WORLD NEWS

Getting countries ...
Select countries and read reports below or

Faroe Islands

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faroe_Islands
=========================
The early history of the Faroe Islands is not very clear. According to Færeyinga Saga emigrants who left Norway to escape the tyranny of Harald I of Norway settled in the isla
ds about the beginning of the 9th century. There is also evidence that Irish monks settled the islands, introducing sheep in the process. Early in the 11th century Sigmund, whose family had flourished in the southern islands but had been almost exterminated by invaders from the northern islands, was sent from Norway, from which he had escaped, to take possession of the islands for Olaf Tryggvason, king of Norway. He introduced Christianity and, though he was subsequently murdered, Norwegian supremacy was upheld. Norwegian control of the islands continued until 1380, when Norway entered into a union with Denmark, which gradually evolved into the double monarchy Denmark/Norway. The reformation reached the Faroes in 1538. When Norway was taken away from Denmark at the Treaty of Kiel in 1814, Denmark retained possession of the Faroe Islands.
The monopoly trade over the Faroe Islands was abolished in 1856. Since then, the country developed towards a modern fishery nation with its own fleet. The national awakening since 1888 was first based on a struggle for the Faroese language, and thus more culturally oriented, but after 1906 was more and more politically oriented after the foundation of the political parties of the Faroe Islands.
On April 12, 1940, the Faroes were invaded and occupied by British troops. The move followed the invasion of Denmark by Nazi Germany and had the objective of strengthening British control of the North Atlantic (see Second Battle of the Atlantic). In 1942–43 the British Royal Engineers built the only airport in the Faroes, the Vágar Airport. Control of the islands reverted to Denmark following the war, but in 1948 a home rule regime was implemented granting a high degree of local autonomy. The Faroes declined to join Denmark in entering the European Community (now European Union) in 1973. The islands experienced considerable economic difficulties following the collapse of the fishing industry in the early 1990s, but have since made efforts to diversify the economy. Support for independence has grown and is the objective of the government.
================
Denmark, Greenland and the Faeroe Islands US Consular Information Sheet
August 15, 2006
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: Denmark is a highly developed stable democracy with a modern economy. Greenland is a self-governing dependency of Denmark. The Faroe Islands are a self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Denmark for additional information.

ENTRY REQUIREMENTS: Passport and visa regulations are similar for Denmark, Greenland, and the Faroes. A valid passport is required. U.S. citizen tourist and business travelers do not need visas for visits of up to 90 days. That period begins when entering any of the following countries which are parties to the Schengen agreement: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden. See our Foreign Entry Requirements brochure for more information on Denmark and other countries. Contact the Royal Danish Embassy at 3200 Whitehaven Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20008, telephone (202) 234-4300 or visit its website at for the most current visa information.

Note: Although European Union regulations require that non-EU visitors obtain a stamp in their passports upon initial entry to a Schengen country, many borders are not staffed with officers carrying out this function. If an American citizen wishes to ensure that his or her entry is properly documented, it may be necessary to request a stamp at an official point of entry. Under local law, travelers without a stamp in their passports may be questioned and asked to document the length of their stay in Schengen countries at the time of departure or at any other point during their visit, and could face possible fines or other repercussions if unable to do so.

Find more information about Entry and Exit Requirements pertaining to dual nationality and the prevention of international child abduction .
SAFETY AND SECURITY: Denmark remains largely free of terrorist incidents, however the country shares, with the rest of Western Europe, an increased threat of Islamic terrorism. Like other countries in the Schengen area, Denmark's open borders with its Western European neighbors allow the possibility of terrorist groups entering and exiting the country with anonymity. Americans are reminded to remain vigilant with regard to their personal security and to exercise caution.

Public demonstrations occasionally occur in Copenhagen and other Danish cities and are generally peaceful events. Prior police approval is required for public demonstrations, and police oversight is routinely provided to ensure adequate security for participants and passers-by. Nonetheless, as with any large crowd comprised of diverse groups, situations may develop which could pose a threat to public safety. U.S. citizens are advised to avoid areas where public demonstrations are taking place.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State's web site , where the current Worldwide Caution Public Announcement , Travel Warnings, and Public Announcements can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll-free in the United States, or, for callers outside the United States and Canada, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State's pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad .
CRIME: Denmark, Greenland, and the Faroes all have very low violent crime rates, however, non-violent crimes of opportunity have slightly increased over the last few years, especially in Copenhagen and other major Danish cities, where tourists can become targets for pickpockets and sophisticated thieves. Criminals frequent airports, train stations, and cruise ship quays to take advantage of weary, luggage-burdened travelers. Thieves also operate at popular tourist attractions, shopping streets, and restaurants. In hotel lobbies and breakfast areas, thieves take advantage of even a brief lapse in attention to snatch jackets, purses, and backpacks. Women's purses placed either on the backs of chairs or on the floor are typical targets for thieves. Car and home break-ins are also on the rise.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends, and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

Denmark has a program to provide financial compensation to victims who suffer serious criminal injuries. According to existing regulations, the victim must report the incident to the police within 24 hours. Danish police routinely inform victims of serious crime of their rights to seek compensation. The relevant forms can be obtained from the police or the Danish Victims' Compensation Board: Civilstyrelsen, Erstatningsnaevnet, Gyldenløvesgade 11, 1600 Copenhagen V, TEL: (45) 33-92- 3334; FAX: (45) 39-20-45-05; www.erstatningsnaevnet.dk ; Email: erstatningsnaevnet@erstatningsnaevnet.dk . Claim processing time is a minimum of 4 weeks. There is no maximum award limit.

See our information for Victims of Crime .
MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Excellent medical facilities are widely available in Denmark. In Greenland and the Faroe Islands, medical facilities are limited and evacuation is required for serious illness or injury. Although emergency medical treatment is free of charge, the patient is charged for follow-up care.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC's website at . For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int.en. Further health information for travelers is available at .

MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas .

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Denmark is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

A valid U.S. driver's license may be used while visiting Denmark, but the driver must be at least 18 years old. Driving in Denmark is on the right side of the road. Road signs use standard international symbols. Many urban streets have traffic lanes reserved for public transport only. Unless otherwise noted on traffic signs, the speed limit is 50 km/h in urban areas, 80 km/h on open roads, and 130 km/h on expressways.

Use of seat belts is mandatory for drivers and all passengers. Children under three years of age must be secured with approved safety equipment appropriate to the child's age, size, and weight. Children from three to six years of age may use approved child or booster seats instead of seat belts.

Driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs is considered a very serious offense. The rules are stringently enforced, and violations can result in stiff fines and possible jail sentences.

Copenhagen, the capital and largest city in Denmark, has an extensive and efficient public transportation system. Trains and buses connect Copenhagen with other major cities in Denmark and to Norway, Sweden, and Germany. Bicycles are also a common mode of transportation in Denmark. Passengers exiting public or tourist buses, as well as tourists driving rental cars, should watch for bicycles on their designated paths, which are usually located between the pedestrian sidewalks and the traffic lanes.

Danish expressways, highways, and secondary roads are of high quality and connect all areas of the country. It is possible to drive from the northern tip of Denmark to the German border in the south in just four hours. Greenland has no established road system, and domestic travel is performed by foot, boat, or by air. The majority of the Faroe Islands are connected by bridges or serviced by boat. Although the largest islands have roads, most domestic travel is done on foot, horseback, boat, or by air.

The emergency telephone number for police/fire/ambulance in Denmark and the Faroe Islands is 112. In Greenland contact the local police.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. Visit the website of the country's national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at . See also additional information on driving in Denmark at .

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the government of Denmark's Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for the oversight of Denmark's air carrier operations. This rating applies to Greenland and the Faroe Islands as well. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA's Internet website at www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa .

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: The official unit of currency in Denmark is the Danish krone. ATM machines are widely available throughout Denmark. Please see our information on customs regulations .

For information concerning the importation of pets into Denmark, please visit the following website:
.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protection available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Denmark's laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Denmark are severe and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties .

CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children's Issues website.

REGISTRATION/EMBASSY LOCATION: Americans living or traveling in Denmark are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department's travel registration website , and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Denmark. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located at Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24; 2100 Copenhagen, telephone: (45) 33-41-71-00; Embassy fax: (45) 35-43-02-23; Consular Section fax: (45) 35-38-96-16; After-hours emergency telephone: (45) 35-55-92-70. Information is also available via the U.S. Embassy's website at http://www.usembassy.dk. The United States has no consular presence in Greenland or the Faroe Islands.
* * *
This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated February 10, 2006, to update the section on Entry Requirements and Traffic Safety and Road Conditions.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Fri, 25 Nov 2011 12:19:28 +0100 (MET)

COPENHAGEN, Nov 25, 2011 (AFP) - A hurricane packing winds of almost 200 kilometres (125 miles) an hour tore through the Faroe Islands overnight, causing major damage and evacuations but no deaths, police said Friday.  "There was a hurricane... a lot of material damage has been reported but no deaths so far," said Rani Wardum, a police officer in Torshavn, the capital of the North Atlantic archipelago. "Winds reach up to 55 metres per second," or 198 kilometres per hour, in some places, meteorologist Mogens Roenebek of the Danish Meteorological Institute told AFP.

The Faroe Islands, an autonomous Danish province, are home to around 48,000 people. The extent of the damage was not immediately known. "Many roofs were blown off and we had to evacuate a retirement home. The seniors were moved into a hospital," Wardum said.

Some residents were also evacuated from their homes during the night and a number of boats came loose from their moorings and ended up on land, he added. "The winds are still raging, but it was particularly violent last night and overnight," Wardum said, noting that the southern coastal regions of the Faroes Islands were hardest hit. The storm was heading towards the west coast of Norway on Friday, with strong winds and heavy seas, according to Roenebek.
Date: Thu, 6 May 2010 16:55:58 +0200 (METDST)

REYKJAVIK, May 6, 2010 (AFP) - The quantity of ash spewed by Iceland's Eyjafjoell volcano increased overnight and the higher ash cloud could make it to the Faroe Islands Friday, Icelandic authorities said Thursday.   "Ash production did increase last night and the ash plume is going higher now than the last couple of days," Agust Gunnar Gylfason, who monitors the eruption's progress at Iceland's Civil Protection Department, told AFP.

The ash cloud "might reach the Faroe Islands around midnight (GMT Thursday) under 20,000 feet (6,000 meters)" and continue on south towards Ireland on Friday, he added.   "The plume went up to 30,000 feet (9,000 meters) for some time last night, and again this morning, due to an increase in explosive activity, but otherwise it's been around 18,000 and 20,000 feet" high, he said.

At the strongest period of the eruption, Eyjafjoell sent a plume around 30,000 feet into the air, but scientists have stressed that the height of the plume does not necessarily reflect a particular quantity of ash.   On Tuesday, the plume contained about only 10 percent of the ash it held at the beginning of the eruption.   European airspace and airports across the continent were open on Thursday, but intergovernmental air traffic controller Eurocontrol said the ash cloud could mean transatlantic flights might need to be re-routed.

Airspace above Ireland, Northern Ireland and Scotland was partly shut Wednesday for the second time in two days, causing the cancellation of hundreds of flights.   The fresh disruption came after Europe's skies were closed for up to a week last month by the eruption of the Eyjafjoell volcano. It was the biggest aerial shutdown in Europe since World War II, with more than 100,000 flights cancelled and eight million passengers affected.
More ...

Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan US Consular Information Sheet
January 27, 2009
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Azerbaijan is a constitutional republic with a developing economy.
Western-style amenities are found in the capital, Baku, but they are generally not avail
ble outside that city.
Read the Department of State Background Notes on Azerbaijan for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport and visa are required.
Travelers may obtain single-entry visas for USD 131 by mail or in person from either the Azerbaijani Embassy in Washington, DC or any other Azerbaijani embassy offering consular services.
Travelers may also obtain single-entry, 30-day visas at the airport upon arrival for USD 131.
Visas are not available at the land borders with Georgia or Russia.
Double-entry, 90-day visas (cost: USD 131) and one-year multiple-entry visas (cost: USD 250) are only available through an Azerbaijani embassy or through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
A letter of invitation from a contact in Azerbaijan is required, and travelers who expect to travel in the region should request a one-year, multiple-entry visa.
According to Azerbaijani law, foreign nationals intending to remain in Azerbaijan for more than 30 days must register with local police within three days of their arrival. Foreign citizens should approach the passport section of the local district police office and fill out an application form. The registration fee is AZN 9.90 (approximately USD 12).

American citizens of Armenian ancestry should be aware their visa applications may be denied by the Government of Azerbaijan on the grounds that their safety cannot be guaranteed.
U.S. citizens who obtain a single-entry visa at the port of entry are permitted to remain in Azerbaijan for up to one month, after which an extension of stay must be requested (cost: USD 131).
For persons already in Azerbaijan, visa applications, extensions or renewals are made at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Shikhali Gurbanov St., 4, Baku; tel. (9-9412) 492 34 01, or the State Migration Service, Ataturk Avenue 53, Baku; tel (9-9412) 498-9464.
For additional information, please contact the Embassy of Azerbaijan, 2741 34th Street NW, Washington, DC
20008 (tel. 202-337-3500); e-mail: azerbaijan@azembassy.com.
American citizens should ensure their visas and/or local identification cards, for stays of longer than 30 days, are current and valid, and they carry local identification cards, if applicable, at all times. It is advisable to carry a photocopy of your current passport and valid visa if you do not normally carry your passport as well.
Visit the Embassy of Azerbaijan web site at http://www.azembassy.us/ for the most current visa information.
.
Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
As a result of continuing conflict, travelers are cautioned to avoid travel to the region of Nagorno-Karabakh and the surrounding occupied areas.
Because of the existing state of hostilities, consular services are not available to Americans in Nagorno-Karabakh.
American citizens of Armenian ancestry considering travel to Azerbaijan should remain particularly vigilant when visiting the country, as the Government of Azerbaijan has claimed that it is unable to guarantee their safety.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State‘s Bureau of Consular Affairs web site, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
Baku has experienced a trend away from casual stealth street crime, such as pick-pocketing, towards more targeted and aggressive attacks.
These attacks tend to be against males, usually involve alcohol, and usually occur late at night.
The attacks typically involve multiple attackers on a lone victim using overwhelming numbers and a quick, violent attack to end resistance or flight.
Violent crimes tend to be more frequent in the winter, despite the presence of fewer tourists and foreigners in general at this time of year.
Many recent attacks have resulted in injuries.
There are also reports of foreigners being held up at knife- or gunpoint at or near ATMs during hours of darkness. Visitors should not walk alone at night.

All incidents of crime should be reported to the local police and U.S. Embassy.
The Police Office of Crimes By and Against Foreigners has an English-speaking officer available at all times who may be reached at (994 12) 490-95-32 or, after hours, at 490-94-52.
INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate for assistance.
The embassy/consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

The local equivalents of the “911” emergency lines in Azerbaijan are: 101-Fire Brigade; 102-Police; 103-Ambulance; 104-Gas services; and 112-Ministry of Emergency Situations.

Please see our information on Victims of Crime, including possible victim compensation programs in the United States.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Azerbaijan’s laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Azerbaijan are severe and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
The Republic of Azerbaijan's economy is mostly cash-only.
Traveler’s checks and credit cards are accepted only in some hotels and a few restaurants and supermarkets.

Azerbaijani customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from Azerbaijan of items such as firearms, religious materials, antiquities including carpets, medications, and caviar, and any amount of currency over USD 1000.
It is advisable to contact the Embassy of Azerbaijan in Washington for specific information regarding customs requirements.
Please see our Customs Information.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
A few Western-type medical clinics, the quality of which is comparable to those in Western countries, are operating in Baku.
However, medical facilities outside the capital remain inadequate, unsanitary, and unsafe.
There is often a shortage of basic medical supplies, including disposable needles and vaccines. Bring adequate amounts of prescription medicines for the duration of your visit, as pharmacies often do not carry all brands or doses.

Tuberculosis (TB) is an increasingly serious health concern in Azerbaijan.
For further information, please consult the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Travel Notice on TB http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/yellowBookCh4-TB.aspx.

Avian Influenza:
In 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO) and Azerbaijani authorities confirmed several human cases of the H5N1 strain of avian influenza, commonly known as "bird flu."
Travelers to Azerbaijan and other countries affected by the virus are cautioned to avoid poultry farms, contact with animals in live food markets, and any surfaces that appear to be contaminated with feces from poultry or other animals.
In addition, the CDC and WHO recommend eating only fully cooked poultry and eggs.
For the most current information and links on avian influenza in Azerbaijan, see the State Department’s Avian Influenza Fact Sheet or visit the web site of the U.S. Embassy in Baku at http://azerbaijan.usembassy.gov/.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the CDC’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the WHO web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Azerbaijan.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The U.S. Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Azerbaijan is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
Driving hazards such as open manholes, debris, sinkholes, and potholes are common in Baku.
Most drivers do not pay attention to traffic regulations, signals, lane markings, pedestrians, or other drivers.
Drivers often travel at extremely high speeds, and accidents are frequent and often serious.
Driving in Baku should be considered extremely hazardous.
Outside the city, even where roads are present, conditions are similar.
Roads are often in poor repair and unlighted, and lack lane markings, traffic signs, and warnings.
Many rural roads are largely unpaved.
Public transportation throughout the country is overcrowded and poorly maintained.
The U.S. Embassy strongly discourages use of the Baku Metro.
Train travel in the Caucasus region is not secure.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
Visit the web site of the Azerbaijan’s national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at http://azerbaijan.tourism.az/
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Azerbaijan, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Azerbaijan’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

Travelers on regional airlines among the countries of the Caucasus may experience prolonged delays and sudden cancellations of flights.
In addition to frequent delays, flights are often overcrowded, with passengers without seats standing in the aisle along with excess unsecured cabin luggage.
Even basic safety features such as seat belts are sometimes missing.
Air travel to Azerbaijan on international carriers via Europe is typically more reliable.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Azerbaijan are encouraged to register with the U.S. embassy through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Azerbaijan.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the U.S. embassy.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the embassy or consulate to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy is located at Azadlig Prospekt 83; tel. (9-9412) 498-03-35, 36, or 37; (9-9412) 490-66-71; email: ConsularBaku@state.gov; web site at http://azerbaijan.usembassy.gov.
Travelers are encouraged to notify the Embassy before their permanent departure from the country.
*
*
*
*
*
*
This replaces the Country Specific Information for Azerbaijan dated June 19, 2008 to update sections on Entry and Exit Requirements; Safety and Security; and Special Circumstances.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Fri, 19 Apr 2019 03:13:16 +0200
By Andrea PALASCIANO

Naftalan, Azerbaijan, April 19, 2019 (AFP) - Immersed up to her neck in a dark viscous liquid, Sulfiya smiles in delight, confident that the fetid substance will cure her painful condition.   Sulfiya, a Russian woman in her 60s, has travelled to Azerbaijan's north-western city of Naftalan in the hope that crude oil baths at a local sanatorium will end her years of suffering from polyarthritis, a disease affecting the joints.   "This is so pleasant," she enthuses, despite the reek of engine oil.

Her naked dip in oil heated to just above body temperature lasts 10 minutes, after which an attendant scrapes the brown oil off her skin and sends her into a shower.   The native of Russia's Tatarstan region said she and her friends "have long dreamed of coming" for treatment in Naftalan.   The petroleum spa resort in the oil-rich Caucasus country is a draw for visitors despite its proximity to Nagorny Karabakh, a region disputed between Azerbaijan and Armenia in a long-running armed conflict.

After 10 days of bathing in crude oil Sulfiya says she now feels "much better" and has even reduced her medication for the polyarthritis that she has had for 12 years.   "It is a gift from God," agrees 48-year-old Rufat, an Azerbaijani journalist and opposition party member who is undergoing treatment in the sanatorium called Sehirli, or "magic" in Azerbaijani.   Azerbaijan's vast oil deposits were discovered in the mid-19th century, making what was at the time part of the Russian Empire one of the first places in the world to start commercial oil production.

Oil exports to markets all over the world are the largest sector of Azerbaijan's economy, but the crude that comes from subsoil reservoirs in Naftalan is not suitable for commercial use.   Instead the local oil is used to treat muscular, skin and bone conditions as well as gynaecological and neurological problems.   According to a legend, which spa staff readily tell clients, the healing properties of Naftalan's "miraculous oil" were discovered by accident when a camel left to die near a pool of oil was cured.

The small town of Naftalan some 300 kilometres (185 miles) from the capital Baku became a popular health resort for Soviet citizens in the 1920s.   "In the past, when there weren't any hotels or sanatoriums, people would come to Naftalan and stay with locals," said one of the doctors at the Sehirli sanatorium, Fabil Azizov, sitting in her office under a portrait of strongman President Ilham Aliyev.   "But as time passed, sanatoriums were built and treatment methods developed."

- Controversial benefits -
Some specialists warn the method has dangerous side effects.   "Despite the stories of past cures, the use of crude oil for medicinal purposes has been condemned by Western doctors as potentially carcinogenic," former journalist Maryam Omidi wrote in a 2017 book published in Britain about Soviet-era sanatoriums.

In fact, the oil at Naftalan is almost 50 percent naphthalene, a carcinogenic substance found in cigarette smoke and mothballs that in large amounts can damage or destroy red blood cells.   But doctors and patients at Naftalan brush aside any misgivings and the sanatorium even has a small museum displaying crutches that once belonged to patients who have recovered from their illnesses.

- 'We heard gunshots' -
During its heyday in the 1980s, Naftalan would host more than 70,000 visitors a year.    But in 1988, a bloody war began with neighbouring Armenia for the control of Azerbaijan's separatist Nagorny Karabakh region, which unilaterally proclaimed independence from Baku in 1991.

The conflict claimed the lives of some 30,000 people from both sides and forced hundreds of thousands to flee their homes.   A 1994 ceasefire agreement ended hostilities, but the arch foes have yet to reach a definitive peace deal and there are frequent skirmishes along the volatile frontline.   During the war, the sanatoriums in Naftalan -- a few kilometres from the frontline -- were converted into hospitals for wounded soldiers and temporary accommodation for refugees.

Over the last two decades, the Azerbaijani authorities have worked hard to re-establish Naftalan's reputation as a health resort.    They resettled refugees in other regions, demolished decrepit Soviet-era sanatoriums and built brand-new tourist facilities.   Modern Naftalan is a blend of kitsch-looking high-end spas where a week's treatment costs some 1,000 euros, and modest sanatoriums where a week's treatment costs around 100 euros.   The simmering Karabakh conflict may be out of sight, but guests can still feel uncomfortably close to the military action.   During one of the deadliest recent bouts of fighting in April 2016, "we heard gunshots," said a member of staff at Naftalan's luxurious Garabag spa, adding quickly that "everyone stayed on."
Date: Fri, 12 Apr 2019 05:49:56 +0200
By Andrea PALASCIANO

Naftalan, Azerbaijan, April 12, 2019 (AFP) - Immersed up to her neck in a dark viscous liquid, Sulfiya smiles in delight, confident that the fetid substance will cure her painful condition.   Sulfiya, a Russian woman in her 60s, has travelled to Azerbaijan's north-western city of Naftalan in the hope that crude oil baths at a local sanatorium will end her years of suffering from polyarthritis, a disease affecting the joints.   "This is so pleasant," she enthuses, despite the reek of engine oil.

Her naked dip in oil heated to just above body temperature lasts 10 minutes, after which an attendant scrapes the brown oil off her skin and sends her into a shower.   The native of Russia's Tatarstan region said she and her friends "have long dreamed of coming" for treatment in Naftalan.   The petroleum spa resort in the oil-rich Caucasus country is a draw for visitors despite its proximity to Nagorny Karabakh, a region disputed between Azerbaijan and Armenia in a long-running armed conflict.

After 10 days of bathing in crude oil Sulfiya says she now feels "much better" and has even reduced her medication for the polyarthritis that she has had for 12 years.   "It is a gift from God," agrees 48-year-old Rufat, an Azerbaijani journalist and opposition party member who is undergoing treatment in the sanatorium called Sehirli, or "magic" in Azerbaijani.   Azerbaijan's vast oil deposits were discovered in the mid-19th century, making what was at the time part of the Russian Empire one of the first places in the world to start commercial oil production.

Oil exports to markets all over the world are the largest sector of Azerbaijan's economy, but the crude that comes from subsoil reservoirs in Naftalan is not suitable for commercial use.   Instead the local oil is used to treat to cure muscular, skin and bone conditions as well as gynaecological and neurological problems.   According to a legend, which spa staff readily tell clients, the healing properties of Naftalan's "miraculous oil" were discovered by accident when a camel left to die near a pool of oil was cured.

The small town of Naftalan some 300 kilometres (185 miles) from the capital Baku became a popular health resort for Soviet citizens in the 1920s.   "In the past, when there weren't any hotels or sanatoriums, people would come to Naftalan and stay with locals," said one of the doctors at the Sehirli sanatorium, Fabil Azizov, sitting in her office under a portrait of strongman President Ilham Aliyev.   "But as time passed, sanatoriums were built and treatment methods developed."

- Controversial benefits -
Some specialists warn the method has dangerous side effects.   "Despite the stories of past cures, the use of crude oil for medicinal purposes has been condemned by Western doctors as potentially carcinogenic," former journalist Maryam Omidi wrote in a 2017 book published in Britain about Soviet-era sanatoriums.

In fact, the oil at Naftalan is almost 50 percent naphthalene, a carcinogenic substance found in cigarette smoke and mothballs that in large amounts can damage or destroy red blood cells.   But doctors and patients at Naftalan brush aside any misgivings and the sanatorium even has a small museum displaying crutches that once belonged to patients who have recovered from their illnesses.

- 'We heard gunshots' -
During its heyday in the 1980s, Naftalan would host more than 70,000 visitors a year.    But in 1988, a bloody war began with neighbouring Armenia for the control of Azerbaijan's separatist Nagorny Karabakh region, which unilaterally proclaimed independence from Baku in 1991.  The conflict claimed the lives of some 30,000 people from both sides and forced hundreds of thousands to flee their homes.   A 1994 ceasefire agreement ended hostilities, but the arch foes have yet to reach a definitive peace deal and there are frequent skirmishes along the volatile frontline.

During the war, the sanatoriums in Naftalan -- a few kilometres from the frontline -- were converted into hospitals for wounded soldiers and temporary accommodation for refugees.   Over the last two decades, the Azerbaijani authorities have worked hard to re-establish Naftalan's reputation as a health resort.    They resettled refugees in other regions, demolished decrepit Soviet-era sanatoriums and built brand-new tourist facilities.

Modern Naftalan is a blend of kitsch-looking high-end spas where a week's treatment costs some 1,000 euros, and modest sanatoriums where a week's treatment costs around 100 euros.   The simmering Karabakh conflict may be out of sight, but guests can still feel uncomfortably close to the military action.   During one of the deadliest recent bouts of fighting in April 2016, "we heard gunshots," said a member of staff at Naftalan's luxurious Garabag spa, adding quickly that "everyone stayed on."
Date: Sun, 27 Aug 2017 12:33:14 +0200

Baku, Aug 27, 2017 (AFP) - Six people were injured Sunday when a fire at a military base in Azerbaijan set off explosions of weapons at a storage depot, officials in the Caucasus nation said.   Residents were evacuated from two villages Gilezi and Shitalchai nearest to the base, about 70 kilometres north of capital Baku, the defence ministry said in a statement.

The ministry said there was a fire at the base "which caused the explosions," without giving details of damages or cause of the fire.   A spokeswoman of the health ministry, Liya Bairamova, told AFP that six people were injured in the fire and blasts, though without clarifying if they were soldiers or civilians.   Earlier emergencies authorities said that first response vehicles could not get close to the base because of ongoing explosions.   A major road from Baku north to the city of Guba and the Russian border was closed due to the incident.
Date: Fri 8 Jul 2016, 14:46
Source: Azeri Press Agency (APA) [edited]

A 10-year-old boy has died of rabies after being bitten by a dog in his head, face, and mouth 20 days ago in the Dayikend village of Azerbaijan's Salyan. Rita Ismayilova, head of the department of epidemiology of especially dangerous infectious diseases of the Republican Anti Plague Station under the Health Ministry, told APA that the boy was admitted to the Salyan district central hospital the same day he was attacked by the dog. However, the child's body failed to create immunity as the incubation period of the disease was short, so it developed into rabies. The child was transferred to Baku and received symptomatic treatment in the children infectious diseases hospital No.1.

Nevertheless, the child could not be saved and he died on 7 Jul 2016. It's well known that there's no treatment for a person who is infected with rabies; it results in death", she said. She added that about 17 000 people bitten by animals every year are healed [see comment]. On rare occasions, the incubation period is very short. "This child's incubation period was 14 days and symptoms had already manifested. The treatment didn't help because the child's body failed to create immunity. Moreover, he had been bitten in dangerous parts -- his face, head, fingers, upper body. These areas are close to the brain and therefore death occurs earlier", she said. Note that this is the 2nd such [event] recorded in 2016. The 1st incident took place in Zagatala in May; P.T. (b. 1969) did not go to hospital after being bitten and died of rabies in Zagatala [See item 2].  [Byline: Konul Kamilqizi]
=====================
[The term "healed" may mislead, suggestive of remedying established rabies disease. The 17 000 people bitten by animals in Azerbaijan have, rather likely, undergone a "post exposure prophylaxis" treatment, preventing the development of disease (which, unfortunately, cannot be healed...). - ProMED Mod.AS]
************************
Azerbaijan, fatal human case
Date: Tue 24 May 2016, 12:31 GMT
Source: News.AZ [edited]

Azerbaijan's Health Ministry on Tue [24 May 2016] confirmed its 1st recorded human rabies case in the country in 2016. Liya Bayramova, spokesperson for the Health Ministry, told APA that P.T., 47, a resident of the Faldar village of the country's Zagatala district, was hospitalized with symptoms of rabies on 22 May 2016. "The woman was bitten by a dog on 1 Apr 2016, but she didn't admit to hospital immediately," Bayramova said.

She noted that in fact, in animal bite cases, people must be vaccinated against rabies within 14 days. "Turajova went to the hospital after 52 days when signs of rabies appeared. Her treatment continued in a hospital in Zagatala, and doctors from Minghachevir and Baku were sent for consultation," she added.

Rita Ismayilova, head of the department of epidemiology of especially dangerous infectious diseases of the Republican Anti Plague Station under the Health Ministry, told APA that a dog bit the index finger of that woman's right hand 2 months ago. "As she was slightly injured, she didn't seek medical aid. The wound healed, but 2 months later she began to exhibit signs of rabies. Symptoms begin with fear of light, water and air. Though the woman was hospitalized, human rabies case often results in death," Ismayilova noted.

She added that it is the 1st case of human rabies recorded in Azerbaijan in 2016. The last case of human rabies was recorded 3-4 years ago.
====================
[The statement of the spokesperson that "in fact, in animal bite cases, people must be vaccinated against rabies within 14 days" does not comply with WHO guidelines for the "post exposure prophylaxis (PEP)" procedures. Such cases require "immediate" post-exposure-prophylaxis treatment. Subscribers are referred to the following WHO's "Top 10 General Considerations in Rabies PEP", updated 2014:

1. Wounds must be immediately washed/flushed for 15 minutes and disinfected.
2. Rabies PEP should be instituted immediately. PEP consists of a course of potent, effective rabies vaccine that meets WHO recommendations and administration of rabies immunoglobulin.
3. PEP must be applied using vaccine regimens and administration routes that have been proven to be safe and effective.
4. PEP does not have contraindications if purified rabies immunoglobulin and vaccine are used. Pregnancy and infancy are not contraindications to PEP.
5. If rabies immunoglobulin is not available on 1st visit, use can be delayed by up to 7 days from the date of the 1st vaccine dose.
6. Initiation of PEP should not await the results of laboratory diagnosis or be delayed by dog observation when rabies is suspected.
7. When suspect rabid animal contacts (excluding bats) occur in areas free of carnivore-mediated rabies and where there is adequate surveillance in place, PEP may not be required. The decision must be based on expert risk assessment.
8. Patients presenting for rabies PEP even months after having been bitten should be treated as if the contact had recently occurred.
9. PEP should be administered even if the suspect animal is not available for testing or observation. However, vaccine and immunoglobulin administration may be discontinued if the animal involved: is a vaccinated dog (cat or ferret) that following observation for 10 days, remains healthy or is humanely killed and declared negative for rabies by a WHO prescribed laboratory test. 10. In areas enzootic for (canine and wildlife) rabies, PEP should be instituted immediately unless adequate laboratory surveillance and data indicates that the species involved is not a vector of rabies.

For the above and further information, see WHO "Guide for Rabies Pre and Post Exposure Prophylaxis in Humans at

The recent case, in a child (item 1), was a "Category III" case ("Bites to the head, neck, face hand and genitals") requiring special treatment.

Subscribers are referred to the excellent paper
"Things-you-may-not-know-about-rabies-but-should", available at
Date: Wed 18 Feb 2015
Source: Azer News [edited]

We are accustomed to hear about food poisoning in summertime and may neglect winter's main danger -- botulism -- which may strike us down. In January 2015, 64 cases of food poisoning were registered in Azerbaijan. The total number of victims of these poisoning cases reached 92 people, said Imran Abdullayev, Head of Hygiene and Epidemiology Center Department of the Health Ministry. Moreover, cases of botulism were registered in January 2015, which harmed 9 people, leaving 1 dead. The poisoning was due to homemade pickled tomatoes.

The Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology urges people to follow hygiene rules at home and buy food from reliable catering outlets and grocery stores to avoid food poisoning. Special attention should be paid to children's nutrition.

To avoid food poisoning, one must simply follow hygiene rules at home and buy food in reliable catering outlets and grocery stores.

Prevention of botulism is simple: combining a refrigeration temperature with salt content and acidic conditions. This combination stops the growth of the bacterium and production of toxin.  [Byline: Nigar Orujova]
====================
[Pickling food in an acidic medium such as vinegar is one way of preserving the food and minimizing the risk of botulism, since the spores do not germinate below pH 4.6. Inadequate acidification, therefore, may be the issue here, and this has occurred before related to human botulism, as an example, from homemade pickled eggs (CDC: Foodborne botulism from eating home-pickled eggs -- Illinois, 1997. MMWR 2000;49:778-780). - ProMED Mod.LL]

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
More ...

World Travel News Headlines

Date: Mon, 16 Sep 2019 08:19:07 +0200 (METDST)

Tokyo, Sept 16, 2019 (AFP) - Almost 80,000 homes are still without power a week after a powerful typhoon battered eastern Japan, authorities said Monday, with sustained heavy rain prompting evacuation orders and hampering recovery efforts.    Typhoon Faxai powered into the Tokyo region in the early hours of Monday last week, packing record winds that brought down power lines, disrupted Rugby World Cup preparations and prompted the government to order tens of thousands of people to leave their homes.

The storm killed two people, with at least three elderly later confirmed dead due to heatstroke as temperatures soared to above 35 degrees Celsius (95 degrees Fahrenheit) in areas affected by a post-typhoon blackout.   Some 78,700 households were still without power in Chiba, southeast of the capital, Tokyo Electric Co. (TEPCO) spokesman Naoya Kondo told AFP.   "A complete recovery is still unlikely until September 27 as we have difficulties in mountain areas," he added.   Some 16,700 households were also without water because several water purification plants had no power, a local official said.   With help from the military, officials were dispatching water tanker trucks to the affected areas.

The national weather agency Monday issued new warnings for heavy rain in Chiba, while local authorities issued non-compulsory evacuation orders to 46,300 people due to the risk of landslides.   "A delay in recovery work is expected due to heavy rain," said Kenta Hirano, a disaster management official in Futtsu in Chiba, where more than 1,000 houses were damaged by the typhoon.   Local media showed residents in Chiba hurriedly covering broken roofs with blue tarps.   "We are at a loss as we can't live there again," a 66-year-old man told public broadcaster NHK after the typhoon ripped off the roof of his house.
Date: Sun, 15 Sep 2019 15:38:29 +0200 (METDST)

Athens, Sept 15, 2019 (AFP) - More than 160 firefighters on Sunday battled to contain a large fire near Athens blazing for a second day amid gale force winds, officials said.   And in another emergency, authorities evacuated dozens of people from two villages and a hotel on the island of Zakynthos after a new fire broke out on Sunday.

The fire department said the blaze near Athens burned in the mountains above Loutraki, a coastal resort some 60 kilometres (35 miles) west of Athens.   "The fire is burning near the top of the mountain," Stefanos Kolokouris, the fire department's deputy chief of operations, told state TV ERT.   "We are trying to create a perimeter but the terrain is very difficult, with ravines," he said.   Four water bombers and six helicopters were participating in operations. Given a lack of roads in the area, two squads of firefighters had to be carried to the mountaintop by Super Puma helicopter, state agency ANA said.   Officials had already evacuated 50 people from a local monastery when the fire broke out on Saturday, but stressed that other inhabited areas were not in danger.

On Zakynthos, officials ordered the evacuation of the villages of Agalas and Keri in the south of the island. Some 120 tourists were also relocated to a safe area.   The Greek fire department on Sunday said it had been called to nearly 80 fires over the past 24 hours.   It has already faced more than 9,600 rural and urban fires this year.
Date: Sat, 14 Sep 2019 16:08:47 +0200 (METDST)

Singapore, Sept 14, 2019 (AFP) - Pollution from forest fires in Indonesia pushed Singapore's air quality to unhealthy levels for the first time in three years on Saturday, the government said, a week ahead of the Formula One night race in the city.   The toxic smoke caused by burning to clear land for plantations is an annual problem for Indonesia's neighbours, but has been worsened this year by particularly dry weather.   "There has been a deterioration in the haze conditions in Singapore this afternoon," the National Environment Agency (NEA) said in a statement.   "This was due to a confluence of winds over the nearby region that led to more smoke haze from Sumatra being blown toward Singapore," it said, referring to one of the Indonesian islands where fires are raging.

The NEA said the pollutant standards index (PSI) worsened to 112 in parts of the island Saturday night.   An index reading between 101-200 is considered unhealthy, with residents advised against doing prolonged strenuous exercises outdoors.   Singapore may continue to experience hazy conditions over the next few days, the agency warned.   The city-state of 5.6 million people was shrouded in a thin white haze, with a few residents seen wearing face masks, but there was no major disruption to daily activities.   The F1 race is scheduled from Friday to Sunday on a street circuit in the Marina Bay financial district.

Singapore GP, the Formula One organisers, said the possibility of haze is one of the potential issues covered in their contingency plan for this year's grand prix.   "The plan was formulated and refined with stake holders, government bodies and the Formula One community," Singapore GP said in an emailed statement.   "In the event that the haze causes visibility, public health or operational issues, Singapore GP would work closely with the relevant agencies before making any collective decisions regarding the event."

Neighbouring Malaysia has also been affected by the smoke, with air quality in parts of the country including the capital Kuala Lumpur reaching unhealthy levels over the past few days and triggering a diplomatic row with Jakarta.   In 2015, the index reached "hazardous" levels of more than 300 in Singapore, forcing the closure of schools. Indonesian forest fires were the worst in two decades that year, firing up smog that blanketed large parts of Southeast Asia for weeks.
Date: Sat, 14 Sep 2019 11:16:53 +0200 (METDST)

Bangkok, Sept 14, 2019 (AFP) - Floods in northeastern Thailand have submerged homes, roads and bridges, leaving more than 23,000 people in evacuation shelters as anger grows over the government's "slow" emergency response.   Torrential rain has lashed the country for the last two weeks, causing flash floods and mudslides in almost half its provinces, with families evacuated from their homes in boats or makeshift rafts.   Since August 29, 32 people have been killed in the deluge, said a statement from the disaster department on Saturday that also gave the number of people staying in emergency shelters.   Two weather events are behind the widespread floods, the department said -- Storm Podul and a tropical depression that formed over the South China Sea called Kajiki.

Local media reports from the worst-hit province of Ubon Ratchathani showed people wading through chest-deep water and rescuers in boats trying to steer buffalo to higher ground.   Flooding in the province, which borders Laos and Cambodia, has been exacerbated by rising water levels in the Moon and Chi rivers.   "It will take three weeks to drain the floodwater" from up to 90 percent of inundated households, said provincial governor Sarit Witoon.   "The water has slightly receded about four centimetres today and I think it will keep going down," he added.

But the situation is already "unlivable" for families in one-storey homes, said Pongsak Saiwan, local director of opposition party Future Forward.   Access to an entire district is currently cut off due to flood waters, which are about two metres (6.5 foot) deep in the main town, while three major bridges are "impassable", he said.   "The government has been very slow in responding to the situation since the floods started in the beginning of September," Pongsak told AFP.   Ubon Ratchathani's plight started trending on Twitter this week with the hashtag #SaveUbon.   Aerial shots of the flood-hit plains blanketed with muddy river water were widely shared, as well as photos of stray dogs being rescued by passing boats.

One Twitter user compared the flood response to how quickly the government had mobilised and saved 12 young boys and their football coach from a waterlogged cave last year -- an incident that catapulted Thailand to international attention.   "Only 13 lives stuck in the cave and it was still very high-profile, but this is hundreds of thousands of lives," tweeted Yosita8051. "It's not okay."   Thailand's junta leader-turned-premier Prayut Chan O-Cha tweeted on Saturday that he has told agencies to "expedite assistance" to those in the affected areas.
Date: Fri, 13 Sep 2019 16:44:33 +0200 (METDST)

Niamey, Sept 13, 2019 (AFP) - Niger launched a campaign on Friday to vaccinate more than four million children against measles, one of the biggest causes of child mortality in the country, the health ministry said.

The one-week nationwide vaccination programme aims to "eliminate measles by the end of 2020", Health Minister Illiassou Mainassara said, adding, it "will reach 4.254 million children" aged from 9 months up to the age of five.   "Despite all the efforts made in the fight against communicable diseases, we still note the persistence of localised measles epidemics (in Niger)," Mainassara said on his way to the capital Niamey to launch the campaign.    But some experts say the vaccination programme should have kicked in sooner    "The delay of this campaign which should have happened in 2018 has resulted in ...the emergence of epidemics in several health districts," said Niger's UNICEF representative, Felicite Tchibindat.

Since January this year, 9,741 suspected cases have been documented in Niger resulting in 53 deaths, she said.   "Measles is a serious and extremely contagious viral disease and remains one of the leading causes of early childhood death, while it can be prevented by vaccination," TchibiNdat said.    She believes the children of migrants, refugees and displaced people will especially benefit from the campaign.    Niger's vaccination programme is supported by the World Health Organization (WHO), UNICEF (United Nations Children's Fund) and the Gavi vaccine Alliance.
Date: Fri, 13 Sep 2019 16:08:16 +0200 (METDST)

Nairobi, Sept 13, 2019 (AFP) - Kenya on Friday became the third country to start routinely innoculating infants against malaria, using the world's first vaccine to combat a disease that kills 800 children globally every day.   The vaccine -- lab name RTS,S -- targets the deadliest and most common form of malaria parasite in Africa, where children under five account for two-thirds of all global deaths from the mosquito-born illness.

Kenya joins Malawi and Ghana, which commenced their own pilot programs for the vaccine supported by the World Health Organization (WHO) earlier this year.   The vaccine will be introduced in phases across malaria-endemic parts of western Kenya near Lake Victoria, starting with Homa Bay, the country's health ministry said.   "It's an exciting time for Kenya as we roll out this vaccine in parts of the country where the burden of malaria is the highest," Health Minister Sicily Kariuki said in a statement.   RTS,S will be added to the national immunisation schedule in these areas, given alongside other routine shots for children under two.

The health ministry said 120,000 Kenyan children were expected to be vaccinated under the pilot programme.   The country has distributed insecticide-treated mosquito nets, fumigated homes and improved diagnostics in its fight against malaria.   But the disease remains stubborn. The health ministry says malaria claimed more than 10,000 lives in 2016, and infected millions more.   As in the rest of the world, children in Kenya bear the brunt of the disease.    Up to 27 percent of Kenyan children under five have been infected with the disease, the health ministry said.   "This vaccine represents an additional tool that will boost Kenya's efforts in reducing malaria infections and deaths among children," Kariuki said.   WHO says a child dies roughly every two minutes from malaria somewhere in the world.

- 30 years in making -
Known under its commercial name as Mosquirix, the vaccine was developed over 30 years by British pharmaceutical giant GlaxoSmithKline in partnership with nonprofit PATH and African research institutes.   It is the only vaccine to date to show a protective effect against malaria in young children, WHO says.   It acts against Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest malarial parasite and the most prevalent in Africa, where illness and death from the disease remain high despite some gains.   The shots, administered over four doses, have been shown in clinical trials to significantly reduce cases of malaria, and malaria-related complications, in young children.   The vaccine prevented about four in 10 cases of malaria and three in 10 cases of the most severe, life-threatening form of the disease, within the trial group, WHO says.

Evidence gained from the vaccine pilot schemes could guide decisions about whether RTS,S is rolled out more widely in future, WHO says.   "This is the most advanced malaria vaccine that we have today. It has been in the making for the last almost three decades," Dr Richard Mihigo, WHO's co-ordinator of immunisation and vaccine development programme, told AFP before the Kenyan launch.   "Children are the most vulnerable group to this severe disease that is malaria, so protecting children can make a big impact in preventing malaria."   The disease kills more than 400,000 people around the world every year. Of these about 290,000 are under five.    Most are in Africa, where more than 90 percent of the world's malaria cases -- and fatalities -- occur.
Date: Fri, 13 Sep 2019 11:40:02 +0200 (METDST)

London, Sept 13, 2019 (AFP) - British Airways has cancelled all its scheduled UK flights for September 27, when company pilots will again strike in a long-running row over pay.   It comes after the carrier cancelled all flights departing and arriving in the UK on Monday and Tuesday owing to BA's first strike by pilots in the company's 100-year history.

In a statement released late Thursday, BA called on the British Airline Pilots Association (BALPA) union "to call off their strike and return to negotiations".    The airline added: "We are very sorry that BALPA's actions will affect thousands more travel plans."   This week's strike sparked travel chaos for about 200,000 passengers, mostly using London's Gatwick and Heathrow airports.   BALPA estimates that the 48-hour strike cost the airline £80 million ($99 million, 89 million euros), but BA has yet to provide a figure.
Date: Tue, 10 Sep 2019 13:02:19 +0200 (METDST)

Khartoum, Sept 10, 2019 (AFP) - Sudan reported four confirmed cases of cholera in Blue Nile Tuesday and said three people had also died of acute diarrhoea in the war-torn state.   Health Minister Akram al-Toum has asked the World Health Organization to send supplies of cholera vaccine immediately, the ministry said.

Ministry and WHO officials have been sent to the affected area.   "There are 37 cases of acute diarrhoea in Blue Nile... There have been three deaths," the ministry said in a statement.   Dozens of people died from acute diarrhoea in Sudan in 2016 after thousands of cases were reported nationwide.   Blue Nile state, which has a large ethnic minority population, has been the focus of a rebellion by the Sudan People's Liberation Army-North since 2011.   The army declared a ceasefire after the  overthrow of veteran president Omar al-Bashir earlier this year.
Date: Sat 14 Sep 2019
Source: Vax Before Travel [edited]

A new report from Japan's National Institute of Infectious Disease (NIID) indicates the Rubella virus outbreak continues to spread. As of [4 Sep 2019], there have been 2156 Rubella cases reported by the NIID during 2019.

This is an increase of about 260 rubella cases in Japan since July 2019. On a local basis, the city of Tokyo has reported 37% of Japan's 2019 Rubella cases.

Since Rubella is very dangerous for a pregnant woman and her developing baby, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) said on [7 Aug 2019], "pregnant women who are not protected against rubella through either vaccination or previous rubella infection, should not travel to Japan during this outbreak."

But, pregnant women should not get a Rubella vaccination with the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) says the CDC. This is because the MMR vaccine is an attenuated "live virus" vaccine.

The CDC says "pregnant women who are not vaccinated should wait to get [the] MMR vaccine until after they have given birth. And, women of childbearing age should avoid getting pregnant for at least 4 weeks after receiving the MMR vaccine."

Additionally, the CDC says "if a pregnant woman contracts the rubella virus, her baby could have birth defects such as deafness, cataracts, heart defects, mental disabilities, and organ damage."

And, when a rubella infection occurs during early pregnancy, serious consequences, such as miscarriages, stillbirths, and severe birth defects in infants, which are known as Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS), [may result].

This new NIID report indicates there have been 3 CRS cases in Japan during 2019. As a comparison, during 2005-2015 in the USA, only 8 babies with CRS were reported.

Moreover, [fewer] than 10 people in the USA are reported as having rubella each year. Since 2012, all rubella cases had evidence that they were infected when they were living or traveling outside the USA.

To alert international travellers, the CDC issued a Level 2 Travel Alert regarding Japan's ongoing Rubella virus outbreak in August 2019. This "Practice Enhanced Precautions" Travel Alert says "travellers to Japan should make sure they are vaccinated against rubella with the MMR vaccine before visiting Japan." This CDC Travel Alert is important since approximately 4.5 million US citizens visit Japan annually.

Additionally, the Public Health Agency of Canada and the UK Foreign Travel Advice recommend "pregnant women who are not protected against rubella avoid traveling to Japan."

In the USA, there are 2 approved rubella vaccines: MMR II-Rubella and ProQuad. Both rubella vaccines are available at most pharmacies. Travelers to Japan can request a rubella vaccine counselling appointment with a local pharmacist.

Rubella vaccines, like any medicine, can produce side effects. [People] are encouraged to report vaccine side effects to a healthcare provider or the CDC.  [Byline: Dani Reiter]
========================
[See discussion of rubella in ProMED-mail Rubella - Japan (02)

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Date: Tue 10 Sept 2019
Source: Focus Taiwan [edited]

Taiwan's enterovirus cases continued to increase last week, bringing the total number to nearly 20 000 between [1 and 7 Sep 2019], the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) said Tuesday [10 Sep 2019].

A total of 19 254 patients sought outpatient or emergency treatment at hospitals for enterovirus infection around the country, up 4% from the figure recorded the previous week [25-31 Aug 2019] and the highest over the same period in nearly 5 years, according to CDC data.

CDC physician Lin Yung-ching said there were 2 severe cases recorded last week, one of which involved an 8-month-old girl and the other a 4-year-old boy, both in central Taiwan. The 2 children were reported in stable condition after treatment.

Some of the 2 patients' family members or classmates with whom they had had contact have also been confirmed as enterovirus cases, and the CDC judged that the infection might have been spread through contact, Lin said.

A total of 303 cases of enterovirus-71 (EV-71), the most severe enterovirus strain, have been reported so far this year [2019], the highest in the same period from 2016 to 2018.

Meanwhile, a total of 36 cases with severe complications have been recorded nationwide, including 27 EV-71 cases, according to CDC statistics.

EV-71 is a neurological disease that attacks the nervous system, and infants under the age of 5 are at highest risk of developing severe complications from this type of infection.

In extreme cases, EV-71 can cause polio-like permanent paralysis, according to the CDC. As Taiwan is still in the peak season for enterovirus infection, CDC Deputy Director-General Philip Lo urged the public to take precautions against the spread of the illness, especially among children.

Children infected with enterovirus should be kept away from school so as to prevent the spread of the disease, as enterovirus is highly contagious, Lo advised.  [Byline: Chen Wei-ting and Evelyn Kao]
=====================
[The enteroviruses are spread from person to person by coughs, sneezes, or touching objects or surfaces that have the virus on them. Therefore, practicing good personal hygiene -- washing hands regularly and thoroughly with soap and water -- is the best way to prevent from getting and spreading the infectious disease.

However, most people infected with non-polio enteroviruses do not get sick, or present with mild illness, like the common cold. Infants, children, and teenagers are more likely than adults to get infected and become sick because they do not yet have immunity (protection) from previous exposures to the viruses. Adults can get infected too, but they are less likely to have symptoms, or their symptoms may be milder. Symptoms of mild illness may include fever; runny nose, sneezing, and cough; skin rash; mouth blisters; and body and muscle aches.

Some non-polio enterovirus infections can lead to:
- Viral conjunctivitis;
- Hand-foot-mouth disease;
- Viral meningitis (infection of the covering of the spinal cord and/or brain);
- Viral encephalitis (infection of the brain);
- Myocarditis (infection of the heart);
- Pericarditis (infection of the sac around the heart);
- Acute flaccid paralysis (a sudden onset of weakness in one or more arms or legs);
- Inflammatory muscle disease (slow, progressive muscle weakness).

Infants and people with weakened immune systems have a greater chance of having these complications. People who develop myocarditis may have heart failure and require long-term care. Some people who develop encephalitis or paralysis may not fully recover.

Enterovirus cases were reported from Taipei, Taiwan in 2017 (Human enterovirus - Taiwan: alert http://promedmail.org/post/20170418.4978387), and health alerts like the one mentioned in report above were issued to the general public to observe proper hygiene to reduce disease transmission. Also the case number for EV-71 associated severe disease has also increased, which is a cause for public health concern. - ProMED Mod.UBA]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map: