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Greece

Background
Greece offers a great variety of attractions for the international traveller. A beautiful climate linked with great beaches, a vibrant nightlife and historical monuments to rival any other location throughout the world. All of this located
within western Europe and a short flight away from many of the cooler northern destinations - like Ireland. Travellers from these regions descent on Greece in very significant numbers each year and for the vast majority of them they will have a splendid and healthy time. However for some this may not be the case and serious illness and accidents are regularly reported. Following some commonsense rules would go a long way to avoiding disaster and ensuring that this trip is truly one to be remembered for all the right reasons.
Climate
Situated in southern Europe the country enjoys mild winters but very hot summers. There may be occasional cool breezes (meltemia) but these can serve only to fool the traveller into thinking that they are unlikely to burn. Rain is very uncommon during the height of summer (July and August) and all travellers should be advised to use very adequate sun-block lotion at all times.
Slip, Slop, Slap
Following the Australian mantra of Slip, Slop and Slap makes perfect sense. Slip on a shirt, slop on sunscreen and slap on a hat when out and about during the day and this should help protect against the intense suns rays. Nevertheless, despite all their best intentions, travellers get burnt. This is particularly a problem in the first few days after their arrival when they do not realise the intensity of the suns rays and how easily they can be exposed. Falling asleep beside the hotel's swimming pool or on the beach is a very common problem and must be avoided against. The tips of the ears, shoulders (especially along the bra-strap line, ankles and behind the knees are commonly exposed and forgotten areas.
After Sun care
To treat significant sunburn it is important to increase fluid intake but also to take extra salt on your food (unless medically contraindicated for some specific condition like high blood pressure etc). Soothing water soluble lotions (especially ones containing a mild anaesthetic and/or steroid cream) are probably best but certainly avoid any of the ones which paste the skin with a thick layer - which is almost impossible to remove without causing serious pain! The more severe sunburn cases may need medical care and even hospitalisation which really ruins a holiday.
Food & Water
As a European destination Greece has a good level of food and water hygiene. Unfortunately this can vary - especially as you move away from the main tourist destinations and also as the summer temperatures rise and food goes 'off' more quickly. Eating hot food, avoiding cold foods (side-salads, lettuce etc) and never eating undercooked bivalve shellfish (mussels, oysters, clams etc) makes perfect sense. Eating food or taking fruit juice drinks from street vendors is a risk just not worth taking.
Insect bites
There may be both mosquitoes and sandflys about so having good repellents (DEET based ones) is worthwhile. The biggest problem will be early in the morning and towards the end of the daylight hours. However sitting in the shade while having lunch may be nice and cool but it is also often a place where these insects tend to hover looking for their next meal. Just don't allow that meal to be the blood in your unguarded ankle!
Seeing the Monuments
As mentioned previously Greece is covered with ancient monuments and these attract many thousands of tourists each year. The ruins are often not the most hospitable places for sun-sensitive tourists so taking care against the suns rays is essential - especially while standing carefully listening to the tour guide explain some complicated piece of history while the back of your legs get roasted! The other issue, for those trekking through the ruins, is the distinct possibility of a nasty twisted ankle.
Laser Night shows
Many of the ancient sites have beautiful night shows which depict something of the past splendour and are definitely worth seeing. However it is wise to wear good shoes as stumbling across loose stones is a particular problem at night and also bring a small torch, if possible, to guide your way. Getting separated from your travelling companions, or not being able to find your return bus, can lead to some understandable panic so listen carefully to any instructions and look out for some land marks before you get too far away into the night time crowd.
Animal bites
Some tourists may forget that rabies is a problem in many countries throughout the world and, even though Greece is regarded as rabies-free', there is always a problem if someone should get bitten. The possibility that this animal could have been recently smuggled into the country cannot be out ruled and so many would advise full post exposure treatment should this contact occur. Children may be at particular risk due to their inquisitive nature.
Swimming
Sunburn and swimming go hand in hand but drowning can also occur all too frequently within this region. Strong currents, swimming after meals (or alcohol) and the ever popular romantic midnight swim are all serious risk factors. Also children running around the deep end of the pool may lose their footing and topple in without warning. Unfortunately a very small child sinks instantly with very little sign of the emergency to those close by. Parents need to keep aware of this risk at all times.
The summer working holiday
Many of our students head towards Greece for 2 to 3 months during the summer to work. The attractions are obvious but commonsense and sensible life-style choices are needed throughout their stay to lessen the risk of illness or them returning home with an infection they had not bargained for. Unfortunately many return home with life-long illnesses which have been contracted from a single unprotected sexual contact.
Vaccinations for Greece
As a general rule the usual travel vaccines are not recommended for most short-term travellers to this region. However for the student planning to spend a more prolonged period it would be sensible to consider cover against both Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B and also to check that their Tetanus cover is up-to-date.
Summary
This is still one of the most popular destinations for northern European travellers and, in the vast majority of cases, they will have a fantastic time with only good memories. Unfortunately some less prepared folks will end up with serious sunburn and other illnesses or diseases which perhaps are frequently associated with their own lack of care and protection rather than anything specific to this beautiful country.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu, 11 Jul 2019 09:48:53 +0200

Thessaloniki, Greece, July 11, 2019 (AFP) - Fierce storms have killed six tourists and injured dozens of people in northern Greece, authorities said on Thursday.   Strong winds and hail hit the popular tourist Halkidiki region, near the city of Thessaloniki, late on Wednesday.   Television footage showed overturned cars, fallen trees, torn roofs and mudslides.

The freak storm only lasted about 20 minutes, according to witnesses interviewed by state television ERT.   "It was an unprecedented phenomenon," said Charalambos Steriadis, head of civil protection in northern Greece.   "Six tourists were killed and at least 30 people were injured during this cyclone," Steriadis said.   Officials have declared a state of emergency.   The storm overturned and ripped open a caravan occupied by a Czech family on a local beach, killing an elderly couple and injuring their son and grandson.   Elsewhere in the region, a Russian man and his son were killed by a falling tree.

A woman from Romania and her child died when the roof of a tavern caved in, police said, while dozens of people were dining.   "I want to express my sorrow on behalf of all... We mourn for the loss of these souls," said Citizen Protection Minister Michalis Chrisochoidis, who is overseeing operations in the area.   "We are in solidarity with their relatives, with the people who have lost their families," he added.   According to port police, a fisherman in his sixties was also missing.

The freak weather also knocked out power in the area, with army crews working to restore services.   At least 140 rescue workers were involved in the operation, emergency chief Vassilis Varthakoyannis said.   Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis, who took over Sunday after general elections, cancelled his meetings to address the disaster, his office said.   The storms came after temperatures in Greece soared to 37 degrees centigrade (98 degrees Fahrenheit) over the past two days.
Date: Wed, 17 Apr 2019 17:38:23 +0200

Athens, April 17, 2019 (AFP) - A lightning strike injured four people Wednesday at the Acropolis in Athens, the ambulance service said.   The bolt hit two tourists and two Greeks working at a ticket booth at the site, said an ambulance service official.   The two tourists, a Korean man and a Scandinavian woman, both under 30, suffered light injuries and would be able to leave hospital after checks, the official added.

The Acropolis itself suffered no damage, a culture minister spokeswoman told AFP.   Sitting in the historic centre of Athens, the Temple of Parthenon on the rock of the Acropolis dates back to the classical period of antiquity -- the 5th century Before Christ. It is one of the most-visited tourist sites in the world.   Athens has been hit by several violent storms in recent days.
Date: Sat 10 Nov 2018
Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]

Greek health officials have reported 9 autochthonous non-_Plasmodium falciparum_ malaria cases since August [2018].

Case investigation of the 9 introduced cases (8 _P. vivax_ and one non-_P. falciparum_) showed:
- 1 _P. vivax_ case with probable exposure at the municipal unit of Tichero, municipality of Soufli, regional unit (RU) of Evros, with onset of symptoms the week of 20-26 Aug 2018;
- 1 _P. vivax_ case with probable exposure at the municipal unit of Feres, municipality of Alexandroupoli, RU of Evros, with onset of symptoms in the week of 13-19 Aug 2018;
- 7 cases (6 _P. vivax_ and 1 non-_P. falciparum_) with probable exposure at the municipal unit of Echedoros, municipality of Delta, RU of Thessaloniki, with onset of symptoms of the patients within the weeks of 15 Sep-10 Oct 2018. All cases of this cluster are considered introduced, that is, 1st generation transmission from an imported case (as the time interval between symptom onset of the cases was limited, within 3 weeks).

In 2018, 47 total malaria cases have been reported in Greece as of late October [2018], with the remainder being imported (37) or unclassified (1).

Among the 37 imported cases, 23 were immigrants from malaria endemic countries (17 from the Indian subcontinent and 6 from Africa) and 14 cases were travellers (from Africa).

Greece was declared free from malaria in 1974. However, since 2009 a number of locally acquired/introduced _P. vivax_ malaria cases have been recorded in various areas of the country (that is, among patients without travel history to a malaria endemic country), mainly as sporadic introduced cases but also in clusters (in 2011-2012).
======================
[Greece experienced an outbreak of autochthonous _P. vivax_ malaria in 2011-2012; see the ProMED posts below. The malaria was introduced by farm workers from southeast Asia and the transmission was interrupted by case and contact tracing and finally mass drug administration (ProMED 23 Nov 2015 Malaria - Greece: P. vivax, mass drug administration: http://promedmail.org/post/20151123.3813119). ProMED will be happy to post further information. - ProMED Mod.EP]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Greece:
Date: Mon 5 Nov 2018 13:27 EET
Source: Kathimerini [edited]

The spread of West Nile, a virus carried by mosquitoes that has claimed 44 lives since appearing in May [2018], is on the wane, according to the Center for Disease Prevention and Control (KEELPNO), with no new infections being reported in the last week.

Since its outbreak in the spring, 312 people have been infected by West Nile, making 2018 Greece's worst year for the virus on record.

The unusually high autumn temperatures, meanwhile, have prompted authorities across Greece to extend their mosquito-prevention programs. The Attica Regional Authority plans on [Mon 5 Nov 2018] to spray grassy areas, streams and riverbeds in the northern suburbs, focusing on leafy areas like Maroussi and Vrilissia and then moving up to Kifissia, Pefki, and other parts over the course of the week.
========================
[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Greece:
Date: Fri, 26 Oct 2018 09:38:37 +0200

Athens, Oct 26, 2018 (AFP) - A powerful 6.8-magnitude undersea earthquake struck early Friday off the Ionian Sea island of Zante, causing structural damage but no injuries, officials said.   "We have no reports of injuries, or of someone being trapped under rubble... We advise people to remain calm," Zante mayor Pavlos Kolokotsas told Real FM radio.   "Zakynthos has anti-seismic protection... There were only cracks inside homes and minor rockslides," said Kolokotsas, using the island's Greek name.

Electricity in the main town, also called Zante, was temporarily knocked out while officials reported damage to the road network caused by landslides.    The island dock was also damaged, but marine access to the island has not been interrupted.   Many residents spent the early morning outside their homes as a precaution. Island schools would remain shut on Friday.   "We ran out of the house... The whole village was out on the square," said Angelike Glava, an elderly local.   The earthquake hit off the southern part of the island, in the Ionian Sea at 1.50 am (2250 GMT Thursday), according to the US Geological Survey (USGS).

The Greek national observatory in Athens said the earthquake had a depth of just 10 kilometres.   "There has been no damage to houses, according to the first reports," a spokesperson for the fire service told AFP.    A 12th-century Byzantine monument on a small island near Zante has been severely damaged, local media reported.

The tremor was followed by over a dozen aftershocks, the national observatory in Athens said.    The earthquake was also felt on mainland Greece, southern Italy and Malta.   USGS said the quake, which struck at a depth of 16.6 kilometres (10 miles), was preceded by a shake of 5.0 and followed by a series of smaller aftershocks.   Zante is a popular holiday destination with its own international airport.

Greece lies on major fault lines and is regularly hit by earthquakes, but they rarely cause casualties.   However, in July 2017 a magnitude 6.7 earthquake killed two people on the island of Kos in the Aegean sea, causing significant damage.   Zante island experienced a major earthquake in 1953 of 6.4, killing hundreds of victims and injuring thousands, leaving the island in ruins.
More ...

Myanmar (Burma)

Myanmar (Burma) US Consular Information Sheet
October 09, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Burma (Myanmar) is an underdeveloped agrarian country ruled by an authoritarian military regime.
The country's government suppresses all expression of
opposition to its rule.

After a long period of isolation, Burma has started to encourage tourism.
Foreigners can expect to pay several times more than locals do for accommodations, domestic airfares, and entry to tourist sites.
Tourist facilities in Rangoon, Bagan, Ngapali Beach, Inle Lake, and Mandalay are superior to tourist facilities in other parts of the country, where they are limited.
Please note that visitors should travel with sufficient cash to cover their expenses for the duration of their visit.
Traveler’s checks and credit cards are not accepted anywhere, and ATM machines are nonexistent in Burma.
(See "Currency" and “U.S. Treasury Sanctions" below.)
Read the Department of State's Background Notes on Burma for additional information.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: The Government of Burma strictly controls travel to, from, and within Burma.
Since October 1, 2006, Burmese authorities have often prohibited entry or exit at most land border crossings, unless the traveler is part of a package tour group that has received prior permission from the Burmese authorities.
A passport and visa are required for entry into Burma.
Travelers are required to show their passports with a valid visa at all airports, train stations, and hotels.
Security checkpoints are common outside of tourist areas.

Burmese authorities rarely issue visas to persons with occupations they deem “sensitive,” including journalists.
Many journalists and writers traveling to Burma on tourist visas have been denied entry.
Journalists -- and tourists mistaken for journalists -- have been harassed.
Some journalists have had film and notes confiscated upon leaving the country.
In an effort to prevent international child abduction, many governments have initiated procedures at entry/exit points.
These often include requiring documentary evidence of relationship and permission for the child's travel from the absent parent(s) or legal guardian. Having such documentation on hand, even if not required, may facilitate entry/departure.
Information about entry requirements as well as other information may be obtained from the Burmese Embassy (Embassy of the Union of Myanmar) at http://www.mewashingtondc.com/,
2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC
20008, telephone 202-332-4350 or the Permanent Burma Mission (Mission of Myanmar) to the U.N. 10 East 77th St., New York, NY 10021, (212-535-1311) 212-744-1271, fax 212-744-1290.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY: U.S. citizens traveling in Burma should exercise caution, register with the U.S. Embassy and check in for an update on the current security situation.
U.S. citizens are encouraged to carry their U.S. passports or photocopies of passport data and visa pages at all times so that if questioned by Burmese officials, they will have proof of U.S. citizenship readily available.

In September 2007, the Burmese Government brutally cracked down on peaceful demonstrators, using gunfire, rubber bullets, batons, and tear gas against them and those observing in the vicinity.
The authorities killed at least 30 people during the crackdown and arrested more than 3,000.
On September 27, 2007, security forces shot and killed a Japanese journalist in the Sule Pagoda downtown area during a demonstration. The Burmese Government has a standing law, which is sporadically enforced, that bans all gatherings of more than five people.

On May 7, 2005, three large bombs simultaneously exploded in Rangoon at two crowded shopping areas frequented by foreigners and at an international trade center, killing at least 20 people and wounding several hundred.
On April 26, 2005, an explosive device detonated at a busy market in Mandalay, killing at least three people.
Although other smaller-scale bombings have occurred in Burma in recent years, including in early 2007 and early 2008, the 2005 bombings were more sophisticated and specifically targeted more highly trafficked areas than those used in other bombings.
However, there is no indication that these attacks targeted American citizens or U.S. interests.
The perpetrators of these bombings have not been identified.

In light of these incidents and the possibility of recurring political unrest, Americans in Burma should exercise caution in public places and be alert to their surroundings.
Furthermore, Americans in Burma should avoid crowded public places, such as large public gatherings, demonstrations, and any area cordoned off by security forces.
The Embassy also advises U.S. citizens not to photograph or videotape the military or police, because doing so could be interpreted as provocative.
Burma experienced major political unrest in 1988 when the military regime jailed as well as killed thousands of Burmese democracy activists.
In 1990, the military government refused to recognize the results of an election that the opposition won overwhelmingly.
Major demonstrations by opposition activists occurred in 1996 and 1998.
In May 2003, individuals affiliated with the Burmese regime attacked a convoy carrying opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi in Sagaing Division; dozens were killed or injured.

Ethnic rebellions still smolder in regions along Burma’s borders with Thailand, China, India, and Bangladesh, and anti-personnel landmines along border areas pose an additional danger. Occasional fighting between government forces and various rebel groups has occurred in Chin State and Sagaing Division near India and along the Thai-Burma border area in Burma's Shan, Mon, Kayah (Karenni), and Karen states.
From time to time, the Governments of Burma and Thailand have closed the border between the two nations on short notice.
In January 2005, regional governments announced a major regional law enforcement initiative aimed at dismantling the operations of Southeast Asia's largest narcotics trafficking organization, the United Wa State Army.
At that time, the Burmese Government stated that it could not guarantee the safety of foreign officials or personnel from non-governmental organizations traveling or working in Wa Special Region 2 (northeastern Shan State).

U.S. citizens have been detained, arrested, tried, and deported for, among other activities, distributing pro-democracy literature and visiting the homes and offices of Burmese pro-democracy leaders.
Taking photographs of anything that could be perceived as being of military or security interest may also result in problems with authorities.
Burmese authorities have warned U.S. Embassy officials that those who engage in similar activities in the future will be jailed rather than deported.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up–to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll-free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. - 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except for U.S. federal holidays).
The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME:
Crime rates in Burma, especially toward foreigners, are lower than those of many other countries in the region.
Nevertheless, due in part to the poor economic situation in Burma, the crime rate has been increasing.
Violent crime against foreigners is rare.
INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate for assistance.
The embassy/consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime.
MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Medical facilities in Burma are inadequate for even routine medical care.
There are few trained medical personnel.
Most foreign drugs on sale have been smuggled into the country, and many are counterfeit or adulterated and thus unsafe to use.
Travelers should bring adequate supplies of their medications for the duration of their stay in Burma.
HIV/AIDS is widespread among high-risk populations, such as prostitutes and illegal drug users.
Malaria, tuberculosis, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases are endemic in most parts of the country.

In early 2006 and throughout 2007, brief avian influenza outbreaks resulted in the death of domestic poultry and some wild birds. In December 2007, the World Health Organization and Burmese Ministry of Health confirmed Burma’s first case of human infection with the H5N1 avian influenza virus.
The young girl infected with the virus during a poultry outbreak in eastern Shan State in late November responded well to treatment and fully recovered.
Travelers to Burma and other South Asian countries affected by avian influenza are cautioned to avoid poultry farms, contact with animals in live food markets, and any other surfaces that appear to be contaminated with feces from poultry or other animals.
Current information about avian influenza A (H5N1) and pandemic influenza can be found via the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) web site at http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/ or at AvianFlu.gov.
For additional information on avian influenza as it affects American citizens residing abroad, see the U.S. Department of State’s Avian Influenza Fact Sheet.

Tuberculosis is an increasingly serious health concern in Burma.
For further information, please consult the CDC's Travel Notice on TB at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/yellowBookCh4-TB.aspx.
The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Burma.
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC's web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad and other health information, consult the World Health Organization's (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en/.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en
MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.
TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Burma is provided for general reference only, and may not be accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
Rangoon's main roads are generally in poor condition.
Traffic in the capital is increasing rapidly, but heavy congestion is still uncommon.
Some roads are in serious disrepair.
Slow-moving vehicles, bicycles, animals, and heavy pedestrian traffic create numerous hazards for drivers on Rangoon's streets.
Drivers must remain extremely alert to avoid hitting pedestrians.
Most roads outside of Rangoon consist of one to two lanes and are potholed, often unpaved, and unlit at night.
Many of the truck drivers traversing from China to Rangoon are believed to drive under the influence of methamphetamines and other stimulants.
Drunken and/or drugged drivers are also common on the roads during the four-day Buddhist water festival in mid-April.
Driving at night is particularly dangerous.
Few, if any, streets are adequately lit.
Most Burmese drivers do not turn on their headlights until the sky is completely dark; many do not use headlights at all.
Many bicyclists use no lights or reflectors.

Vehicular traffic moves on the right side, as in the United States; however, a majority of vehicles have the steering wheel positioned on the right.
The “right of way” concept is generally respected, but military convoys and motorcades always have precedence.
Most vehicle accidents are settled between the parties on site, with the party at fault paying the damages.
In the event of an accident with a pedestrian, the driver is always considered to be at fault and subject to fines or arrest, regardless of the circumstances. Accidents that require an investigation are concluded quickly and rarely result in criminal prosecution.
There is no roadside assistance, and ambulances are not available.
Vehicles generally do not have seat belts.
Child car seats are also not available.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Burma, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Burma’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA's web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.
The U.S. Embassy in Rangoon has advised its employees to avoid travel on state-owned Myanmar Airways, as well as on Air Bagan, whenever possible due to serious concerns about the airlines’ ability to maintain their airplanes.
(Myanmar Airways International [MAI] is a different carrier that operates flights between Bangkok and Rangoon.)

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Foreigner Travel within Burma:
Burmese authorities require that hotels and guesthouses furnish information about the identities and activities of their foreign guests.
Burmese who interact with foreigners may be compelled to report on those interactions to the Burmese authorities.
Security personnel may at times place foreign visitors under surveillance, and travelers must assume their actions, such as meeting with Burmese citizens, particularly in hotel lobbies and rooms, are being closely monitored.
Travelers must assume that telephones and fax machines may be monitored, and personal possessions in hotel rooms may be searched.

Travelers are not generally required to obtain advance permission to travel to the main tourist areas of Mandalay and the surrounding area, Bagan, Inle Lake, Ngapali, and other beach resorts.
However, some tourists traveling to places where permission is not expressly required have reported delays due to questioning by local security personnel.
Additionally, the military regime restricts access to some areas of the country on an ad hoc basis, and in 2005 stated it could not guarantee the safety of foreigners traveling in eastern Shan State, specifically in Wa territory, also known as Special Region 2.
Individuals planning to travel in Burma should check with Burmese tourism authorities to see whether travel to specific destinations is permitted.
Even if the Burmese authorities allow travel to specific destinations in Burma, it may not be safe to travel in those areas.

Irrawaddy Delta Region: On May 2, 2008, Cyclone Nargis devastated Burma’s Irrawaddy Delta region and surrounding areas, killing over 130,000 people.
The Delta region is still without many basic necessities, and the risk of outbreaks of disease remains high.
The United Nations, ASEAN, and others in the international community, including the United States, provided international relief assistance to meet both immediate and long-term needs.
The Burmese Government has restricted access to this area for people other than relief workers it has authorized.
American citizens should defer nonessential travel to the Irrawaddy Delta region.

The environment in Rangoon, Burma’s most populous city, and other areas outside of the Irrawaddy Delta has gradually improved.
Electrical power and water supply have been restored in most areas and markets are now operating normally.

Customs Regulations:
Customs regulations in Burma are restrictive and strictly enforced.
Customs authorities closely search travelers’ luggage upon arrival and departure from Burma.
It is illegal to enter or exit Burma with items such as firearms, religious materials, antiquities, medications, business equipment, currency, gems, and ivory.
On several occasions in the past two decades, foreigners have been detained, searched, and imprisoned for attempting to take restricted items out of the country.

Customs officials also strictly limit what is brought into the country, including bans on pornography and political material or literature critical of the regime or supportive of the opposition.
Travelers have also reported problems bringing in high-tech electronic devices and equipment, ranging from toys to computers.
The military regime has never provided a complete listing of prohibited import items.
For information on restricted items for import into Burma and specific customs’ requirements, it is best to consult the nearest Burmese Embassy (Embassy of the Union of Myanmar) or in Washington DC located at 2300 S Street NW, Washington DC 20008, tel..: 202-332-4350.
You may also contact Burma’s Mission in New York located at 10 E. 77th Street, New York, NY
10021, tel. 202-535-1310, or 212-535-1311, fax 212-744-1290
In many countries around the world, counterfeit and pirated goods are widely available.
Transactions involving such products are illegal, and bringing them back to the United States may result in forfeitures and/or fines.
Please see our information on Customs Regulations.

Computers, Internet, and E-Mail: The military regime carefully controls and monitors all internet use in Burma and restricts internet access through software-based censorship that limits the materials individuals can access on line.
The government has allowed several cyber cafes to open, but access to the Internet is very expensive, and access to most “free” international e-mail services such as Hotmail and Yahoo is prohibited.
Currently, Gmail (Google mail) accounts can be accessed in Burma, and many locals and resident expatriates use it.
It is illegal to own an unregistered modem in Burma.
Tourists may bring one laptop computer per person into Burma and must declare it upon arrival.
Limited e-mail service is available at some large hotels.
All e-mails are read by military intelligence.
It is very expensive to send photographs via e-mail.
One foreign visitor was presented a bill for $2,000 after transmitting one photograph via a major hotel's e-mail system.
During September and October 2007, the military government disconnected all Internet access across the country for extended periods of time.

Consular Notification and Access: U.S. consular officers do not always receive timely notification of the detention, arrest, or deportation of U.S. citizens.
In addition, Burmese authorities have on occasion refused to give Embassy consular officers access to arrested or detained U.S. citizens.
U.S. citizens who are arrested or detained should request immediate contact with the U.S. Embassy.
U.S. citizens are encouraged to carry their U.S. passports with them at all times, so that if questioned by local officials, they have proof of identity and U.S. citizenship readily available.

Should an emergency arise involving the detention of a U.S. citizen, especially outside of Rangoon, it may be difficult for U.S. Embassy personnel to assist quickly, because travel inside Burma can be slow and difficult.
The Burmese authorities do not routinely notify the U.S. Embassy of the arrest of American citizens, and the Burmese Government has obstructed regular access by consular officers to American citizen detainees.

Photography: Photographing military installations or people in uniform is prohibited by Burmese authorities and could lead to arrest or the confiscation of cameras and film.
It is advisable to avoid photographing anything that could be perceived by the Burmese authorities as being of military or security interest—such as bridges, airfields, government buildings or government vehicles.

Telephone Services: Telephone services are poor in Rangoon and other major cities and non-existent in many areas.
Calling the United States from Burma is difficult and extremely expensive.

Currency: Executive Order 13310, signed by President Bush on July 28, 2003 imposed a ban on the exportation of financial services to Burma.
Travelers’ checks, credit cards, and ATM cards can rarely, if ever, be used.
Although moneychangers sometimes approach travelers with an offer to change dollars into Burmese kyat at the market rate, it is illegal to exchange currency except at authorized locations such as the airport, banks and government stores.
It is also illegal for Burmese to have possession of foreign currency without a permit.
Foreigners are required to use U.S. dollars, other hard currency, or Foreign Exchange Certificates (FEC) for the payment of plane tickets, train tickets and most hotels.
Burmese kyats are accepted for nearly all other transactions.

In recent months, U.S. financial institutions have increased scrutiny of on-line financial transactions taking place on Burmese internet providers.
The result has been that bank accounts of some American citizens working or traveling in Burma have been frozen.
To avoid this potential problem, customers of U.S. banks may wish to avoid on-line banking while using a Burmese Internet Service Provider (ISP).
Those who believe their accounts have been subject to similar restrictions in error are asked to contact the Consular Section of U.S. Embassy Rangoon.

U.S. Treasury Sanctions: As of August 27, 2003, U.S. Treasury sanctions ban the import of almost all goods from Burma into the United States.
This ban includes Burmese-origin products such as gifts, souvenirs, and items for personal use, even if carried in personal luggage.
These sanctions are part of a much larger U.S. sanctions regime for Burma, which includes a ban on new U.S. investment among other measures.
For specific information, contact the U.S. Department of the Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) home page at http://www.treas.gov/offices/enforcement/ofac/ via OFAC's Info-by-Fax service at 202-622-0077 or by phone toll-free at 1-800-540-6322.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than those in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Burmese laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession of, use of, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Burma are strict, and convicted offenders can expect jail sentences and heavy fines.

Some foreigners have been denied even minimal rights in criminal proceedings in Burma, especially when suspected of engaging in political activity of any type.
This includes, but is not limited to, denial of access to an attorney, denial of access to court records, and denial of family and consular visits.
The criminal justice system is controlled by the military junta, which orders maximum sentences for most offenses.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children, using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime prosecutable in the United States.
See our section on Criminal Penalties for more information.
CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.
REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION: Americans living or traveling in Burma are encouraged to register with the Embassy through the State Department's travel registration web site and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Burma.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy is located at 110 University Ave., Kamayut Township, Rangoon.
The Consular Section telephone number is (95-1) 536-509, ext. 4240; email consularrangoo@state.gov. Travelers may visit the U.S. Embassy web site at http://burma.usembassy.gov/.
The after-hours emergency number is 09-512-4330, or (95-1) 536-509, ext. 4014.
The Consular Section is open from 8:00 am to 4:30 p.m., with non-emergency American Citizen Services from 2:00 to 3:30 pm, Monday through Friday except on U.S. and Burmese holidays.
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This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated March 19 to update the sections on Safety and Security, Medical Facilities and Health Information, Special Circumstances, and Criminal Penalties.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu 23 May 2019
Source: BNI Burma News International [edited]

Arakan state [now Rakhine state] has the largest outbreak of schistosomiasis cases among 14 states and regions in Myanmar, said Dr. Kyi Lwin, head of the Department of Public Health in Arakan State. "The outbreaks of schistosomiasis are still discovered here. Diarrhoea is also prevalent here. Arakan has the most rampant cases of schistosomiasis in Myanmar," Dr. Kyi Lwin told the media in a campaign held on [21 May 2019] at U Ottama Hall in Sittwe to prevent schistosomiasis disease caused by parasitic worms from freshwater snails.

Currently, children are the worst affected group with schistosomiasis, which can lead to anaemia, a life- threatening condition, said Dr. Phyu Phyu Aye, Director of Health Education Division. "[The] parasitic worms eat all the nutrients in the body and cause anaemia, so, it affects children the worst," she said.

To prevent the disease, people need to access clean food and safe water to ensure personal hygiene and good health.
====================
[Arakan state was renamed Rakhine state 30 years ago. Schistosomiasis has probably been endemic but neglected for decades. The region has seen conflict between the Burmese state, Rakhine nationalists and Rohingya rebels. In more recent times, Rakhine state has been notable for the exodus of refugees into neighbouring countries because of military operations by the Myanmar Army against the Rohingya minority (<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arakan>). - ProMED Mod.EP]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail maps:
Rakhine State, Myanmar: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/6638>]
Date: Sun 31 Mar 2019
Source: Eleven [edited]

The transmission of schistosomiasis, also known as snail fever and bilharzias, has been reported in Inle of Shan State and Shwegyin Township in Bago Region, Rakhine State, according to the Ministry of Health and Sports.  From October 2016 to June 2018, 302 people were infected with schistosomiasis.

Dr. Than Tun Aung, Deputy Director-General of the Public Health Department said: "The ministry has stepped up its efforts to control the spreads of schistosomiasis as the cases are reported in some regions and states in addition to Rakhine State. The ministry will draft a plan to carry out the prevention and control of schistosomiasis.

The ministry has asked for technical and other aid from the World Health Organization (WHO). We are also cooperating with experts from Imperial Collage London."  The use of less fly-proof latrines may compound the problem. The department will coordinate with the Rakhine State Chief Minister, the Social Affairs Minister and related ministries to effectively prevent and control the spreads.  According to the laboratory tests from [1 Oct to 1 Nov 2018], 520 out of 980 suspected patients were found to have been infected with schistosomiasis.

The Union Minister has directed officials to inform the Rakhine State government about the prevention and control of schistosomiasis and distribute pamphlets to raise awareness of this among departmental officials. Experts from the WHO (headquarters), WHO South East-Asia Region and the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) are conducting surveys, in cooperation with relevant departments.

The disease is spread by contact with fresh water contaminated with the parasites. These parasites are released from infected freshwater snails.
=====================
[A recent comprehensive review of schistosomiasis in Southeast Asia (Gordon CA et al. Asian Schistosomiasis: Current Status and Prospects for Control Leading to Elimination. Trop Med Infect Dis. 2019 Feb 26;4(1). pii: E40) reviews the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in the region. A total of 3 species are present: _S. japonicum_, _S. mekongi_ and _S. malayensis_. All are zoonotic infections with 46 mammalian definitive hosts identified thus far for _S. japonicum_, _S. mekongi_ have been found in dogs, and _S. malayensis_ in rodents.

The same study (Gordon CA et al.) includes a map of Myanmar indicating the endemic area, the Rakhine State. There is no information on which species are found in Myanmar, key information to be able to develop an informed control strategy including both infections in human and the animal hosts. - ProMED Mod.EP]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Date: Wed 13 Mar 2019
Source: Outbreak News Today [abridged, edited]

Last month [February 2019], Myanmar health officials reported a measles death in a young child in Mandalay region, according to local media. In 2017 and 2018, Myanmar reported 1293 and 1330 measles cases, respectively. About 75% of these cases were in those under 15 years of age.

From 17-28 Feb [2019], health officials held a measles supplementary immunization campaign in 7 townships of Yangon region. Yangon region accounted for about 50% of cases nationwide [in 2018]. The campaign targeted from those from 9 months up to 15 years of age in the townships of Hlaingtharyar, Insein, Mingaladon, Dagon East, Dagon Seikkan, Dagon South and Shwepyithar.

Measles has risen dramatically in Myanmar in recent years. In 2014 and 2015, 122 and 6 cases were reported in the country, respectively. This of course has risen to more than 1300 cases last year [2018]. Health officials say the cumulative number of unimmunized children in Myanmar reached a level where the country would face measles outbreak.
========================
[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Myanmar:
Date: Tue, 19 Feb 2019 10:52:24 +0100
By Ye Aung THU

Nyaung Shwe, Myanmar, Feb 19, 2019 (AFP) - Myanmar's famed Inle Lake has enchanted tourists for decades with its floating gardens and the graceful leg-rowing style of its fisherman, but experts warn the lake is drying up and urgent action is needed to avoid disaster.   Each year around 200,000 foreigners and one million locals visit Inle -- a vast, serene body of water surrounded by verdant hills.   Many criss-cross the lake on small wooden boats to visit stilted villages of the Intha ethnic minority.

Others glide soundlessly overhead in hot-air balloons as farmers tend to drifting fields of tomatoes below, grown on the water on layers of decomposing vegetation.   Fishermen elegantly propel their boats with their leg curled round a large oar.   But there is a "darker side" to this seemingly bucolic idyll, says Martin Michalon, a researcher into the impact of development on the lake.   As farmers race to produce higher yields, pesticides and fertilisers are slowly poisoning the water.   Inle is also shrinking at an alarming rate.   "One century ago, it was six metres (nearly 20 feet) deep in rainy season... now it is never more than three metres deep," explains Michalon.

Deforestation to clear land for development and slash-and-burn farming is thought to be largely to blame, with silt flowing into the lake from surrounding hillsides.   But water extraction for irrigation and increased numbers of tourists could also be putting undue strain on the water table.   If conditions at the lake deteriorate, then tourism -- the area's most powerful economic driver -- will also likely be affected.   Urgent action is needed to avoid Inle experiencing this "double disaster" in the next few years, warns Michalon.   Political will to help save Inle Lake has so far not been translated into action.   "There is very loud commitment, but on the ground very little changes," he added.
Date: Sun 25 Nov 2018
Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]

The Myanmar Ministry of Health and Sports reported earlier this month [November 2018] (computer translated) that of the nearly 1000 suspect schistosomiasis cases tested in Rakhine state, 520 were _Schistosoma mansoni_ IgG (Elisa) positive.

In addition to Rakhine, some people with schistosomiasis were detected in Shwe Kyin of Bago region and Inn Lay of Shan state.

Prevention, treatment and diagnosis for schistosomiasis is a collaboration between the WHO, the Chinese CDC, and local health authorities.
========================
[Once schistosomiasis is established in an area it is to be expected that there are many cases not yet diagnosed. The incubation period may be years and infections with a few symptoms are common. Thus, the number and the area under investigation are expected to increase. It is also important to survey the appropriate water sources for the presence of the intermediate host, the snails. - ProMED Mod.EP]

More ...

World Travel News Headlines

Date: Tue, 16 Jul 2019 10:44:51 +0200

Zagreb, July 16, 2019 (AFP) - Some 10,000 tourists were evacuated from a popular party beach on a Croatian island after a forest fire erupted early Tuesday, police said.

Police ordered visitors to night clubs on Zrce beach on the northern island of Pag to leave after the blaze erupted in a pine forest at around 1:00 am (2300 GMT Monday), a police statement said.   No one was injured in the fire which was brought under control, the mayor of the nearby town of Novalja, Ante Dabo, told national radio.  The cause was not immediately known.   Three firefighting planes were rushed to the scene to help extinguish the blaze which spread to a local road that had to be closed.

The island of Pag and its Zrce beach are popular with young tourists, notably British, who party there.  Tourism is a pillar of Croatia's economy, with visitors flocking to hundreds of islands and islets along its stunning Adriatic coast.   Last year the country of 4.2 million people welcomed more than 19 million tourists.
Date: Mon, 15 Jul 2019 01:09:24 +0200

Kinshasa, July 14, 2019 (AFP) - The first case of Ebola has been confirmed in Goma, now the biggest city to have been affected by the disease since its outbreak in eastern DR Congo last August, the health ministry said on Sunday.  A sick man had arrived in Goma early Sunday by bus with 18 other passengers and the driver from Butembo, one of the main towns touched by Ebola in Nord-Kivu province.

The man was tested  "and the results of the laboratory test confirmed that he was positive for Ebola," the ministry said in a statement.   It added that his trip began on Friday after "the first symptoms appeared on July 9 (Tuesday)".   "Given that the patient was quickly identified, as well as all the passengers on the bus from Butembo, the risk of the disease spreading in the city of Goma is low," the ministry said.    The passengers and the bus driver will begin getting vaccinations on Monday, it added.

The Ebola outbreak in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has so far killed 1,655 people and 694 have been cured, according to a health ministry bulletin on Saturday.  And 160,239 people have been vaccinated, it added.  But efforts to tackle the crisis have been hampered both by militia attacks on treatment centres, in which some staff have been killed, and by the hostility of some local people to the medical teams.
Date: Sun, 14 Jul 2019 13:37:24 +0200

Pamplona, Spain, July 14, 2019 (AFP) - Three men were gored Sunday during the eighth and final bull run of Spain's San Fermin festival, bringing to eight the total number of daredevils injured during this year's fiesta.   Among those who were hospitalised this year after being injured by a bull's horns was an American who was wounded in the neck while taking a selfie.    In the last run, two Australians aged 27 and 30 as well as well as a 25-year-old Spaniard from Madrid were gored by the half-tonne fighting bull, "Rabonero", regional health authorities said.

The three men suffered injuries to the armpit, arm and leg from the bull's horns. Another two men were taken to hospital with bruises.   During Sunday's run in the northern city of Pamplona, Rabonero, the heaviest of the six bulls used in the event, became separated from the pack moments into the run and began charging people in its way.   Isolated bulls are more likely to get disoriented and start charging at people.

The bulls from the Miura ranch in the southwestern province of Seville completed the 848.6-metre (928-yard) course from a holding pen to the city bull ring in two minutes and 45 seconds.   Each morning from July 7 to 14, hundreds of daredevils, many wearing traditional white shirts with red scarves tied around their necks, tested their bravery by running ahead of a pack of bulls through the course set up in the narrow, winding streets of the medieval city.

- Like getting hit by a truck -
The bulls face almost certain death in afternoon bullfights, and earlier this month animal rights activists staged a "die-in" protest in the streets of the city to protest the tradition.   At the end of the festival's first run, a bull ran over and sunk one of its horns deep in the neck of a 46-year-old  American from San Francisco, Jaime Alvarez, narrowly missing key arteries.    He was injured as he was trying to take a video-selfie with his mobile phone.   "It was like a truck or car just hitting me in the side of the head. I put my hand on my neck and I saw blood," he told US television from a Pamplona hospital.   His wife had asked him not to take part in the bull run, he added.    He was released from hospital two days later.

Another 23-year-old American from Kentucky and 40-year-old Spaniard were also gored that day.   In addition to the eight men who were gored, another 27 people were taken to hospital for broken bones and bruises suffered during the bull runs.   About 500 more people were treated at the scene for more minor injuries, according to the Red Cross.   The festival dates back to medieval times and was immortalised in Nobel Prize-winning author Ernest Hemingway's 1926 novel "The Sun Also Rises".   It claims scores of casualties every year although last year just two men were gored.

Although the runs are over, the festival's closing ceremony takes place at midnight Sunday.   People from around the world flock to the city of 200,000 residents to test their bravery and enjoy the festival's mix of round-the-clock parties, religious processions and concerts.   Sixteen people have been killed in the bull runs since records started in 1911.   The last death was in 2009 when a bull gored a 27-year-old Spaniard in the neck, heart and lungs.
Date: Sun, 14 Jul 2019 12:47:38 +0200

Labuha, Indonesia, July 14, 2019 (AFP) - A major 7.3-magnitude earthquake hit the remote Maluku islands in eastern Indonesia Sunday, sending panicked residents running into the streets, but no tsunami warning was issued.   The shallow quake struck about 165 kilometres (100 miles) south-southwest of the town of Ternate in North Maluku province at 6:28 pm (0928 GMT), according to the US Geological Survey.
 
"The earthquake was quite strong, sending residents to flee outside. They are panicking and many are now waiting on the roadside," said local disaster mitigation official Mansur, who like many Indonesians goes by one name.   Officials were assessing the situation but there were no immediate reports of casualties, he told AFP.

In the town of Labuha, one of the closest to the epicentre, panicked residents took to motorcycles in a bid to flee to higher ground, according to an AFP photographer in town when the earthquake hit.   Local disaster official Ihsan Subur told Metro TV that no damage or casualties had been reported there so far, but residents took to the streets and many evacuated to higher ground.   "Electricity went of during the earthquake, but now it's back to normal," ubur said, adding that at least seven big aftershocks were felt after the initial quake.

The province was also hit by a 6.9-magnitude tremor last week.   Indonesia experiences frequent seismic and volcanic activity due to its position on the Pacific "Ring of Fire", where tectonic plates collide.   Last year, a 7.5-magnitude quake and a subsequent tsunami in Palu on Sulawesi island killed more than 2,200 people, with another thousand declared missing.   On December 26, 2004, a devastating 9.1-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Sumatra and triggered a tsunami that killed 220,000 across the Indian Ocean region, including around 170,000 in Indonesia.
Date: Sun, 14 Jul 2019 09:02:36 +0200

Sydney, July 14, 2019 (AFP) - A strong 6.6-magnitude earthquake struck off northwest Australia Sunday, shaking buildings over a wide area but causing no immediate reports of damage or injuries.   The shallow quake hit early Sunday afternoon 10 kilometres under the Indian Ocean 203 kilometres (126 miles) west of the West Australian beach resort of Broome, the US Geological Survey said. No tsunami alert was issued.   Sergeant Neil Gordon of the Broome police department said the quake rattled the city for more than a minute.   "The building here was shaking for about a minute and a half ... a steady shaking for that period of time," he told AFP by telephone.   He added that there had been "no reports of any injuries or any damage throughout the district," following the tremor.   The national broadcaster ABC said there were some reports of minor damage from the quake, and no injuries.   Australian media said the tremor was felt across a long stretch of the northwestern coast of Australia, from the West Australian capital of Perth and the mining centres of Karatha and Port Hedland to the south and as far as Darwin to the north.

Thursday 11th July 2019
https://www.who.int/csr/don/11-july-2019-ebola-drc/en/

The outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in North Kivu and Ituri provinces, Democratic Republic of the Congo continues this past week with a similar transmission intensity to the previous week. While the number of new cases continues to ease in former hotspots, such as Butembo, Katwa and Mandima health zones, there has been an increase in cases in Beni, and a high incidence of cases continues in parts of Mabalako Health Zone. In addition to these re-emerging hotspots, there are a large number of people with confirmed and probable infections moving to other health zones, with the greatest number coming from Beni Health Zone. The movement of cases causes the outbreak to spread to new health zones and re-emerge in health zones with previously controlled infections. Overall, this underscores the importance of robust mechanisms for listing and following up contacts and understanding the motivations for peoples’ decisions to move.

After the first reported case in the Ariwara Health Zone on 30 June, no new cases have been observed in that health zone. A response team deployed to that zone continues to identify contacts, engage the community, and vaccinate individuals at risk. Response personnel from the bordering countries of Uganda and South Sudan continue to support operational readiness activities. Resources are being dedicated to monitoring the Uganda-Democratic Republic of the Congo border in that area.

In the 21 days from 19 June through 9 July 2019, 72 health areas within 22 health zones reported new cases, representing 11% of the 664 health areas within North Kivu and Ituri provinces (Figure 2). During this period, a total of 247 confirmed cases were reported, the majority of which were from the health zones of Beni (41%, n=101), Mabalako (19%, n=48), Lubero (6%, n=16), and Mandima (5%, n=13). As of 09 July 2019, a total of 2437 EVD cases, including 2343 confirmed and 94 probable cases, were reported (Table 1). A total of 1646 deaths were reported (overall case fatality ratio 68%), including 1552 deaths among confirmed cases. Of the 2437 confirmed and probable cases with known age and sex, 57% (1384) were female, and 29% (704) were children aged less than 18 years.

Cases continue to increase among health workers, with the cumulative number infected rising to 132 (5% of total cases). Of the 128 health workers with information available, the greatest proportion is among health workers at health posts [poste de santé] (20%, n = 26) and private health facilities (35%, n = 45). The majority (68%, n = 87) of health worker infections were among nurses.

No new EVD cases or deaths have been reported in the Republic of Uganda since the previous EVD Disease Outbreak News publication on 13 June 2019. As of 3 July, 108 contacts exposed to those cases were identified, and they all completed the 21-day follow-up period. All contacts were asymptomatic. Arua district, located in the north-western part of Uganda near the Uganda-Democratic Republic of the Congo border, is currently stepping up its response readiness to prevent imported cases of Ebola following the case that died on 30 June 2019 in Ariwara Health Zone in neighbouring Democratic Republic of the Congo, located 8 kilometres from the Uganda border. This case is known to have over 200 contacts, some of whom are in the communities bordering the Arua district. As of 9 July 2019, two suspected cases in the Arua district were reported and both tested negative. As of 9 July 2019, the cumulative number of individuals vaccinated in Arua district is 811 out of 1092 targeted front line and healthcare workers.

More information here: https://www.who.int/csr/don/11-july-2019-ebola-drc/en/

Date: Sat, 13 Jul 2019 10:41:55 +0200

Kuala Lumpur, July 13, 2019 (AFP) - Flash floods killed a Dutch tourist in a popular cave located in the rugged Mulu National Park on Malaysia's Borneo island, an official said Saturday, as a search continues for a missing guide.    Local fire and rescue chief Law Poh Kiong identified the dead man as 66-year-old Peter Hans Hovenkamp from Utrecht in the central Netherlands.     "He died due to drowning following flash floods in the caves. His body was found in a river inside the cave and was taken to the Miri public hospital for a post-mortem on Saturday," he told AFP.   Law said a search-and-rescue operation involving 16 officers had been launched to locate 20-year local tour guide Roviezal Robin.   Eight other tourists in the same group "almost become victims" but fled to higher ground and escaped from being washed into the river, Law added.

Hovenkamp was reported missing on Friday while the group was touring the popular "Deer Cave", home to an estimated three million bats which form amazing patterns in the sky when they leave each dusk.   Mulu park, located in the remote Borneo jungle of Sarawak state and famous for its caves, cliffs and gorges, is a UNESCO world heritage site.   It sees thousands of visitors annually, particularly for its cooling rains during the summer months.    Law described the death as "a freak tragedy."
Date: Sat, 13 Jul 2019 09:52:36 +0200

Kathmandu, July 13, 2019 (AFP) - Floods and landslides triggered by torrential monsoon rains have killed at least 40 people across South Asia in the last two days, officials said Saturday.   The monsoon, which lasts from June to September, causes widespread death and destruction across South Asia each year.   In Nepal, 27 people have died in floods and landslides after heavy rains hit the country's eastern region and the southern plains.

Bishwaraj Pokharel, spokesperson for Nepal Police, added that another 11 people were injured and 15 others reported missing.    Three of the victims were killed when a wall collapsed in the capital Kathmandu.   "Our first priority is life saving rescue and all our resources have been deployed," Home Ministry official Umakanta Adhikari told AFP.

Police used boats to bring people to safety as rivers swelled, inundating their settlements, while parents were seen wading across chest-high waters carrying children on their shoulders.    Nepal's weather department issued a high alert for the southern Sapta Koshi river on Saturday and sent SMS warnings to people in the area.

In neighbouring India 11 deaths have been recorded in the north-eastern states of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh, officials said Friday.  Monsoon floods have inundated 21 districts in Assam, affecting thousands, officials said Friday.

In Bangladesh aid groups were providing rations to Rohingya refugees in the southeast of the country with the UN World Food Programme saying Friday that two people including a child had died.   Last year, more than 1,200 people were been killed across South Asia in monsoon storms with India's Kerala suffering its worst floods in nearly 100 years.
Date: Fri, 12 Jul 2019 16:00:57 +0200

Chennai, India, July 12, 2019 (AFP) - A special 50-wagon train carrying 2.5 million litres of water arrived in the Indian city of Chennai Friday, as the southern hub reels under one of its worst shortages in decades.    The wagons were hauled by a special locomotive, decorated with flowers and with a "Drinking Water for Chennai" banner on its front.   Four special trains a day have been called up to bring water to Chennai -- India's sixth most populous city -- from Vellore, some 80 miles (125 kilometres) away, to help battle the drought.    The first consignment will be taken to a water treatment centre, and then distributed in trucks to different parts of the metropolis on Saturday.   Chennai has seen only a fraction of the rain it usually receives during June and July.   The city of 4.9 million people also needed trains to bring water in when it suffered a similar crisis in 2001.

The bustling capital of Tamil Nadu state normally requires at least 825 million litres of water a day, but authorities are currently only able to supply 60 percent of that.   With temperatures regularly hitting 40 degrees Celsius (104 Fahrenheit), reservoirs have run dry and other water sources are dwindling further each day.   The Chennai metro has turned off its air conditioning, farmers have been forced to stop watering their crops, and offices have asked staff to work from home.   The city's economy has also taken a hit as some hotels and restaurants shut shop temporarily, and there have been reports of fights breaking out as people queue for water. 
Date: Fri, 12 Jul 2019 11:42:26 +0200

Sydney, July 12, 2019 (AFP) - A looming ban on climbing Australia's Uluru rock, intended to protect the sacred site from damage, has instead triggered a damaging influx of visitors, tourism operators said Friday.    Clambering up the giant red monolith, also known as Ayers Rock, will be prohibited from October -- in line with the wishes of the traditional Aboriginal owners of the land, the Anangu.   But a rush to beat the ban has led to a sharp increase in tourists and is causing its own problems for the World Heritage Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park.   Families arriving in campers vans and RVs are a particular problem, chief executive of Tourism Central Australia Stephen Schwer told AFP.   "We have got so much of one particular market coming, we don't have enough infrastructure to handle the number of drive travellers."

While most visitors are doing the right thing, camping venues in the area are at capacity with advance bookings, leaving many less organised arrivals to set up illegally.   "People don't realise when they go off the road they are actually trespassing on pastoral land, or Aboriginal land, or protected land," Schwer said.   "We are getting people that are leaving their rubbish behind and lighting fires," he added.   "Sadly, people are also emptying their toilet waste out of their vans on what they think is unpopulated land, but is actually private land."   In the 12 months to June 2019, more than 395,000 people visited the Uluru-Kata National Park, according to Parks Australia, about 20 percent more than the previous year.   Yet just 13 percent of those who visited also climbed the rock, the government agency said.    Tourism operators say that Australian and Japanese tourists most commonly seek to climb Uluru.

The Aboriginal connection to the site dates back tens of thousands of years and it has great spiritual and cultural significance to them.   "Since the hand back of Uluru and Kata Tjuta to traditional owners in 1985, visitors have been encouraged to develop an understanding and respect for Anangu and their culture," a spokesperson for Parks Australia said.     "This is reflected in the 'please don't climb' message," they added.   Lyndee Severin from Curtin Springs station and roadhouse, one of just a few camping venues within 100 kilometres of Uluru, said "the vast majority of people are doing the right thing" but hundreds were setting up illegally by the side of the road or down a bush track.   "So we have some people that think that the rules don't apply to them," she told AFP.