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Botswana

Botswana - US Consular Information Sheet
August 29, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Botswana is a country in southern Africa with a stable democratic government and a growing economy. Facilities for tourism are widely available. Read the Departm
nt of State Background Notes on Botswana for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: A passport with at least six months of validity remaining is required. U.S. citizens are permitted stays up to 90 days without a visa. For additional information on entry requirements, travelers may contact the Embassy of the Republic of Botswana, 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036, telephone (202) 244-4990/1, fax (202) 244-4164 or the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Botswana to the United Nations, 103 E. 37th St., New York, NY, 10016, telephone (212) 889-2277, fax (212) 725-5061. There are also honorary consuls in Los Angeles, San Francisco and Houston. Visit the Embassy of Botswana’s web site at http://www.botswanaembassy.org/ for the most current visa information. As a general precaution, all travelers are advised to carry a photocopy of the photo/bio information page of their passport and keep it in a location separate from the passport.

Visitors to Botswana who also intend to visit South Africa should be advised that the passports of all travelers to South Africa must contain at least two blank (unstamped) visa pages each time entry to South Africa is sought; these pages are in addition to the endorsement/amendment pages at the back of the passport. Otherwise, the traveler, even when in possession of a valid South African visa, may be refused entry into South Africa, fined, and returned to their point of origin at the traveler’s expense.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site. For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.
SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Civil unrest and disorder are rare. U.S. citizens should avoid crowds, political rallies, and street demonstrations and maintain security awareness at all times.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphletA Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME: Crime is a serious concern in Botswana. Visitors must be vigilant and take common-sense security precautions. The criminal threat is very similar to that of any large urban area. Petty street crime and crimes of opportunity, primarily the theft of money and personal property, are not uncommon. Home invasions ‘smash and grabs’ from vehicles, and cell phone thefts, often at knife point, are routinely reported to the police. Visitors should use care when talking on a cell phone while walking. Urban areas are particularly dangerous at night; pedestrians are advised to avoid walking in Gaborone and other urban areas in Botswana at night. Except for visits to the Gaborone Yacht Club during daylight hours, U.S. Embassy personnel are prohibited from traveling to the area surrounding the Gaborone Dam and to the Kgale Hill area, a popular Gaborone hiking venue, because of multiple incidents of violent crime. American citizens are urged to avoid these areas.

Travelers arriving in Botswana via South Africa should be aware that there is a serious baggage pilferage problem at OR Tambo (Johannesburg) and Cape Town International Airports. Travelers are encouraged to use an airport plastic wrapping service and to avoid placing electronics, jewelry, cameras, designer athletic gear, or other valuables in checked luggage. Also, make an inventory of items in checked baggage to aid in claims processing if theft does occur.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

Botswana has three numbers equivalent to the “911” emergency line. For police assistance, dial “999.” For an ambulance, dial “997.” In the event of a fire, dial “998.”

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Medical facilities in Gaborone are adequate for simple medical problems, but facilities outside of Gaborone are limited. Adequately equipped emergency rooms and trained physicians are available in the capital but services are rudimentary elsewhere. Professional private emergency rescue services operate air and ground ambulances throughout the country, but care is rendered only after a patient’s ability to pay is established. Response times are often slow in less populated areas. Outside of Gaborone, most airports are either not equipped or have frequently malfunctioning night lighting capability, so airborne medical evacuations can usually only be conducted during daylight hours. Malaria is prevalent only in the north of the country, particularly around the Chobe and Okavango National Parks. Malaria prophylaxis is not required in Gaborone but is suggested for travel to the north. For advanced care Americans often choose to travel to South Africa. Many South African manufactured prescription drugs are available in Gaborone.

Approximately one-quarter of the population of Botswana is infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Travelers are advised to exercise appropriate precautions if engaging in sexual activity, or if exposed to blood products through injuries or rendering assistance to accident victims. Tuberculosis is also endemic to Botswana. Two cases of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) have been identified in Botswana since January 2008 when Botswana first obtained the ability to test for this form of TB. Individuals who plan to reside or stay in Botswana for extended periods are advised to obtain a tuberculosis skin test (PPD test) prior to arrival and again upon departure from Botswana.

There are occasional diarrhea outbreaks in areas affected by heavy rains. Travelers are encouraged to take necessary precautions when handling food and drinking water.

The Department of Immigration of Botswana does not impose any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Botswana.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Botswana is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Driving in Botswana is challenging and motorists must drive defensively. Traffic circulates on the left in Botswana, as elsewhere in the region. While the roads in major population centers in Botswana are generally good, many roads have been damaged by heavy rains in December and January. Travel by automobile outside of large towns may be dangerous. The combination of long, tedious stretches of two-lane highways without shoulders, high speed limits, and poor lighting make driving at night on rural highways particularly hazardous. Recent rolling power outages mean that many traffic lights and street lamps do not work properly. Free-range domestic animals, even in urban centers, and large numbers of pedestrians and hitchhikers in the roadways make fatal accidents a frequent occurrence.

‘Smash and grab’ robberies from vehicles are not uncommon in Botswana, particularly in urban areas at traffic lights. Motorists should avoid carrying anything of value (hand bags, briefcases, purses, cell phones, etc.) in the passenger compartment that could attract potential assailants.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. Visit the web site of Botswana’s national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at http://www.botswana-tourism.gov.bw.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Botswana, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Botswana’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Since February 2008, rolling electric power outages have left many areas without power for several hours each week. This situation is likely to continue. Visitors are urged to carry flashlights. American citizens are also urged to be aware of how power outages might affect home security systems, garage doors and gates, and kitchen equipment, such as stoves and refrigerators. The power fluctuations could cause power surges that might harm computers, televisions, or other electrical appliances.

Botswana strictly enforces its laws controlling the trade in animal products. The hunting of lions is explicitly prohibited and leopards and elephants are covered under a strict quota regime. Botswana's Wildlife Conservation and National Parks Act makes it illegal to possess or remove from Botswana without a government permit any living or dead animal or animal trophy. A trophy is any horn, ivory, tooth, tusk, bone, claw, hoof, hide, skin, hair, feather, egg, or other durable portion of an animal, whether the item has been processed or not. Curio shops and vendors throughout the country sell items such as animal skins, plain and decorated ostrich eggs and eggshells, and carved bones or teeth of animals protected by this law. All of the souvenirs, although widely sold, are subject to this act. Travelers departing the country with a trophy must have a receipt from a store licensed to sell such items. Ivory and endangered rhinoceros horn products obtained in Botswana may not be removed from the country under any circumstances; elephant hair jewelry may be removed only with the appropriate license from the Department of Wildlife and National Parks. Trophies may not be taken from the wild without a permit. Violators are subject to arrest and may face a penalty of up to five years imprisonment and a substantial fine.

Wild animals may pose a danger to tourists. Tourists should bear in mind that, even in the most serene settings, the animals are wild and can pose a threat to life and safety. Tourists should use common sense when approaching wildlife, observe all local or park regulations, and heed all instructions given by tour guides. In addition, tourists are advised that potentially dangerous areas sometimes lack fences and warning signs. Exercise appropriate caution in all unfamiliar surroundings. Please see our Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Botswana’s laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Botswana are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Botswana are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Botswana. Americans withoutInternet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located in Gaborone on Embassy Drive in the Government Enclave. The mailing address is P.O. Box 90, Gaborone, telephone +267 395-3982; fax +267 318-0232; email consulargaborone@state.gov, and the after-hours emergency telephone is +267 395-7111.
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information for Botswana dated March 5, 2008, to update the sections on Information for Victims of Crime and Medical Facilities and Health Information.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Fri, 17 Jan 2020 19:10:08 +0100 (MET)

Tutume, Botswana, Jan 17, 2020 (AFP) - Packed with protein and calcium, mopane worms are a delicacy in Botswana, where they are stirred into chunky tomato and peanut stews.    In the north and centre of the country, the spiky black and green caterpillars are harvested to make relish and sold at markets.

But a regional drought has decimated the mopane population, sapping an important source of income for rural communities.   "(The mopane worm) is not in abundance just like in the past during the times of good rainfalls," said Onalethata Mbakile, a single mother of two in the central village of Goshwe, near the border with Zimbabwe.

Mbakile, 40, has been picking caterpillars off the branches of Mopane trees -- where they are usually found -- for more than two decades.   She travelled more than 440 kilometres (273 miles) to Botswana's capital Gaborone, where she charges 10 pula (80 euros cents) for small sachet of dried mopane -- a popular road-side snack.   "The rains are unreliable and unpredictable," Mbakile said. "We used to harvest it around December and April but it is no longer the case."

Southern Africa is grappling with one of its worst droughts in history, badly affected by a prolonged period of low rainfall and scorching temperatures.   The UN has warned that 45 million people in the region are in urgent need of food aid due to drought, flooding and economic hardship.   The harvest period for mopane worms has shrunk and sachets have doubled in price.
Date: Tue, 22 Oct 2019 18:42:15 +0200 (METDST)

Gaborone, Botswana, Oct 22, 2019 (AFP) - More than 100 elephants have died in two months in Botswana's Chobe National Park due to drought, which has also affected wildlife in other countries in the region, the government said Tuesday.   Several southern African countries are enduring one of the worst droughts in decades, caused by months of over-average temperatures and erratic rainfall.   The drought has wilted grasslands and dried up water holes, making it increasingly difficult for animals to survive.    Botswana's environment ministry said it has recorded a spike in the number of elephant and other animal deaths since May.    "More than one hundred elephants are estimated to have died naturally in the past two months," the ministry said in a statement, adding that 13 deaths were recorded just this week.

In neighbouring Zimbabwe, Its wildlife agency has recorded at least 55 elephant deaths over the past month due to lack of food and water.  Preliminary investigations in Botswana have also suggested some of the elephants may have died from anthrax.   "Due to the severe drought, elephants end up ingesting soil while grazing and get exposed to the anthrax bacteria spore," the ministry said in a statement.   "The animals are also travelling long distances in search of food which leaves some highly emaciated, ending in death."   Anthrax is an infectious disease found naturally in soil. It is generally contracted by herbivores and is a common cause of death for both wild and domestic animals around the world.      The environment ministry said it would be burning "anthrax related carcasses" to prevent the disease from spreading to other animals.   It warned the public not to touch any animal carcasses they might find and report them to the authorities.
Date: Tue 22 Oct 2019 9:28 PM CAT
Source: Reuters [edited]

More than 100 elephants have died in Botswana in the past 2 months partly because of a suspected anthrax outbreak, the government said on [Tue 22 Oct 2019]. "Preliminary investigations suggest the elephants are dying from anthrax whilst some died from drought effects," a Department of Wildlife and National Parks statement said. "Due to the severe drought, elephants end up ingesting soil while grazing and get exposed to the anthrax bacteria spore," it said.

Elephants Without Borders said an aerial survey showed fresh elephant carcasses increased by 593% between 2014 to 2018, mostly from poaching and illegal hunting, with drought also a contributing factor. The wildlife authority said the latest deaths were in the Chobe River front and Nantanga areas in northern Botswana, where 14 dead elephants were found this week. It said it would be burning the carcasses to prevent the anthrax infection from spreading to other animals.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States, anthrax is a bacterium found naturally in soil and commonly affects domestic and wild animals when they breathe in or ingest spores in contaminated soil, plants, or water. Anthrax is not contagious and humans can only get infected by ingesting the bacteria. It can be prevented in animals via regular vaccination.

Botswana is home to almost 1/3 of Africa's elephants, around 130,000.  Botswana has lifted a ban on big-game hunting to combat a growing conflict between humans and wildlife. Botswana and its neighbors in southern Africa are experiencing a severe drought because of below-average rainfall since an El Nino weather system struck in 2015.  [Byline: Brian Benza, writing: Mfuneko Toyana; editing: Grant McCool)
====================
[Check CBC
which has a nice picture of 2 Okavango Delta bull elephants.

Elephants can graze, although they are usually browsers of branches and vegetation off trees. They are attracted to water. So the source is presently uncertain but might have been a secondary spread from a prior wildlife case that resulted in contaminated browse from blow flies or water from a contaminating carcass. Until a cheap and effective wildlife oral vaccine can be developed, these cases in Chobe will be a constant sporadic event. As elsewhere, the best control is to burn any carcasses and disinfect any contaminated soil. -

Chobe is on the northern border of Botswana abutting the Caprivi Strip of Namibia; see

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Botswana:
Date: Fri, 30 Aug 2019 11:13:54 +0200 (METDST)

Maun, Botswana, Aug 30, 2019 (AFP) - A calf struggles neck-high in the stew-like mud, kicking frantically to make its way across the mire.   Around 38,000 livestock depend on the waters of Lake Ngami in northern Botswana, but the animals -- like the lake itself -- have been stricken by a crippling drought.   Grazers have to walk long distances in hopes of finding anything to eat. Some succumb to the heat and vultures can be seen feasting on their corpses in the sludge of the lake bed.

In May, President Mokgweetsi Masisi officially declared Botswana to be in drought after months of unevenly distributed rains, heat waves and dry spells.   Rural households have been especially hit, and are looking to the government for help.   Southern Africa has been hard hit by intensifying extreme weather conditions such as drought and floods, leaving millions in need of food aid.

Zambia is in the throes of a drought which has affected the 2018/19 farming season. Around 2.5 million people are facing food shortages, according to official figures.

In Zimbabwe, nearly a third of the 16 million population are in need of aid and at least half of these face acute hunger, according to the World Food Programme (WFP).   Lake Ngami is also home to around 100 hippos, half of whom have cannily migrated to parts where life is easier.   "Only the livestock is trapped in the muddy waters," the acting director of wildlife and national parks,  Moeti Batshabang, told AFP.
Date: Wed 15 Nov 2017 20:00 pm (GMT +2)
Source: MMEGI online [edited]

Dozens of Nthompe Koma Primary School pupils on Monday night [13 Nov 2017] thronged Mahalapye health facilities following a food poisoning incident allegedly caused by rape they ate at school.

Classes came to a halt yesterday [14 Nov 2017] as more students showed signs of food poisoning while health workers were present at the school and hospital to establish what could have caused the incident that led to at least 26 pupils being admitted at Mahalapye Hospital. According to a source, it is suspected that the students were fed rape, which was recently sprayed with pesticides.

"The students started vomiting and having diarrhoea at their homes after school. A huge number of them were rushed to the hospital and it was said that the newly treated vegetable was given to them," the source said.

Mahalapye Hospital Superintendent, Dr Kumal Bose said they are yet to establish the cause of diarrhoea and vomiting, whether it is the food they ate or not. "We attended to a total of 82 students of whom 26 were admitted and others discharged. More students were coming in this morning [15 Nov 2017].

We have sent our public health team to the school to investigate all possible causes," he said. Mahalapye chief education officer,

Maria Dikeme [Principal Education Officer] confirmed the incident. "It is true that a lot of students from the school were taken to various health facilities yesterday [14 Nov 2017].

The students were fed sorghum and rape at break time and the sorghum has been taken for tests by the public health team. All of the rape was cooked yesterday. We will, however, go to the source if there is still any left so that it can be tested," she said.

Dikeme said more students were taken to the hospital the following day as some developed signs late.

"We do not have a certain number currently, but we have recorded over 100 cases with 11 pupils still admitted at the hospital," she said.

She said they kept the pupils within the school so they could monitor them rather than sending them home while parents are at work.

Dikeme said there were some pupils who were in school yesterday [14 Nov 2017] who were not affected and that there was no report of any adult person having been diagnosed with the same problem.  [Byline: Innocent Selatlhwa]
===================
[Rape seed and soybeans are both grains. This article says a possible pesticide. The class of chemicals causing these clinical signs would be organophosphates. Grains are often treated with chemicals to prevent insect infestation and ruination of the crop. Therefore it is possible an organophosphate was used on the grain, and not washed or cleaned before being put into human consumption, could produce vomiting and diarrhoea. These could be signs associated with organophosphates. There are likely other crop chemicals capable of producing this, but the organophosphate class is large with numerous chemicals.

The article does not tell us if the pupils are being treated or if they are, what they are being treated with.

Consequently, the results of the testing is very important. Hopefully the testing will reveal the cause of this situation. - ProMED Mod.TG]

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
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World Travel News Headlines

Date: Sat, 25 Jan 2020 11:49:16 +0100 (MET)
By Su Xinqi, Jerome TAYLOR

Hong Kong, Jan 25, 2020 (AFP) - Hong Kong on Saturday declared a new coronavirus outbreak as an "emergency" -- the city's highest warning tier -- as authorities ramped up measures to reduce the risk of further infections.   The announcement came as city leader Carrie Lam faced criticism in some quarters over her administration's response to the crisis.

Of the five people who have tested positive for the virus in Hong Kong so far, four arrived via a newly built high-speed train terminal which connects with the mainland.   That led to calls from some medical experts and politicians to limit, or even halt, arrivals from China, the epicentre of the outbreak with 41 people dead.

Lam held emergency meetings with health officials on Saturday morning after returning from Davos.   "Today I declare the lifting of the response level to emergency," she told reporters.   Schools and universities, which are currently on a Lunar New Year break, would remain closed until 17 February, Lam said.   All mainland arrivals to Hong Kong will now need to sign health declaration forms, she added, while public events including a new year gala and next month's marathon, would also be called off.    "We haven't seen serious and widespread infections (in Hong Kong), but we are taking this seriously and we hope to be ahead of the epidemic," Lam said.

- Tragic past -
Hong Kong has a recent experience of deadly viral outbreaks.    Nearly 300 people were killed by SARS in 2003, a tragedy that left a profound psychological impact on one of the most densely populated places on earth.   The city's ability to combat the crisis was hampered by moves in mainland China to cover up and play down the outbreak, leaving a lasting legacy of distrust among many Hong Kongers.   Animosity towards the mainland has intensified in recent years as Beijing tightens political control over the semi-autonomous territory.

The outbreak also comes at a sensitive time for Lam, who currently boasts record low approval ratings after seven months of pro-democracy protests.   "We must stand united so that we can prevent and control the disease," she said, in a nod to the political unrest.   The often violent protests have battered Hong Kong's reputation for stability and helped tip it into recession, with the recent virus outbreak compounding the city's economic woes.

Hospitals are already struggling with the winter flu season, but officials are isolating anyone with a history of travel to central China and those exhibiting respiratory tract infections that look similar to the virus.   So far some 300 people have been tested and monitored for the virus. Quarantine centres have been set up in remote holiday parks for anyone found to have come into close contact with people who tested positive.   On Saturday, officials announced a newly built but still-empty public housing block would be used for medical staff on the frontline who did not want to risk returning to their families.
Date: Sat, 25 Jan 2020 06:46:59 +0100 (MET)
By Mahmut Bozarslan and Fulya Ozerkan in Istanbu

Elazig, Turkey, Jan 25, 2020 (AFP) - A powerful earthquake has killed at least 20 people and injured more than 1,000 in eastern Turkey, as rescue teams searched through the rubble of collapsed buildings for survivors on Saturday.    At least 30 people were missing following the magnitude 6.8 quake on Friday night, which had its epicentre in the small lakeside town of Sivrice in the eastern province of Elazig.   "It was very scary, furniture fell on top of us. We rushed outside," 47-year-old Melahat Can, who lives in the provincial capital of Elazig, told AFP.   President Recep Tayyip Erdogan said all steps were being taken to aid people affected by the quake, which caused widespread fear.   "We stand by our people," Erdogan said on Twitter.

The Turkish government's disaster and emergency management agency (AFAD) said the quake hit Sivrice at around 8.55 pm (1755 GMT). Turkey lies on major faultlines and is prone to frequent earthquakes.    Turkish television showed images of people rushing outside in panic, as well as a fire on the roof of a building.   Interior, environment and health ministers, who were in the quake zone, said the casulties were in Elazig province and in the neighbouring province of Malatya, which lies to the southwest.

At least 20 people died and 1,015 others were wounded, according to AFAD.   "There is nobody trapped under the rubble in Malatya but in Elazig search and rescue efforts are currently under way to find 30 citizens," Interior Minister Suleyman Soylu said on Friday.   Rescue teams were searching for survivors trapped in a five-storey collapsed building in a village some 30 kilometres from Elazig, according to AFP journalists at the scene. One person was pulled alive from the rubble.   Emergency staff and people waiting at the scene lit fires in the streets to stay warm in freezing temperatures.   Sports centres, schools and guest houses had been opened to accommodate quake victims in Malatya.

- 'Everybody is in the street' -
Sivrice -- a town with a population of about 4,000 people -- is situated south of Elazig city on the shores of Hazar lake -- one of the most popular tourist spots in the region and the source of the Tigris river.   The lake is home to a "Sunken City", with archaeological traces dating back 4,000 years in its waters.

The tremor was felt in several parts of eastern Turkey near the Iraqi and Syrian borders, the Turkish broadcaster NTV reported, adding that neighbouring cities had mobilised rescue teams for the quake area.   "Everybody is in the street, it was very powerful, very scary," said Zekeriya Gunes, 68, from Elazig city, after the quakes caused a building to collapse on her street.   "It lasted quite long, maybe 30 seconds," added Ferda, 39. "I panicked and was undecided whether to go out in this cold or remain inside."

The US Geological Survey assessed the magnitude as 6.7, slightly lower than AFAD, adding that it struck near the East Anatolian Fault in an area that has suffered no documented large ruptures since an earthquake in 1875.   "My wholehearted sympathy to President @RTErdogan and the Turkish people following the devastating earthquake that has hit Turkey. Our search and rescue teams stand ready to assist," Greek Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis wrote on Twitter.   In Athens, the Greek premier's office said later that Mitsotakis had spoken by phone to Erdogan.   "The Turkish president... said Turkish teams had the situation under control for now and that it would be re-evaluated in the morning," his office added.

In 1999, a devastating 7.4 magnitude earthquake hit Izmit in western Turkey, leaving more than 17,000 people dead including about 1,000 in the country's largest city Istanbul.    In September last year, a 5.7-magnitude earthquake shook Istanbul, causing residents to flee buildings in the economic capital.   Experts have long warned a large quake could devastate the city of 15 million people, which has allowed widespread building without safety precautions.
Date: Fri, 24 Jan 2020 17:43:54 +0100 (MET)
By Albert Kambale with Samir Tounsi in Kinshasa

Masisi, DR Congo, Jan 24, 2020 (AFP) - In eastern DR Congo, thousands have fled violence to camps in the remote mountain forests where they battle cholera, hunger and misery in a forgotten humanitarian disaster.   Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has long struggled with violence from several militia groups, a legacy of the 1990s Congo wars that dragged in neighbouring Uganda and Rwanda.   The region is now also the epicentre of the latest Ebola epidemic, which has killed more than 2,200 people since August 2018.

Away from the Ebola headlines, tens of thousands of people are scattered in squalid camps across the mountains around Masisi, where they have fled, traumatised by violence, starving and with no chance to return home.   "I fled my village after clashes broke out," said Gentille, a 26-year-old Hutu Congolese. "We could no longer go to the fields. Many people died because clashes broke out in the middle of the village, very early one morning."

That fighting broke out in November and December involving one of the so-called Mai-Mai militia, the Nduma Defense of the Congo-Renove (NDC-R) and a coalition of other armed rivals, according to UN experts.   Now Gentille, a mother of five lives in a camp of 8,000 displaced people.  Along with the unsanitary conditions, a lack of clean water and food, since late last year, a cholera and measles outbreak has worsened life in the camps.    Several anti-cholera treatment units have been opened by Doctors without Borders (MSF), which reports 520 cases and two deaths.    "Three of my children got cholera. One died," says Gentille. "Here in the camp, we do not have enough toilets. More than 180 people use the same toilet. Since it is always busy, the children defecate outside and all around."

Around 685,000 displaced people survive in the mountainous areas, estimates MSF, a figure the aid group hopes will draw attention of the donors.   A year after coming to power, President Felix Tshisekedi has promised far-reaching reforms and a crackdown on corruption. But militia violence and ethnic clashes still undermine security of populations in the east.
Date: Fri, 24 Jan 2020 18:26:22 +0100 (MET)

Kathmandu, Jan 24, 2020 (AFP) - Health authorities in Nepal on Friday confirmed that a student who returned from Wuhan, China tested positive for the new coronavirus, becoming the first South Asian country to report the deadly disease.   The 32-year-old student arrived in Nepal on January 9, and entered the Sukraraj Tropical and Infectious Disease Hospital in Kathmandu four days later after running a fever and reporting trouble breathing, hospital spokesperson Anup Bastola told AFP.

The health ministry confirmed the case in a statement.   "The results of a sample, sent to Hong Kong, have returned positive," Bastola told AFP.    "He was discharged after recovery. We are monitoring the patient and he and his family members are healthy. So are all the health workers in the hospital," Bastola said.

Nepal's health ministry also said in a statement that surveillance has been increased at the airport, "and suspicious patients entering Nepal are being monitored with correct manpower and equipment".   At least 26 people have been killed by the previously unknown SARS-like coronavirus. Cases have been reported in half a dozen countries, including the United States.
Date: Fri, 24 Jan 2020 20:16:23 +0100 (MET)

Antananarivo, Jan 24, 2020 (AFP) - At least 26 people have died in Madagascar after almost a week of heavy rain in the north-west of the island, the government said on Friday.   The tropical Indian Ocean nation is in the midst of an intense six-month rainy season that often results in casualties and widespread damage.   Flooding in the districts of Mitsinjo and Maevatanana has claimed at least 26 lives since Sunday, and 15 more people are still missing and thousands have been displaced, the National Bureau of Disaster Risk Management (BNGRC) announced on Friday.   Strips of road were swept away by the rains and access to affected areas has been cut off.

The BNGRC warned that flooding in lowland and rice-growing areas also posed a risk of "food insecurity and malnutrition".   A disruption in the supply of basic goods could also lead to surge in prices, it added.   Prime Minister Christian Ntsay declared the situation a "national loss".   "The government is calling on national figures and international partners to help the Malagasy people with emergency aid, early recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction," spokeswoman Lalatiana Andriatongarivo said in a statement.   The rainy season usually stretches from October to April in Madagascar, a former French colony off Africa's south-eastern coast.

Global warming has increased the risk and intensity of flooding, as the atmosphere holds more water and rainfall patterns are disrupted.    Built-up urban areas with poor drainage systems are especially vulnerable to heavy downpours, scientists say.   Nine people were killed in January 2019 after heavy rains caused a building to collapse in the capital Antananarivo.   During this period, the country is also often hit by cyclones and other tropical storms.   Cyclone Belna landed in the northwest last month, killing at least two people and displacing hundreds.
Date: Fri 24 Jan 2020
Source: Fernando Eid (@fernandoeidok) via Twitter [in Spanish, trans. ProMED Mod.TY, edited]

The 1st case of [a] hantavirus [infection] was confirmed in our country [this year in 2020]. The affected individual is an adolescent who contracted the disease in the tropical area of Cochabamba [department].  [Byline: Fernando Eid]
============================
[El Dia has a video clip available on the above Twitter URL with additional information (in Spanish, trans. ProMED Mod.TY):

The affected individual is a 15-year-old boy who was just released from the hospital ICU. He had a febrile disease. He had been in the forested area in tropical Cochabamba. He is believed to have acquired his infection from virus in faeces of the long-tailed rat. There have been10 cases of hantavirus infections in Cochabamba with one death [over what period of time? - ProMED Mod.TY]].
======================
[Unfortunately, the specific circumstances under which this youth or the previous 2019 cases acquired their infections is not mentioned. Presumably they were in contact with excreta from infected rodent hosts. Infected rodents shed the virus in faeces, urine, and saliva. Sporadic cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome occur in the Bolivian tropics, including Cochabamba department.

The specific hantavirus involved in these or previous cases in 2013 or those in 2012, in Bolivia, is not given. In the lowland Amazon basin of Bolivia, the hantaviruses that are likely to be in tropical Cochabamba department and might be involved in these hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases are Laguna Negra viruses with its rodent hosts, _Calomys laucha_, the small vesper mouse (<https://www.flickr.com/photos/cdtimm/4367939127/in/photolist-otqNuS-EwTizo-7DYQ8i-278Fjfq-owyXyD-osEZQs>), and _C. callosus_, the large vesper mouse (<http://www.faunaparaguay.com/calomyscallosus.html>), as well as Rio Mamore virus with _C. laucha_ and _Oligoryzomys microtis_, the small-eared pygmy rice rat (<https://www.reservacostanera.com.ar/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/colilargo-menor-oligoryzomys-flavescens2-JGV-e1298896507790.jpg>). - ProMED Mod.TY]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Cochabamba, Bolivia: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/55162>]
Date: Fri 24 Jan 2020
Source: Eagle [edited]

The commissioner for health in Edo state, Dr. Patrick Okundia, on Friday [24 Jan 2020] in Benin said 76 out of 175 suspected cases of Lassa fever tested positive to the epidemic.

Okundia made this known during a Lassa fever committee meeting chaired by the state deputy governor, Philip Shaibu, and a representative of the World Health Organization.

He said: "A total of 76 suspected cases of Lassa fever were confirmed yesterday [Thu 23 Jan 2020] in the state, and they are currently on admission in the Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital. We have not recorded any new death but have also reduced our case fatality rate to less than 10%. The number of cases in the ward now is 34, and we have discharged over 28 patients that have been fully treated and cured."

In his remarks, Shaibu called on all hospitals across the 18 local government areas [LGAs] of the state to refer any suspected cases to Irrua Specialist hospital and isolation centres.

He said: "Ministries of environment, agriculture, education, information, and other relevant ministries should also step up in the area of public awareness of the people. The 18 local government councils of the state should call for an emergency meeting, which will include private health practitioners for the purpose of early referral."

On her part, the state coordinator of the World Health Organisation, Faith Ireye, revealed that contact tracing in the state is the best in the country. Ireye called on the people to practice simple handwashing to avert contracting the disease.
=================
[Edo state has had many Lassa fever cases in recent years. The state is prepared to deal with treatment of Lassa fever patients in its Imua Specialist Teaching Hospital. Presumably, all the confirmed cases acquired their infections from the environment that has been contaminated by Lassa fever virus shed by rodent hosts, rather than in hospitals and health centres. Handwashing is always a good practice but will not prevent virus exposure from contamination of food materials by infected rodents. A public health education campaign at the village level is necessary to prevent infections.

Images of the rodent reservoirs of Lassa fever virus:
_Mastomys natalensis_:
_Mastomys erythroleucus_ and _Hylomyscus pamfi_:

The pygmy mouse (_Mus baoulei_) has recently been implicated as a reservoir species in West Africa but not in Nigeria.

There is no specific mention in the plans above of public education for avoidance of contact with these rodents and their excreta. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[Maps of Nigeria:
Date: Fri 24 Jan 2020
Source: Uganda Ministry of Health Tweets [edited]

[This series of tweets is drawn from a video interview that is also available at the above Twitter URL.]

The Ugandan Health Minister confirms an outbreak of yellow fever in Moyo District, West Nile region and Buliisa District in the Hoima region of Uganda.

Original public tweets
------------------------
Minister of Health, @JaneRuth_Aceng confirms the outbreak of Yellow Fever in Moyo District in West Nile region and Buliisa District in Hoima region in #Uganda.

@WHOUganda country representative, @tegegny speaks about the Yellow fever vaccine. "The Yellow Fever vaccine is one of those vaccines where you need to be vaccinated only once," he says.

@MinofHealthUG has also applied to @gavi and WHO for inclusion of the Yellow Fever vaccination into the routine immunisation schedule. Having faced 4 outbreaks, #Uganda now qualifies to introduce Yellow Fever vaccine as a long term measure to prevent Yellow Fever outbreaks.

@JaneRuth_Aceng: We anticipate that within the next 2 weeks, vaccines will be available and vaccination will commence in Moyo and Buliisa districts.

@JaneRuth_Aceng: @MinofHealthUG has requested for the Yellow Fever vaccines from the International Coordination Group that manages global stock piles of Yellow Fever and Meningitis vaccines.

@MinofHealthUG working with partners have dispatched Rapid Response Teams to Moyo and Buliisa Districts to support investigations, active search for cases, community mobilization and sensitization.

@JaneRuth_Aceng: At this time, there was little suspicion, however, his blood sample was withdrawn and sent to @UVRIug [Uganda Virus Research Institute] for testing and results showed positive for Yellow fever virus.

@JaneRuth_Aceng: In Buliisa, there are also 2 confirmed cases. A 37-year old male and his 38-year old wife. The husband was a cattle farmer trading in milk between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

They presented with symptoms of:
- fever
- vomiting
- diarrhea
- fatigue
- headache
- abdominal and joint pain
- confusion
- unexplained bleeding.

@JaneRuth_Aceng: Upon arrival, they got ill and on [3 Jan 2020] were admitted at Logobo Health Center III in Moyo District. They were later referred to Moyo General Hospital.

@JaneRuth_Aceng: In Moyo District, there are 2 confirmed cases, both are males who were dealing in cutting and trading timber between Uganda and South Sudan. On [2 Jan 2020], the 2 cases travelled from South Sudan to Moyo.
==========================
[These 2 small (2 infected individuals in each locality) yellow fever (YF) outbreaks are not interconnected, having occurred at 2 sites at far distances from each other. It is reassuring to learn that the Ministry of Health will be investigating these 2 sites and initiating vaccination in these areas in 2 weeks. There is no indication of the proportion of the residents in these areas who have been vaccinated for YF previously.

Yellow fever is no stranger in Uganda, and outbreaks occur sporadically. The most recent previous outbreak reported by the Ugandan Ministry of Health was in May 2019 after laboratory-confirmed cases were reported from Koboko in the Northern region and Masaka in the Central region districts -- regions 600 km (375 mi) apart. These cases are spillover from endemic sylvan (forest) maintenance of the virus. Maintaining 80%-90% vaccination coverage in these areas is important to prevent initiation of urban transmission of the virus that can quickly get out of hand.

A map showing the location of Buliisa District in the center-west part of Uganda can be accessed at <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buliisa_District>, and another showing Moyo District in the far north of the country can be seen at <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moyo_District>. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Date: Fri, 24 Jan 2020 12:26:57 +0100 (MET)

Beijing, Jan 24, 2020 (AFP) - China has quarantined cities and shut major tourist attractions from Disneyland to the Forbidden City and a section of the Great Wall as it scrambles to stop a deadly SARS-like virus from spreading further.   The drastic moves come as hundreds of millions of people criss-crossed the country in recent days to celebrate the Lunar New Year holiday, which officially started Friday and is typically a joyous time of gatherings and public celebration.   Here is a rundown of the measures taken so far in an unprecedented quarantine effort:

- Cities under lockdown -
Public transport has been stopped in 13 cities in central Hubei province, with train stations shut, events cancelled and theatres, libraries and karaoke bars closed in some locations.   The epicentre of the outbreak is provincial capital Wuhan, the biggest city on lockdown, where the government has halted all travel out of the Yangtze River metropolis of 11 million.   Wuhan residents have been told to stay home and authorities are limiting the number of taxis allowed on roads. There are few flights available to the city, deepening the isolation.   Similar quarantine measures are being taken in the other, smaller cities. These include strict controls on weddings and funerals, temperature screening of people as they arrive and the suspension of online taxi services.   More than 41 million people in total are affected by the city shutdowns.

- Festivities cancelled -
Wuhan and Beijing have cancelled public events that usually attract hundreds of thousands of people to temples during the New Year holiday.   Gao Fu, head of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, has asked China's 1.4 billion citizens to forego New Year gatherings and confine themselves at home until all is clear.   To discourage nationwide travel, the government also said all tickets for rail, air, road, or water transport could be refunded.

- Attractions closed -
The historic Forbidden City, a sprawling imperial palace in Beijing that is one of the country's most revered cultural sites, will temporarily close from Saturday.   Other famous landmarks including a section of the Great Wall, the Ming Tombs and Yinshan Pagoda are also not open to visitors.   Shanghai Disneyland said it would shut for an indefinite period "to ensure the health and safety of our guests and cast".   Women's Olympics football qualifiers scheduled for February 3-9 in Wuhan have been moved to the eastern city of Nanjing.

- Temperature checks -
Staff in full body protective suits were seen checking the temperatures of people entering a subway station in Beijing on Friday.   The country has ordered sterilisation and ventilation at airports and bus stations, as well as inside planes and trains, while travellers are being screened for fever.   Health authorities are urging people to wash their hands regularly, avoid crowded places, get plenty of fresh air and wear a mask if they have a cough.   In Wuhan, city authorities have made it mandatory to wear a mask in public places.   In response to skyrocketing demand for masks -- starting to sell out at pharmacies and on some popular websites -- China's industry and information technology ministry said it would "spare no effort in increasing supply".

- A new hospital -
In Wuhan, authorities are rushing to build a new hospital in a staggering 10 days as a rising number of patients are infected by the new coronavirus.   The facility is expected to be in use by February 3 and will have a capacity of 1,000 beds spread over 25,000 square metres, according to state media.   Dozens of excavators and trucks were filmed working on the site by state broadcaster CCTV.   Its construction began after reports surfaced of bed shortages in hospitals designated as dealing with the outbreak, which has now infected 830 people across China.
Date: Fri, 24 Jan 2020 11:22:00 +0100 (MET)

Beijing, Jan 24, 2020 (AFP) - China announced Friday it will close a section of the Great Wall and other famous Beijing landmarks to control the spread of a deadly virus that has infected hundreds of people across the country.   A range of Lunar New Year festivities have been cancelled to try to contain the virus, and Beijing's Forbidden City and Shanghai's Disneyland have also been closed temporarily.

The Ming Tombs and Yinshan Pagoda will also be closed from Saturday, the authority that oversees the sites said, while the Bird's Nest stadium -- the site of the 2008 Olympic Games -- was shuttered from Friday.   The Great Wall attracts around 10 million tourists a year and is a popular destination for visitors during the New Year holiday.   The Juyongguan section will close, while the Great Wall temple fair was cancelled at the Simatai section of the famous landmark.

Tourists at the Gubei water town by the Simatai section will have their temperature tested, the authority said in a statement on the WeChat social media app.   The Bird's Nest will be closed until January 30 in order to "prevent and control" the spread of the virus, authorities said. An ice and snow show taking place on the pitch will be closed.   The measures in the capital are the latest to try and control the outbreak of the new coronavirus, after authorities rapidly expanded a mammoth
quarantine effort that affected 41 million people in central Hubei province.

The previously unknown virus has caused alarm because of its similarity to SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), which killed hundreds across mainland China and Hong Kong in 2002-2003.   Although there have only been 29 confirmed cases in Beijing, city authorities have cancelled large-scaled Lunar New Year events this week.   The city government said it would call off events including two popular temple fairs, which have attracted massive crowds of tourists in past years.   Beijing's Forbidden City -- which saw 19 million visitors last year -- is usually packed with tourists during the Lunar New Year festival, when hundreds of millions of people travel across China.