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Aruba

Aruba US Consular Information Sheet
April 02, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Aruba is an autonomous part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Tourist facilities are widely available. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Aruba for addi
ional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: All Americans traveling by air outside the United States are required to present a passport or other valid travel document to enter or re-enter the United States.
This requirement will be extended to sea travel (except closed loop cruises), including ferry service, by the summer of 2009.
Until then, U.S. citizens traveling by sea must have government-issued photo identification and a document showing their U.S. citizenship (for example, a birth certificate or certificate of nationalization), or other WHTI compliant document such as a passport card for entry or re-entry to the U.S.
Sea travelers should also check with their cruise line and countries of destination for any foreign entry requirements.

Applications for the new U.S. Passport Card are now being accepted.
We expect cards will be available and mailed to applicants in spring 2008.
The card may not be used to travel by air and is available only to U.S. citizens. Further information on the Passport Card is available at http://travel.state.gov/passport/ppt_card/ppt_card_3926.html and upcoming changes to U.S. passport policy can be found on the Bureau of Consular Affairs web site at http://travel.state.gov/travel/cbpmc/cbpmc_2223.html.
We strongly encourage all American citizen travelers to apply for a U.S. passport well in advance of anticipated travel.
American citizens can visit travel.state.gov or call 1-877-4USA-PPT (1-877-487-2778) for information on how to apply for their passports.

In addition visitors to Aruba may be asked to show onward/return tickets, proof of sufficient funds and proof of lodging accommodations for their stay. Length of stay for U.S. citizens is granted for thirty days and may be extended to 180 days by the office of immigration.
For further information, travelers may contact the Royal Netherlands Embassy, 4200 Linnean Avenue NW, Washington, DC
20008, telephone (202) 244-5300, or the Dutch Consulate in Los Angeles, Chicago, New York, Houston or Miami.
Visit the web site for the Embassy of the Netherlands at http://www.netherlands-embassy.org and the Aruban Department of Immigration at http://www.aruba.com/about/entryrequirements.php for the most current visa information.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY: There are no known extremist groups, areas of instability or organized crime on Aruba, although drug trafficking rings do operate on the island.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Worldwide Caution, Travel Warnings, and Travel Alerts can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME: The crime threat in Aruba is generally considered low although travelers should always take normal precautions when in unfamiliar surroundings.
There have been incidents of theft from hotel rooms and armed robberies have been known to occur. Valuables left unattended on beaches, in cars and in hotel lobbies are easy targets for theft.
Car theft, especially that of rental vehicles for joy riding and stripping, can occur. Vehicle leases or rentals may not be fully covered by local insurance when a vehicle is stolen or damaged.
Be sure you are sufficiently insured when renting vehicles and jet skis.

Parents of young travelers should be aware that the legal drinking age of 18 is not always rigorously enforced in Aruba, so extra parental supervision may be appropriate. Young female travelers in particular are urged to take the same precautions they would when going out in the United States, e.g. to travel in pairs or in groups if they choose frequenting Aruba’s nightclubs and bars, and if they opt to consume alcohol, to do so responsibly.

Anyone who is a victim of a crime should make a report to Aruban police as well as report it immediately to the nearest U.S. consular office.
Do not rely on hotel/restaurant/tour company management to make the report for you.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime are solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

Please see our information for American Victims of Crime Overseas.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Medical care is good in Aruba. There is one hospital, Dr. H.E. Oduber Hospital, whose medical standards can be compared with an average small hospital in the U.S. The hospital has three classes of services and patients are accommodated according to the level of their insurance (i.e. first class: one patient to a room, TV, better food; second class: two to three patients to a room, shared bathroom, etc; third class: 15 to 20 people in one hall). There is a small medical center in San Nicolas. The many drug stores, or “boticas” provide prescription and over the counter medicine. Emergency services are usually quick to respond.
There are no country-specific health concerns.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.

MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.
TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Aruba is provided for general reference only and may not be totally accurate for a particular location or circumstance.

Driving in Aruba is on the right-hand side of the road. Local laws require drivers and passengers to wear seat belts and motorcyclists to wear helmets. Children under 5 years of age should be in a child safety seat; older children should ride in the back seat. Right turns on red are prohibited in Aruba.

Aruba's main thoroughfare, L.G. Smith Boulevard, is well lit and most hotels and tourist attractions can be easily located.
There is a speed limit in Aruba and driving while intoxicated may result in the loss of a driver’s license and/or a fine.
However, these are not consistently enforced.
Drivers should be alert at all times for speeding cars, which have caused fatal accidents.
In the interior areas of the island, drivers should be alert for herds of goats or donkeys that may cross the roads unexpectedly.
Buses provide convenient and inexpensive service to and from many hotels and downtown shopping areas.
Taxis, while expensive, are safe and well regulated.
As there are no meters, passengers should verify the price before entering the taxi.
The emergency service telephone number is 911. Police and ambulance tend to respond quickly to emergency situations.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. Also, travelers may wish to visit the web site of the country’s national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety in Aruba for information: http://www.aruba.com/pages/traffictips.htm.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Aruba’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Aruba’s air carrier operations. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: The time-share industry and other real estate investments are two of the fastest-growing tourist industries in Aruba. Time-share buyers are cautioned about contracts that do not have a "non-disturbance or perpetuity protective clause" incorporated in the purchase agreement.
Such a clause gives the time-share owner perpetuity of ownership should the facility be sold.
Americans have also sometimes complained that the time-share units are not adequately maintained, despite generally high annual maintenance fees.

Potential investors should be aware that failed land development schemes involving time-share investments could result in financial losses. Interested investors may wish to seek professional advice regarding investments involving land development projects. Real estate investment problems that reach local courts are rarely settled in favor of foreign investors.

An unusually competitive fee to rent jet skis or other water sports equipment could indicate that the dealer is unlicensed or uninsured. Visitors planning to rent jet skis or other water sports equipment should carefully review all liability and insurance forms presented to them before signing any contracts or agreements. The renter is often fully responsible for replacement costs and fees associated with any damages that occur during the rental period. Visitors may be required to pay these fees in full before being allowed to leave Aruba, and may be subject to civil or criminal penalties if they cannot or will not make payment.

Dutch law in principle does not permit dual nationality. However, there are several exceptions to the rule. For example, American citizens who are married to Dutch citizens are exempt from the requirement to abandon their American nationality when they apply to become a Dutch citizen by naturalization. For detailed information, contact the Embassy of the Netherlands in Washington, DC, or one of the Dutch consulates in the U.S.
Please see our information on customs regulations.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Aruba’s laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Aruba are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.
CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children’s Issues web pages.
REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION: Americans living or traveling in Aruba are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Aruba. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Consulate General is located at J.B. Gorsiraweg 1, Willemstad, Curaçao, telephone number (599-9) 461-3066; fax (599-9) 461-6489; e-mail address: acscuracao@state.gov
* * *
This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated January 3, 2008, to update Entry/Exit Requirements and Crime sections.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Sat, 20 Jun 2009 10:52:09 +0200 (METDST)

MADRID, June 20, 2009 (AFP) - A Spanish cruise ship was turned away from three Caribbean islands after swine flu cases emerged among the crew and the 800-odd passengers finally got off in Aruba, the tour operator said Saturday.   The "Ocean Dream" docked in Aruba late Friday after being denied entry in Grenada, Saint Lucia and Barbados, Pullmantur said. Three swine flu cases were reported among the crew but the passengers were unaffected.

On Thursday, 376 Venezuelan passengers were allowed to disembark on the island of Margarita, which belongs to Venezuela.   The ship's nine-day cruise through the Caribbean was hampered by the flu outbreak and the ship could not dock at three destinations on the itinerary.   The A(H1N1) virus has infected more than 44,000 people around the world, resulting in 180 deaths since late March, WHO figures show.
Date: Wed 14 Jan 2009
Source: Amigoe.com [Dutch, machine trans., edited]

Department of Health has called an urgent press conference on Tuesday [13 Jan 2009] to issue a dengue update. The department has done this following the hundreds of calls that have come into Health, after media reports of a 53-year-old woman who died of dengue [virus infection].

According to Trevor Gellecum, Director of Health, it is still not clear that this woman indeed died of dengue. "First, certain tests can be carried out, and it will be 3 weeks before the results could be known," says Van Gellecum. "These tests should be carried out in a laboratory abroad."

According to Wilmer Salazar, microbiologist at Health, the woman had a fever at the weekend, but on Monday [12 Jan 2009] she felt better and she went to work. "Later that day, she was admitted to the hospital in shock. At night she died, "said Salazar. "Until now, there is no confirmed diagnosis of the cause of death, but dengue is suspected. Today [14 Jan 2009], an autopsy was performed so that the tests to be done abroad can take place."

Maribel Tromp, manager at the department of epidemiology and research of the Infectious Disease Service, has indicated that so far 612 suspected cases of dengue have been registered. "Of these, 218 cases [have been] confirmed as positive by the laboratory, and 394 are still under investigation, reports Tromp. "This does not mean that they are negative" [The dates over which these cases occurred are not specified. - ProMed Mod.TY].

 From the moment the news of a potentially fatal dengue victim arose lately, Charline Koolma, director of the Yellow Fever Fight Unit (GKMB), indicated that they have been overwhelmed with calls from people reporting family members possibly with dengue-like symptoms or who want information about the disease. "It is good that we now receive phone calls, although it also had previously been possible. These kinds of extreme cases can be avoided," according Koolman.

"From November last year [2008], the GKMB made several visits to monitor presence of [the dengue virus vector mosquito _Aedes_] breeding sites and adult mosquitoes. Often, the residents are not home, and then a letter was left with an invitation to make contact with the GKMB for the transmission of important information. But there is never a return call until something bad happens, and then it is often too late."

The more information and reports the GKMB gets, the better the service and their work, said Tromp. Finally, all speakers [at the press conference] called on the population and general practitioners to join forces against breeding of the _Aedes_ dengue vector mosquito. Health officials indicated that is the only way to avoid [virus] infection and prevent dengue.
------------------------
[A map showing the location of Aruba in the Caribbean can be accessed at <http://www.aruba-travelguide.com/map/index.html>. - ProMed Mod.TY]
Date: Sun, 2 Sep 2007 19:04:55 +0200 (METDST) MIAMI, Sept 2, 2007 (AFP) - Hurricane Felix barreled through the Caribban Sunday, with forecasters predicting a brush with Aruba and warning of its potential to strengthen into a devastating storm. Forecasters issued a tropical storm warning and hurricane watch for the islands of Aruba, Bonaire and Curacao -- popular tourist destinations in the Netherlands Antilles. A tropical storm watch also has been issued for Jamaica, which was gearing up for violence-marred elections Monday, after Felix was upgraded overnight to Category Two strength on the Saffir-Sampson scale, which peaks at five. At around 1500 GMT Felix's maximum sustained winds were 105 miles (165 kilometers) per hour, and its trek across the open waters of the Caribbean could allow it to attain "major hurricane" status, US forecasters said. "I see no reason why Felix will not become a major hurricane within 12 hours or so," said Richard Pasch, a hurricane specialist with the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration. On Saturday, a weaker Felix passed close to Grenada, reportedly ripping roofs, downing power lines and knocking radio and TV stations off the air. No injuries were reported. The center of the hurricane around 1600 GMT Sunday was about 50 miles (75 kilometers) north of Aruba and about 550 miles (900 kilometers) southeast of Kingston, Jamaica. Felix was moving in a west-northwesterly direction at around 18 miles (30 kilometers) per hour, and was expected to follow the same course throughout Sunday. The storm was not expected to hit Jamaica directly, but its strong outer squalls could rock the island ahead of the elections on Monday. Jamaican officials had already postponed the general election from August 27, after the island was struck last month by Hurricane Dean. Last week, Dean swept through the southern Caribbean with severe winds and rains, leaving a wide swathe of damage and a death toll of 30 from Martinique to Mexico. Felix's track was expected to take it toward Belize or the Yucatan in Mexico, possibly making landfall as a major Category Three hurricane Wednesday. The storm could dump two to four inches (five to 10 centimeters) of rain over islands off the Venezuela coast and the Netherlands Antilles, US forecasters said. On its current path Felix is expected to graze the coastlines of Nicaragua and Honduras late Tuesday and make landfall in Belize on Wednesday. Felix is the second hurricane of the three-month-old Atlantic season, and the first in September, historically the busiest month for hurricanes.
Date: Thu, 9 Sep 2004 10:12:08 +0200 (METDST) CARACAS, Sept 9 (AFP) - Hurricane Ivan has killed at least 11 people in Tobago, Grenada and Venezuela as the it churned off Venezuela's coast Thursday, strengthening to the top Category 5 storm, officials and local media said. Ivan was 135 kilometers (85 miles) northeast of Aruba and 915 kilometers (570 miles) from Jamaica, the Miami-based National Hurricane Center said at 0600 GMT. Its category was raised to a Category 5 hurricane -the top level on the Saffir Simpson hurricane scale, with maximum sustained winds near 255 kilometers (160 miles) per hour. "Some fluctuations in strength are likely," the center said. The "extremely dangerous" hurricane was moving west-northwest at 28 kilometers (17 miles) per hour with urricane force winds extend outward from Ivan's eye up to 95 kilometers (60 miles). Storm surges of 1.0-1.5 meters (three to five feet) as well as rains of 13-18 centimeters (seven five to seven inches) are to be expected. The center issued hurricane warnings for Aruba, Bonaire and Curacao. A television station in Trinidad and Tobago said nine people had died in Grenada, a tiny island nation of 90,000 inhabitants, which Prime Minister Keith Mitchell said was 85 percent destroyed. Power lines were down and hundreds of persons have taken refuge in shelters. Mitchell, whose own house was destroyed, told a Trinidad radio station that the island is without electricity. Another woman was killed by a falling tree in Tobago, according to local media. Prime Minister Patrick Manning headed to Tobago to view the destruction. His government has promised 1.6 million dollars to St. Vincent to help with the construction. Hundreds were evacuated to shelters. Cuba has also begun preparing for the storm in 11 of its 14 provinces, although the island has not fully recovered from Hurricane Charley, which struck August 13. Children in the Netherlands Antilles were sent home from school, as were many workers. Several Venezuelan airports, including the oil-exporting country's main international airport, Maiquetia, which serves Caracas, suspended operations until conditions improve, Air Force colonel Francisco Paz Freitas told Union Radio. In Venezuela, a man was crushed to death when hurricane-force winds toppled a wall in a coastal town near Caracas, emergency service officials said, adding that another person was hurt and 150 people were affected by flooding. Along the low-lying Caribbean coast, authorities reported mudslides and road closings just as early rain bands from the storm unleashed the first downpours. The storm was expected to be off the central coast later in the day, triggering heavy rains and rough surf. The capital, Caracas, lies just a bit inland from there, protected somewhat by the El Avila mountain range. Though the storm is not expected to make landfall in Venezuela, Interior and Justice Minister Jesse Chacon was urging calm and said heavy winds and rain associated with the storm could last for 72 hours. Ivan was expected to pass just north of Aruba, Bonaire and Curacao on Friday as the Caribbean islands were under a hurricane warning, which means hurricane winds could hit them within 24 hours or less, the US hurricane center said. A hurricane watch and a tropical storm warning remain in effect for the Guajira peninsula of Colombia and for the entire northern coast of Venezuela, it noted. Haiti also issued a hurricane watch, meaning it could experience hurricane conditions within 36 hours.
Date: Wed, 8 Sep 2004 05:03:07 +0200 (METDST) PORT-OF-SPAIN, Trinidad Sept 7 (AFP) - Ivan, an "extremely dangerous" hurricane Tuesday knocked out power in Barbados and threatened eastern Caribbean islands, forecasters and emergency officials said. The eye of the powerful storm moved over Barbados Tuesday afternoon, and headed for the eastern Caribbean, where officials issued a hurricane warning for St Vincent, the Grenadines, Grenada and the Netherlands Antilles islands of Aruba, Bonaire and Curacao. Ivan packed sustained winds of 215 kilometers (135 miles) per hour, which made it "an extremely dangerous category four hurricane," the Miami-based National Hurricane Center (NHC) said. In Barbados, "there is an island-wide power outage, expect for the major health care facility, the Queen Elizabeth Hospital," the Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency (CDERA) said. "There are also reports of roof loss, downed utility poles and trees," the agency said, adding that there were also reports of coastal damage from storm surge. Late Tuesday night, the center of the powerful hurricane, the second in just days, was located 175 kilometers (110 miles) west of Grenada. The Netherlands Antilles Tuesday morning put the islands of Aruba, Bonaire and Curacao under a hurricane watch, which means the storm could hit them within 36 hours. In central and eastern Venezuela, officials suspended all air and maritime traffic. Long-term forecasts, which have a wide margin of error, have the hurricane slamming into Jamaica on Friday and then into Cuba on Sunday. This would bring the storm dangerously close to Florida, which has just been pounded by Frances, the second hurricane to hit the southeastern US state in three weeks. The Bahamas islands also were severely impacted by the passage of Frances last week.
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Qatar

Qatar - US Consular Information Sheet
February 26, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Qatar is a monarchy governed by the ruling Al Thani family in consultation with a council of ministers, an appointed advisory council and an elected municipal cou
cil.
Islamic ideals and beliefs provide the foundation of the country’s customs, laws and practices.
Located in the heart of the Persian Gulf, Qatar is a dynamic, modernizing, rapidly developing country that is among the wealthiest per capita in the world.
The capital is Doha.
Tourist facilities are available.
Read the Department of State Background Notes on Qatar for additional information.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
Passports and visas are required.
U.S. citizens may obtain a single-entry tourist or business visa at Doha International Airport upon arrival.
Single entry visas cost $28 and must be paid by credit card only.
Cash is not accepted.
Visas are valid for 30 days and may be extended for an additional 30 days for a $28 fee through the Airport Visas Section of the Immigration Department located next to Doha International Airport.
However, U.S.-citizen travelers will be able to clear Qatari immigration more quickly and be granted a longer stay in country by obtaining visas prior to arrival.
If planning to arrive at another port of entry in Qatar, travelers should obtain a tourist or business visa in advance of their arrival from a Qatari embassy or consulate abroad.
Travelers should also note that the Qatari Government charges $55 for each day that an individual overstays a visa, up to a maximum amount of $3,300.

For further information on visas, residence permits and entry requirements, please visit the Qatari Ministry of Interior’s web site at www.moi.gov.qa/English/index.htm.
Travelers may also contact the Embassy of the State of Qatar (www.qatarembassy.net) at 2555 M Street NW, Washington, DC
20037, tel. (202) 274-1600, fax (202) 237-0061.
They may also contact the Consulate General of the State of Qatar, 1990 Post Oak Blvd. Suite 810, Houston TX 77056, telephone (713) 355-8221, fax (713) 355-8184, send email inquiries to info@qatarembassy.org.

Military personnel are subject to different entry/exit requirements and should refer to www.fcg.pentagon.mil for specific information pertaining to their travel requirements.
NOTE FOR DUAL NATIONALS:
Qatari law requires that Qatari citizens only hold Qatari citizenship and enter and exit on a Qatari passport.
Qatari authorities have confiscated the passports of U.S. citizens who acquired Qatari citizenship through marriage to a Qatari national or by virtue of birth in the U.S.
In several cases, Qatari authorities informed U.S. citizens that their U.S. citizenship had been revoked and was no longer valid.
However, foreign governments have no authority to revoke the citizenship of a U.S. citizen.
If this occurs, please contact the U.S. Embassy in Doha immediately.
Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.
SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Incidents of violence are rare in Qatar, although attacks against Western targets have occurred.
To provide for public security, a large police presence is deployed throughout the country.
American citizens in Qatar are strongly encouraged to maintain a high level of vigilance, be aware of local events and take the appropriate steps to bolster their personal security at all times.

The Department of State remains concerned about the possibility of terrorist attacks against U.S. interests worldwide, including the Middle East.
Both historical and recurring information suggests that al-Qa’ida and affiliated organizations continue to plan strikes against Western targets; these attacks may employ a wide variety of tactics to include assassination, kidnapping, hijacking and bombing.
On March 19, 2005, a suicide bomber detonated a vehicle-borne improvised explosive device (VBIED) at a theater in Doha regularly frequented by westerners; a citizen of the United Kingdom was killed, and several other individuals were injured.

Increased security at official facilities has led terrorists and their sympathizers to seek softer, less fortified targets; the March 2005 theater attack in Doha is one such example.
Other locations of potential concern include any venue where U.S. citizens and other foreigners are known to congregate in large numbers such as public assemblies, sporting events, restaurants, residential areas, clubs, places of worship, schools, hotels, etc.
The Government of Qatar occasionally provides security for such locations and events, but to varying degrees.
In most instances, the Embassy cannot gauge the appropriateness of security for a given event prior to its commencement.
The Embassy strongly encourages American citizens to avoid large crowds and demonstrations whenever possible.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department’s Internet web site, where the current Worldwide Caution, Travel Warnings and other Travel Alerts and additional resources can be found.
Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada or, for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).
The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME:
The crime rate in Qatar is generally low.
A large police presence is apparent to travelers throughout the country.
Incidents of violence are rare but have occurred more frequently as Doha’s population and economic pressures on expatriate workers have increased substantially during the past few years.
Local and third country national young men have been known to verbally and physically harass unaccompanied, expatriate women.
Reports of petty theft have been growing, including ATM and credit card theft, purse snatching and pickpocketing.
Travelers are cautioned not to leave valuables such as cash, jewelry, and electronic items unsecured in hotel rooms or unattended in public places.

The Qatari Police can be contacted for emergency assistance by dialing 999 from any telephone in Qatar.
INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the U.S. Embassy in Doha.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the U.S. Embassy for assistance.
The Embassy staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime.
MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Good modern medical care and medicines are available in Doha, although only basic or no medical care may be available in Qatar’s smaller cities or outlying areas.
Serious medical problems requiring hospitalization and/or medical evacuation to the United States can cost thousands of dollars.
Doctors and hospitals expect immediate cash payment for health services.
Information about the Qatari national healthcare system is available at http://www.hmc.org.qa.
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.
TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Qatar is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Short-term visitors should obtain a valid International Driving Permit prior to arrival and should not drive in Qatar on a U.S. driver’s license.
Short-term visitors and business travelers can also obtain a Temporary Qatari Driving License by presenting their U.S. driver’s license at any branch of Qatar’s Traffic Police.
New and prospective residents should obtain a permanent Qatari Driving License immediately after arrival.
Once an American citizen holds a valid Qatari residence permit, they are no longer permitted to drive in Qatar with an International Driving Permit or a Temporary Qatar Driving License.

Traffic accidents are among Qatar’s leading causes of death.
Safety regulations in Qatar are improving thanks to a more stringent traffic law adopted in October 2007 and a country-wide traffic safety campaign.
However, informal rules of the road and the combination of local and third-country-national driving customs often prove frustrating for first-time drivers in Qatar.
The combination of Qatar’s extensive use of roundabouts, many road construction projects and the high speeds at which drivers may travel can prove challenging.
The rate of automobile accidents due to driver error and excessive speed is declining but remains higher than in the United States.
In rural areas, poor lighting, wandering camels and un-shouldered roads are other hazards.
Despite aggressive driving on Qatar’s roads, drivers should avoid altercations or arguments over traffic incidents, particularly with Qatari citizens who, if insulted, have filed complaints with local police that resulted in the arrest and overnight detention of U.S. citizens.
Drivers can be held liable for injuries to other persons involved in a vehicular accident, and local police have detained U.S. citizens overnight until the extent of the person’s injuries were known.
Due to its conservative Islamic norms, Qatar maintains a zero-tolerance policy against drinking and driving.
Qatar’s Traffic Police have arrested Americans for driving after consuming amounts of alcohol at even smaller levels normally accepted in the U.S.
Any motor vehicle over five years old cannot be imported into the country.
For specific information concerning Qatari driver’s permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, please contact either the Embassy of the State of Qatar in Washington, DC or the Consulate General of the State of Qatar in Houston, Texas.
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Qatar’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Qatar’s air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: Qatari customs authorities enforce strict regulations concerning importation into Qatar of items such as alcohol, narcotics, pork products, firearms, or anything deemed pornographic by Qatari authorities.
While importation of religious material for personal use is acceptable, importation of religious material for the purpose of proselytizing is not.
It is advisable to contact the Embassy of the State of Qatar in Washington, DC, or the Consulate General of the State of Qatar in Houston for specific information regarding customs requirements.

Please see our Customs Information.

Pets entering Qatar require an import permit from the Ministry of Agriculture.
Cats with proper documentation are allowed to enter with no difficulty, but some breeds of dogs, especially large dogs, are not admitted.
Application forms for import permits may be obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture through a sponsoring employer.
A copy of the pet's health certificate and vaccination record must be submitted with the application.

Qatari law does not recognize dual nationality.
Persons who possess Qatari citizenship in addition to U.S. citizenship are considered Qatari citizens by the State of Qatar and are subject to Qatar’s laws.
Qatari citizenship imposes special obligations, particularly with regard to child custody and exiting or entering the country.
For additional information, please refer to our dual nationality flyer
or contact the U.S. Embassy in Doha.

All U.S. citizens are encouraged to carry a copy of their passports with them at all times so that, if questioned by local officials, proof of identity and U.S. citizenship is readily available.
Qatari employers/sponsors customarily hold passports of foreign (i.e., non-Qatari) employees during the terms of their employment in Qatar.
Residents carry a Qatari Identification Card (Iqama) for identification in place of a passport.
Foreign nationals, including U.S. citizens, may not leave Qatar without permission in the form of exit visas obtained by their employer/sponsor.
The U.S. Embassy in Doha cannot assist U.S. citizens in Qatar to obtain third country visas for unofficial travel.
Islam provides the foundation of Qatar’s customs, laws and practices.
Foreign visitors are expected to remain sensitive to the Islamic culture and not dress in a revealing or provocative manner, including the wearing of sleeveless shirts and blouses, halter-tops and shorts.
Western bathing attire is worn at hotel pools and beaches.
BUSINESS AND EMPLOYMENT CONTRACTS:
The written, Arabic text of a contract governs employment and business arrangements under Qatari law.
Before signing a contract, U.S. citizens and companies should obtain an independent English translation of the original Arabic to ensure a full understanding of the contract's terms, limits, and agreements.
No U.S. citizen should work in Qatar or make a business arrangement without having seen and understood the full, written contract.
Verbal assurances or side letters are not binding in Qatar.

In the event of a contract or employment dispute, Qatari authorities refer to the Arabic language of a contract.
Since a Qatari sponsor holds the employee's passport and controls the issuance of exit visas, U.S. citizens cannot simply leave Qatar in the event of an employment or business dispute.
Any U.S. citizen who breaks an employment or business contract may have to pay substantial penalties before being allowed to depart Qatar.
Qatari law favors employers over employees, and Qatari sponsors have substantial leverage in any negotiations and may block the departure of the employee or bar future employment in Qatar.

Transferring employment in Qatar requires the permission of the previous employer, which is discretionary, and is subject to approval by the Ministry of the Interior.
The Ministry of the Interior has denied employment transfers in the past, including ordering U.S. citizens deported and barred from re-entry to Qatar for two years.
The U.S. Embassy has no standing in Qatar’s courts, cannot sponsor visas, and cannot adjudicate labor or business disputes.
U.S. consular officers can provide lists of local attorneys to help U.S. citizens settle disputes, but ultimate responsibility for the resolution of disputes through Qatar’s legal system lies with the parties involved.
To obtain a residence permit in Qatar, the Government of Qatar usually requires foreign citizens to provide a police clearance certificate from their home countries.
Prospective residents can obtain a U.S. police clearance certificate two ways: through a local or state law enforcement agency or through the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI).
In both cases, the clearance will run against the National Crime Information Center, which contains all federal, state and local criminal records.
This process requires several weeks, and the U.S. Embassy in Doha strongly recommends that prospective residents obtain a U.S. police clearance before they arrive in Qatar.

For more information on business opportunities and practices in Qatar, please visit the Foreign Commercial Service’s Country Commercial Guide for Qatar at http://www.buyusa.gov/qatar.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Criminal offenses are punished according to Qatari laws, which in some cases are based on Islamic law and sometimes more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Qatari laws, even unknowingly, may be arrested, imprisoned, deported, or subject to a ban from departing Qatar.
Travel bans are not lifted until both parties resolve a dispute and the case is abandoned or, if not, until the matter is resolved by a court, which may require months to process the case.
Qatari law enforcement authorities have detained potential witnesses or relatives without charges or access to legal counsel during the investigation of a crime.
The U.S. Embassy in Doha cautions American citizens that Qatari police can and have arrested American citizens suspected of or witness to a crime, including traffic accidents involving injuries to pedestrians or the occupants of other cars, traffic arguments, slander, and a variety of lesser offenses.
Once arrested, the Qatari Police have no independent authority to grant a release, an authority reserved solely for Qatar’s Public Prosecution and Courts.
As a result, arrested Americans, regardless of the charges, often spend one night in jail awaiting a hearing with Qatar’s Public Prosecution or the appropriate court.
Qatari law enforcement authorities do not routinely notify the U.S. Embassy in Doha of a U.S. citizen’s arrest and, for more serious crimes, may not allow a U.S. Embassy official to visit an arrested U.S. citizen until the initial interrogation is completed.
Upon arrest, U.S. citizens should ask to speak to the U.S. Embassy immediately, and if not allowed, request a friend or family member notify the U.S. Embassy through the contact information below.
Incidents involving insults or obscene language/gestures often result in arrest, overnight imprisonment and/or fines whether the incident occurs between private parties or involves officers of the law.
Drunk driving, public intoxication and other alcohol-related offenses are treated with severity and will result in arrest, heavy fines, imprisonment, or expulsion from the country.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Qatar are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Homosexual activity is considered to be a criminal offense, and those convicted may be sentenced to lashing and/or a prison sentence, and/or deportation.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.
CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION: Americans living or traveling in Qatar are encouraged to register with the U.S. Embassy in Doha through the State Department’s travel registration web site to obtain updated information on travel and security within Qatar.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the U.S. Embassy in Doha.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the U.S. Embassy in Doha to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy is located in the Al-Luqta District on 22nd February Street, PO Box 2399, Doha; phone (974) 488-4101, extension 0 or 6500.
For after-hours emergencies, U.S. citizens may call (974) 488-4101, extension 0 or 6600, to reach the duty officer.
On the Internet, you may reach the Embassy web site at http://qatar.usembassy.gov for additional information and operating hours.
The embassy observes a Sunday through Thursday workweek.
Government offices and most businesses in Qatar also observe a Sunday through Thursday workweek.
*

*

*
This replaces the Country Specific Information for Qatar dated November 26, 2007, to update the sections on Entry/Exit Requirements, Medical Facilities and Health Information, Traffic Safety and Road Conditions, Special Circumstances, and Criminal Penalties.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Wed 24 May 2017
Source: State of Qatar, Ministry of Public Health - News [edited]

Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) has announced that a new Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus (MERS-CoV) case has been confirmed for a 29-years-old, resident in Qatar, marking the 3rd MERS-CoV case to be confirmed in the country this year [2017] and bringing the cumulative number of confirmed MERS-CoV cases since 2012 to 21 cases among whom 7 have died.

The patient is a camel worker and had complaints of fever and dry cough for several days. He sought medical attention in Hamad General Hospital where an X-Ray investigation suggested a severe pneumonia. Consequently and as he reported an occupational frequent contact with camels, further samples were withdrawn from the patient. He ultimately tested positive for MERS-CoV according to Hamad Medical Corporation laboratories.

Despite his stable condition, the patient was admitted to hospital; in consistence with the national infection prevention and control protocol for confirmed and suspected MERS-CoV cases to ensure the appropriate medical attention. However, neither a history of contact with similar cases nor a recent travel outside the country was reported for the patient who has no comorbidities.

Once the case has been confirmed, the rapid response team of the Health Protection and Communicable disease Control (HP & CDC) department at the MOPH, accompanied with the team from Animal Health Department, Ministry of Municipality and Environment, have started a field investigation to assess the possible source of the infection and to verify whether any of the patient contacts has suspected symptoms according to the WHO standard case definition. Consequently, all traced contacts will be monitored over a period of 2 weeks, while those who develop suspected symptoms will then be subjected to confirmatory laboratory investigation.

The Ministry of Public Health advices citizens and residents, in particular those with comorbidities or low immunity, to abide to cough etiquette and handwashing with soap and water thoroughly and avoid unnecessary contact with sick animals.

MOPH proclaimed that Health Protection & CDC Hotlines 66740948 & 66740951 are accessible 24/7 to respond to any notification or enquiry related to infectious diseases.
==================
[The above press release mentioned the participation of animal health experts in the investigation of the described case. Information on their observations and findings, including results of laboratory tests (in case animal samples were taken), will be appreciated.

Qatar officially notified the OIE about its 1st event of MERS-CoV in camels, as an emerging disease, on 28 Nov 2013. The start of the event was, reportedly, dated 14 Oct 2013. The 'affected population' was kept on a "small farm with 14 camels, one sheep, one pigeon cage and some chicken" in Al-Shahanya, Ar Rayyan district. The diagnostic laboratory, given as "the Erasmus Medical Center (Rotterdam) and National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (Bilthoven), the Netherlands (OIE Reference Laboratory)", established the diagnosis of MERS-CoV in camels by PCR, on 26 Nov 2013. The report included the following epidemiological comment: "The health authority in Qatar notified the presence of a confirmed human MERS-CoV case. A joint team from both health and veterinary authorities was sent to the patient farm to investigate the health status of animals and the contact person. A farm worker proved to be positive for MERS-CoV and samples were collected from the 14 existing camels in addition to one sheep, some pigeons and chickens and some environmental samples (water, soil, animal food and grass) and all were sent to the Netherlands for testing. All animals were kept under observation and quarantine and all were apparently healthy". The above immediate notification was followed by 3 follow-up reports (29 Dec 2013, 22 Apr 2014 and 09 Jun 2014).

Follow-up report No 1, submitted a month later, namely on 29 Dec 2013, informed: "There are no new outbreaks in this report". The report, however, included the following epidemiological comments: "The samples from the same herd tested, using the same technique were negative and this may show that MERS-CoV infection in camels is a self-limiting disease. The planned massive survey for MERS-CoV in animals is under implementation and the same herd is under systematic retesting. Follow-up reports will be submitted when there will be new data".

Follow-up report No 2, submitted 22 Apr 2014, addressed "A single barn of 26 camels of different ages" in the same location (Al-Shahanyain), Qatar. The diagnostic laboratory was named as "Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (The Netherlands) (Foreign laboratory)"; the tests were performed on 19 Apr 2014, applying PCR and virus isolation, both positive. The report included the following epidemiological comments: "During an existing survey (pilot phase of the survey), nasal swabs were collected from an 8-month-old camel among healthy dromedary camels. The sample was inoculated on Vero cells and cytopathic changes were observed in cells at 48h post-infection. Human hepatoma cells (Huh-7 cells) were inoculated with MERS-CoV to further functionally characterize this viral isolate. After 2 days, virus-induced cytopathic effects were observed in the inoculated cell cultures. Virus production in Huh-7 cells was blocked by pre-incubating MERS-CoV with a 1/200 dilution of serum from MERS-CoV antibody positive camels. Conclusion: these data demonstrate that the MERS-CoV obtained from a dromedary camel is able to replicate in human cells and uses DPP4 as entry receptor, similar as isolates obtained from MERS patients".

Follow-up report No 3, submitted 9 Jun 2014, involved 3 barns with a total number of 12 camels of different ages, similarly in Al-Shahanya. Of the 12 susceptible camels, there were 5 "cases", indicated as an apparent morbidity rate of 41.67 percent. The diagnostic laboratory was "Erasmus Medical Center (Rotterdam) and National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (Bilthoven), The Netherlands (Foreign laboratory)", which applied SNT. This report included the following epidemiological comment: "Milk was collected according to local customs; cria's (dromedary calves) were not weaned after delivery but kept at the farm in paddocks adjacent to their dams throughout lactation. Dams were reunited with their cria to trigger milk production. Once milk production was initiated, the milk samples were collected by the camel owner or caretaker without specific hygienic precautions". The named follow-up report No 3 was the last report of MERS-CoV in camels submitted so far by Qatar to the OIE. It included the statement "continuing". No additional MERS-CoV reports from Qatar have become available since June 2014.

According to WAHID's archive data, the summary of the event since its start, as of June 2014, was:
Total outbreaks = 3 (Submitted)
Species/ Susceptible/ Cases/ Deaths/ Destroyed/ Slaughtered
Camelidae/ 52/ 9/ 0/ 0/ 0
(see at <http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/temp/reports/en_fup_0000015380_20140610_175414.pdf>).

In May 2017, the OIE updated its case definition for the reporting of MERS-CoV, as follows:

"1. Introduction
Dromedary camels have been confirmed by several studies to be the reservoir of the MERS-CoV infection in humans. Zoonotic transmissions of MERS-CoV from dromedary camels to humans were reported in multiple occasions. MERS-CoV has never been reported as a disease in camels though in experimental infections MERS-CoV has been associated with mild upper respiratory signs. Positive PCR results for MERS-CoV or isolation of the virus from camels is notifiable to the OIE because MERS is an emerging disease with a significant public health impact.

2. Confirmed case:
A dromedary camel with laboratory confirmation (*note 1) of MERS-CoV infection, with or without clinical signs.

3. Suspected case:
a) Observed clinical signs of mild respiratory infection (rhinitis in young dromedaries); and
b) Direct epidemiologic link (*note 2) with a confirmed human or camel MERS-CoV case; and
c) Testing for MERS-CoV is unavailable, negative or inconclusive (*note 4) on a single inadequate specimen (*note 3).

Notes
1 A case may be laboratory confirmed by virus isolation or detection of viral nucleic acid. The presence of viral nucleic acid can be confirmed by 1) a positive RT-PCR result on at least 2 specific genomic targets,
2) a single positive target with sequencing of a 2nd target or
3) a single positive target with positive result in a rapid MERS-CoV Ag Test. Serological investigations are of little value as high percentage of tested dromedaries possess antibodies to MERS-CoV.

2. A direct epidemiological link with a confirmed MERS-CoV dromedary camel may include living or traveling together in close proximity or sharing the same environment with individual dromedaries infected with MERS-CoV.

3. An inadequate specimen would include a specimen that has had improper handling, is judged to be of poor quality by the testing laboratory, or was taken too late in the course of illness.

4. Inconclusive tests may include a positive screening test on a single rRT-PCR target without further confirmation. Animals with an inconclusive initial test should undergo additional sampling and testing to determine if the animal can be classified as a confirmed MERS-CoV case. At herd level, having positive single target PCRs in more than one animal could constitute confirmation. Preference should be a repeat nasopharyngeal specimen. Other types of clinical specimens could also be considered for molecular testing if necessary, including blood/serum, and stool/rectal swab. These generally have lower titers of virus than respiratory tract specimens but have been used to confirm cases when other specimens were inadequate or unobtainable".

As commented by Mod.MPP (see http://promedmail.org/post/20170524.5059234), according to a review of cases reported by Saudi Arabia and classified as "primary" cases (N=560), 27.3 percent had a history of camel exposure, and 72.7 percent were reported as still under investigation for high risk exposures at the time of initial confirmation report. The 85th General Session of the World Assembly of OIE Delegates has been held in Paris during this week (21 to 26 May 2017). According to WHO updated information, MERS-CoV has caused, since its initial detection in Sep 2012, at least 1952 human cases, of which at least 693 deaths in 27 countries. It will be interesting to note if the reporting of this disease, according to the OIE criteria, and its possible control in the animal reservoir have been discussed during the General Session.

Subscribers are referred to a recent review paper (Ref 1), and in particular to figure 3 "Hypothesis of MERS-CoV transmission to humans".

A One Health approach to the MERS-CoV issue, its epidemiology and control, will require the active involvement of the 3 relevant international authorities, namely the FAO, OIE and WHO.

References
M. G. Hemida, A. Elmoslemany, F. Al-Hizab, A. Alnaeem, F. Almathen, B. Faye, D. K. W. Chu, R. A. P. M. Perera & M. Peiris. Dromedary Camels and the Transmission of Middle East. Transboundary & Emerging Diseases 64 (2017) 344-353.  <http://agritrop.cirad.fr/580073/7/Hemida_et_al-2017-Transboundary_and_Emerging_Diseases.pdf>. - ProMED Mod.AS]

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
Date: Sat, 26 Nov 2016 20:00:07 +0100

Doha, Nov 26, 2016 (AFP) - Rainfall caused widespread flooding in Qatar on Saturday, potentially raising fresh concerns about infrastructure in the Gulf country due to host the 2022 football World Cup.   Several major roads were flooded, prompting official warnings.   "As the rain continues to pour in most parts of the country, motorists are advised to be cautious," the interior ministry tweeted after earlier calling the rainfall "medium to heavy".   Some apartment buildings on the Pearl Qatar, an artificial island in Doha, estimated to have cost $15 billion (13.5 billion euros) to build, suffered flooding, as did the nearby suburb of Qanat Quartier, built to resemble Venice.

The Doha News website reported that the Qatar Animal Welfare Society pleaded urgently for foster homes to take care of its dogs because of the conditions.   The Peninsula English-language newspaper reported that rain caused leaks at major Doha shopping centre the Landmark Mall.   Many people used social media to post videos and pictures, with some questioning how a relatively small amount of rain -- the first of the winter -- could cause such problems.   The wet weather had been predicted and the government "Rain Emergency Team" had already convened to discuss potential problems.

Last November, the government began an inquiry after rain damaged Doha's Hamad international airport, which opened in 2014, flooded roads and streets and caused some schools to close.   Gas-rich Qatar is spending more than $200 billion on major infrastructure such as roads, the airport, a metro system and a new city ahead of the 2022 World Cup, which will be played at this time of year -- from November 21 to December 18.   World Bank figures show Qatar's average annual rainfall is around 75 millimetres.
Date: Mon 13 Jun 2016 01:58 AM (Qatar)
Source: Gulf Times [edited]

The Ministry of Public Health has announced that a new Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus (MERS-CoV) case has been confirmed in a 23-year-old male resident, marking it the 3rd to be confirmed in the country this year [2016].

The person was not in contact with a confirmed case and does not suffer from any chronic diseases that usually cause immunity suppression. The patient was admitted to Hamad General Hospital as he reported fever, cough, runny nose, and backache where he tested positive for Mers-CoV. The patient is now stable and receives medical care in the isolation ward.

The ministry said that Health Protection and Communicable Disease Control Hotlines, 66740948 and 66740951, are accessible round-the-clock to respond to any notification or query related to infectious diseases.

MERS-CoV was 1st identified in Saudi Arabia in 2012.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), globally, since September 2012, it has been notified of 1652 laboratory-confirmed cases of infection with MERS-CoV, including at least 591 related deaths [the most recent report from WHO on 16 May 2016 gives a global tally of 1733 laboratory-confirmed cases of infection with MERS-CoV, including at least 628 related deaths (<http://www.who.int/csr/don/16-may-2016-mers-saudi-arabia/en/>) - ProMED Mod.MPP].

Mers-CoV is a zoonotic virus that is transmitted from animals to humans.
==================
[As mentioned in the above report, this is now the 3rd case of MERS-CoV infection reported in Qatar in 2016. The 1st case was reported in February 2016 in a 66 year old Qatari male who had been, for 2 months preceding onset of illness, in Saudi Arabia where he had a camel farm (see MERS-CoV (35): Saudi Arabia, Qatar ex Saudi Arabia, WHO http://promedmail.org/post/20160311.4085518 and MERS-CoV (24): Qatar ex Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabia (RI) RFI http://promedmail.org/post/20160222.4041719). The 2nd case was a 40 year old Qatari national camel worker with non-specific, non-respiratory symptoms (see MERS-CoV (56): Qatar, Saudi Arabia, WHO http://promedmail.org/post/20160503.4198200).

According to the most recent ECDC Communicable Disease Threats Report, as of 9 June 2016, there have been a total of 1753 cases of MERS-CoV infection, including 680 deaths reported by health authorities worldwide. Besides, there have been a total of 15 cases of MERS-CoV infection including 5 deaths reported by Qatar as of 9 Jun 2016, making this current case the 16th case reported by Qatar since April 2012.  (<http://ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications/Publications/Communicable-disease-threats-report-11-june-2016.pdf>).

In addition to the 16 cases reported by Qatar, there have been 2 additional cases reported in Qatari nationals treated in Europe (see Novel coronavirus - Saudi Arabia (03): UK HPA, WHO, Qatar
East. Med. (07): Saudi Arabia, UK, Germany

We await further information on possible high risk transmission exposures.

The HealthMap/ProMED map of Qatar can be found at:
Date: Mon 2 May 2016
Source: Gulf Times

A 40-year old camel worker has tested positive for the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) announced.

It is the 2nd case confirmed in Qatar so far this year [2016].

The worker, who was neither in contact with a suspected patient nor abroad during the last 2 weeks, is free from chronic diseases that usually cause immunity suppression. He was admitted to Hamad General Hospital [in Doha] with general symptoms where routine investigations tested positive for MERS-CoV, despite him not exhibiting any respiratory related symptoms.

The patient is currently in stable condition and receiving the necessary medical care in the isolation ward, according to the national protocol for infection prevention and control, the ministry said in a statement.

After the tests proved positive, the rapid response team of MoPH carried out extensive search to list all potential contacts to check for their possible consistence with the standard case definition of the suspected cases, based on the World Health Organisation guidelines. All traced contacts will be monitored over a period of 2 weeks, while those who develop suspected symptoms will then be subjected to confirmatory laboratory investigation, the ministry added.

While research efforts continue on a global and local level to determine the modes of transmission of MERS-CoV infection, the MoPH has advised citizens and residents who suffer from chronic diseases to avoid direct contact with camels and to wash hands with soap and water thoroughly. Also recommended are implementing respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette and the need to boil camel milk before drinking.

MoPH added that Health Protection & CDC Hotlines 66740948 and 66740951 are accessible 24/7 to respond to any notification or inquiry related to infectious diseases.
==================
[The text of the media report above is almost verbatim from the MoPH announcement, also released today (2 May 2016 and available at <https://www.moph.gov.qa/news/moph-announces-the-second-mers-cov-case-in-2016?backArt=326&page=2>). On 22 Feb 2016, there was a report of a case of MERS-CoV infection in a 66 year old Qatari male who had a farm (with camels and sheep) in Saudi Arabia. The addition of this newly confirmed case brings the total number of cases of MERS-CoV infection reported by Qatar to 15 since 2012. It is noteworthy that in the absence of respiratory symptoms, the history of camel contact most probably led to testing for MERS-CoV infection in this patient, suggesting a high index of suspicion on the part of the medical community treating this patient.

The HealthMap/ProMED map of Qatar can be found at
Date: Thu, 10 Mar 2016 14:54:28 +0100

Doha, March 10, 2016 (AFP) - A 66-year-old Qatari man has died after contracting the MERS virus, in the first fatal case in the Gulf state for 10 months, health officials announced Thursday.   The public health ministry, quoted by the official Qatar News Agency, said the man "had been suffering from several chronic diseases and died of complications from the disease".

This was the first such case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome reported in Qatar since May 2015 when it claimed the life of a 73-year-old man, the ministry added in a statement.   The ministry "continues to monitor acute respiratory diseases and is working in cooperation with all the health institutions in the public and private sectors to monitor any suspected case," it said.   The latest victim had been diagnosed with the virus in February. He was hospitalised after returning from a "neighbouring country", according to an official statement last month.

MERS is a viral respiratory illness and considered a deadlier but less infectious cousin of the SARS virus that appeared in Asia in 2003, infecting more than 8,000 people and killing hundreds.   Like SARS, it appears to cause a lung infection, with patients suffering coughing, breathing difficulties and a temperature.

MERS differs in that it also causes rapid kidney failure.   It first appeared five years ago in neighbouring Saudi Arabia, which has been the country worst hit by the virus, with 1,286 cases of infection and 551 deaths, according to official figures.   Globally, there have been 1,644 confirmed MERS cases and 590 deaths, according to the World Health Organization.
More ...

World Travel News Headlines

Date: Mon, 25 Mar 2019 11:52:43 +0100

Sanaa, March 25, 2019 (AFP) - Nearly 110,000 suspected cases of cholera have been reported in war-hit Yemen since the beginning of January, including 190 related deaths, the UN said on Monday.   The UN office for humanitarian affairs (OCHA) said children under the age of five make up nearly a third of 108,889 cases which were reported between January 1 and March 17.

OCHA said the spike, which comes two years after Yemen suffered its worst cholera outbreak, was concentrated in six governorates including in the Red Sea port of Hodeida and the Sanaa province home to the capital.   Early rains could be blamed for the recent increase in suspected cholera cases, it said.   "The situation is exacerbated by poor maintenance of sewage disposal systems in many of the affected districts, the use of contaminated water for irrigation, and population movements," OCHA added.   The waterborne disease is endemic to Yemen, which witnessed the worst cholera outbreak in its modern history in 2017.

More than one million suspected cases were reported within an eight-month period that year. More than 2,500 people died of the infection between April and December 2017.    Yemen's brutal conflict, which pits Iran-linked rebels against a regional pro-government alliance led by Saudi Arabia, has left some 10,000 people dead since 2015 and pushed millions to the brink of famine.    The war has created the perfect environment for cholera to thrive, as civilians across the country lack access to clean water and health care.
Date: Wed 20 Mar 2019
Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]

Swedish public health authorities, Folkhalsomyndigheten, is reporting an outbreak of psittacosis, or parrot disease, since November 2018. According to officials, some 60 cases have been reported from the regions of Vastra Gotaland, Kalmar, Jonkoping, and Skane. This is the highest number of cases reported in one winter in 2 decades.

Those who have now fallen ill have mainly come into contact with bird droppings from wild birds, for example through the handling of bird tables and other outdoor activities. A smaller number are believed to have been infected by domestic birds (parrots) in cages. The most common way someone gets infected with the bacteria that cause psittacosis (_Chlamydia psittaci_) is by breathing in dust containing dried secretions (e.g., droppings, respiratory) from infected birds. It is rare for psittacosis to spread from person to person.

In general, psittacosis causes mild illness in people. The most common symptoms include fever and chills, headache, muscle aches, and dry cough. Psittacosis can also cause pneumonia (a lung infection) that may require treatment or care in a hospital. Rarely, psittacosis can result in death. Most people begin developing signs and symptoms of psittacosis within 5-14 days after exposure to the bacteria (_C. psittaci_). Occasionally, people report the start of symptoms after more than 14 days.
=================
[The news report above attributes the increase in number of human cases of psittacosis in Sweden since Nov 2018 mainly to contact with wild bird droppings, for example through the handling of bird tables and other outdoor activities. Outbreaks of avian chlamydiosis, due to _Chlamydia psittaci_ or the other Chlamydia species, have been reported occasionally in wild birds including shorebirds, waterfowl, and migratory birds, especially in birds under stress (<http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/psittacosis.pdf>).

An outbreak in Australia was probably caused by organisms carried in wild birds and spread when organisms in bird droppings became aerosolized during activities such as lawn mowing (<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15757553>). An increase in psittacosis cases in Sweden in the winter of 2013 was also linked to wild birds, apparently through exposure to wild bird droppings; most cases were associated with tending bird feeders (<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23725809>; also see ProMED-mail post Psittacosis - Sweden (02): wild bird http://promedmail.org/post/20130509.1701695).

Vastra Gotaland, Kalmar, Jonkoping, and Skane are counties located in southern Sweden. A map of Swedish counties can be found at <https://fotw.info/flags/se(.html>. - ProMED Mod.ML]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Date: Wed 20 Mar 2019
Source: PNA [edited]

A public elementary school in Tubungan town, Iloilo has recorded a total of 36 chickenpox cases from 15 Jan to 3 Mar [2019], the Provincial Health Office (PHO) said. In an interview on Wednesday [20 Mar 2019], Dr. Patricia Grace Trabado, PHO head, said the cases were observed as patients who sought treatment at the rural health units (RHU) and private clinics in Tubungan.

All the cases were recorded in Cadabdab Elementary School, with 21 male and 15 female students affected. Trabado said affected pupils might still be attending school even though they were infected, which resulted in its transmission.

She emphasized that the spread of the infection might have been prevented if the children were advised not to attend school with the onset of infection. "If a child is showing chickenpox symptoms, especially when he or she was previously exposed to an affected person, then the pupil will be advised to stay at home," she said.

Trabado said the source of the infection came from the 1st patient working in Iloilo City but lives in Tubungan town. "The patient might have a family member that attends school in Cadabdab. From there, we see where the infection originated," she said. Trabado, however, did not give figures of the disease other than that from the school.

The RHUs and private clinics were able to monitor and manage the cases, Trabado said. All the student patients were discharged, given medication, and let the viral infection take its course. "And eventually, the patients recovered," she said. However, Trabado warns that a child with chickenpox can get secondary infection when he or she scratches the blisters, creating skin lesions.

She added that cases of chickenpox and mumps are mostly observed during the summer season. Trabado said patients with chickenpox experience fever and headache in the first 1 or 2 days before the itchy blister rash appears.  [Byline: Gail Momblan]
======================
[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Date: Wed 20 Mar 2019
Source: USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services [edited]
<https://content.govdelivery.com/accounts/USDAAPHIS/bulletins/23806a5>

The US Department of Agriculture's (USDA) under secretary for marketing and regulatory programs, Greg Ibach, is alerting international travellers of a deadly swine disease they could unknowingly bring back into the United States on their clothes, shoes, or hands.

African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious and deadly disease affecting both domestic and feral (wild) pigs. It does not affect human health and cannot be transmitted from pigs to humans. Recent spread of the disease to new countries in Asia and Europe has triggered a series of actions by USDA, state agriculture departments, and the pork industry to bolster protections against ASF in the United States and keep ASF out of North America.

"ASF has never been detected in the United States," said Ibach, "but an outbreak here would not only affect the pork industry, but also have major impacts on trade and raise food prices for consumers. We are asking international travellers to help prevent the spread of ASF to the United States by understanding what products can be brought back into the United States and declaring any agricultural items in their baggage."

The USDA's Animal Plant and Health Inspection Service's (APHIS) new traveller website provides updated information about potentially harmful pests and diseases that can hitchhike on food or other agricultural products. When returning to the United States, travellers are reminded to declare food items and animal products in their luggage. Failure to declare items may result in serious penalties.

"USDA and US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) recognize the crucial work of detector dog teams at US ports of entry." said Ibach. "While travellers' declarations of any food products brought with them to the United States is a critical step to protecting US agriculture, the dogs and secondary agricultural inspections provide another line of defence to keep ASF out of the country."

Travellers will also see some changes at airports as USDA works with CBP to increase screenings of passenger baggage. This includes training and adding 60 additional beagle teams for a total of 179 teams working at key US commercial, sea, and air ports and ensuring travellers who pose an ASF risk receive secondary agricultural inspection. USDA is also coordinating with CBP to expand arrival screenings, including checking cargo for illegal pork and pork products.

Anyone who visits a farm in an ASF-affected country should take specific precautions before returning to the United States. Follow the farm's biosecurity protocols and wear site specific footwear and coveralls or clothing. Thoroughly clean and disinfect or dispose of clothes and footwear worn on the farm before returning, and declare the farm visit to CBP when re-entering the United States. Travelers should not visit farms or any other locations with pigs -- including livestock markets, zoos, circuses, and pet stores with pot-bellied pigs -- for at least 5 days after returning.

More information on ASF, partner resources, and additional resources for travellers are available on the APHIS ASF webpage
and in this infographic
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[This disease would be extremely serious for the US, and likely for all of North America. The warning is appropriate for travellers to be more alert to situations that could ultimately have horrible outcomes. - ProMED Mod.TG]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Date: Wed 20 Mar 2019
Source: ReliefWeb [edited]

The Federal Ministry of Health, in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO), Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, and UNICEF, has launched a large-scale mass vaccination campaign in Sudan to vaccinate more than 8.3 million people 9 months to 60 years of age against yellow fever in the states of Blue Nile, Gezira and Sennar during 10-29 Mar 2019.

The campaign represents a crucial step in protecting a large portion of the population and reducing the risk of severe and deadly yellow fever outbreaks in the country. It is the 3rd and final drive thatSudan is undertaking to protect populations at risk and prevent yellow fever epidemics, pending the implementation of infant immunization as routine practice.

The campaign forms a critical part of Sudan's ongoing work to protect all populations against yellow fever epidemics, in alignment with the global Eliminate Yellow fever Epidemics (EYE) Strategy. The country plans to complement these yellow fever mass campaigns and ensure long-term protection through the introduction of yellow fever vaccination into routine immunization in the coming months.

"We acknowledge the commitment of the health authorities in Sudan to avail cash and fuel during this economic crisis to ensure that their people, especially children, are protected with a quality vaccine which will contribute to health security and making the world safer," said Dr. Naeema Al-Gasseer, WHO Representative in Sudan.

"Yellow fever vaccination is the most important tool we have to prevent yellow fever outbreaks. The vaccine will be freely available to any eligible person and will provide life-long protection against the disease. While protecting yourself against mosquito bites is important to reduce the risk of many diseases, only vaccination can eliminate the risk of yellow fever outbreaks," she added.

Yellow fever is a viral disease that is transmitted by certain types of mosquito. Infection can cause fatal illness, including jaundice, and death, and can spread rapidly, locally and internationally, especially in urban areas. However, the disease can be prevented by a single dose of a highly effective and safe vaccine. This campaign aims to boost protection in the general population and will target all eligible people.

Sudan is at high risk for the spread of yellow fever due to a combination of climate and ecological factors, and because there are still areas of low population immunity. Recent years have seen global changes in the epidemiology of yellow fever, with outbreaks occurring in areas that were not previously assessed as being at high risk.

"We are observing a changing nature in yellow fever disease dynamics. It is very important that every eligible person in this campaign receives the vaccine to protect themselves, their families and their communities," said Professor Dr. Babkir Kabaloo, Undersecretary of the Federal Ministry of Health.

"The current campaign represents one of the final phases in the Ministry's efforts to protect the entire nation against yellow fever outbreaks. This campaign will cover Blue Nile, Gezira, and Sennar states. In the coming months, the remaining states of Khartoum, Northern and River Nile will also be covered, completing the protection of the entire Sudanese population," he added.

Sudan's health authorities and partners are working to introduce yellow fever vaccine in the national immunization schedule in the near future. This will help ensure the protection of the whole population and generations to come against this fatal but preventable disease.
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[It is good to see this ambitious yellow fever (YF) vaccination campaign drawing to a close. Incorporating YF vaccine into routine childhood vaccination schedules is prudent and if successful will eliminate the need for intensive, country-wide campaigns to deal with outbreaks. YF is no stranger to Sudan. Between 3 Oct and 24 Nov 2013, a total of 44 confirmed cases of YF were reported, including 14 deaths. A total of 12 localities in West and South Kordofan were affected by that outbreak. There was a large YF outbreak in the Darfur state in 2012-2013. In 2012, the World Health Organisation (WHO) said that more than 840 people were infected with YF in Darfur and that the epidemic affected 35 of 64 localities in the region since September 2012. The total recorded cases of YF in Greater Darfur hit 849 with a 20% death toll during an epidemic in 2012 (see WHO Disease Outbreak News <http://who.int/csr/don/2012_12_03/en> as reported by ProMED post http://promedmail.org/post/20130125.1513849, as noted at the time by Mod.JW). Mounting campaigns in the face of these types of outbreaks is inefficient, logistically difficult, and costly -- financially and in terms of human lives. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Date: Thu 21 Mar 2019
Source: SBS News, Australian Associated Press (AAP) report [edited]

An egg recall has been announced following the discovery of a _Salmonella_ outbreak at a Victorian egg farm. The scare has prompted a recall of some brands of eggs from outlets in 4 states.

To date, 5 cases of _Salmonella [enterica_ serotype] Enteritidis have been linked to eggs produced by Victoria's Bridgewater Poultry, the state's health department said on [Thu 21 Mar 2019]. The company's free-range and barn-laid eggs are packaged as Woolworths brand, Victorian Fresh, and Loddon Valley, with best-before dates ranging from [20 Mar to 29 Apr 2019]. They are on shelves in Victoria, New South Wales, Tasmania, and South Australia. All other eggs are safe to eat, Chief Health Officer Brett Sutton said.

"It is important to know that not all eggs are affected, but any eggs carrying the listed brands should return them to the point of sale for a full refund. Alternatively, they can be discarded by throwing them into the garbage, not the garden or compost. "These eggs should not be given to pets or livestock."

Vulnerable people, including the elderly, are urged to avoid eating raw egg products.

Eggs of concern:
- Woolworths 12 Cage Free Eggs 700 g
- Victorian Fresh Barn Laid Eggs 600 g
- Victorian Fresh Barn Laid Eggs 700 g
- Victorian Fresh Barn Laid Eggs 800 g
- Loddon Valley Barn Laid 600 g (Victoria and South Australia only)
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[Salmonellosis is often thought to be associated with cracked eggs or eggs dirty with faecal matter, a problem controlled by cleaning procedures implemented in the egg industry. It is clearly the case, however, that most of the salmonellosis outbreaks linked to eggs were associated with uncracked, disinfected grade A eggs, or foods containing such eggs. The undamaged eggs become contaminated during ovulation, and thus were contaminated with the bacteria before the egg shell was formed. To avoid this, uncooked eggs should only be used as an ingredient, if pasteurized. - ProMED Mod.LL]

[Maps of Australia:
Date: Wed 20 Mar 2019 3:50 PM EDT
Source: The Day [edited]

Groton [New London county] public health officials are reminding residents to refrain from feeding or approaching wild or stray animals after a dog found in the area of Midway Oval tested positive for rabies [Wed 20 Mar 2019].

Rabies is a deadly disease caused by a virus that can infect all warm-blooded animals, including people, the Ledge Light Health District said in an alert sent to media outlets.

The disease mostly is spread by wild animals, but stray cats and dogs may also become infected and spread the virus, the district's alert said. The rabies virus lives in the saliva and brain tissue of infected animals, and the disease can be spread by scratches from infected animals or when infected saliva comes into contact with open wounds, breaks in the skin or mucous membranes, including the eyes, nose and mouth.

For more information, contact Ledge Light Health District at (860) 448-4882, extension 1311, or the animal control officer at (860) 441-6709.
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[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Connecticut, United States:
Connecticut county map:

Please keep your animals up-to-date on their rabies vaccine. It is for their protection and for your protection.

Regarding the 1st article, it sounds like South Carolina could consider using some oral rabies vaccine bait for some of their wild animals.

Unfortunately, wild animals may attack even when you are unaware of their presence.

Animals may be either unusually friendly and timid (dumb rabies) or aggressive and vicious (furious rabies). These are 2 presentations of the same disease but we should be aware of both forms and teach both forms to our children. - ProMED Mod.TG]
Date: Wed 20 Mar 2019
Source: Aiken Standard [edited]

[One person] in Aiken county may have been exposed to rabies following an unfriendly encounter with a wild raccoon, according to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control [DHEC].

According to a DHEC press release, the victim was on the North Augusta Greeneway Walking Trail on 16 Mar 2019 when they were bitten by a raccoon. The raccoon was later submitted to DHEC and tested positive for rabies. [Apparently the DHEC knows there is a victim so their earlier statement of "may have been exposed" seems a bit odd. - ProMED Mod.TG]

The victim who was bitten has since been referred to their health care provider. The raccoon on the Greeneway trail was the 3rd animal diagnosed with rabies in Aiken county this year [2019]. Statewide, there have been 32 confirmed cases of rabies in 2019. Coyotes, foxes, and skunks are also common carriers of the virus. Although it is extremely rare in people, rabies can be spread to humans and can also claim the lives of pets. The virus causes hallucinations, hydrophobia (fear of water), aggression, and death in its final stages.

Rabies is normally spread through bites but can also be spread when open wounds or areas like the eyes, nose, or mouth come into contact with saliva or blood of an infected animal. Infected areas should be washed with soap and water and medical attention should be sought immediately.  If a wild animal is foaming at the mouth and shows a lack of motor control (stumbling, staggering, or bumping into things) it may have rabies. Rabid animals are often very aggressive and do not fear people or other animals. [This behaviour may describe raccoons with distemper, but although they are not usually aggressive with distemper, they can be. The point is, when an animal is not acting normally it is time to move on and leave it alone and report it to the authorities in your area. - ProMED Mod.TG]

"To reduce the risk of getting rabies, always give wild and stray animals their space," said David Vaughan, Director of DHEC's Onsite Wastewater, Rabies Prevention, and Enforcement Division. "If you see an animal in need, avoid touching it and contact someone trained in handling animals, such as your local animal control officer or wildlife rehabilitator."

DHEC also stresses the importance of keeping pets up to date on their rabies shots to prevent the spread of the disease. For more information, call DHEC's Environmental Affairs Aiken office at 803-642-1637 during normal business hours on weekdays.  [Byline: Kristina Rackley]
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[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of South Carolina, United States:
South Carolina county map:
Date: Thu, 21 Mar 2019 16:10:28 +0100

Kinshasa, March 21, 2019 (AFP) - A six-month-old baby in the eastern DR Congo city of Bunia has died of Ebola, becoming the first fatality of the disease in a provincial capital, the heath ministry said Thursday.   Bunia, which has a population of 300,000, is the capital of Ituri province, which along with neighbouring North Kivu province has been battling an epidemic of Ebola since last August.

The baby is among 610 fatalities out of 980 recorded cases, the ministry said in a statement.   "The parents are apparently in good health," it said.   "Extensive investigations are underway and will include, among other things, analysis of the maternal milk to identify the source of contamination."   The ministry added that it had also registered 97 new cases in the previous three weeks.   This increase "was expected" given the impact of an attack on two Ebola treatment centres by armed groups in the troubled region, it said.
Date: Thu, 21 Mar 2019 22:32:17 +0100

Blantyre, Malawi, March 21, 2019 (AFP) - Heavy rains could cause a dam in southern Malawi to give way if there is no let-up, authorities said Thursday, urging local residents to take shelter.   The warning came after cyclone Idai battered neighbouring Mozambique last Friday killing 242 people    Hurricane-force winds and rains have also ravaged hit eastern Zimbabwe where over 100 have died.

In Malawi, the storm has affected nearly a million people with over 80,000 displaced, according to the WHO.   The Chagwa dam "has had one of its major embankments eroded due to heavy rains," the interior security ministry said in a statement. "(It) is likely to burst in the event of heavy and incessant rains."   The statement advised local residents in the southern African country to evacuate "in case of an emergency".