Every devout Muslim seeks to perform the Hajj on at least one occasion during their life. This pilgrimage, which is a central duty of Islam, brings Muslims from all over the wor
Coping with the Climate
The dates for this festival vary from year to year but this year it is in December. In the evenings it can be significantly cold in 'tent city' and so travellers should bear this in mind when packing.
With this massive influx of people travel in and out of Saudi can be difficult and, where possible, plans should be made well in advance.
Care for the pilgrims
The Saudi government seek to provide the highest level of health care possible for those visiting their Kingdom. This has involved the setting up of a series of rules and regulations which need to be observed. Nevertheless every pilgrim should ensure that their own personal health is sufficient before agreeing to travel. This may involve a consultation with their GP - especially if they have any underlying medical conditions.
No food is allowed into Saudi during this time and will be confiscated on arrival.
In order to reduce the risk of certain diseases the Saudi authorities insist on all travellers providing correctly certified evidence of vaccination against some diseases.
All travellers are required to provide evidence of vaccination against Meningococcal Meningitis (ACYW-135). This vaccine has to have been given to every traveller within the previous three years and at least 10 days before arrival into Saudi Arabia. (Other vaccinations against Meningitis C or Meningococcal A&C are not acceptable.)
Some travellers arriving from what are regarded as 'higher risk' countries will also be given prophylactic antibiotics to lessen the possibility of their carrying Meningococcal Meningitis into the country. This is a compulsory requirement - though the medication given varies depending on the age of the individual and whether or not the female traveller is pregnant.
It is also essential for some travellers to have evidence of Yellow Fever vaccination certification. Generally this is only required for those arriving from the countries of Africa and South America. This vaccine needs to have been given within the previous 10 years and at least 10 days before arrival.
Other Recommended Vaccines
Even though it is not a requirement of entry to perform the Hajj or visit Saudi Arabia, travellers are strongly advised to consider the following vaccinations;
Influenza / Pneumococci
These are air-borne diseases and the close proximity of so many pilgrims will make the risk of contracting either or both of these highly infectious diseases much higher. Influenza vaccine needs to be given each year where as Pneumococcal vaccine is often only given on one occasion in a lifetime.
This viral disease is disappearing from much of the world and may be eradicated within a few years. However during 2005 a significant number of outbreaks occurred in various African countries and India. The Hajj was linked to outbreaks in Yemen and Saudi Arabia itself. Vaccination is recommended for all unprotected travellers.
Hepatitis A / Typhoid
With such a massive number of people to be catered for it is hardly surprising that the level of food and water borne disease is high. These vaccines are strongly recommended for all travellers. They provide excellent protection but all travellers will still need to exercise extra care to lessen their personal exposure.
The main specific risk of contracting Hepatitis B probably relates to the ritual head shaving which is performed as part of the celebrations. Professional barbers are used and long lines of men wait for their turn. In some cases the blade is not changed between shaves and this potentially presents a serious risk of contamination with Hepatitis B infection.
It should also be noted that during the celebrations a ritual sacrifice of a small animal is performed. Pilgrims are strongly advised not to undertake the actual act of sacrifice themselves - unless they are very experienced - as otherwise they could seriously injury themselves.
Avoiding Accidents and Dehydration
The desire to perform the Hajj is strong and it is an emotional time for any Muslim. Unfortunately the presence of so many other pilgrims in a very confined space at the same time does increase the risk of various diseases and accidents. This includes the risk of being crushed, as has occurred with disastrous consequences in the past. The degree of dehydration can also be high as there is a significant amount of exercise and walking involved. A good pair of comfortable walking shoes is certainly worth the investment. It will also be important to bring some plasters to treat minor injuries and blisters.
Being Separated from Companions
Due to the numbers involved it is very easy to become separated from travelling companions. It is wise to have a plan in place before arriving so that each member of the party knows where to meet.
It is extremely important that all those undertaking this pilgrimage recognise the necessity to stay constantly alert to the personal health and accident risks which are present and do everything within their power to avoid them. The Tropical Medical Bureau centres throughout Ireland usually carry both the required and the recommended vaccines for travellers to the Hajj. Appointments should be made well in advance of visa application to ensure that these are given in sufficient time.
Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS
Date: Fri 31 May 2019 Source: Vaxbeforetravel [edited] <https://www.vaxbeforetravel.com/level-1-travel-vaccine-requirements-updated-pilgrims-attending-hajj>
The Hajj, or annual pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, is scheduled for 9-14 Aug 2019, which enables those planning on attending this worldwide event have ample time to appropriately prepare for the trip. The Hajj is one of the world's largest mass gatherings each year and is associated with unique health risks.
More than 2 million Muslims from over 183 countries make Hajj each year, with approximately 11,000 Hajj pilgrims traveling from the United States.
Before attending the Hajj, both the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Ministry of Health in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia published vaccine requirements and travel recommendations. The CDC updated its Level 1 Travel Alert on 31 May 2019, saying those participating in the Hajj should be up-to-date on all routine vaccines, especially the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR).
The CDC says the measles virus is extremely contagious, and the crowded conditions during Hajj provide an ideal opportunity for measles transmission. As of 7 May 2019, the European Region reported 34 300 measles cases in 42 countries during 2019. For travellers who do not have evidence of measles immunity or who lack written documentation of measles vaccination, the CDC recommends 2 doses of MMR vaccine separated by at least 28 days, to be completed before travel.
Additionally, the Saudi Ministry of Health recommends that Hajj pilgrims confirm they have been vaccinated against these diseases:
- Yellow fever: all travellers arriving from countries or areas at risk of yellow fever transmission must present a valid yellow fever vaccination certificate, stating vaccinated against the disease before the arrival of the Kingdom no later than 10 days and not more than 10 years. The Stamaril vaccine is available in the USA.
- Meningococcal meningitis: visitors are required to submit a valid vaccination certificate with a tetravalent (ACYW135) meningococcal vaccine administered no less than 10 days prior to arrival to Saudi Arabia.
- Poliomyelitis: travellers arriving from countries with circulating wild or vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) and from countries at risk of polio reintroduction, are required to submit a valid polio vaccination certificate. - Seasonal influenza: the Ministry of Health in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia recommends that all pilgrims get vaccinated against the 2018/19 seasonal influenza.
Previously, on [15 Apr 2019], a joint declaration regarding vaccinations was issued at the Afghanistan-Pakistan Eminent Ulama Conference. In his opening address, His Excellency the Deputy of Al Azhar Al Sharif, Dr Saleh Abbas Goma Saleh, called upon parents to vaccinate their children to protect them from harm. "The family bears the responsibility of the proper upbringing of, and caring for children and maintaining their health," he said.
The CDC suggests scheduling a visit with a travel vaccine specialist at least 4 to 6 weeks before departure. Travel vaccine counselling sessions can be scheduled at Vax-Before-Travel [<https://www.vaxbeforetravel.com/vax-before-travel/appointment>].
The CDC Vaccine Price List provides the private sector vaccine prices for general information, and vaccine financial support programs can be found at Vaccine Discounts. And, pack enough prescription and over-the-counter medicines to last your entire trip.
The CDC says if you develop a fever and symptoms of respiratory illness within 14 days after traveling from countries in or near the Arabian Peninsula, you should call a healthcare provider and mention your recent international travel.
Americans traveling abroad can enrol with the nearest US embassy or consulate through the Smart Traveler Enrollment Program [<https://travel.state.gov/content/travel/en/international-travel/before-you-go/step.html>] to receive the latest safety updates and assistance in an emergency. [Byline: Don Ward Hackett]
[Saudi Arabia issues its requirements for entry into Saudi Arabia for the Hajj, which are updated annually.
The Hajj requirements for 2019 can be found at
<https://www.saudiembassy.net/hajj-requirements>. - ProMED Mod.ML]
[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Saudi Arabia: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/131>]
Children over 15 years of age should present the same vaccinations requested for adults:
a. meningitis and ACYW135;
b. seasonal (or common) flu, which should be taken 2 weeks before applying for the visa;
World Travel News Headlines
By Paulina ABRAMOVICH
Santiago, Aug 16, 2019 (AFP) - Once deep in powder this time of year, Chile's ski stations are fighting the ravages of climate change and pollution that have brought less and less snow to the central Andes. Just a few decades ago, the Andes mountain range could be buried under four meters of snow, forcing the closure of access roads and requiring the use of tractors to get around.
But this year, it's snowed only three times in the Chilean Andes, and never more than 30 centimetres. It's not just Chile affected, but the whole of the Andes where the area of snow cover in the central zone has diminished by five to 10 percent each decade, according to Raul Cordero, an academic at the University of Santiago. "But it's not just snow cover that's decreasing, the thickness of the snow cover is also reducing," he said. "So when we talk about a decrease of the cover of five to 10 percent, this probably signifies a much greater reduction in the volume of available snow over the Andes."
Rising temperatures mean the snow line -- above which snow never melts all year round -- keeps creeping upwards. The snow melt is even more pronounced in the central zone due to pollution from the Chilean capital, one of the most contaminated urban areas in the region. A recent study led by Cordero found that soot, or black carbon, from Santiago was settling in the Andes and accelerating the snow melt. As it's black, it absorbs more solar radiation and heats up quicker. "When this pollution is over the cities it poisons people and when the wind blows, this pollution goes and is deposited on the mountains and contributes to the snow melt," said Cordero.
- Essential snow cannons -
The upshot is that Chile's ski stations have had a difficult season. But thanks to the snow cannons, the erection of fences and a tailored piste management policy, the resorts have managed to stay open throughout a winter in which there has been almost no snow. "All the ski centers in the central zone are without natural snow. However, thanks to the fabrication of snow we've been able to keep open pistes that without this fabrication would not have been able to stay open," Fernando Montenegro, the operations director at Andacor, which operates the El Colorado and Parque Farellones ski stations, told AFP.
El Colorado is 50 kilometers from Santiago and sits at 2,800-meters. It pumps out snow whenever the conditions allow it. Low temperatures and high humidity is what's needed for the snow cannons to chug into gear and churn out snowflakes from water. This technology has been around since 1994, but it's never before been in use as much as it is now -- and even then the ski station is only operating at 70 percent capacity. But even if the situation gets worse, the ski stations will manage, according to Montenegro. "There's no risk. However, we need to manage the snow and manage the water in the mountain range in a good way." El Colorado has already invested almost $4 million in buying snow cannons and hopes to increase that to $10 million over the coming years.
- 'Variety so important' -
Last weekend, some 7,000 people descended on El Colorado where ski and snowboard national teams come to train -- although, they're not necessarily happy. "If there's not enough snow, there's not as many hills. We don't get the variety, we don't get steepness, (or) different slopes: it's so important for us to have that variety," Megan Farrell, a member of the Canadian snowboard team, told AFP. Amateur skiers also noticed the difference from previous years. "You can see that the snow is harder. It's not very deep, there are a lot of stones and snow made by the cannons, which makes it feel like you're skiing on a different type of snow," said Chilean Rado Milosevic, 24.
Tokyo, Aug 15, 2019 (AFP) - A powerful tropical storm lashed Japan on Thursday, bringing strong winds and torrential rain that claimed at least one life, prompted warnings of landslides and flooding, and sparked evacuation advisories and travel chaos at a peak holiday period. Severe Tropical Storm Krosa -- one notch below a typhoon -- slammed into the southern Hiroshima region, packing wind gusts of up to 126 kilometres (78 miles) per hour. Dramatic television footage showed violent winds uprooting trees, snapping lampposts and spinning pods on a Ferris wheel.
Meanwhile, high waves smashed into a breakwater, engulfing a 10-metre lighthouse, while swollen rivers broke their banks and swamped nearby roads. Authorities issued a voluntary evacuation advisory to around 430,000 people in the storm's path, although few appeared to have heeded the warning.
A 82-year-old man was confirmed dead after he fell in the sea in Hiroshima while trying to moor his boat, a local government spokesman said. Japanese news agency Kyodo reported that a total of 49 people were injured from Wednesday to Thursday. "We still have intermittent downpours," said Takayoshi Sugimoto, a disaster management official in the southwestern province of Tokushima. "We will remain vigilant," he told AFP.
The national disaster management agency said a party of 18 people, including children, were stranded during a barbeque in a valley when a river rose rapidly on Wednesday. They were rescued Thursday morning. Krosa also sparked travel chaos as people battled to return to major cities following the Obon holiday. More than 800 domestic flights were cancelled to and from cities in western Japan, and bullet train services were either scrapped or sharply reduced. Ferries connecting the southern Shikoku island and other parts of Japan were also cancelled as high waves lashed the coast.
The storm brought strong winds and downpours to the capital Tokyo. Several ceremonies commemorating the end of World War II were cancelled in western Japan due to bad weather. Krosa weakened significantly from earlier in the week as it stalled in the Pacific Ocean but it boasts an unusually large eye, meaning it is likely to dump rain over a wide area. It was moving north at 35 kilometres (22 miles) per hour and the rain was expected to last for an extended period. The storm crossed Japan's mainland and hit the Sea of Japan late Thursday.
Tripoli, Aug 15, 2019 (AFP) - Flights at the Libyan capital's sole functioning airport were suspended Thursday after deadly overnight rocket fire, a spokesman for the country's unity government said. Wednesday night's rocket fire "killed a guard and wounded several security agents tasked with protecting the airport," said Moustafa al-Mejii, spokesman for the Tripoli-based Government of National Accord (GNA). He blamed the attack on "the militias of (Khalifa) Haftar" whose forces launched an offensive on the Libyan capital in April. Arrivals and departures at Mitiga airport were suspended as a result, Mejii said. Located east of Tripoli, Mitiga is a former military airbase that has been used by civilian traffic since Tripoli international airport suffered severe damage during fighting in 2014.
Mitiga is in a zone under the control of forces loyal to the GNA and has often been targeted, leading to repeated suspensions of flights. United Nations envoy Ghassan Salame, in a report to the UN Security Council last month, urged "authorities in Tripoli to cease using the (Mitiga) airport for military purposes and for the attacking forces to halt immediately their targeting of it." The GNA protested at what it said were "untruths" in the envoy's report. Haftar's self-styled Libyan National Army (LNA) has encountered fierce resistance from pro-government forces in the battle for Tripoli. A stalemate on the ground in the capital's southern outskirts has led to a greater reliance on air strikes by both sides.
The fighting since April has killed 1,093 people and wounded 5,752 others, according to the World Health Organization. More than 120,000 people have been displaced. The LNA said Thursday its air force carried out a strike against an airfield in Zuwara, a town west of Tripoli, and destroyed two hangars allegedly used to house Turkish drones. "The runway and terminals were spared" at the airfield, which is not open to commercial flights, LNA spokesman General Ahmed al-Mesmari wrote on Facebook. The GNA, however, posted pictures of a huge crater and debris on the tarmac. Libya has been mired in chaos since a NATO-backed uprising that toppled and killed dictator Moamer Kadhafi in 2011.
Hong Kong, Aug 15, 2019 (AFP) - Hong Kong's government unveiled HK$19.1 billion (US$2.44 billion) worth of economic relief measures and downgraded its growth forecasts on Thursday as the international hub reels from simmering pro-democracy protests and the US-China trade war. Last week city leader Carrie Lam warned that 10-weeks of anti-government protests were hitting businesses like a "tsunami". On Thursday, financial chief Paul Chan predicted the city's economy would grow by a miserly zero to one percent this year, the worst rate since 2009 after the global crash hit.
But as he announced a raft of sweeteners in a surprise "mini-budget", he denied the move was linked to the roiling unrest. "The measures that we have just announced... trying to tackle the current economic difficulties and the coming economic headwinds, is not related to the political difficulties that we are facing," Chan told reporters. Instead, he said, the primary headwinds remained ongoing trade tensions between Washington and Beijing -- two major markets for Hong Kong -- and the possible impact of Brexit. "Based on the latest developments and assessments on the outlook, the Hong Kong economy will continue to face an austere environment for the rest of the year," he said.
Nonetheless, the sweeteners seemed to be aimed at winning over support from moderate Hong Kongers as the city reels from the protests. The measures included financial breaks for small businesses, more generous student subsidies and goodies for low-income households. Ten weeks of unprecedented rallies, demonstrations and occupations in Hong Kong have seen millions of people take to the streets in the biggest challenge to China's rule of the semi-autonomous city since its 1997 handover from Britain. The social and political unrest was triggered by a controversial bill which would have allowed extraditions to mainland China, but has evolved into a call for wider democratic reforms and a halt to sliding freedoms.
The retail and tourism sectors have been especially hit by the drop in arriving visitors to the city, but the property market remains strong. At a "citizens press conference" on Thursday, one protest group blamed the city's economic woes on the local leaders who they accused of undermining the city's business appeal by kowtowing to Beijing.
Johannesburg, Aug 15, 2019 (AFP) - South Africa on Thursday announced visa waivers for four countries in a bid to boost tourism amid an economic crisis and falling visitor numbers. Visitors from Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and New Zealand will no longer require a visa to visit for holiday, conferencing and business purposes, Home Affairs Minister Dr Aaron Motsoaledi said.
The unilateral decision comes as official tourism figures released in May reflected a dip in the overall number of visitors to South Africa from Europe and the Middle East in the first financial quarter of the year, normally one of the most popular times to visit. Foreign traveller arrivals decreased by more than 10 percent between April and May 2019 alone. Motsoaledi said the South African government was engaging with Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and New Zealand about a similar relaxation of entry requirements for SA citizens. He argued the move by his department would boost tourism "and by extension growing the economy and creating jobs".
South Africa's economy has hit trouble, with gross domestic product (GDP) contracting by 3.2 percent in the first three months of 2019 and unemployment at a record high of 29 percent. The government estimates there is potential to create 2.1 million jobs in the tourism sector by 2028. South Africa is in talks to extend the visa waiver to Ghana, Cuba and Principe and Sao Tome. The country has already waived the visa requirement for 82 of the 193 countries who are UN members.
A map showing the location of Erode District in south-central India can be found at
Almost nothing is known regarding health effects of organic arsenic compounds in humans. Studies in animals show that some simple organic arsenic compounds are less toxic than inorganic forms. Ingestion of methyl and dimethyl compounds can cause diarrhea and damage to the kidneys.
<https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/tf.asp?id=19&tid=3>. - ProMED Mod.TG]