q>. - ProMed Sr.Tech.Ed.MJ]
Date: Mon, 3 Oct 2011 08:49:22 +0200 (METDST)

Wellington, Oct 3, 2011 (AFP) - The tiny Pacific nation of Tuvalu has declared a state of emergency due to severe water shortages, prompting New Zealand to airlift in fresh supplies, officials in Wellington said Monday. New Zealand Foreign Minister Murray McCully said an air force transport plane carrying containers of water and two desalination units arrived in Tuvalu on Monday.

"Tuvalu has declared a state of emergency relating to water shortages in the capital, Funafuti, and a number of outer islands," McCully said in a statement. He said New Zealand officials were working with aid agencies including the Red Cross to ease the crisis in Tuvalu, one of the world's smallest independent nations with about 10,500 residents.

A Red Cross situation report released last week said the former British colony relied mostly on rainwater, which had been scarce this year because of a La Nina weather pattern across the Pacific. La Nina causes extreme weather, including both drought and floods, and was blamed for deluges in Australia, Southeast Asia and South America over late 2010 and early 2011.
Date: Fri, 7 Nov 2008 09:32:32 +0100 (MET)
 
SYDNEY, Nov 7, 2008 (AFP) - A strong earthquake with a magnitude of 6.4 struck off the south Pacific island of Vanuatu on Friday, but there was no immediate tsunami warning or reports of casualties, seismologists said.   The quake struck at 6:19 pm (0719 GMT), 320 kilometres (195 miles) north of the capital Port Vila, the US Geological Survey said.   The quake was registered at a depth of 35 kilometres.   Two aftershocks with magnitudes of 5.4 and 5.3 struck roughly the same spot in the next half-hour.   The Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre in Hawaii did not issue a tsunami alert for the region.   Vanuatu sits on the so-called Pacific Rim of Fire, where the meeting of continental plates causes high volcanic and seismic activity.
More ...

World Travel News Headlines

Fri 11/10/2019 14:43
WorldHealthOrganizationNews@who.int

Attributable to the Federal Ministry of Health in Sudan, WHO and UNICEF

KHARTOUM, 11 October 2019 -  "Sudan has launched an oral cholera vaccination campaign in response to the ongoing outbreak of cholera. More than 1.6 million people aged one year and above in the Blue Nile and Sinnar states will be vaccinated over the coming five days.  “The announcement of the Federal Ministry of Health in Sudan on the cholera outbreak last month allowed national and state authorities, and health partners, to act quickly and respond to the outbreak.

“Since the announcement on 8 September, 262 cases of suspected cholera and eight related deaths have been reported as of 9 October in the Blue Nile and Sinnar states. No cholera-related deaths have been reported since mid-September. “The vaccines were procured and successfully shipped using funding from Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. In addition, Gavi is providing nearly US$ 2 million to cover operational costs for the campaign.

“We joined efforts to respond as quickly as possible to contain the current outbreak of cholera and prevent it from spreading further in Sudan. The vaccination campaign kicking off today in combination with other measures including scaling up water, sanitation and hygiene activities, enhancing surveillance, prepositioning supplies and case management, will help protect people who are at highest risk.

“The first round of the campaign will conclude on 16 October and will be followed by a second round in four to six weeks to provide an additional dose to ensure people are protected for at least the next three years.  “As part of the campaign, over 3,560 vaccinators, more than 2,240 social mobilizers, and almost 70 independent monitors have been trained and deployed to the two affected states.”
Date: Sun, 20 Oct 2019 21:29:49 +0200 (METDST)

Paris, Oct 20, 2019 (AFP) - French rail services ground to a halt in parts of the country Sunday as workers walked off the job for a third day in a dispute over train staffing levels, stranding holiday travellers.   Services in the Paris suburbs, the northeastern Champagne-Ardenne region and the southern Occitanie region, which includes Toulouse and Montpellier, were particularly affected.   The state railway company SNCF said most services would return to normal on Monday.

The industrial action began on Friday after a train in north-eastern France slammed into a truck at a level crossing, injuring 11 people.  The train driver was himself among those hurt but being the sole employee of state railway company SNCF on board had to help take care of passengers.   Unions said the incident highlighted understaffing on trains, notably the absence of ticket inspectors on some lines.

Since Friday, staff have been exercising their "right to withdraw" their labour -- a clause that allows workers to walk off the job in case of "clear and present danger to their life or health".   SNCF's management has accused the workers of abusing that right on a busy weekend for train travel, at the start of the mid-autumn school holidays.   It argues that some train lines have not had ticket inspectors for decades.
Date: Sun, 20 Oct 2019 17:53:19 +0200 (METDST)

Frankfurt am Main, Oct 20, 2019 (AFP) - Cabin crew at four Lufthansa subsidiary airlines staged a day-long strike Sunday, causing dozens of cancellations at German airports in a battle for better pay and conditions.   The walkout, called by the UFO cabin crew union, was initially set to last from 5:00 am until 11:00 am (0300-0900 GMT) but a worsening spat with Lufthansa bosses prompted the union to extend the strike until midnight.

The industrial action at Eurowings, Germanwings, SunExpress and Lufthansa CityLine led to over 100 flight cancellations, mainly hitting short-haul journeys at Hamburg airport, Munich, Berlin-Tegel, Cologne and Stuttgart, according to DPA news agency.   Frankfurt airport, the country's busiest, reported "only a few" cancellations, affecting CityLine flights.

In a statement, UFO said it had ramped up the strike after the Lufthansa group told employees the walkouts were "illegal" and "endanger your jobs".   "This is not only wrong, it also signals the next level in the threats against cabin crew colleagues," UFO said. "This behaviour must be stopped."   But the Lufthansa group downplayed the impact of the strike, with a spokesman telling DPA that "more than 90 percent of the crew members showed up on time for their shift".

The union had previously called off plans for Lufthansa workers to join Sunday's warning strike after the company offered a surprise two-percent pay hike to flight attendants at the flagship airline.   But other demands for better conditions have yet to be met and UFO has not ruled out further action, with fresh talks at all five airlines scheduled for Monday.   Bosses at the Lufthansa group believe UFO may no longer have the legal right to speak for workers and have challenged its status in court.   Internal disputes at the union have cost it members and support among cabin crew, some of whom have now turned to other representative organisations.
Date: Sun, 20 Oct 2019 06:45:19 +0200 (METDST)

Niamey, Oct 20, 2019 (AFP) - Floods in southeast Niger have forced 23,000 people to flee their homes since early October, officials said Saturday, threatening a new humanitarian crisis in a region already wracked by Boko Haram Islamist violence.   Heavy rains have caused the Komadougou Yobe river that flows through the semi-desert Diffa region into Lake Chad to burst its banks, inundating villages, flooding fields and damaging crops.   Two villages near the city of Diffa were "completely submerged" and 2,500 households have been forced to move, according to national radio the Voice of the Sahel.

Some 400 families were sheltering in a gym in the city, it added.   "We have been fighting for days to stop the water rising, but it's not working," Amadou Issa, a rice farmer, told AFP. "The sandbags we've been using to keep the water out are completely under water."   Extreme weather events are common in Niger, one of the world's poorest countries.   Between June and September 57 people were killed and more than 130,000 affected by flooding according to government figures.

The capital Niamey was hit badly in September, with the waters of the Niger river -- the third biggest in Africa -- rising to a level not seen in more than 50 years and swamping parts of the city.   Last year, drought and flooding led to food shortages in a crisis which, exacerbated by jihadist violence, left more than 10 percent of the population needing humanitarian aid.   Niger, along with neighbouring Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali and Mauritania is also struggling against escalating attacks by armed Islamists.   According to the UN's human rights agency UNHCR, the Diffa region is home to almost 120,000 refugees and 109,000 internally displaced people.
Date: Fri, 18 Oct 2019 22:45:46 +0200 (METDST)

Washington, Oct 18, 2019 (AFP) - The US moved to further hurt Cuba's vital tourism industry by tightening the ability of the country's airlines to lease aircraft.   The US Department of Commerce said it was revoking existing licenses for US companies leasing aircraft to Cuban carriers, and will deny future applications for aircraft leases.   The move could make it harder for Cuba to service its rapidly growing tourism sector, a key source of foreign revenue for the poor country.

Washington has stepped up pressure on Havana due to its support for the embattled regime of Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro.   "This action by the Commerce Department sends another clear message to the Cuban regime -- that they must immediately cease their destructive behaviour at home and abroad," Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross said in a statement.

It was not immediately clear how many aircraft the move would impact.   Cuba's cash-poor carriers depend on aircraft rented from leasing companies or other airlines, which are often very old.   In May 2018, 112 people died in the crash of a 39-year-old Boeing 737 leased by national carrier Cubana de Aviacion from a small Mexican firm, Global Air.

In June of this year, US President Donald Trump announced a US ban on cruise ship stopovers by Americans on the island, forcing Havana to cut its 2019 tourism target by 15 percent to 4.3 million visitors.   Nearly 900,000 tourists visited the island on cruise ships last year, and almost 40 percent were American, according to official figures.   The announcement Friday also expanded restrictions on imports from Cuba and on products with US content that can be sold to the country.
Date: Fri, 18 Oct 2019 15:43:29 +0200 (METDST)

Accra, Oct 18, 2019 (AFP) - Floods caused by eight days of torrential downpours in north-eastern Ghana have left 28 people dead and displaced hundreds, officials said Friday.     "At the moment the death toll is 28. About 640 people in some six communities have been displaced and we are providing shelters for them," George Ayisi, spokesman for the National Disaster Management Organisation, told AFP.    "We've counted about 286 collapsed houses during this disaster and that is making life difficult for the people."

Relief items were being transported 800 kilometres (500 miles) by road from the capital Accra to the affected region on the border with Burkina Faso as meteorologists warned the rains could last into November.    "We have to just prepare for anything," Ayisi said.   So far this year 46 people have been killed in floods in the West African nation, the disaster relief agency said.   Flooding in northern and other parts of Ghana happens each year during the rainy season.    Last year, 34 people died in northern Ghana during flooding caused by heavy rains and waters spilling from a dam in Burkina Faso.
Date: Fri, 18 Oct 2019 04:33:10 +0200 (METDST)
By Patrick FORT

Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, Oct 18, 2019 (AFP) - "They've placed us in the red zone, which means the tourists aren't coming like before. Even the aid workers don't come," said Antoine Atiou, governor of Burkina Faso's Hauts-Bassins region.   The "red zone" refers to the risk of jihadist attacks -- a top-end warning by Western embassies to travellers wanting to visit southwest Burkina and the economic capital, Bobo-Dioulasso, once a popular tourist destination.   The impact has been brutal for local businesses. The city's hotels have emptied, its heritage sites are quiet and the souvenir shops shuttered.    "It's hard, hard, hard!... We haven't seen a tourist for a fortnight," said Sanou Moumouni, a guide at the city's mosque and in the historic Kibidwe district for 22 years.   In the past he could sometimes earn 100,000 CFA francs ($167, 150 euros) in two days, he said, but he has not made 5,000 francs in the last three months.    "I'm living on loans," he said. "We no longer have work because of the murderers. We're sick of it."    The north and the east of the landlocked country in West Africa endure frequent Islamist attacks, which have claimed some 600 lives in the past four years. There have also been some raids in the west.

In December 2018, an Italian man and his Canadian companion were kidnapped on the road from Bobo to the capital Ouagadougou. Last April, the Burkinabe government said it had information that the couple was still alive, but might have been taken to another country.   Bobo-Dioulassou itself has been relatively spared as the jihadist threat expands across poor nations of Africa's Sahel region.   Ministry of tourism statistics from 2017 show that of about half a million annual visitors to Burkina Faso, fewer than 150,000 came from abroad -- down 5.6 percent from 2015.   The number of nights stayed in the country by Westerners fell from 30,000 in 2012 to fewer than 15,000 in 2017. "This trend has probably sped up in 2018 and 2019," a local tour operator said.

- Crafts and wonders -
Renowned for its traditional masks, its batik print textiles and the balafon -- a West African instrument like a xylophone -- Bobo attracted thousands of Western tourists.   The Lonely Planet guide, which notes the security situation currently prohibits travel, says the city's "tree-lined streets exude a languid, semitropical atmosphere that makes it a favourite rest stop for travellers", adding that highlights include a "thriving live-music scene and excellent restaurants". 

The city itself has an array of charms, with its grand railway station, bustling market and striking Great Mosque -- an undulating white-plastered mud structure studded with wooden poles that dominates the historic centre.   Bobo-Dioulasso is a jumping-off point to visit regional highlights like the ruined fortress of Loropeni, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It was also a base for exploring the Dogon country in Mali, Ivory Coast and Ghana.   "Everyone came through Bobo. We really were a tourist region. Now it's over," said Benjamin Ouedraogo, owner of the Watinoma hotel and president of the professional association of hotel and restaurant owners in High Basins.   He said hotels in the region only do a third of the business they did before the attacks   To avoid closing his hotel, Ouedraogo took on a second job in the building trade. "We asked for help, but state aid is a disaster," he said, explaining that the authorities rejected applications for tax rebates and preferential tariffs on water and electricity.

- 'We subsist' -
In Kibidwe, an old neighbourhood of the city near the mosque, children play in alleys and women wash clothes in the open air, but most of the shops that catered for tourists are now shut.   Sanon Bissiri, an artist, was quick to bring out his batik prints on spotting Western journalists.    "I don't hang them every day any more, that's pointless. Since July, I haven't even sold two. All this because of those jihadists. Now I have to do masonry whenever I'm wanted."   Bissiri used to sell his textiles to an Italian association that made regular visits.   "That's over. We just get by. It's my wife who meets our needs," he said. "I come in to work each day on foot, six kilometres (nearly four miles). I can't afford medicine for my son with his cough."   Bobo's nightlife is not what it was, though the locally-brewed beer is the same.    "There's still a little activity with Burkinabe visitors," said musician Gaoussou Ben Sanou. But "there's less money, fewer dates, fewer gigs. We can't sell records".   Governor Atiou said people were reluctant to go out.   "All that weighs on economic activity. Unfortunately, this is the aim of the terrorists."
Date: Thu, 17 Oct 2019 12:37:14 +0200 (METDST)

Manila, Oct 17, 2019 (AFP) - Five people were killed and dozens were injured after a powerful earthquake hit the southern Philippines, authorities said Thursday.   The 6.4-magnitude quake struck the Mindanao region on Wednesday night, reducing dozens of houses to rubble on the southern third of the Philippines.   On Thursday afternoon, authorities said five people were killed and 53 injured, mainly in a cluster of small farming towns.   Three people were killed in landslides while another was crushed by the collapsed wall of a house. The fifth suffered a fatal heart attack, the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council said.   No fatalities were reported in Mindanao's major cities. Local authorities had earlier told AFP three children were among the dead.   The Philippine seismology office has recorded more than 300 weaker aftershocks in the area since the big quake, but authorities said they do not expect the toll to rise significantly.

The disaster council's spokesman Mark Timbal told local television it had not received any reports of missing people from any of the quake-hit areas.   "People have returned home... They are OK now, unlike last night when they were terrified and slept on roads beside their homes," Zaldy Ortiz, civil defence officer of Magsaysay town, told AFP.   Local school and government holidays were announced in Magsaysay, where the landslides struck, to allow building inspectors to check structures for damage, Ortiz added.   Power was being restored in the bigger cities, but there was substantial damage to some hospitals, government buildings, schools, churches and houses in the small towns, the council said in a report.   In General Santos City, firefighters on Thursday finally put out a blaze that started at a shopping mall shortly after the quake.   The Philippines is part of the Pacific "Ring of Fire", an arc of intense seismic activity that stretches from Japan through Southeast Asia and across the Pacific basin.
Date: Thu, 17 Oct 2019 05:32:08 +0200 (METDST)
By Tom LITTLE

Kulusuk, Denmark, Oct 17, 2019 (AFP) - Kayaking past blue-white icebergs drifting along near a pristine harbour, wandering around colourful houses or trekking in the snow-capped wilderness: July and August are high season for tourists in eastern Greenland.   Many of the 85,000 tourists who visit each year head to the west coast, but eastern Greenland, with its glaciers, wilderness and wildlife starring whales and polar bears, is also drawing visitors.

Sarah Bovet, a 29-year-old Swiss artist, said it's hard to know what to expect.   "Thinking you're going to be surprised, you are even more so in reality," she said standing outside a hostel in the tiny village of Kulusuk.   Bovet was on an artistic residency in Greenland when she visited Kulusuk and its 250 souls.   Although she had imagined a small village before arriving, its stunning views and bright colours still came as a surprise.   With just one supermarket, an airport built in the 1950s by the US military to serve a Cold War radar base, and a harbour surrounded by brightly painted wooden houses, most of the villagers appreciate the extra revenue from tourism.

Justus Atuaq, a young hunter in Kulusuk, takes tourists out on sled tours in March and April -- the spring high season -- earning money that helps him feed and care for the dogs he uses for racing and hunting.   "Now I can take dogsleds for hunting, and sometimes tourists coming from other countries also want to dogsled," he said outside his wooden house.   Tourists also take boat trips during the summer high season from July to August.   Arrivals to the island grew 10 percent year-on-year from 2014 to 2017, and three percent in 2018, according to the tourist board, Visit Greenland.   Many adventure seekers and nature lovers arrive by plane, but cruise ships also bring admirers, hugging the picture perfect coastline.

- Growing strategic importance -
But they are not alone in taking an interest in the world's largest island.   The Danish territory's rich natural resources and growing strategic importance as the Arctic ice sheet melts have attracted the attention of US President Donald Trump.   The Arctic region has untapped reserves of oil, gas and minerals, as well as abundant stocks of fish and shrimp.   In August, Trump offered to buy Greenland, then called off a visit to Copenhagen over its refusal to sell.

Denmark colonised Greenland in the 1700s, granting it autonomy in 1979.    Today, many Greenlandic political parties advocate full independence.   The territory still receives an annual subsidy from Copenhagen, which was 4.3 billion Danish kroner (576 million euros) in 2017, and tourism could help it to become economically self-reliant.   Like many parts of Greenland, Kulusuk has no tarmac roads and visitors must travel by plane or boat.   The growth in tourism could put a strain on the village's infrastructure, and the sector faces unique challenges given Greenland's location, weather and the cost of travelling there.

Day tours of Kulusuk with flights from the Icelandic capital Reykjavik are 97,000 Icelandic kronur ($780, 700 euros).   Jakob Ipsen, a 48-year-old who grew up between Denmark and Greenland's west coast, runs Kulusuk's sole hotel.   The 32-room hotel stands beside a fjord, and from its dining room, guests can watch icebergs drift by during the summer.    But the region's isolation can be problematic, Ipsen admits.    "We have to get all our supplies in with the first ship for the whole summer season, and for the winter season when everything is frozen over, we have to get all our supplies in with the last ship for the whole winter," he said.

- 'They go back as different people' -
Greenland must tackle its infrastructure challenges if it wants to develop tourism, Visit Greenland says.   Government-funded work is under way to extend runways at the capital Nuuk and Ilulissat, both on the west coast, and a new airport is planned in the south.   The tourist body said it would weigh the environmental impact of boosting infrastructure, both on the environment and on local communities.    Ipsen worries about the effects of uncontrolled tourism to the region.   "We want to try to maintain it as it is, so it's not exploding," he said.

Already, said Johanna Bjork Sveinbjornsdottir, who runs tours in Kulusuk for an Iceland-based company, the rise in visitor numbers is making itself felt.   "In the campsites here out in nature where you used to be alone, there's two, three groups at a time," she said.   Like Ipsen, she is also concerned about the effect that rising visitor numbers could have on the wilderness around the village.    "If you want nature to survive that, you have to build up the infrastructure," she said, pointing to the lack of officially designated campsites around Kulusuk, with no rubbish bins or toilets for travellers outdoors and no one supervising the sites.   Despite the concerns, Sveinbjornsdottir hopes visitors will keep coming.   "They go back as different people," she said. "Everything is beyond what you ever imagined."
Date: Tue, 15 Oct 2019 19:33:58 +0200 (METDST)

Beirut, Oct 15, 2019 (AFP) - Lebanon has turned to its neighbours for help battling forest fires that have ravaged homes and killed a volunteer firefighter in the Mediterranean country, its premier said on Tuesday.   Heavy rain fell on parts of the country including Beirut in the evening, after Cyprus dispatched help and as Greece and Jordan vowed to follow suit.   "We have contacted the Europeans who will send means of help," Prime Minister Saad Hariri said earlier in comments carried by national news agency NNA.

Dozens of blazes have hit Lebanon in recent days, fire chief Raymond Khattar told NNA, amid unusually high temperatures and strong winds.   Thick smoke had been seen drifting over the outskirts of Beirut, the mountainous Chouf region to its southeast, and the southern city of Saida.   In the Chouf, an area famed for its forests, a volunteer firefighter lost his life trying to put out the flames, his family said.   In an area south of Beirut, firefighters have for two days been unable to stop the blaze, which has burnt four homes to the ground and caused dozens to suffer breathing difficulties, NNA said.

Interior Minister Raya El-Hassan said nearby Cyprus and Greece had responded to Lebanon's call for help.   "Two Cypriot planes have been working to put out the fires since yesterday," she said on Twitter.   "Greece has responded to our request and will send two planes to help us," she added.   Jordan's army said the king had ordered two firefighting planes to be dispatched.   NNA said the army was working together with helicopters and the Cypriot planes to fight the blaze, with access sometimes impeded by thick smoke and high-voltage power lines.   Personnel from UN peacekeeping force UNIFIL, who usually patrol the country's southern border with Israel, have also joined in the efforts, the agency said.   Lebanese on social media criticised the government's apparent inability to respond fast enough on its own.

In neighbouring war-torn Syria, fires also killed two people, Syrian state media said.   Flames have ripped through parts of the coastal provinces of Latakia and Tartus, as well as the central province of Homs but most have been brought under control, state news agency SANA said.   Two members of the Latakia forestry department were killed while fighting the blaze, it added.   In Tartus, the fires -- mostly stamped out -- coincided with the olive harvest, the governor told SANA.   In Homs, trees were burnt and electricity networks disrupted in mountainous areas, the agency reported.