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Faroe Islands

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faroe_Islands
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The early history of the Faroe Islands is not very clear. According to Færeyinga Saga emigrants who left Norway to escape the tyranny of Harald I of Norway settled in the isla
ds about the beginning of the 9th century. There is also evidence that Irish monks settled the islands, introducing sheep in the process. Early in the 11th century Sigmund, whose family had flourished in the southern islands but had been almost exterminated by invaders from the northern islands, was sent from Norway, from which he had escaped, to take possession of the islands for Olaf Tryggvason, king of Norway. He introduced Christianity and, though he was subsequently murdered, Norwegian supremacy was upheld. Norwegian control of the islands continued until 1380, when Norway entered into a union with Denmark, which gradually evolved into the double monarchy Denmark/Norway. The reformation reached the Faroes in 1538. When Norway was taken away from Denmark at the Treaty of Kiel in 1814, Denmark retained possession of the Faroe Islands.
The monopoly trade over the Faroe Islands was abolished in 1856. Since then, the country developed towards a modern fishery nation with its own fleet. The national awakening since 1888 was first based on a struggle for the Faroese language, and thus more culturally oriented, but after 1906 was more and more politically oriented after the foundation of the political parties of the Faroe Islands.
On April 12, 1940, the Faroes were invaded and occupied by British troops. The move followed the invasion of Denmark by Nazi Germany and had the objective of strengthening British control of the North Atlantic (see Second Battle of the Atlantic). In 1942–43 the British Royal Engineers built the only airport in the Faroes, the Vágar Airport. Control of the islands reverted to Denmark following the war, but in 1948 a home rule regime was implemented granting a high degree of local autonomy. The Faroes declined to join Denmark in entering the European Community (now European Union) in 1973. The islands experienced considerable economic difficulties following the collapse of the fishing industry in the early 1990s, but have since made efforts to diversify the economy. Support for independence has grown and is the objective of the government.
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Denmark, Greenland and the Faeroe Islands US Consular Information Sheet
August 15, 2006
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: Denmark is a highly developed stable democracy with a modern economy. Greenland is a self-governing dependency of Denmark. The Faroe Islands are a self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Denmark for additional information.

ENTRY REQUIREMENTS: Passport and visa regulations are similar for Denmark, Greenland, and the Faroes. A valid passport is required. U.S. citizen tourist and business travelers do not need visas for visits of up to 90 days. That period begins when entering any of the following countries which are parties to the Schengen agreement: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden. See our Foreign Entry Requirements brochure for more information on Denmark and other countries. Contact the Royal Danish Embassy at 3200 Whitehaven Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20008, telephone (202) 234-4300 or visit its website at for the most current visa information.

Note: Although European Union regulations require that non-EU visitors obtain a stamp in their passports upon initial entry to a Schengen country, many borders are not staffed with officers carrying out this function. If an American citizen wishes to ensure that his or her entry is properly documented, it may be necessary to request a stamp at an official point of entry. Under local law, travelers without a stamp in their passports may be questioned and asked to document the length of their stay in Schengen countries at the time of departure or at any other point during their visit, and could face possible fines or other repercussions if unable to do so.

Find more information about Entry and Exit Requirements pertaining to dual nationality and the prevention of international child abduction .
SAFETY AND SECURITY: Denmark remains largely free of terrorist incidents, however the country shares, with the rest of Western Europe, an increased threat of Islamic terrorism. Like other countries in the Schengen area, Denmark's open borders with its Western European neighbors allow the possibility of terrorist groups entering and exiting the country with anonymity. Americans are reminded to remain vigilant with regard to their personal security and to exercise caution.

Public demonstrations occasionally occur in Copenhagen and other Danish cities and are generally peaceful events. Prior police approval is required for public demonstrations, and police oversight is routinely provided to ensure adequate security for participants and passers-by. Nonetheless, as with any large crowd comprised of diverse groups, situations may develop which could pose a threat to public safety. U.S. citizens are advised to avoid areas where public demonstrations are taking place.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State's web site , where the current Worldwide Caution Public Announcement , Travel Warnings, and Public Announcements can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll-free in the United States, or, for callers outside the United States and Canada, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State's pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad .
CRIME: Denmark, Greenland, and the Faroes all have very low violent crime rates, however, non-violent crimes of opportunity have slightly increased over the last few years, especially in Copenhagen and other major Danish cities, where tourists can become targets for pickpockets and sophisticated thieves. Criminals frequent airports, train stations, and cruise ship quays to take advantage of weary, luggage-burdened travelers. Thieves also operate at popular tourist attractions, shopping streets, and restaurants. In hotel lobbies and breakfast areas, thieves take advantage of even a brief lapse in attention to snatch jackets, purses, and backpacks. Women's purses placed either on the backs of chairs or on the floor are typical targets for thieves. Car and home break-ins are also on the rise.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends, and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

Denmark has a program to provide financial compensation to victims who suffer serious criminal injuries. According to existing regulations, the victim must report the incident to the police within 24 hours. Danish police routinely inform victims of serious crime of their rights to seek compensation. The relevant forms can be obtained from the police or the Danish Victims' Compensation Board: Civilstyrelsen, Erstatningsnaevnet, Gyldenløvesgade 11, 1600 Copenhagen V, TEL: (45) 33-92- 3334; FAX: (45) 39-20-45-05; www.erstatningsnaevnet.dk ; Email: erstatningsnaevnet@erstatningsnaevnet.dk . Claim processing time is a minimum of 4 weeks. There is no maximum award limit.

See our information for Victims of Crime .
MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Excellent medical facilities are widely available in Denmark. In Greenland and the Faroe Islands, medical facilities are limited and evacuation is required for serious illness or injury. Although emergency medical treatment is free of charge, the patient is charged for follow-up care.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC's website at . For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int.en. Further health information for travelers is available at .

MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas .

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Denmark is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

A valid U.S. driver's license may be used while visiting Denmark, but the driver must be at least 18 years old. Driving in Denmark is on the right side of the road. Road signs use standard international symbols. Many urban streets have traffic lanes reserved for public transport only. Unless otherwise noted on traffic signs, the speed limit is 50 km/h in urban areas, 80 km/h on open roads, and 130 km/h on expressways.

Use of seat belts is mandatory for drivers and all passengers. Children under three years of age must be secured with approved safety equipment appropriate to the child's age, size, and weight. Children from three to six years of age may use approved child or booster seats instead of seat belts.

Driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs is considered a very serious offense. The rules are stringently enforced, and violations can result in stiff fines and possible jail sentences.

Copenhagen, the capital and largest city in Denmark, has an extensive and efficient public transportation system. Trains and buses connect Copenhagen with other major cities in Denmark and to Norway, Sweden, and Germany. Bicycles are also a common mode of transportation in Denmark. Passengers exiting public or tourist buses, as well as tourists driving rental cars, should watch for bicycles on their designated paths, which are usually located between the pedestrian sidewalks and the traffic lanes.

Danish expressways, highways, and secondary roads are of high quality and connect all areas of the country. It is possible to drive from the northern tip of Denmark to the German border in the south in just four hours. Greenland has no established road system, and domestic travel is performed by foot, boat, or by air. The majority of the Faroe Islands are connected by bridges or serviced by boat. Although the largest islands have roads, most domestic travel is done on foot, horseback, boat, or by air.

The emergency telephone number for police/fire/ambulance in Denmark and the Faroe Islands is 112. In Greenland contact the local police.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. Visit the website of the country's national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at . See also additional information on driving in Denmark at .

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the government of Denmark's Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for the oversight of Denmark's air carrier operations. This rating applies to Greenland and the Faroe Islands as well. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA's Internet website at www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa .

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: The official unit of currency in Denmark is the Danish krone. ATM machines are widely available throughout Denmark. Please see our information on customs regulations .

For information concerning the importation of pets into Denmark, please visit the following website:
.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protection available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Denmark's laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Denmark are severe and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties .

CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children's Issues website.

REGISTRATION/EMBASSY LOCATION: Americans living or traveling in Denmark are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department's travel registration website , and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Denmark. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located at Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24; 2100 Copenhagen, telephone: (45) 33-41-71-00; Embassy fax: (45) 35-43-02-23; Consular Section fax: (45) 35-38-96-16; After-hours emergency telephone: (45) 35-55-92-70. Information is also available via the U.S. Embassy's website at http://www.usembassy.dk. The United States has no consular presence in Greenland or the Faroe Islands.
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This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated February 10, 2006, to update the section on Entry Requirements and Traffic Safety and Road Conditions.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Fri, 24 Apr 2020 18:42:50 +0200 (METDST)

Copenhagen, April 24, 2020 (AFP) - The Faroe Islands had planned to close to tourists for a weekend this April to protect its fragile ecosystem.   However, isolated due to the pandemic, the Danish archipelago is now offering people a chance to discover the islands with virtual tours online.   "We do these tours for people who were supposed to come to the Faroe Islands and visit now and had to cancel their tours. This is kind of our way of giving them the experience they otherwise would have had, (but) through our eyes, ears and body," Kristina Sandberg Joensen, one of the virtual guides working for the Faroese tourism office, told AFP.   The self-governing territory in the North Atlantic, which has 187 confirmed cases of the new coronavirus, closed its borders in mid-March.

In order to visit the islands virtually, "tourists" take in the stunning views on their phone or computer free of charge as their guide explores the local landscape in real time, either on foot, on horseback or at sea.    Each tourist can even control the direction their guide takes for 60 seconds, using on-screen joystick controls.   Between 20,000 and 40,000 people have taken part in virtual tours since they started on April 15, the tourism office said.   Known for its high cliffs, dramatic waterfalls and open expanses, the archipelago of 1,400 square kilometres (540 square miles) is home to 50,000 people and 80,000 sheep spread out over 18 islands.

Some 110,000 tourists visited the Faroe Islands in 2018, with their numbers increasing by 10 percent per year the past five years.   The archipelago had originally planned to close its main tourism sites on April 18 and 19, asking only a select number of volunteers to come help clean up the local ecosystem.   The operation has instead been postponed until September because of the coronavirus crisis.
Date: Thu, 14 Nov 2019 12:51:34 +0100 (MET)

Copenhagen, Nov 14, 2019 (AFP) - Authorities in the Faroe Islands have announced the archipelago in the North Atlantic will be "closed for maintenance" for two days in April when tourists won't be welcome, instead opening the doors to volunteer caretakers.   In practice, the self-governing Danish islands will keep hotels open and international flights running, but popular tourist sites will be temporarily closed on April 16 and 17 next year.   The event is a continuation of a pilot project run in the spring of 2019, when 100 volunteers from 25 countries were invited to the islands.

Registrations for eager volunteers opened on Wednesday at 1500 GMT and were to remain open for 24 hours, the Faroese tourism office said on its website.   One hundred people will then be randomly selected to be part of the maintenance crew, who will be offered housing and food during their stay although they will still need to pay for their own plane tickets.   "The fragile natural environment in some popular tourist locations has felt the effects of an increase of visitors," the head of the tourism office, Guri Hojgaard, told AFP in March shortly after the pilot project was launched.   "These areas need a helping hand to ensure they remain pristine".

For the first edition of the event they received about 3,500 applications and the selected volunteers helped with projects like creating walking paths, constructing viewpoints to help preserve nature and protect birdlife sanctuaries and re-building rock cairns.   A popular destination for its fascinating landscapes with 30-metre cliffs, the archipelago covers 1,400 square kilometres (540 square miles) and has 50,000 inhabitants and 80,000 sheep spread over 18 islands.   In 2018, 110,000 tourists visited the Faroe Islands and the number of tourists has increased by about 10 percent annually for the past five years.    According to Hojgaard, the "closed for maintenance, open for voluntourism" weekend can "contribute to the international discussion about overtourism by showing that tourists can actually be a part of the solution."
Date: Fri, 25 Nov 2011 12:19:28 +0100 (MET)

COPENHAGEN, Nov 25, 2011 (AFP) - A hurricane packing winds of almost 200 kilometres (125 miles) an hour tore through the Faroe Islands overnight, causing major damage and evacuations but no deaths, police said Friday.  "There was a hurricane... a lot of material damage has been reported but no deaths so far," said Rani Wardum, a police officer in Torshavn, the capital of the North Atlantic archipelago. "Winds reach up to 55 metres per second," or 198 kilometres per hour, in some places, meteorologist Mogens Roenebek of the Danish Meteorological Institute told AFP.

The Faroe Islands, an autonomous Danish province, are home to around 48,000 people. The extent of the damage was not immediately known. "Many roofs were blown off and we had to evacuate a retirement home. The seniors were moved into a hospital," Wardum said.

Some residents were also evacuated from their homes during the night and a number of boats came loose from their moorings and ended up on land, he added. "The winds are still raging, but it was particularly violent last night and overnight," Wardum said, noting that the southern coastal regions of the Faroes Islands were hardest hit. The storm was heading towards the west coast of Norway on Friday, with strong winds and heavy seas, according to Roenebek.
Date: Thu, 6 May 2010 16:55:58 +0200 (METDST)

REYKJAVIK, May 6, 2010 (AFP) - The quantity of ash spewed by Iceland's Eyjafjoell volcano increased overnight and the higher ash cloud could make it to the Faroe Islands Friday, Icelandic authorities said Thursday.   "Ash production did increase last night and the ash plume is going higher now than the last couple of days," Agust Gunnar Gylfason, who monitors the eruption's progress at Iceland's Civil Protection Department, told AFP.

The ash cloud "might reach the Faroe Islands around midnight (GMT Thursday) under 20,000 feet (6,000 meters)" and continue on south towards Ireland on Friday, he added.   "The plume went up to 30,000 feet (9,000 meters) for some time last night, and again this morning, due to an increase in explosive activity, but otherwise it's been around 18,000 and 20,000 feet" high, he said.

At the strongest period of the eruption, Eyjafjoell sent a plume around 30,000 feet into the air, but scientists have stressed that the height of the plume does not necessarily reflect a particular quantity of ash.   On Tuesday, the plume contained about only 10 percent of the ash it held at the beginning of the eruption.   European airspace and airports across the continent were open on Thursday, but intergovernmental air traffic controller Eurocontrol said the ash cloud could mean transatlantic flights might need to be re-routed.

Airspace above Ireland, Northern Ireland and Scotland was partly shut Wednesday for the second time in two days, causing the cancellation of hundreds of flights.   The fresh disruption came after Europe's skies were closed for up to a week last month by the eruption of the Eyjafjoell volcano. It was the biggest aerial shutdown in Europe since World War II, with more than 100,000 flights cancelled and eight million passengers affected.
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El Salvador

El Salvador - US Consular Information Sheet
May 01, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: El Salvador is a democratic country with a developing economy. Tourism facilities are not fully developed. The capital is San Salvador, accessible by El Salvador's In
ernational Airport at Comalapa. Both the U.S. Dollar and the Salvadoran Colon are legal tender in El Salvador. While Colones are still accepted, the primary currency of El Salvador is the U.S. Dollar. Americans traveling with U.S. Dollars should not exchange them for Colones. Read the Department of State Background Notes on El Salvador for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
To enter the country, U.S. citizens must present a current U.S. passport and either a Salvadoran visa or a one-entry tourist card.
The tourist card may be obtained from immigration officials for a ten-dollar fee upon arrival in country.
U.S. travelers who plan to remain in El Salvador for more than thirty days can apply in advance for a multiple-entry visa, issued free of charge, from the Embassy of El Salvador in Washington, DC or from a Salvadoran consulate in Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Las Vegas, Long Island, Los Angeles, Miami, New York City, or San Francisco.
Travelers may contact the Embassy of El Salvador at 1400 16th Street NW, Washington, DC
20036, tel. (202) 265-9671, 265-9672; fax (202) 232-3763; e-mail: correo@elsalvador.org or visit the Embassy's web site at http://www.elsalvador.org.
When applying for a visa, travelers may be asked to present evidence of U.S. employment and adequate finances for their visit at the time of visa application or upon arrival in El Salvador.
For passengers departing by air, El Salvador has an exit tax of $32.00 which is usually included in the price of the airline ticket.

Travelers should be aware that El Salvador's entry requirements vary in accordance with agreements the country has with foreign governments.
Citizens of several countries in addition to the United States may enter El Salvador with a current passport and either a visa or tourist card.
Citizens of many other countries, including many Latin American and western European nations, may enter with only a current passport.
However, citizens of most nations are required to present both a current passport and a visa to enter El Salvador.
Non-U.S. citizen travelers are advised to contact a Salvadoran embassy or consulate to determine the entry requirements applicable to them.

In June 2006, El Salvador entered into the “Central America-4 (CA-4) Border Control Agreement” with Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua.
Under the terms of the agreement, citizens of the four countries may travel freely across land borders from one of the countries to any of the others without completing entry and exit formalities at immigration checkpoints.
U.S. citizens and other eligible foreign nationals, who legally enter any of the four countries, may similarly travel among the four without obtaining additional visas or tourist entry permits for the other three countries.
Immigration officials at the first port of entry determine the length of stay, up to a maximum period of 90 days.
Foreign tourists who wish to remain in the four-country region beyond the period initially granted for their visit must request a one-time extension of stay from local immigration authorities in the country where the traveler is physically present, or they must leave the CA-4 countries and reapply for admission to the region.
Foreigners “expelled” from any of the four countries are excluded from the entire CA-4 region.
In isolated cases, the lack of clarity in the implementing details of the CA-4 Border Control Agreement has caused temporary inconvenience to some travelers and has resulted in others being fined more than one hundred dollars or detained in custody for 72 hours or longer.

Airlines operating out of El Salvador International Airport require all U.S. citizen passengers boarding flights for the United States (including U.S.-Salvadoran dual nationals) to have a current U.S. passport.
U.S. citizens applying for passports at the U.S. Embassy in San Salvador are reminded that proof of citizenship and identity are required before a passport can be issued.
Photographic proof of identity is especially important for young children because of the high incidence of fraud involving children.
Since non-emergency passports are printed in the United States, and not at the U.S. Embassy in El Salvador, citizens submitting applications in El Salvador should be prepared to wait approximately one week for receipt of their new passports.

The U.S. Embassy in El Salvador reminds U.S. citizen travelers that their activities in El Salvador are governed by Salvadoran law and the type of visa they are issued.
Under Salvadoran law, all foreigners who participate directly or indirectly in the internal political affairs of the country (i.e. political rallies, protests) lose the right to remain in El Salvador, regardless of visa status or residency in El Salvador.

Visit the Embassy of El Salvador’s web site at http://www.elsalvador.org
for the most current visa information.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our Consular Affairs web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

In an effort to prevent international child abduction, many governments have initiated procedures at entry/exit points.
These often include requiring documentary evidence of relationship and permission for the child's travel from the parent(s) or legal guardian if not present.
Having such documentation on hand, even if not required, may facilitate entry/departure.
Minors traveling on Salvadoran passports and who are traveling alone, with one parent or with a third party must have the written permission of the absent parent(s) or legal guardian to depart El Salvador.
A Salvadoran notary must notarize this document.
If the absent parent(s) or legal guardian is (are) outside of El Salvador, the document must be notarized by a Salvadoran consul.
If a court decree gives custody of the child traveling on a Salvadoran passport to one parent, the decree and a passport will allow the custodial parent to depart El Salvador with the child.
Although Salvadoran officials generally do not require written permission for non-Salvadoran minors traveling on U.S. or other non-Salvadoran passports, it would be prudent for the parents of minor children traveling on U.S. passports to provide similar documentation if both parents are not traveling with their children.

SAFETY AND SECURITY: Most travelers to El Salvador experience no safety or security problems, but the criminal threat in El Salvador is critical.
Random and organized violent crime is endemic throughout El Salvador.
U.S. citizens have not been singled out by reason of their nationality, but are subject to the same threat as all other persons in El Salvador.
See the section below on Crime for additional related information.
Political or economic issues in the country may give rise to demonstrations, sit-ins or protests at any time or place, but these activities occur most frequently in the capital or on its main access roads.
U.S. citizens are cautioned to avoid areas where demonstrations are being held and to follow local news media reports or call the U.S. Embassy for up-to-date information.
Information about demonstrations also is available as “Security Alerts” on the U.S. Embassy home page at http://elsalvador.usembassy.gov.
Many Salvadorans are armed, and shootouts are not uncommon.
Foreigners, however, may not carry guns even for their own protection without first obtaining a firearms license from the Salvadoran government.
Failure to do so will result in the detention of the bearer and confiscation of the firearm, even if it is licensed in the United States.
Armed holdups of vehicles traveling on El Salvador's roads are increasing, and U.S. citizens have been victims in various incidents.
In one robbery, an American family was stopped by gunmen while driving during the day on the Pan American highway in the Santa Ana Department.
In another incident, an American citizen passenger was robbed after the van in which she was riding was carjacked by armed men.
The van was stopped at a traffic light on the busy road between Comalapa International Airport and San Salvador shortly after dark.
Strong undertows and currents can make swimming at El Salvador's Pacific Coastal beaches extremely dangerous for even strong and experienced swimmers.
As an example of this hazard, during a single seven-day holiday period, nine Salvadoran citizens drowned while swimming at Pacific beaches.
In one month alone, three U.S. citizens drowned while swimming at Pacific beaches in La Libertad and La Paz Departments.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, including the Worldwide Caution, can be found.
Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).
The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME: The U.S. Embassy considers El Salvador a critical crime-threat country.
The homicide rate in the country increased 25 percent from 2004 to 2007, and El Salvador has one of the highest homicide rates in the world.
Violent crimes, as well as petty crimes are prevalent throughout El Salvador, and U.S. citizens have been among the victims. The Embassy is also aware that there has been at least one rape of an American minor and one attempted rape of an American adult in the past year.
Travelers should avoid displaying or carrying valuables in public places.
Passports and other important documents should not be left in private vehicles.
Armed assaults and carjacking take place both in San Salvador and in the interior of the country, but are especially frequent on roads outside the capital where police patrols are scarce.
Criminals have been known to follow travelers from the international airport to private residences or secluded stretches of road where they carry out assaults and robberies.
Armed robbers are known to shoot if the vehicle does not come to a stop.
Criminals often become violent quickly, especially when victims fail to cooperate immediately in surrendering valuables.
Frequently, victims who argue with assailants or refuse to give up their valuables are shot.
Kidnapping for ransom continues to occur, but has decreased in frequency since 2001.
U.S. citizens in El Salvador should exercise caution at all times and practice good personal security procedures throughout their stay.
The U.S. Embassy warns its personnel to drive with their doors locked and windows raised, to avoid travel outside of major metropolitan areas after dark, and to avoid travel on unpaved roads at all times because of criminal assaults and lack of police and road service facilities.
Travelers with conspicuous amounts of luggage, late-model cars or foreign license plates are particularly vulnerable to crime, even in the capital.
Travel on public transportation, especially buses, both within and outside the capital, is risky and not recommended.
The Embassy advises official visitors to use radio-dispatched taxis or those stationed in front of major hotels.
U.S. citizens using banking services should be vigilant while conducting their financial exchanges either inside local banks or at automated teller machines.
There have been several reports of armed robberies in which victims appear to have been followed from the bank after completing their transactions.
Visitors to El Salvador should use caution when climbing volcanoes or hiking in other remote locations.
Armed robberies of climbers and hikers are common.
Mine-removal efforts ceased several years ago, but land mines and unexploded ordnance in backcountry regions still pose a threat to off-road tourists, backpackers, and campers.
The Embassy strongly recommends engaging the services of a local guide certified by the national or local tourist authority when hiking in backcountry areas, even when within the national parks.
INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the U.S. Embassy.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the U.S. Embassy for assistance.
The Embassy staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you understand the local criminal justice process and find an attorney if needed.

Victims of crime should bear in mind that law enforcement resources are limited and judicial processes are uneven in El Salvador.
Many crimes in the country go unsolved and the likelihood for redress through the judicial system is limited.
See our information on Victims of Crime.
MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: There are few private hospitals with an environment that would be acceptable to visiting Americans.
The Embassy recommends that these hospitals be used only for emergency care, to stabilize a condition prior to returning to the U.S. for definitive evaluation and treatment.
Private hospitals and physicians expect upfront payment (cash or, for hospitals, credit card) for all bills.
Priority Ambulance (503-2264-7911) is the only ambulance service in San Salvador that has trained personnel and medical equipment to manage most emergencies.
Not all medicines found in the U.S. are available in El Salvador.
Medicines often have a different brand name and are frequently more expensive than in the U.S.
No specific vaccinations are required for entry into El Salvador from the United States. Travelers coming from countries where yellow fever is endemic must have had a yellow fever vaccination in order to enter the country.
For more information visit El Salvador’s Immigration web site at http://www.seguridad.gob.sv/Web-Seguridad/Migracion/migracion.htm.

Information on vaccinations and other health considerations, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.

MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
It may be possible to purchase supplemental coverage for travel.
U.S. Medicare and Medicaid programs do not provide payment for medical services outside the United States.
Separate insurance should be obtained for medical evacuation, as it may cost in excess of $50,000.
Many travel agents and private companies offer insurance plans that will cover health care expenses incurred overseas, including emergency medical services and even transportation of remains, in the event of death.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.
TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning El Salvador is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
Road conditions throughout El Salvador are not up to U.S. standards.
However, the rebuilding of major roads following the earthquakes in 2001 is nearly completed.
Mini-buses, buses, and taxis are often poorly maintained.
Drivers are often not trained, and generally do not adhere to traffic rules and regulations.
The U.S. Embassy recommends that its personnel avoid using mini-buses and buses, and use only taxis that are radio-dispatched or those stationed in front of major hotels.
Robberies and assaults on buses are commonplace.
Because of inconsistent enforcement of traffic laws in El Salvador, drivers must make an extraordinary effort to drive defensively.
Passing on blind corners is commonplace.
Salvadoran law requires that the driver of a vehicle that injures or kills another person must be arrested and detained until a judge can determine responsibility for the accident.
This law is uniformly enforced.
Visitors to El Salvador may drive on their U.S. license for up to thirty days.
After that time, a visitor is required to obtain a Salvadoran license.
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
Visit the web site of El Salvador’s national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at http://www.elsalvadorturismo.gob.sv/.
Further information on traffic and road conditions is available in Spanish from Automovil Club de El Salvador, at telephone number 011-503-2221-0557.
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of El Salvador’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of El Salvador’s air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Travelers intending to carry cell phones from the United States should check with their service provider to determine if the service will be available in El Salvador.
Credit cards are acceptable for payment in many-but not all-retail stores and restaurants in major cities.
Automatic teller machines with access to major U.S. bank networks are widely available in San Salvador, but less prevalent elsewhere in the country.
Please see our information on Customs Information.
DISASTER PREPAREDNESS:
El Salvador is an earthquake-prone country.
Flooding and landslides during the rainy season (June to November) also pose a risk.
On October 4, 2005, the Government of El Salvador declared a nation-wide state of emergency following major flooding caused by a series of storms.
More than 50 deaths were confirmed as attributed to landslides and flooding at that time and over 34,000 residents were evacuated to temporary shelter.
The Llamatepec Volcano, located approximately 50 kilometers west of San Salvador, erupted briefly on October 1, 2005, casting rocks and volcanic ash onto neighboring regions and producing two confirmed deaths.
General information about natural disaster preparedness is available via the Internet from the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) at http://www.fema.gov/.
An earthquake measuring 7.6 on the Richter scale devastated much of El Salvador on January 13, 2001.
A second earthquake on February 13, 2001, measured 6.6 on the Richter scale, and caused significant additional damage and loss of life.
Reconstruction efforts are largely complete and the country has returned to normal.
Additional information in Spanish about earthquakes (sismos) in El Salvador can be found on the Government of El Salvador’s web page at http://www.snet.gob.sv/.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offences.
Persons violating El Salvador’s laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in El Salvador are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

Guns:
El Salvador has strict laws requiring a locally obtained license to possess or carry a firearm in the country.
The Embassy strongly advises persons without a Salvadoran firearms license not to bring guns into the country or use a firearm while in El Salvador.
During a three-month period in 2006, three U.S. citizens were arrested in separate incidents for firearms violations.
In each instance, the individuals complied with airline procedures, declared the firearm on a Customs form upon arrival at El Salvador's Comalapa International Airport, and were allowed to depart the airport without hindrance.
However, when the individuals returned to the airport and declared the weapons to airline employees, they were arrested by Salvadoran police, not for violating aviation regulations but for having carried an unlicensed firearm while in El Salvador.
The Embassy cannot intervene in the judicial process when a U.S. citizen is charged with a firearms violation.
Conviction for possessing an unlicensed firearm can carry a prison sentence of three to five years.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION: Americans living or traveling in El Salvador are encouraged to register with the U.S. Embassy through the State Department’s travel registration web site, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within El Salvador.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the Embassy.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy to contact them in case of emergency.
The Consular Section of the U.S. Embassy in San Salvador is located at Final Boulevard Santa Elena Sur, Urbanizacion Santa Elena, Antiguo Cuscatlan, La Libertad, telephone 011-503-2501-2999, fax 011-503-2278-5522, e-mail: CongenSansal@state.gov.
The Embassy's web site can be accessed at http://sansalvador.usembassy.gov/.
The Consular Section is open for U.S. citizens’ services from 8:15 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. weekdays, excluding U.S. and Salvadoran holidays.
After business hours, the Embassy can be contacted by telephone at 011-503-2501-2316 or 011-503-2501-2253.
For any questions concerning U.S. visas for either temporary travel to or permanent residence in the U.S., please contact our regional U.S. Visa Information Center.
From El Salvador, the Visa Information Center may be reached by calling 900-6011 from any landline operated by Telecomm, or by purchasing a VISAS-USA calling card from any location that sells Telefonica phone cards.
Calling instructions are on the back of the card.
Calls using the 900 number cost approximately $2.15 per minute and will be charged to the caller's telephone bill.
The Telefonica phone card costs $15.00 and permits a seven-minute call.
From the U.S., the Visa Information Center can be contacted by dialing 866-730-2089 and charging the call to a Visa or MasterCard credit card.
*

*

*
This replaces the Country Specific Information for El Salvador dated October 2007, to update the format and sections on Entry/Exit Requirements, Crime, Information for Victims of Crime, Medical Facilities and Health Information, Disaster Preparedness, and Registration and Embassy Location.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu, 30 May 2019 14:19:59 +0200

San Salvador, May 30, 2019 (AFP) - A 6.6 magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of El Salvador on Thursday near the capital but authorities said there were no initial reports of casualties or damage.   The quake was so strong it was likely felt throughout Central America, officials said.   The quake struck in the Pacific Ocean around 25 miles (40 kilometres) south of San Salvador at a depth of 40 miles (65 km), according to the US Geological Survey.

The Salvadoran environment ministry said the quake was even stronger, with a magnitude of 6.8.   The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center did not issue an alert for the quake. But the Environment Ministry issued one of its own, predicting sea level variations of up to 12 inches (30 centimetres).   However, Environment Minister Lina Pohl said the alert was sent "as a protocol."   Coastal residents should avoid entering the water for four hours after the quake, the ministry said on Twitter.

President-elect Nayib Bukele, who takes office on Saturday, said on Twitter that the earthquake was felt "throughout 100 percent of the country."   Police and firemen fanned out across the country to evaluate the situation and reported "no serious or generalized damage," the Civil Protection department said on Twitter.   The Education Ministry cancelled classes in coastal areas.   In the coastal town of Puerto de la Libertad, authorities evacuated families who live near the water.   Rattled residents stood outside their homes Thursday morning digesting the quake.   "The quake was very strong. Thank God, nothing happened to me. But we are taking precautions," one of them, Maria Valencia, told Canal 21 television.

The Environment Ministry reported as many as 12 aftershocks ranging from 3.3 to 4.9 in magnitude.   In San Salvador, police and soldiers patrolled streets but people largely stayed indoors despite the scare from the quake.   The government gave slightly different figures for its location.   It placed it more shallow than the USGS at 48 kilometres, and said the epicentre was a bit further out to sea, some 66 kilometres from Puerto de La Libertad.
Date: Mon 1 Apr 2019
Source: La Prensa Grafica, El Salvador [in Spanish, trans., edited]

According to MINSAL [El Salvador's Ministry of Public Health] figures for week 12 (updated till 23 Mar) 2019, the number of cases of typhoid fever remains high. They have reported 517 cases in 2019, compared to 313 cases in 2018, which is equivalent to an increase of 65%.

The head of health surveillance of the ISSS [El Salvador's Social Security Institute], Jose Adan Martinez, said that the figures themselves reflect an increase of 44%. It is worth mentioning that the MINSAL presents the data at the national level, which include those of the ISSS, FOSALUD [El Salvador Solidarity Fund for Health], and other institutions.

"We have been experiencing this upward trend in the disease since the beginning of 2019, and it has increased in the last week," Martinez said.

He also recalled that this is a disease transmitted by water or food contamination. "Given the scarcity of water that has been in some sectors of San Salvador, which is the most affected department, [the increase] could be due to the lack of hygiene measures that the population is taking, both for the preparation of food and for water consumption," he added.  [Byline: Edwin Teos]
========================
[Vaccine intervention is an important step, as increasing antimicrobial resistance in the typhoid bacillus in Asia has made treatment more difficult.

Typhoid fever, so-called enteric fever caused by _Salmonella enterica_ serotype Typhi, has a totally different presentation from that of the more common kinds of salmonellosis. Epidemiologically, usually spread by contaminated food or water, typhoid is not a zoonosis like the more commonly seen types of salmonellosis. Clinically, vomiting and diarrhoea are typically absent; indeed, constipation is frequently reported. As it is a systemic illness, blood cultures are at least as likely to be positive as stool in enteric fever, particularly early in the course of the infection, and bone marrow cultures may be the most sensitive.

The symptoms of classical typhoid fever typically include fever; anorexia; lethargy; malaise; dull, continuous headache; non-productive cough; vague abdominal pain; and constipation. Despite the (often high) fever, the pulse is often only slightly elevated. During the 2nd week of the illness, there is protracted fever and mental dullness, classically called coma vigil. Diarrhoea may develop but usually does not. Many patients develop hepatosplenomegaly (both liver and spleen enlarged). After the 1st week or so, many cases develop a maculopapular rash on the upper abdomen. These lesions ("rose spots") are about 2 cm (0.78 inch) in diameter and blanch on pressure. They persist for 2-4 days and may come and go. Mild and atypical infections are common. The word typhoid (as in typhus-like) reflects the similarity of the louse-borne rickettsial disease epidemic typhus and that of typhoid fever; in fact, in some areas, typhoid fever is still referred to as abdominal typhus. - ProMED Mod.LL]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Date: Sun 29 Jul 2018
Source: La Prensa Grafica, El Salvador [in Spanish, machine trans. edited]
<https://www.laprensagrafica.com/elsalvador/Casos-de-tifoidea-se-duplicaron-y-triplicaron-20180728-0055.html>

All the departments of the country experienced significant rises in typhoid fever in the 1st 6 months of 2018, with the exception of Cabanas, in comparison with the figures for the 1st 6 months of 2017. The statistics were provided by the Information and Response Office of the Ministry of Health (MINSAL), at the request of The Graphic Press. According to the data, the departments that registered the highest increases were San Miguel, San Salvador, La Paz and Sonsonate. Throughout 2017, San Miguel, for example, reported 9 cases of typhoid fever; while only between January and June 2018, cases rose to 17.

In San Salvador, cases for 2017 totalled 427, but during the 1st months of 2018 only, they totalled 653. Although the increase was noticed by the Salvadoran Social Security Institute (ISSS), through a press release issued on 8 Feb 2018, the Ministry of Health (MINSAL) spent several weeks without issuing any report with official data and did not speak of the outbreak until several months later, a few days after the end of June 2018. After the ISSS report, some physicians and infectious disease experts also reported an increase in cases of infection caused by the _Salmonella_ Typhi bacterium in private clinics and hospitals.

By mid-February 2018, MINSAL confirmed that there was a 30% increase in cases, compared to the same period in 2017: from 56 to 73. However, it did not include the statistics in its weekly epidemiological surveillance bulletins, for which the medical association denounced the lack of transparency with respect to the preventive management of the disease, which if not treated in time can be fatal. The Minister of Health, Violeta Menja­var, even admitted at that time that there was no vaccine against typhoid fever in the public health network. "In the vaccination scheme, there is not one; so that we can produce a vaccine against typhoid, we have to wait for the one being prepared by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), since there is not one that meets the conditions; we have incorporated it into the vaccination scheme," he explained.

The abysmal difference between 622 confirmed cases in the ISSS network, which serves only 17% of the population, and zero confirmed cases in the national public network, which serves more than 80% of the population, generated even more doubts than certainties about the management of the disease by the MINSAL. Finally, in the 2nd half of June 2018, Minister Menja­var acknowledged that there was an outbreak of typhoid fever that affected mainly 28 municipalities in the country, although she suggested that the effect was moderate and not high. "This year [2018], we have almost double that of 2017; it has happened that in 28 municipalities we have an epidemic outbreak; it is not epidemic because that would have to be in the entire country," she said.

The total numbers of cases of 2017 were 675, while the total between January and June of 2018 rose to 937. The authorities have reiterated on several occasions that this disease is directly related to the hygiene habits of people, so they have emphasized, to the point of exhaustion, that the population should take necessary precautions to avoid contagion, especially with surveillance of water quality in water used to cook food or for consumption. Drinking water, however, is the product that has been most scarce in recent months. At the end of March 2018, there was chaos due to lack of drinking water at the start of Holy Week, as the Water and Sewerage Administration (ANDA) reported one of its 48-inch main pipes damaged, which affected the San Pedro Metropolitan Area, Salvador (AMSS).

Less than a month ago, ANDA again left a million inhabitants of the AMSS without water, also due to another fault in the same 48-inch pipeline. The municipalities with the highest figures of typhoid fever between January and June 2018 were San Salvador, (205), Mejicanos (70), Soyapango (59) and Apopa (54), in the capital of the country. After San Salvador, which totaled 653 cases in that period, is La Libertad, with 85 cases. [Byline: Evelyn Machuca]
===========================
[Typhoid fever, so-called enteric fever caused by _Salmonella enterica_ serotype Typhi, has a totally different presentation from that of the commoner kinds of salmonellosis. Epidemiologically, usually spread by contaminated food or water, typhoid is not a zoonosis like the more commonly seen types of salmonellosis. Clinically, vomiting and diarrhoea are typically absent; indeed, constipation is frequently reported.

As it is a systemic illness, blood cultures are at least as likely to be positive as stool in enteric fever, particularly early in the course of the infection, and bone marrow cultures may be the most sensitive. The symptoms of classical typhoid fever typically include fever, anorexia, lethargy, malaise, dull continuous headache, non-productive cough, vague abdominal pain, and constipation. Despite the (often high) fever, the pulse is often only slightly elevated.

During the 2nd week of the illness, there is protracted fever and mental dullness, classically called coma vigil. Diarrhoea may develop but usually does not. Many patients develop hepatosplenomegaly (both liver and spleen enlarged). After the 1st week or so, many cases develop a maculopapular rash on the upper abdomen. These lesions ("rose spots") are about 2 cm (0.78 in) in diameter and blanch on pressure. They persist for 2-4 days and may come and go.

Mild and atypical infections are common. The word typhoid (as in typhus-like) reflects the similarity of the louse-borne rickettsial disease epidemic typhus and that of typhoid fever; in fact, in some areas, typhoid fever is still referred to as abdominal typhus. -  ProMED Mod.LL]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at: El Salvador:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/21>]
Date: Fri 15 Jun 2018 12:02 AM CST
El Mundo, El Salvador [in Spanish, trans., edited]
<http://elmundo.sv/ministerio-de-salud-dice-hay-un-brote-epidemico-de-fiebre-tifoidea/>

The Minister of Public Health, Violeta Menja­var, said that there is an epidemic outbreak of typhoid fever in some 26 municipalities, not in the entire country. "We have salmonellosis and within it some typhoid cases, an increase of cases in 26 municipalities, which have a mild to moderate affectation ... What does that mean? We are talking about an epidemic outbreak because it is localized; it is not a national epidemic, "Menja­var said on [14 Jun 2018].

The head of the health surveillance unit, Hector Ramos, said that they had 644 cases suspected of typhoid but that it is too early to speak of a decrease. "We have to wait but it seems that it is starting to level off and we hope that it will continue to decrease," said Minister Menja­var. The minister explained that the increase was a surprise because the winter was early as a result of the La Nina phenomenon.

The municipalities moderately affected are:
San Antonio Pajonal in the department of Santa Ana;
Santa Tecla in La Libertad;
and Apopa, Cuscatancingo, San Salvador, Mejicanos, Panchimalco, Ilopango,
and Soyapango in the department of San Salvador.
**************************************
Date: Tue 12 Jun 2018 12:00 AM CST
Source:  El Mundo, El Salvador [in Spanish, trans. ProMED Sr.Tech.Ed.MJ, summ., edited]
<http://elmundo.sv/tifoidea-ha-afectado-nueve-municipios-moderadamente/>

The epidemiological bulletin of the Salvador Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistance (MINSAL) reported moderate activity of typhoid fever in 9 of the country's 262 municipalities. From January 2018 to date, 469 suspected cases of typhoid fever have been hospitalized, of which 346 have been confirmed by blood culture.

In addition to the 9 municipalities moderately affected, there are 19 municipalities mildly affected and none severely affected. During the week of 4 Jun 2018, the epidemiological bulletin reported 644 suspected cases between January and May 2018. 376 cases were reported during the same period in 2017. One person has died in 2018 and one person died in 2017.
========================= 
[Typhoid fever, so-called enteric fever caused by _Salmonella enterica_ serotype Typhi, has a totally different presentation from that of the commoner kinds of salmonellosis. Epidemiologically, usually spread by contaminated food or water, typhoid is not a zoonosis like the more commonly seen types of salmonellosis. Clinically, vomiting and diarrhoea are typically absent; indeed, constipation is frequently reported.

As it is a systemic illness, blood cultures are at least as likely to be positive as stool in enteric fever, particularly early in the course of the infection, and bone marrow cultures may be the most sensitive. The symptoms of classical typhoid fever typically include fever, anorexia, lethargy, malaise, dull continuous headache, non-productive cough, vague abdominal pain, and constipation.

Despite the often high fever, the pulse is often only slightly elevated. During the 2nd week of the illness, there is protracted fever and mental dullness, classically called coma vigil. Diarrhoea may develop but usually does not. Many patients develop hepatosplenomegaly (both liver and spleen enlarged). After the 1st week or so, many cases develop a maculopapular rash on the upper abdomen.

These lesions ("rose spots") are about 2 cm (0.78 in) in diameter and blanch on pressure. They persist for 2-4 days and may come and go. Mild and atypical infections are common. The word typhoid (as in typhus-like) reflects the similarity of the louse-borne rickettsial disease epidemic typhus and that of typhoid fever; in fact, in some areas, typhoid fever is still referred to as abdominal typhus. - ProMED Mod.LL]

[Maps of El Salvador: <http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/americas/elsalvador.jpg>
and <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/21>.]
Date: Sat 12 May 2918
Source: The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) [edited]

ref: Gomez CA, Banaei N. _Trypanosoma cruzi_ reactivation in the brain. N Engl J Med. 2018; 378(19):1824. doi: 10.1056/NEJMicm1703763.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
A 31-year-old man who had recently received a diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS] presented to the emergency department with headache, confusion, and gait instability.

He had immigrated to the United States from El Salvador 6 years earlier. Fever (temperature, 38.9 deg C [102 deg F]) and an ataxic gait were noted on physical examination.

Laboratory test results were notable for a CD4 positive cell count of 60 per cubic millimeter, an HIV viral load of 409 000 copies per milliliter, a positive result for IgG antibodies to _Toxoplasma gondii_, and a negative result for IgM antibodies to _T. gondii_.

Magnetic resonance images of the brain showed a mass measuring 8 by 7 by 6 cm in the corpus callosum and the white matter of the right parietal and occipital subcortical lobes.

Cytologic examination of a brain aspirate revealed intracellular organisms, with prominent kinetoplasts (masses of mitochondrial DNA) visible within macrophages and astrocytes.

The organisms were identified as _Trypanosoma cruzi_ on the basis of partial protozoal 28S ribosomal RNA sequencing. After vector-borne transmission, which occurs mainly in Central America, South America, and some rural areas in Mexico, _T. cruzi_ infection can persist asymptomatically. Immunosuppression predisposes patients to _T. cruzi_ reactivation in the brain, which can manifest as a brain abscess or meningoencephalitis.

The patient received benznidazole, followed by the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. After 2 weeks of treatment, clinical improvement was noted in his mentation and gait.
======================
[The case underlines that one has to expect the unusual in immunocompromised patients and underlines that biopsy is needed also from the brain in order to reach the correct diagnosis. The guide to the suspicion of a _T. cruzi_ infection is the history of immigration from an endemic area. We do not know if the patient was seropositive for _T. cruzi_ antibodies. - ProMED Mod.EP]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map
More ...

Portugal

Portugal US Consular Information Sheet
November 18, 2008

COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Portugal is a developed and stable democracy with a modern economy.
Tourist facilities are widely available.
Read the Department of State Backgrou
d Notes on Portugal for additional information.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
Portugal is a party to the Schengen agreement.
As such, U.S. citizens may enter Portugal for up to 90 days for tourist or business purposes without a visa.
The passport should be valid for at least three months beyond the period of stay.
For further details about travel into and within Schengen countries, please see our fact sheet.

Portuguese law requires some non-European Union foreign nationals to register with immigration officials within three working days of entering Portugal.
The law affects those who transit another Schengen area country by air en route to Portugal and stay at noncommercial accommodations.

Travelers may also contact the Embassy of Portugal at 2012 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC
20036, tel. (202) 350-5400, or the Portuguese Consulates in Boston, MA; New Bedford, MA; Providence, RI; New York, NY; Newark, NJ; San Francisco, CA; or Los Angeles, CA.
Visit the Government of Portugal’s web site at http://embassyportugal-us.org/ for the most current visa information.
Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.
SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Portugal remains largely free of terrorist incidents.
However, like other countries in the Schengen area, Portugal’s open borders with its Western European neighbors allow the possibility of terrorist groups entering/exiting the country with anonymity. Americans are reminded to remain vigilant with regard to their personal security and to exercise caution.
Brief general strikes and public protests by public sector employees, industrial workers and/or university student groups take place with some frequency, but are usually publicized in advance and are rarely violent.

For the latest security information, Americans living and traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.
Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll-free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME:
Portugal has a relatively low rate of violent crime.
Travelers may become targets of pickpockets and purse snatchers, particularly at popular tourist sites, restaurants, or on public transportation.
Rental cars and vehicles with non-local license plates can be targets for break-ins; travelers should remove visible luggage from vehicles upon parking.
Travelers should also avoid using automatic teller machines in isolated or poorly lit areas. Drivers in Portugal should keep car doors locked when stopped at intersections.
In general, visitors to Portugal should carry limited cash and credit cards on their person, and leave extra cash, credit cards, and personal documents at home or in a hotel safe.
While thieves may operate anywhere, the U.S. Embassy receives most reports of theft from the following areas:
Lisbon:
Pickpocketing and purse snatching in the Lisbon area sometimes occurs in buses, restaurants, the airport, trains, train stations, and trams, especially aboard tram number 28 to the Castle of São Jorge.
Theft of purses, briefcases and wallets also occurs in hotel lobbies, restaurants and elevators.
At restaurants, items hung over the backs of chairs or placed on the floor may be stolen.
There have been incidents of theft of unattended luggage from the Lisbon Airport.
Special care should be taken in the Santa Apolonia and Rossio train stations, the Alfama and Bairro Alto districts, the Castle of São Jorge and the area of Belém. Though violent crime against tourists is uncommon, an American man was attacked by knife-wielding robbers in September 2008 while walking down the street in Cascais (a popular seaside town near Lisbon) in the early morning hours.

Outside Lisbon:
Thefts have been reported in the towns of Sintra, Cascais, Mafra, Fatima and in the Algarve.
Automobile break-ins sometimes occur in parking areas at tourist attractions and near restaurants.
Special care should be taken in parking at the Moorish Castle and Pena Palace in Sintra and at the beachfront areas of Guincho, Cabo da Roca, and Boca do Inferno.

Azores:
Pickpocketing and purse snatching are not common occurrences in the Azores. There are no reports of organized crime or gangs.

Madeira:
Pickpocketing, while infrequent, may occur in the Old Town and Santa Catarina Park areas of Funchal.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

Portugal has a crime victim’s assistance program, administered through an organization known by its acronym, "APAV."
Click here for more information (translated into English). Office hours are weekdays, 10 a.m. to 1 p.m., and 2 – 5 p.m. Phone: [351] 707 20 00 77.
To learn about possible sources of American compensation, see our information on Victims of Crime.
The local equivalent to the “911” emergency line in Portugal is: 1-1-2.
English-speaking operators are normally available.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Good medical care is available, but facilities may be limited outside urban areas.
Public hospitals offer services at a lower cost generally than private hospitals but sometimes do not maintain the same standards as hospitals in the United States.
Travelers are encouraged to obtain insurance that would cover medical services from a private Portuguese hospital or clinic.
Private hospitals will ask for a credit card or other form of payment upon admission.
In a life-threatening emergency, an ambulance can be requested by calling the national emergency response telephone number 1-1-2.
On the other hand, private ambulances should only be used for transport, not life-threatening emergencies, and usually require on-the-spot payment.
Note that the responsiveness of emergency services is often not up to U.S. standards.

PRESCRIPTION MEDICINES: Travelers sometimes request that relatives or friends in the U.S. mail prescription medicines to them in Portugal, but to do so violates Portuguese law and usually results in the shipment of medications being impounded by Portuguese Customs.
When this occurs, the medications may not be released.
Travelers who use prescription medicine should bring a sufficient supply with them to cover their anticipated stay in Portugal, along with a copy of their physician's prescription.
Should an unforeseen need for prescription refills or new medications arise, Portuguese pharmacies generally carry equivalent medications to those found in the United States, however, they may be sold under a different brand, may not be available in the same dosage, and may require a prescription from a local doctor.

The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Portugal.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.
MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Portugal is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
Portugal has one of the highest rates of automobile accidents and related fatalities in Europe.
Drivers should use extreme caution, as local driving habits, high speeds, and poorly marked roads pose special hazards.
In Portugal, fines for traffic violations are substantial and usually must be paid on the spot. Taxis are a reliable means of transportation, though travelers should be alert to possible discrepancies between the meter fare and the amount requested by the driver.
Buses are reliable and inexpensive.

In the Azores, driving can be treacherous due to narrow cobblestone streets, blind curves, unprotected embankments, herds of cows in the countryside roads, and the high speeds of other drivers.
In contrast to the situation on the Portuguese mainland, traffic violations are registered by radar and later forwarded to the offender via the postal service; payments are not made on the spot.
Taxis do not have meters.
The fare consists of a base fee plus a posted rate per kilometer traveled.
Public buses are inexpensive.
Bus services begin at 7:00 a.m. and generally operate until 8:00 p.m. depending on the destination.

U.S. visitors to Portugal may drive with a valid U.S. driver's license for up to six months. For international driving permits, please contact AAA or the National Auto Club.
For specific information concerning Portuguese driver's permits, vehicle inspection and mandatory insurance, please contact the Portuguese National Tourist Office by telephone at 1-800-767-8842 or visit the website for the Portuguese Directorate-General for Traffic at www.dgv.pt.
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. Visit the website of Portugal’s national authority responsible for road safety at www.dgv.pt
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Portugal's Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Portugal’s air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa/.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Portuguese customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from Portugal of such items as firearms, antiquities, medications, business equipment, sales samples and other items.
It is advisable to contact a Portuguese Embassy or Consulate in the United States for specific information regarding customs requirements.
Portugal's customs authorities encourage the use of an ATA (Admission Temporaire/ Temporary Admission) carnet for the temporary admission of professional equipment, commercial samples, and/or goods for exhibitions and fair purposes.
ATA Carnet Headquarters, located at the U.S Council for International Business, 1212 Avenue of The Americas, New York, NY 10036, issues and guarantees the ATA carnet in the United States.
For additional information, please telephone (212) 354-4480, or send an e-mail to atacarnet@uscib.org, or visit http://www.uscib.org for details.
Please see our Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Portugal’s laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Portugal are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Portugal are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Portugal. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy is located on Avenida das Forças Armadas, in the neighborhood of Sete Rios.
Telephone 351-21-727-3300, fax 351-21-727-2354, home page: portugal.usembassy.gov.

The U.S. Consulate in the Azores is located in the city of Ponta Delgada on the island of San Miguel. The address is Av. Principe do Monaco, 6-2o, telephone 351-296-282-216, fax 351-296-28-72-16.

There is a part-time U.S. Consular Agency in Funchal, on the island of Madeira, on Rua Alfandega, no. 10-2, Room A-B, telephone 351-291-235-636, fax 351-291-229-360.
The Consular Agency is open Monday through Friday, from 10:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m.
*

*

*
This replaces the Country Specific Information for Portugal dated April 25, 2008, to update sections on entry/exit requirements, safety and security, information for victims of crime, crime, and medical facilities and health information.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu, 30 Apr 2020 21:36:03 +0200 (METDST)

Lisbon, April 30, 2020 (AFP) - Portugal's government on Thursday unveiled a plan for a gradual exit from coronavirus lockdown, starting on Monday with the opening of some shops and businesses.   Some small shops will be allowed to reopen as will hair salons and car dealers and further restrictions will be lifted during May.   "We can start taking steps towards deconfinement," said Prime Minister Antonio Costa as he shed light on the "transition plan" his cabinet has drawn up.

Portugal, which declared its first coronavirus cases several weeks after neighbouring Spain -- one of Europe's worst hit countries -- declared a state of emergency on March 19 and has to date recorded 1,000 deaths and some 25,000 cases.   From Saturday it will ramp that down a notch although residents will only be allowed to travel beyond their immediate home area over the May Day long weekend if their jobs are listed as essential.

May milestones along Portugal's road back to normality are the reopening of senior schools only on May 18 -- after they are first disinfected.   Long-distance learning will remain the norm for primary and middle schools through to the end of the year.   Museums, bars, restaurants and art galleries will also open their doors once more from May 18.   But those who can will be expected to work from home throughout May.   Football league action is slated to resume the final weekend of the month.   Large shopping centres will only be allowed to reopen from June 1, however, when creches will also reopen.
Date: Wed, 1 Apr 2020 20:07:46 +0200 (METDST)

Lisbon, April 1, 2020 (AFP) - The Portuguese face at least another two weeks in lockdown after the government decided Wednesday to extend confinement measures as deaths from the COVID-19 epidemic near 200.

The restrictions were first imposed on the 10-million population on March 19 but they have not been as extensive as in neighbouring Spain where more than 9,000 have died from the virus.   Lisbon has ordered people to stay at home unless they have to work and to go out only for exercise, within the local area, to buy groceries, help relatives or walk the dog.

Shops and restaurants have been closed but supermarkets and chemists remain open.   Prime Minister Antonio Costa announced the extension to the state of emergency, which can be decreed only for periods of two weeks, and which parliament is expected to approve on Thursday.    Costa praised his compatriots' "exemplary" response to the crisis saying, "the effort ... is bearing results".

A total of 84 people have been stopped by police for being outside without a valid reason and 1,600 establishments have been closed after failing to ensure new client safety regulations.   TAP Air Portugal has cancelled all flights until at least May 4, except to the Atlantic islands of Azores and Madeira, and announced 90 percent of its 11,000 employees would go part-time under a government aid scheme.
Date: Wed, 18 Mar 2020 18:40:04 +0100 (MET)

Lisbon, March 18, 2020 (AFP) - Portugal moved Wednesday to declare a nationwide 15-day state of emergency to fight the spread of coronavirus, which will make it easier for the government to reduce people's movements.   Parliament will later on Wednesday vote on a draft decree calling for a state of emergency that allows for some constitutional rights and freedoms to be suspended, such as the freedom of movement and the right to protest.   If the decree is passed as expected it will be the first time that a state of emergency has been declared in the country of around 10 million people since returned to democracy in the 1970s following years of rightist dictatorship.

Prime Minister Antonio Costa said the decree -- which is expected to be approved by the assembly -- would not impose a "mandatory curfew".   "With the declaration of a state of emergency democracy is not suspended," Costa told reporters following a cabinet meeting in which his government agreed to back President Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa's proposed decree.   The decree can be renewed once the initial 15-day period is over and Costa said it was not clear how long it would have to remain in place, warning the state of emergency could last several months.   The Portuguese president is scheduled to address the nation at 8 pm (2000 GMT) after parliament has voted on his proposed decree.   Portugal has so far reported 448 confirmed cases of coronavirus and two deaths but the government has warned that the number of infections in the country is expected to keep climbing "at least" until the end of April.

The country last week declared a state of alert over the outbreak to mobilise civil protection, police and the army in its efforts to control the spread of coronavirus.    It has already limited gatherings to no more than 100 people, shut schools and nightclubs and imposed restrictions on the number of people who can visit restaurants and limited visitors to retirement homes.   Earlier on Wednesday the government ordered the central city of Ovar, which is home to around 55,000 people, to be put on lockdown after about 30 people tested positive for coronavirus there.    Governments on every continent have implemented containment measures to contain the disease, which has infected more than 200,000 people and killed over 8,000 since it first emerged.
Date: Sun, 15 Mar 2020 21:30:24 +0100 (MET)

Lisbon, March 15, 2020 (AFP) - Portugal will close its border with Spain to tourists for at least a month to curb the spread of coronavirus, Portuguese Prime Minister Antonio Costa said Sunday.   Goods and people travelling for work will still be allowed to cross the border but not those on leisure trips, he told a news conference after speaking by videoconference with his Spanish counterpart Pedro Sanchez.   "There will be no tourism between Portugal and Spain in the coming months," he said.

The travel restrictions will apply to both land and air borders and they will come into force once the interior ministers of both nations iron out the details on Monday, Costa said.   They will last until at least Easter, which this year falls on April 12.   "There is a good tradition of Spaniards visiting us during the Easter holidays. This year is not ideal for that visit," Costa said.   "As a result, and without any hostility I think it is necessary that during this period there is no tourism activity between Spaniards and Portuguese because we all have to restrict our movements not just within our cities, our countries, but at the global scale."

With over 7,700 cases and 288 deaths, Spain is Europe's second-most affected country in Europe by the coronavirus outbreak.   Portugal, which is about one-fifth the size of Spain, has so far reported just 245 confirmed cases of the novel coronavirus but there are over 2,200 "suspected" cases.   Earlier on Sunday Portuguese Health Minister Marta Temido warned that the number of infections in the country is expected to keep climbing "at least until the end of April."
Date: Fri, 13 Mar 2020 12:59:40 +0100 (MET)

Lisbon, March 13, 2020 (AFP) - The Portuguese government put the country on a state of alert on Friday to mobilise civil protection, police and the army in its efforts to control the spread of coronavirus.    The move comes after Prime Minister Antonio Costa said Thursday that it would close all schools, nurseries and universities from Monday.   "The interior and health ministers have decided to declare a state of alert throughout the country, so that civil protection and security forces are ready to intervene," the government said in a statement.   A state of alert has been used in Portugal in the past to facilitate the fight against forest fires or to avoid a fuel shortage during a strike by tanker drivers.   Portugal has so far registered 78 cases of COVID-19 and has ordered the cancellation of events grouping more than 1,000 people in enclosed places and more than 5,000 in open areas.
More ...

World Travel News Headlines

Date: Mon, 1 Jun 2020 10:23:53 +0200 (METDST)

Yerevan, June 1, 2020 (AFP) - Armenian Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan and his family have tested positive for the coronavirus, he said Monday, as the rate of new infections soared in the Caucasus nation.   "My coronavirus test was positive yesterday," Pashinyan said in a self-recorded video message on Facebook, adding that his family were also infected.   He said he had no "viable symptoms" of the virus and would be working from home.   The prime minister and his wife Anna Hakobyan, who is a journalist, have four children.   The ex-Soviet republic of some three million has so far reported 9,492 cases of the coronavirus and 139 deaths.

Coronavirus patients have overwhelmed Armenia's hospitals and last week health officials said that intensive care treatment could be soon restricted to patients with the best chance of survival.   Pashinyan's announcement came nearly one month after Armenia on May 4 lifted a state of emergency imposed in March to slow the spread of the coronavirus.

The prime minister acknowledged his government had failed to enforce anti-virus measures and there had been widespread quarantine violations.   Pashinyan was elected prime minister in the wake of mass popular protests he led two years ago against veteran leader Serzh Sarkisian and his Republican Party.   He has since led a relentless crusade against graft and initiated sweeping judicial reforms.
Date: Mon, 1 Jun 2020 09:17:15 +0200 (METDST)

San Salvador, June 1, 2020 (AFP) - Tropical Storm Amanda triggered flash floods, landslides and power outages as it barrelled through El Salvador and Guatemala Sunday, killing 14 people, authorities said, warning of further heavy rain to come.   El Salvador President Nayib Bukele declared a 15-day state of emergency to cope with the effects of the storm, which he estimated to have caused $200 million in damage, but which weakened later in the day as it moved into Guatemala.

Amanda, the first named storm of the season in the Pacific, unleashed torrents of floodwater that tossed vehicles around like toys and damaged about 200 homes, the head of the Civil Protection Service William Hernandez said.   The fatalities were all recorded in El Salvador, Interior Minister Mario Duran said, warning that the death toll could rise.   One person is still missing, senior government official Carolina Recinos added.   "We are experiencing an unprecedented situation: one top-level emergency on top of another serious one," San Salvador mayor Ernesto Muyshondt said, referring to the coronavirus pandemic.

He added that half of those killed died in the capital, and that 4,200 people had sought refuge in government-run shelters after losing their homes or being forced to leave because they were in high-risk areas.   In some flooded areas, soldiers worked alongside emergency personnel to rescue people.   "We lost everything, we've been left with nowhere to live," said Isidro Gomez, a resident of hard-hit southeastern San Salvador, after a nearby river overflowed and destroyed his home.

Another victim, Mariano Ramos, said that at dawn residents of his San Salvador neighborhood were slammed by an avalanche of mud and water. An elderly man died in the area, officials said.   El Salvador's environment ministry warned residents of the "high probability" of multiple landslides that could damage buildings and injure or kill people.

Nearly 90 percent of El Salvador's 6.6 million people are considered vulnerable to flooding and landslides due to its geography.   In neighboring Guatemala, officials said roads had been blocked by at least five landslides and some flooding was reported, but no evacuations were underway.   Even though Amanda weakened to tropical depression status, Guatemalan officials warned that heavy rain would continue, with swollen rivers and possible "landslides affecting highways ... and flooding in coastal areas."
Date: Mon, 1 Jun 2020 06:55:18 +0200 (METDST)

Lima, June 1, 2020 (AFP) - Peru on Sunday reported 8,800 new COVID-19 infections, setting a new daily record for a country that already has the second highest number of novel coronavirus cases in Latin America after Brazil.   The death toll is now at 4,506, the third highest in the region -- itself the new hotspot of the deadly disease -- after Brazil and Mexico, with President Martin Vizcarra warning the country is only halfway through the crisis.

Infections have jumped in Peru despite a months-long mandatory lockdown and a nigh time curfew and the government ordering international borders to be closed.   The spike is concentrated around the capital Lima, where one third of the population lives, and put tremendous strain on Peru's economy and healthcare system.   Four out of every ten Peruvians lost their source of income when the lockdown began, according to one study, and last week Peru secured a two-year, $11 billion credit line from the International Monetary Fund.

- 'Tremendous challenge' in Chile -
Neighbouring Chile on Sunday reported 57 more fatalities in the past 24 hours, a new record that brings the country's COVID-19 death toll to 1,054.   "We are facing the largest pandemic of the past 100 years," said Deputy Health Minister Paula Daza, as she announced the latest figures.    "It is a tremendous challenge; we are living very difficult times in our country."

In Santiago, where the 80 percent of the virus cases were reported, 96 percent of the emergency room beds were taken, officials said.   Officials reported a sharp increase in cases over the past two weeks.   In early May the government of President Sebastian Pinera said that the number of virus cases had hit a plateau, and lockdown restrictions would be loosened.
Date: Mon, 1 Jun 2020 03:38:38 +0200 (METDST)
By Anna SMOLCHENKO

Moscow, June 1, 2020 (AFP) - Shopping malls and parks are set to reopen in Moscow on Monday as the Russian capital eases coronavirus restrictions despite having the world's third-largest caseload.   The relaxation of the confinement orders in Moscow, the epicentre of Russia's outbreak with a population of more than 12 million, comes after President Vladimir Putin announced the epidemic had passed its peak in the country.

Under lockdown since March 30, residents of Europe's most populous city were until now only allowed to leave their homes for brief trips to shop, walk dogs or travel to essential jobs with a permit.   While Muscovites welcomed the opportunity to return to parks and malls after weeks of being cooped up at home, many ridiculed the Moscow mayor's "experiment" aimed at regulating people's walks and exercise.

As a two-week test measure, Sergei Sobyanin said residents of Moscow will be allowed to take walks according to a staggered schedule based on their home address.   "Regular walks are allowed between 9am and 9pm but no more than three times a week -- twice on weekdays and once on a weekend," said Sobyanin on his blog, adding that a detailed schedule would be released separately.   People can jog or exercise between 5am and 9am but must wear masks, according to the new rules.   Sobyanin said he feared that without limits on walking, people would throng the streets in scenes reminiscent of May Day outpourings in Soviet times.

- 'Sheer lunacy' -
The new regulations unleashed a flood of mockery on social media, with political commentator Alexander Golts calling them "sheer lunacy".   Critics quipped that life in Moscow was beginning to imitate dystopian fiction such as the novels of Aldous Huxley and Yevgeny Zamyatin.

Popular comedian Maxim Galkin, who has nearly eight million followers on Instagram, released a sketch in which Putin and Sobyanin discuss a "breathing schedule" for Moscow residents.   The five-minute parody has been viewed nearly six million times over the past few days.   When the restrictions are relaxed, dry-cleaners, laundry services and repair workshops will be allowed to reopen, while restaurants, cafes and cinemas will remain closed for now.

Moscow authorities also said that no mass gatherings would be allowed during the city-wide quarantine that will remain in place until at least June 14.   On Thursday authorities sentenced prominent reporter and activist Ilya Azar to 15 days in jail for staging a lone protest in central Moscow.   Dozens of his supporters have also been briefly detained over the past few days.   Rights organisations including Amnesty International and the Council of Europe have warned Moscow against using the coronavirus lockdown as a pretext to muzzle activists.

Many critics have also questioned the move to lift the restrictions as Russia reported more than 9,000 new infections on Sunday.   With more than 405,000 confirmed infections and over 4,600 deaths, the country has the world's third-largest caseload after the United States and Brazil.   Analysts say Putin is keen to open up the Russian economy and has recently ordered a World War II victory parade postponed by the contagion to be held on June 24.   The 67-year-old leader is also widely expected to announce a new date for a vote on constitutional reforms that could pave the way for him to potentially stay in power until 2036.
Date: Sun, 31 May 2020 11:16:20 +0200 (METDST)

Mogadishu, May 31, 2020 (AFP) - At least 10 people died and 12 were wounded when an explosive device ripped through a minibus outside the Somali capital Mogadishu on Sunday, the government said.   The deadly explosion occurred near Lafole village along the Afgoye-Mogadishu where the passenger bus was travelling early in the day.   "At least 10 civilians were killed in an explosion at Lafole area this morning, those who died were all civilians," the information ministry said in a statement, adding that the victims were on their way to a funeral.

Witnesses said the minibus was completely destroyed, and described an horrific scene with everyone on board either dead or wounded and many bodies ripped apart or burned beyond recognition.   "This was a horrible incident this morning, the explosive device went off as the bus was passing by the area and destroyed it completely," said Daud Doyow, a witness.   "Bodies of civilians were strewn in pieces and most of the people died," he added.   "There were more than 20 people on board and 10 of them were confirmed dead while the rest are seriously wounded and taken to hospital, this is a horrible scene here," said another witness, Abdirisak Adan.   No group immediately claimed responsibility for the bombing, but Somalia's al Qaeda-aligned Shabaab group carries out regular attacks in and around the capital, often killing civilians.
Date: Wed, 27 May 2020 17:58:12 +0200 (METDST)

Nairobi, May 27, 2020 (AFP) - Kenya said Wednesday it had documented a record 123 cases of coronavirus in the past 24 hours, a "staggering" figure although one also explained in part by wider testing.   "Today, I come to you with sombre news," Health Minister Mutahi Kagwe said.   "Our figures today are staggering. Out of the 3,077 samples tested, we have 123 positive cases. For the first time we have hit a triple digit.    "This is the highest number of positive cases we have ever recorded in a single day since we recorded the first case on March 13."

A total of 1,471 cases of COVID-19 have been recorded in Kenya since the start of the epidemic. Of these, 55 have been fatal.   The tally of infections has doubled since mid-May but the country has also tripled its number of daily tests, from less than 1,000 to nearly 3,000, which has helped unearth more cases.

Kagwe sounded a warning about the vulnerability of crowded slums in the capital Nairobi, which leads the list of new cases followed by the port city of Mombasa.   "There is a raging number of infections in these areas," he said, adding: "No-one should have a false sense of security about their immunity to COVID-19."   Among its anti-coronavirus measures, Kenya has a national 7pm-5am curfew, which is currently in force until June 6, and has a ban on entering or exiting the cities of Nairobi, Mombasa, Kilifi, Kwale and Mandera.
Date: Wed, 27 May 2020 16:38:21 +0200 (METDST)

Nicosia, May 27, 2020 (AFP) - Cyprus hopes to attract tourists after its coronavirus lockdown by paying the medical costs of anyone who tests positive for COVID-19 while holidaying on the island, officials said Wednesday.   The plan was outlined in a letter to tour operators and airlines detailing the measures Cyprus is taking to ensure the safety of its tourism sector.   The letter was made public Wednesday and signed by the ministers of foreign affairs, transport, and tourism.

The Mediterranean island is marketing itself as a safe holiday destination during the global pandemic.   The Republic of Cyprus has reported 939 novel coronavirus cases and only 17 deaths.   The government said it is "committed to taking care of all travellers who test positive during their stay, as well as their families and close contacts".   It pledged to cover accommodation, dining and medical care if a tourist falls ill with the virus.   The "traveller will only need to bear the cost of their airport transfer and repatriation flight," it said.

- 'Quarantine hotels' -
A 100-bed hospital will be available exclusively for tourists who test positive, with more beds available "at very short notice if required".   An additional 112 beds in intensive care units with 200 respirators will be reserved for critically ill patients.   Designated "quarantine hotels" will have 500 rooms available for family members and close contacts of patients.

Other hotels on the island will be allowed to remain open if a guest tests positive, but their room will "undergo a deep clean".   Authorities have forecast a 70 percent decline in tourist arrivals in 2020.    Tourism earned Cyprus EUR2.68 billion ($2.94 bn) in 2019 -- about 15 percent of gross domestic product -- down one percent from the previous year, which was bolstered by a record 3.97 million arrivals.   Cyprus plans to reopen its airports on June 9 to arrivals from 13 countries considered low risk.   These include Israel, Greece, Germany, Austria and Malta but the island's two biggest markets Britain and Russia are not on the approved list.

hose arriving between June 9-19 will need to provide a health certificate proving they do not have the virus.   That requirement will be dropped from June 20, when another six countries will be added to the approved list, including Switzerland and Poland.   Cyprus says it will update the list of approved countries on a weekly basis based on scientific advice.

Officials will administer temperature checks and free random testing of arrivals.   Having tested over 10 percent of its population, Cyprus says it has one of the lowest coronavirus infection rates in Europe.   "Very few countries worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean, can boast about such statistics," the letter said.
Date: Wed, 27 May 2020 14:45:11 +0200 (METDST)

Stockholm, May 27, 2020 (AFP) - Airline SAS said Wednesday it would resume flights on several domestic and international routes in June, over two months after the operator grounded most of its fleet over the new coronavirus' impact on travel.   "This primarily includes domestic flights within and between the Scandinavian countries, but flights to New York, Chicago and Amsterdam from Copenhagen are also set to resume," SAS said in a statement.

The Scandinavian airline announced in mid-March it was halting most of its traffic and furloughing around 90 percent of its staff.   In late April the airline, whose two largest shareholders are the Swedish and Danish states, announced it was laying off about 5,000 people, representing 40 percent of the company's workforce.

In early May the company secured a state-guaranteed credit line of 3.3 billion Swedish kronor ($344 million or 313 million euros) to help it navigate the impact of the new coronavirus.   Even with the resumption of some flights, the airline continues to operate at a reduced capacity, but the added routes means an effective doubling of the aircraft in use from 15 to 30, according to SAS.   Finnair, of Nordic neighbour Finland, announced early last week it would start resuming its long-haul flight to Asia in July.
Date: Wed, 27 May 2020 14:25:21 +0200 (METDST)

Yerevan, May 27, 2020 (AFP) - Virus cases have overwhelmed Armenia's hospitals, officials said Wednesday, raising the prospect that intensive care treatment could be restricted to patients with the best chance of survival.   The tiny Caucasus nation of some three million has so far reported 7,774 coronavirus cases and 98 deaths.   At a cabinet meeting on Wednesday, Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan said "the situation with the coronavirus pandemic is very severe in Armenia."

Health ministry spokeswoman Alina Nikoghosyan told AFP: "if the current situation persists, in the coming days, intensive care will only be available for the patients with the best survival chances."   Health Minister Arsen Torosyan said Sunday that out of the country's 186 intensive care beds for coronavirus patients, only 32 remained empty and would soon be filled.

The prime minister called for stricter enforcement of measures aimed at containing the outbreak such as the wearing of face masks in public spaces.   This comes after the country lifted a state of emergency on May 4 which it had declared in March because of the pandemic.   Pashinyan said his government had failed to enforce anti-virus measures and there had been widespread quarantine violations.   "Our mistake was that we put too much trust in our citizens' sense of responsibility," he said.

Deputy Prime Minister Tigran Avinyan said he did not rule out that the government could have to impose a fresh nationwide lockdown.   Analysts have criticised the government's handling of the crisis, saying a decision to close borders was taken too late and officials sent the public "confusing messages."   "Officials were calling for the wearing of face masks, but they themselves didn't wear them until recently," said analyst Tatul Hakobyan.
Date: Wed, 27 May 2020 09:53:01 +0200 (METDST)

New Delhi, May 27, 2020 (AFP) - India is wilting under a heatwave, with the temperature in places reaching 50 degrees Celsius (122 degrees Fahrenheit) and the capital enduring its hottest May day in nearly two decades.   The hot spell is projected to scorch northern India for several more days, the Meteorological Department said late Tuesday, "with severe heat wave conditions in isolated pockets".   As global temperatures rise, heatwaves are a regular menace in the country -- particularly in May and June. Last year dozens of people died.

Met officials said Churu in the northern state of Rajasthan was the hottest place on record on Tuesday, at 50 Celsius, while parts of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh sweltered in the high 40s.   Parts of the capital, New Delhi, recorded the hottest May day in 18 years with the mercury hitting 47.6 Celsius.   No deaths have been reported so far this year, but last year the government said the heat had killed 3,500 people since 2015. There have been fewer
fatalities in recent years.

The country of 1.3 billion people suffers from severe water shortages with tens of millions lacking running water -- to say nothing of air conditioning.   Parts of Delhi and elsewhere regularly see scuffles when tankers arrive to deliver water. Last year Chennai made international headlines when the southern city ran out of water entirely.   The heatwave adds to problems the country already has dealing with the spread of coronavirus.   India now has the 10th highest number of coronavirus cases globally, climbing above 150,000 on Wednesday with almost 4,500 deaths.

Last week cyclone Amphan killed more than 100 people as it ravaged in eastern India and Bangladesh, flattening villages, destroying farms and leaving millions without power.   Huge swarms of desert locusts, meanwhile, have destroyed nearly 50,000 hectares (125,000 acres) of crops across western and central India, and may enter Delhi in coming days.   The north-eastern states of Assam and Meghalaya are also currently experiencing floods, with more heavy rainfall forecast in the coming days.