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Faroe Islands

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faroe_Islands
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The early history of the Faroe Islands is not very clear. According to Færeyinga Saga emigrants who left Norway to escape the tyranny of Harald I of Norway settled in the isla
ds about the beginning of the 9th century. There is also evidence that Irish monks settled the islands, introducing sheep in the process. Early in the 11th century Sigmund, whose family had flourished in the southern islands but had been almost exterminated by invaders from the northern islands, was sent from Norway, from which he had escaped, to take possession of the islands for Olaf Tryggvason, king of Norway. He introduced Christianity and, though he was subsequently murdered, Norwegian supremacy was upheld. Norwegian control of the islands continued until 1380, when Norway entered into a union with Denmark, which gradually evolved into the double monarchy Denmark/Norway. The reformation reached the Faroes in 1538. When Norway was taken away from Denmark at the Treaty of Kiel in 1814, Denmark retained possession of the Faroe Islands.
The monopoly trade over the Faroe Islands was abolished in 1856. Since then, the country developed towards a modern fishery nation with its own fleet. The national awakening since 1888 was first based on a struggle for the Faroese language, and thus more culturally oriented, but after 1906 was more and more politically oriented after the foundation of the political parties of the Faroe Islands.
On April 12, 1940, the Faroes were invaded and occupied by British troops. The move followed the invasion of Denmark by Nazi Germany and had the objective of strengthening British control of the North Atlantic (see Second Battle of the Atlantic). In 1942–43 the British Royal Engineers built the only airport in the Faroes, the Vágar Airport. Control of the islands reverted to Denmark following the war, but in 1948 a home rule regime was implemented granting a high degree of local autonomy. The Faroes declined to join Denmark in entering the European Community (now European Union) in 1973. The islands experienced considerable economic difficulties following the collapse of the fishing industry in the early 1990s, but have since made efforts to diversify the economy. Support for independence has grown and is the objective of the government.
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Denmark, Greenland and the Faeroe Islands US Consular Information Sheet
August 15, 2006
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: Denmark is a highly developed stable democracy with a modern economy. Greenland is a self-governing dependency of Denmark. The Faroe Islands are a self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Denmark for additional information.

ENTRY REQUIREMENTS: Passport and visa regulations are similar for Denmark, Greenland, and the Faroes. A valid passport is required. U.S. citizen tourist and business travelers do not need visas for visits of up to 90 days. That period begins when entering any of the following countries which are parties to the Schengen agreement: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden. See our Foreign Entry Requirements brochure for more information on Denmark and other countries. Contact the Royal Danish Embassy at 3200 Whitehaven Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20008, telephone (202) 234-4300 or visit its website at for the most current visa information.

Note: Although European Union regulations require that non-EU visitors obtain a stamp in their passports upon initial entry to a Schengen country, many borders are not staffed with officers carrying out this function. If an American citizen wishes to ensure that his or her entry is properly documented, it may be necessary to request a stamp at an official point of entry. Under local law, travelers without a stamp in their passports may be questioned and asked to document the length of their stay in Schengen countries at the time of departure or at any other point during their visit, and could face possible fines or other repercussions if unable to do so.

Find more information about Entry and Exit Requirements pertaining to dual nationality and the prevention of international child abduction .
SAFETY AND SECURITY: Denmark remains largely free of terrorist incidents, however the country shares, with the rest of Western Europe, an increased threat of Islamic terrorism. Like other countries in the Schengen area, Denmark's open borders with its Western European neighbors allow the possibility of terrorist groups entering and exiting the country with anonymity. Americans are reminded to remain vigilant with regard to their personal security and to exercise caution.

Public demonstrations occasionally occur in Copenhagen and other Danish cities and are generally peaceful events. Prior police approval is required for public demonstrations, and police oversight is routinely provided to ensure adequate security for participants and passers-by. Nonetheless, as with any large crowd comprised of diverse groups, situations may develop which could pose a threat to public safety. U.S. citizens are advised to avoid areas where public demonstrations are taking place.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State's web site , where the current Worldwide Caution Public Announcement , Travel Warnings, and Public Announcements can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll-free in the United States, or, for callers outside the United States and Canada, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State's pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad .
CRIME: Denmark, Greenland, and the Faroes all have very low violent crime rates, however, non-violent crimes of opportunity have slightly increased over the last few years, especially in Copenhagen and other major Danish cities, where tourists can become targets for pickpockets and sophisticated thieves. Criminals frequent airports, train stations, and cruise ship quays to take advantage of weary, luggage-burdened travelers. Thieves also operate at popular tourist attractions, shopping streets, and restaurants. In hotel lobbies and breakfast areas, thieves take advantage of even a brief lapse in attention to snatch jackets, purses, and backpacks. Women's purses placed either on the backs of chairs or on the floor are typical targets for thieves. Car and home break-ins are also on the rise.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends, and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

Denmark has a program to provide financial compensation to victims who suffer serious criminal injuries. According to existing regulations, the victim must report the incident to the police within 24 hours. Danish police routinely inform victims of serious crime of their rights to seek compensation. The relevant forms can be obtained from the police or the Danish Victims' Compensation Board: Civilstyrelsen, Erstatningsnaevnet, Gyldenløvesgade 11, 1600 Copenhagen V, TEL: (45) 33-92- 3334; FAX: (45) 39-20-45-05; www.erstatningsnaevnet.dk ; Email: erstatningsnaevnet@erstatningsnaevnet.dk . Claim processing time is a minimum of 4 weeks. There is no maximum award limit.

See our information for Victims of Crime .
MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Excellent medical facilities are widely available in Denmark. In Greenland and the Faroe Islands, medical facilities are limited and evacuation is required for serious illness or injury. Although emergency medical treatment is free of charge, the patient is charged for follow-up care.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC's website at . For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int.en. Further health information for travelers is available at .

MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas .

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Denmark is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

A valid U.S. driver's license may be used while visiting Denmark, but the driver must be at least 18 years old. Driving in Denmark is on the right side of the road. Road signs use standard international symbols. Many urban streets have traffic lanes reserved for public transport only. Unless otherwise noted on traffic signs, the speed limit is 50 km/h in urban areas, 80 km/h on open roads, and 130 km/h on expressways.

Use of seat belts is mandatory for drivers and all passengers. Children under three years of age must be secured with approved safety equipment appropriate to the child's age, size, and weight. Children from three to six years of age may use approved child or booster seats instead of seat belts.

Driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs is considered a very serious offense. The rules are stringently enforced, and violations can result in stiff fines and possible jail sentences.

Copenhagen, the capital and largest city in Denmark, has an extensive and efficient public transportation system. Trains and buses connect Copenhagen with other major cities in Denmark and to Norway, Sweden, and Germany. Bicycles are also a common mode of transportation in Denmark. Passengers exiting public or tourist buses, as well as tourists driving rental cars, should watch for bicycles on their designated paths, which are usually located between the pedestrian sidewalks and the traffic lanes.

Danish expressways, highways, and secondary roads are of high quality and connect all areas of the country. It is possible to drive from the northern tip of Denmark to the German border in the south in just four hours. Greenland has no established road system, and domestic travel is performed by foot, boat, or by air. The majority of the Faroe Islands are connected by bridges or serviced by boat. Although the largest islands have roads, most domestic travel is done on foot, horseback, boat, or by air.

The emergency telephone number for police/fire/ambulance in Denmark and the Faroe Islands is 112. In Greenland contact the local police.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. Visit the website of the country's national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at . See also additional information on driving in Denmark at .

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the government of Denmark's Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for the oversight of Denmark's air carrier operations. This rating applies to Greenland and the Faroe Islands as well. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA's Internet website at www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa .

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: The official unit of currency in Denmark is the Danish krone. ATM machines are widely available throughout Denmark. Please see our information on customs regulations .

For information concerning the importation of pets into Denmark, please visit the following website:
.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protection available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Denmark's laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Denmark are severe and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties .

CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children's Issues website.

REGISTRATION/EMBASSY LOCATION: Americans living or traveling in Denmark are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department's travel registration website , and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Denmark. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located at Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24; 2100 Copenhagen, telephone: (45) 33-41-71-00; Embassy fax: (45) 35-43-02-23; Consular Section fax: (45) 35-38-96-16; After-hours emergency telephone: (45) 35-55-92-70. Information is also available via the U.S. Embassy's website at http://www.usembassy.dk. The United States has no consular presence in Greenland or the Faroe Islands.
* * *
This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated February 10, 2006, to update the section on Entry Requirements and Traffic Safety and Road Conditions.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu, 14 Nov 2019 12:51:34 +0100 (MET)

Copenhagen, Nov 14, 2019 (AFP) - Authorities in the Faroe Islands have announced the archipelago in the North Atlantic will be "closed for maintenance" for two days in April when tourists won't be welcome, instead opening the doors to volunteer caretakers.   In practice, the self-governing Danish islands will keep hotels open and international flights running, but popular tourist sites will be temporarily closed on April 16 and 17 next year.   The event is a continuation of a pilot project run in the spring of 2019, when 100 volunteers from 25 countries were invited to the islands.

Registrations for eager volunteers opened on Wednesday at 1500 GMT and were to remain open for 24 hours, the Faroese tourism office said on its website.   One hundred people will then be randomly selected to be part of the maintenance crew, who will be offered housing and food during their stay although they will still need to pay for their own plane tickets.   "The fragile natural environment in some popular tourist locations has felt the effects of an increase of visitors," the head of the tourism office, Guri Hojgaard, told AFP in March shortly after the pilot project was launched.   "These areas need a helping hand to ensure they remain pristine".

For the first edition of the event they received about 3,500 applications and the selected volunteers helped with projects like creating walking paths, constructing viewpoints to help preserve nature and protect birdlife sanctuaries and re-building rock cairns.   A popular destination for its fascinating landscapes with 30-metre cliffs, the archipelago covers 1,400 square kilometres (540 square miles) and has 50,000 inhabitants and 80,000 sheep spread over 18 islands.   In 2018, 110,000 tourists visited the Faroe Islands and the number of tourists has increased by about 10 percent annually for the past five years.    According to Hojgaard, the "closed for maintenance, open for voluntourism" weekend can "contribute to the international discussion about overtourism by showing that tourists can actually be a part of the solution."
Date: Fri, 25 Nov 2011 12:19:28 +0100 (MET)

COPENHAGEN, Nov 25, 2011 (AFP) - A hurricane packing winds of almost 200 kilometres (125 miles) an hour tore through the Faroe Islands overnight, causing major damage and evacuations but no deaths, police said Friday.  "There was a hurricane... a lot of material damage has been reported but no deaths so far," said Rani Wardum, a police officer in Torshavn, the capital of the North Atlantic archipelago. "Winds reach up to 55 metres per second," or 198 kilometres per hour, in some places, meteorologist Mogens Roenebek of the Danish Meteorological Institute told AFP.

The Faroe Islands, an autonomous Danish province, are home to around 48,000 people. The extent of the damage was not immediately known. "Many roofs were blown off and we had to evacuate a retirement home. The seniors were moved into a hospital," Wardum said.

Some residents were also evacuated from their homes during the night and a number of boats came loose from their moorings and ended up on land, he added. "The winds are still raging, but it was particularly violent last night and overnight," Wardum said, noting that the southern coastal regions of the Faroes Islands were hardest hit. The storm was heading towards the west coast of Norway on Friday, with strong winds and heavy seas, according to Roenebek.
Date: Thu, 6 May 2010 16:55:58 +0200 (METDST)

REYKJAVIK, May 6, 2010 (AFP) - The quantity of ash spewed by Iceland's Eyjafjoell volcano increased overnight and the higher ash cloud could make it to the Faroe Islands Friday, Icelandic authorities said Thursday.   "Ash production did increase last night and the ash plume is going higher now than the last couple of days," Agust Gunnar Gylfason, who monitors the eruption's progress at Iceland's Civil Protection Department, told AFP.

The ash cloud "might reach the Faroe Islands around midnight (GMT Thursday) under 20,000 feet (6,000 meters)" and continue on south towards Ireland on Friday, he added.   "The plume went up to 30,000 feet (9,000 meters) for some time last night, and again this morning, due to an increase in explosive activity, but otherwise it's been around 18,000 and 20,000 feet" high, he said.

At the strongest period of the eruption, Eyjafjoell sent a plume around 30,000 feet into the air, but scientists have stressed that the height of the plume does not necessarily reflect a particular quantity of ash.   On Tuesday, the plume contained about only 10 percent of the ash it held at the beginning of the eruption.   European airspace and airports across the continent were open on Thursday, but intergovernmental air traffic controller Eurocontrol said the ash cloud could mean transatlantic flights might need to be re-routed.

Airspace above Ireland, Northern Ireland and Scotland was partly shut Wednesday for the second time in two days, causing the cancellation of hundreds of flights.   The fresh disruption came after Europe's skies were closed for up to a week last month by the eruption of the Eyjafjoell volcano. It was the biggest aerial shutdown in Europe since World War II, with more than 100,000 flights cancelled and eight million passengers affected.
More ...

Thailand



*****
Travel in Health in Thailand
*****
General Introduction:
Irish travellers are going to Thailand in great numbers. The relatively cheap cost and also the contrast in culture has captured many hearts. Some are travelli
g for a once off 2 week trip and for others the exploration of Thailand will take longer. It is truly a beautiful country and the people have a charm all of their own but nevertheless your journey can be so very easily ruined by taking health risks.
Water-Borne Disease:
In most of the major cities of Thailand the water supply is well chlorinated and so the risks associated with drinking mains tap water are limited. However many of the bedrooms will not be supplied with mains water so take care. Smell the water and if there is a distinct chlorine odour then it should be safe. Also remember that when you travel around the country, especially around the northern regions, the water supply may be grossly contaminated and so never drink the water or use it for brushing your teeth. Also no ice in your drinks under these circumstances.
Food-Borne Disease:
There is a good selection of food in Thailand and you should have no great difficulty in finding food to suit your taste. In the majority of the restaurants the food is well cooked and maintained in a healthy sterile fashion. These are the places to eat. As you walk around the cities you will see many street traders selling food stuffs from their carts. The level of hygiene is very low and frequently the food will be contaminated. Never indulge yourself by eating from street vendors.
Mosquito-Borne Disease:
Under this title most travellers will only consider the possibility of developing malaria. This is of course one of the most important illnesses transmitted via mosquitoes but by no means the only one in Thailand. For most travellers to Thailand there will be no need to take malarial prophylaxis as the cities are deemed to be free of malaria. This does not mean that you will not be bitten by mosquitoes and develop some of the other diseases such as Dengue Fever or perhaps Japanese Encephalitis. Many travellers also develop a very severe reaction to the mosquito bite and so for all these reasons it is prudent to avoid being bitten whenever possible.
Entertainment-Borne Disease:
It would be wrong not to emphasize the very high risk which travellers face if they are unwise enough to indulge in any form of sexual activity in Thailand. The percentage of street girls with the Aids virus is rising each year and is now thought to be over 80%. This figure may be an underestimate. Be especially careful if you have taken any alcohol. The cities of Bangkok and Pattaya are thought to be among the main centres of HIV transmission throughout the world and within the next few years the extent of the Aids problem in S.E. Asia will have exceeded Africa. There is limited availability of condoms.
Road-Borne Disease:
The traffic situation in Thailand is severe. The motorbikes have no insurance as they are too often involved in accidents. Use only regular taxi cabs and fix your price before you leave.
Vaccination Schedule:
There are no compulsory vaccines for entry into Thailand from Ireland. Nevertheless the usual recommended vaccines include Polio, Typhoid, Tetanus and Hepatitis A cover. For those trekking or staying for longer periods then cover against Hepatitis B and Rabies would be worth discussing.
Most travellers should start their vaccines about 4 to 5 weeks before they leave Ireland.
Note:
For the vast majority of Irish travellers a holiday in Thailand will be a time of great pleasure and, later, fond memories of the people, their customs and the countryside. Just remember that illness can occur so follow some good common sense rules and so you can enjoy yourself
and Travel in Health.

Thailand

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Wed, 25 Mar 2020 16:18:17 +0100 (MET)

Bangkok, March 25, 2020 (AFP) - Thailand barred entry into the kingdom late on Wednesday, enacting sweeping emergency powers in a bid to stem the local spread of the coronavirus outbreak.    The measures, which stopped short of a full lockdown after days of vacillation by the government, are a hammer blow to the country's vital tourism sector.   Tens of thousands of travellers remain in the kingdom, facing uncertainty with airlines in chaos and restrictions on return to their countries.

Bangkok, a city of 10 million, was hushed Wednesday as shops and restaurants shuttered, and Buddhist monks seated a metre apart led an anti-virus prayer session televised nationwide.   But social media showed thousands of foreigners jammed in chaotic lines at the capital's immigration office to file for visa extensions.    The Royal Gazette announced Wednesday night that authorities would "close all checkpoints and gates" for its land borders, while entry by air and ship will also be halted.   Diplomats and returning Thais who have health certificates will still be allowed to return.

All gatherings are also outlawed, and authorities have asked vulnerable people -- like the elderly -- stay home.   But festive ceremonies, like weddings or family activities, may continue under rules issued by the government.    Authorities also banned "reports of untrue news which could lead to fear", under penalty of up to two years in prison.    The state of emergency will continue until April 30.    Thailand currently has 934 confirmed cases of COVID-19, including four deaths.    The highly infectious virus has killed more 18,000 globally, spurring governments to introduce harsh measures forbidding citizens from leaving their homes.

The kingdom was the first country to confirm a case outside China in January, but incremental measures were taken due to its flagging economy's reliance on tourism.    The tripling in cases over the past week has sent Thais in a panic, and many have taken to social media to criticise the government's spotty containment measures.    Premier Prayut Chan-O-Cha warned earlier Wednesday against sharing "fake news" -- a rebuke coming days after a man was arrested for a Facebook post complaining of lax airport checks.   Thailand has in the past enacted emergency laws to quell political riots, which critics say could be used to muzzle the press.
Date: Fri, 6 Mar 2020 11:36:13 +0100 (MET)

Bangkok, March 6, 2020 (AFP) - Thai health authorities on Friday said they would not order the compulsory quarantine of visitors from four countries hit hard by coronavirus, as the kingdom struggles to balance health fears with the needs of its flatlining economy.   The holidays of possibly tens of thousands of people were cast into doubt on Tuesday when the health minister insisted a quarantine of all entrants from nine countries including China -- its territories of Hong Kong and Macau -- Italy, Iran, South Korea and Japan, would be imposed.   On Friday health authorities spiked the plan, instead "recommending" arrivals from just four countries -- China, Iran, Italy and South Korea -- stay indoors and report to authorities for monitoring.   "We recommend home quarantine," Sukhum Kanchanapimai, from the health ministry told reporters, adding those who register with authorities will receive free food from Thailand's biggest grocery group.

All other travellers from the four countries will have to "report on their health status daily", said Tanarak Plipat of the Disease Control Department, or risk "punishment" under the law.   A British man who entered the kingdom from Hong Kong became the country's 48th confirmed case of the virus, health authorities added.   The kingdom has reported one death so far, but the number of cases detected has remained surprisingly low in a country that attracts some 40 million foreigners a year.   Speculation is pointing to a limited testing regime at a time when Thailand is determined not to frighten off tourists.

Friday's announcement, for now, ends a week-long barrage of conflicting information, which baffled holidaymakers hunting winter sun.    But the Tourism Authority of Thailand confirmed Thursday the country could see a loss of six million visitors in 2020.   As a result the country's tourist-reliant economy has hit the skids, with the impact of COVID-19 crisis hacking back at already sluggish growth forecasts to as low as two percent this year.   With exports seizing up to China and other COVID-19 hit nations, experts warn Thailand is facing a hammer blow to its economy.

The COVID-19 crisis has forced Thailand to cancel full moon beach parties, pare back its celebrations of the annual water festival next month and postpone its leg of the MotoGP until October.   While the number of detected virus cases is yet to spike, Thailand's social media is bubbling with coronavirus rumours and health safety advice.   In a Thai-style antidote to the grim warnings over a deadly virus, the BTS - Bangkok's overground train service - on Friday released a jaunty 'COVID-19: Dance Against The Virus' track.   It drew tens of thousands of likes on Facebook hours after making its debut.
Date: Thu, 5 Mar 2020 13:57:14 +0100 (MET)

Bangkok, March 5, 2020 (AFP) - A popular full-moon party in southern Thailand known for its raucous revelry has been cancelled because of the coronavirus, an official said Thursday, the latest hit to a tourism industry which foresees a loss of six million visitors this year.   Tourism is a cornerstone of Thailand's economy, and the virus has wreaked havoc as visitor numbers have dwindled in the wake of the epidemic.

Attracting some 40 million foreigners a year, the Tourism Authority of Thailand confirmed Thursday the country could see a loss of six million visitors in 2020.    Their absence, particularly the Chinese, has turned once-popular tourist attractions -- such as animal-themed parks in Pattaya and the sandy beaches of Phuket -- into near-ghost towns.

The full moon party on southern island Koh Phangan -- which draws some 10,000 partiers each month -- will be the latest casualty, according to a local official.    "To prevent the spread of COVID-19, (the business association) has voted to suspend the party," Somchai Somwong, Koh Phangan's acting district chief, announced Thursday.

The cancellation comes the week the Thai government plunged tens of thousands of holiday plans in doubt.   Its health minister announced -- and then swiftly rescinded -- an order for all inbound travellers from 11 countries and territories to undergo quarantine, sending waves of concern on Twitter among Thais and foreigner visitors.

On Thursday, the palace mouthpiece Royal Gazette said four countries -- South Korea, Italy, Iran, and China, including Macau and Hong Kong -- would be classified as "high-risk areas".    But details on whether foreign travellers from the four countries would be subjected to a two-week quarantine were not immediately announced.

Thailand currently has 47 confirmed cases of the coronavirus.    The latest announced Thursday include a 42-year-old Thai man and a 29-year-old Italian man, who is currently hospitalised in Chonburi province.    Both had returned from Italy, where there are more than 100 fatalities from the coronavirus.

Despite Bangkok being a major flight hub, Thailand's response to controlling the coronavirus spread has appeared ad hoc.   Conflicting information given by ministries has added to public mistrust, fuelling panic buying of hand sanitisers and face masks across the country.    The Commerce Ministry on Thursday sent out more than 100 "caravans" throughout the country to sell packs of face masks -- drawing lines of retail workers when they stopped at shopping malls.
Date: Mon, 10 Feb 2020 10:59:15 +0100 (MET)

Bangkok, Feb 10, 2020 (AFP) - Russian siblings aged 12 and six-years-old died Monday in a speed boat accident off the tourist island of Phuket, an official said, as two vessels collided near a pier.   The accident took place 100 metres off a privately-run pier in Phuket, after the speed boat carrying Russian tourists to an nearby island crashed into an incoming vessel.   "The cause of accident was speeding by both the drivers," a Phuket government official said, requesting anonymity.

The brother and sister died in the crash, while "21 other Russians were injured, two critically" he added.    Thailand's tourist industry has been hard hit by a combination of the sharp slump in Chinese visitors since the coronavirus outbreak and the strong Thai baht.   Accidents at popular resorts -- mainly car, motorbike and boat crashes -- are common in a kingdom with lax enforcement of safety rules.
Date: Fri 7 Feb 2020
From: Davidson Hamer <dhamer@bu.edu> [edited]

Case report: Japanese encephalitis, Belgian ex Thailand following a short tourist trip
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We would like to report a case of Japanese encephalitis in a 14 year old Belgian girl who had travelled with her family (total 8 persons) to Khao Lak, Phang Nga province, Thailand, on 20 Dec 2019 for a short holiday. During the following 10 days, she undertook day trips to Krabi, Similan Islands, Phi Phi Islands, Krasom, and Amphoe Kapong.

On 30 Dec 2019, 11 days after arrival in Thailand, symptoms began with fever, headache, fatigue, and difficulty in swallowing. On 31 Dec [2019] whilst on the return flight home, she experienced progressive difficulty in walking due to a right-sided hemiparesis and became confused and lethargic.

On 1 Jan 2020, upon initial evaluation at a hospital in Frankfurt, Germany, she had marked confusion and irritability. An initial MRI scan was inconclusive, and results of a lumbar puncture revealed CSF mononuclear pleiocytosis (182 WBC), and serum PCR was negative for JEV. Sedation and mechanical ventilation were initiated, and the patient was transferred to University Hospital Antwerp, Belgium, on 4 Jan 2020. Between 3-6 Jan 2020, serum JEV IgM and IgG became positive (IIFT Flavivirus 2, Euroimmun, Lubeck, Germany); JEV plaque reduction neutralization testing (PRNT) returned greater. than 50% day 7 and greater than 90% day 21 (ATCC CCL-81); on 6 Jan [2020], CSF JEV IgM and IgG were also positive. EEG showed symmetric sedation-like curves without a clear gradient with predominant alpha rhythm superposed on delta (with isolated frontal slow waves).

Fortunately, her 7 other travel companions (including her monozygotic twin sister and her father) all tested negative for JEV IgM seroconversion.

Within a week after the start of mechanical ventilation, attempts to extubate her failed twice, as a result of hypersalivation, swallowing dysfunction, and muscle weakness (hypercapnic respiratory failure). On 10 Jan 2020, sedative medication was discontinued, and the patient could respond to questions appropriately. The strength in her legs and arms returned to normal, but muscle tone and strength in the neck remained weak, and there is residual respiratory muscle weakness and dysphagia, with gastroparesis and vomiting. She had limited enteral intake and, in part, continues to receive parenteral nutrition. On 17 Jan 2020, tracheal cannulation and G-tube placement were performed to assist with breathing and provision of nutritional support.

By 29 Jan 2020, she was breathing independently, slowly recovering, and was able to be transferred from the PICU to a ward. She will be transferred to a long-term rehabilitation hospital in the coming days.

This sad case report highlights the potentially devastating impact of Japanese encephalitis in travelers and how this may arise even after relatively short-term exposure (in this case less than 2 weeks) in major touristic areas. Although major debates persist about the role of vaccination, given the rarity of the disease, the duration of potential exposure in deciding whether to vaccinate, and the cost of the vaccine, travel-medicine providers should continue to describe the potential risk of infection (low) and complications and mortality if infection occurs (high) to travelers to south and south east Asia.
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communicated by:
Dr Ralph Huits
GeoSentinel co-site director
Department of Clinical Sciences at the Institute of Tropical Medicine
Antwerp, Belgium
and
Vanessa Field
GeoSentinel tracking and communication working group chair
====================
[Thailand is endemic for Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus, and Phang Nga province, located in the southern part of the country, can susta inyear-round JE virus transmission. The girl was very unfortunate to have become infected despite a short visit there. Her situation raises the question about the advisability of vaccination of visitors to areas endemic for JE. The USA CDC Advisory Committee of Vaccination Practices states, "JE vaccine is recommended for persons moving to a JE-endemic country to take up residence, longer-term (for example, greater than or equal to one month) travelers to JE-endemic areas, and frequent travelers to JE-endemic areas. JE vaccine also should be considered for shorter-term (for example, less than one month) travelers with an increased risk for JE on the basis of planned travel duration, season, location, activities, and accommodations and for travelers to JE-endemic areas who are uncertain about their specific travel duration, destinations, or activities. JE vaccine is not recommended for travelers with very low-risk itineraries, such as shorter-term travel limited to urban areas or outside of a well-defined JE virus transmission season." The girl and her family would normally not be considered at significant risk for such a short stay in Thailand. About one in 4 people with JE clinical encephalitis die, and about 50% of survivors have permanent neurological sequelae. One hopes that the girl will be one of the remaining 50% that recover completely. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail maps:
Phang Nga, Phang Nga province, Thailand:
More ...

Sao Toma and Principe

Sao Tome and Principe US Consular Information Sheet
August 15, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
São Tomé and Príncipe is a developing nation, comprising the islands of São Tomé and Príncipe, located off the western coast of central Africa.<
R />Facilities for tourism are limited, but adequate.
Read the Department of State Background São Tomé and Príncipe for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport, visa, and evidence of yellow fever vaccination are required for entry.
Visas must be obtained in advance.
Travelers can obtain visas and the latest information on entry requirements from the Permanent Mission of São Tomé and Príncipe to the UN, 400 Park Ave., 7th Floor, New York, NY
10022, telephone (212) 317-0533, fax (212) 317-0580.
Travelers transiting through Gabon can also obtain visas and the latest information on entry requirements from the São Tomé and Príncipe Embassy to Gabon, B.P. 49, Libreville, Gabon, telephone (241) 72-15-27, fax (241) 72-15-28.
Overseas, inquiries should be made at the nearest São Toméan and Príncipian embassy or consulate.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Americans should maintain security awareness at all times.
There have been recent, isolated incidents of civil unrest in the capital city.
Large gatherings or any other events where crowds have congregated to demonstrate or protest should be avoided.

Americans may contact the U.S. Embassy in Gabon for the most up-to-date information on safety and security.
The Embassy informs the registered resident U.S citizen community of security matters through a warden system (please see the Registration/Embassy Location section below for more information).

In the event of a fire, dial 112 on the telephone.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
Crimes such as burglary, pick-pocketing and armed robberies in homes do occur on the islands, particularly around the winter holidays.
Such crimes can occur anywhere, but are more prevalent in public places, such as in markets, on the streets, or near hotels.
Do not display large amounts of cash in public.
If possible, leave valuables and extra cash at your hotel while sightseeing or visiting the beach.
When dining in restaurants or visiting markets, it is recommended that one carry only minimal amounts of cash and avoid wearing excessive amounts of jewelry.
If involved in an attempted robbery or carjacking, Americans are encouraged to comply with the attacker to avoid injury and to report all incidents to the police and the U.S. Embassy in Libreville.
Police response time to reports of crime can be slow.

While scams and confidence schemes are not common, travelers should exercise caution.
The prevalence of sexual assault is low, and no specific groups seem to be targets for victimization.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends, and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

The local equivalent to the “911” emergency line in São Tomé and Príncipe to reach the police is 22-22-22.
See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Medical facilities in São Tomé and Príncipe are extremely limited.
There is one hospital in the country, on the island of São Tomé, and several foreign-run clinics.
However, the level of care is low.
For all but minor medical needs, it is necessary to travel to Libreville (Gabon), Lisbon (Portugal), or elsewhere.
Additionally, some medicines are not available; travelers should carry properly labeled required medicines and medications with them.

The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of São Tomé and Príncipe.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning São Tomé and Príncipe is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Streets in the city of São Tomé are paved, but large potholes are common.
Major roads outside of town are also paved.
Pedestrians, bicyclists, motorcyclists, and animals on the roads can be a major hazard.
Outside of the city of São Tomé, there are no sidewalks or shoulders along the side of roads.
In rural areas outside of the capital city, drivers are expected to honk the car’s horn periodically as a warning signal of their approach.
There is no street lighting outside of the capital.
Some roads may be impassable without a four-wheel-drive vehicle.

Only a few miles of improved roads exist on the island of Príncipe; the conditions are similar to those found on São Tomé.
Although taking taxis is fairly safe, it is advisable to rent a car instead.
If you must take a taxi, exercise caution, and negotiate the rate before entering the taxi.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in São Tomé and Príncipe, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed São Tomé and Príncipe’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
São Tomé and Príncipe is a lusophone country; travelers who do not speak Portuguese may face difficulties associated with the language barrier.

Americans should always carry identification with them in the event they are stopped by police.

Taking photographs of military or government buildings is strictly forbidden.
São Tomé and Príncipe is largely a cash economy.
Credit cards are accepted at only a few major hotels.
Travelers’ checks can be cashed or dollars exchanged for dobra at hotels and at one private bank in São Tomé city, but transaction fees can be high.
U.S. dollars are widely accepted at tourist establishments.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating São Toméan and Príncipian laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in São Tomé and Príncipe are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Although there is no U.S. Embassy in São Tomé and Príncipe, the U.S. Embassy in Libreville, Gabon is also accredited to São Tomé and Príncipe and can provide assistance to Americans there.
All Americans in São Tomé and Príncipe are encouraged to register with the U.S. Embassy in Gabon through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within São Tomé and Príncipe.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
By registering, Americans make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.

The U.S. Embassy is located in downtown Libreville on the Boulevard du Bord de Mer.
The mailing address is Centre Ville, B.P. 4000, Libreville, Gabon.
The telephone numbers are (241) 76-20-03 or (241) 76-20-04.
The fax numbers are (241) 74-55-07 or (241) 76-88-49 and the web site is http://libreville.usembassy.gov/.
*

*

*
This replaces the Country Specific Information dated November 8, 2007 to update sections on Entry/Exit Requirements, Safety and Security, Crime, Information for Victims of Crime, Medical Facilities and Health Information, Traffic Safety and Road Conditions, Special Circumstances, and Registration/Embassy Location.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Tue, 12 Dec 2017 02:47:28 +0100
By Caroline CHAUVET

Sao Tome, Sao Tome and Principe, Dec 12, 2017 (AFP) - A big roadside poster announces a "Pest Control Campaign" in Sao Tome and Principe, with a man in a white face mask wielding an insecticide spray fuelled by a tank on his back.   The island nation in the Gulf of Guinea is at war against malaria, as it has been twice a year since 2003, with such success that the disease no longer routinely claims lives.   In mainland central Africa, the incidence of malaria spread by infected female mosquitos is among the highest rates in the world.

Malaria killed some 445,000 people around the planet in 2016, according to the World Health Organisation (WHO), out of 216 million estimated cases that year.   "Our last death was in 2016. It was a Portuguese man who failed to take measures for prevention and treatment," said Hamilton Nascimento, coordinator of the National Programme to Fight Paludism (PNLP) in Sao Tome.   In 2005, malaria claimed more than 5,000 lives out of about 50,000 infected people in Sao Tome and Principe, according to the WHO.   The humid tropical climate of the islands provides an ideal breeding ground for the female mosquitos that carry the parasitic infection from one person to another with their bloodsucking bites.

- National priority -
Yet since 2014, the number of deaths has fallen to none on Sao Tome, apart from the Portuguese victim. On Principe, lying to the north, malaria has been eradicated, in official terms.   The government wants to wipe it out everywhere by 2025, but the WHO has warned that a sizeable part of future funding is at risk.   The battle against a once endemic disease began as a national priority in the 1980s, in the wake of independence from Portugal in 1975, Nascimento told AFP.

The islands of Sao Tome and Principe, which have a combined land surface of 1,000 square kilometres (386 square miles), benefit from their offshore location west of Gabon and from a small population of less than 200,000 inhabitants.   "We have three strategies: spraying inside houses, distributing mosquito nets impregnated (with insecticide) and the fight against larvae using a biological insecticide that we spread in stagnant waters," Nascimento said.   The population of Sao Tome also has access to free medication to treat malaria and to testing campaigns nationwide. If a case of malaria is detected, "the hospital follows up the patient for 28 days," he added.   "Sick people are given free care by the health centres and medicine is
accessible everywhere in the country."

For all the successes in tackling a disease that has no available vaccine and is prone to mutate, residents of the islands have begun to grow weary of the repeated campaigns.   "The number of people who open their doors to the mosquito sprayers has gone down," Health Minister Maria Jesus Trovoada said, concerned that this refusal to take part "puts all the efforts of the government in peril".   Authorities in Sao Tome and Principe have been clear about their desire to reduce dependence on foreign aid, which accounts for about 90 percent of the nation's resources, and the battle with malaria is part of that goal.   At the end of the 1980s and again in 2012-2013, the disease ravaged the country because of a shortfall in funding and spreading resistance to insecticides, Hamilton said.   "We must often -- about every 10 years -- change the insecticide, because the mosquitos develop resistance," he explained.

- Funding cuts? -
While the government recently stepped up its contribution, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, a foundation partnered with the WHO, finances most measures to beat the disease on the islands.   The grant from the Global Fund may be slashed by more than 50 percent, the WHO warned in a recent report. Sao Tome and Principe would then "need more or less $5 million (4.2 million euros) between 2018 and 2021 to go on getting good results".   "The impact of lack of funding is unknown. However, if current efforts to control malaria have to be reduced due to lack of funds a high risk of a relapse exists," Rebekka Ott, the Global Fund representative on Sao Tome, told AFP.

The foundation is also concerned about Sao Tome's cutting of diplomatic ties with Taiwan at the end of 2016 in order to develop relations with China. Taiwan previously paid more than 30 percent of the cost of fighting malaria.   China, whose flag has already been mounted at the National Centre for Endemics, is expected to take up the baton, but by providing "technical assistance" rather than financial aid.   Whatever the obstacles, the WHO announced in April 2016 that 21 countries in the world may eliminate malaria by 2020. Six of those nations are in Africa: Algeria, Botswana, Cape Verde, Comoros, Swaziland and South Africa.
Date: Wed 8 Feb 2017
From: Raquel Tavares <raquelmrtavares@gmail.com> [edited]
[Re: ProMED-mail posts Buruli ulcer - Sao Tome and Principe
http://promedmail.org/post/20170208.4824961 and http://promedmail.org/post/20170210.4830051]
----------------------------------------------------------------------
In March 2016 we started following a patient from Sao Tome with severe leg ulcer, complicated with bacterial infection and extension to bone. In December 2016, an _Aspergillus fumigatus_ DNA was found in a bone biopsy. The patient has improved since, with anti-fungal therapy (first with itraconazole and in the last 2 months changed to voriconazole). I think this is a possible aetiology. It was a very difficult diagnosis, because normal fungal cultures were negative. We also did DNA and culture for _Mycobacterium ulcerans_ and it was negative.
------------------
Raquel Tavares,
MD Infectious Diseases Specialist
Hospital Beatriz Angelo
Loures Portugal
raquelmrtavares@gmail.com
Date: Fri 3 Feb 2017 13:46 CET
Source: L'Express, Agence France-Presse (AFP) [in French, machine trans., edited]
<http://goo.gl/DUrF3d>

A disease of unknown origin, manifested by a violent cutaneous ulcer, torments the inhabitants of Sao Tome. 1094 cases have been registered since October [2016] among a population of less than 200,000 inhabitants, the health authorities of the small African archipelago announced this [Fri 3 Feb 2017]. The authorities have requested support from the World Health Organization (WHO), which has sent a Benin specialist in Buruli ulcer.
=======================
Dr Irene Lai International SOS
irene.lai@internationalsos.com
=======================
[ProMED-mail thanks Irene Lai for submitting the news report above. Sao Tome, with a population of 56,945 residents, is the capital city of the island nation of Sao Tome and Pri­ncipe, in the Gulf of Guinea, off the western equatorial coast of Central Africa. (<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sao_Tome>). Buruli ulcer (also known as the Bairnsdale ulcer in Australia) is a chronic skin and soft tissue infection due to _Mycobacterium ulcerans_ with large ulcers usually on the legs or arms that can lead to adjacent bone infection and permanent disfigurement and disability.

Buruli ulcer is named after a county in Uganda. _M. ulcerans_ needs a temperature between 29-33 deg C (84.2-91.4) to grow in vitro (<http://jcm.asm.org/content/36/11/3420.full>). The organism produces a unique toxin -- mycolactone, which causes tissue damage and inhibits the immune response. Local immunosuppressive properties of the mycolactone toxin enable the disease to progress with no pain and fever.

The diagnosis can be confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), direct microscopy, histopathology, and culture. Buruli ulcer has been reported in over 30 countries usually with tropical climates in Africa, South America, Asia, and Western Pacific regions, as well as Australia. Countries in West and Central Africa -- Benin, Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Ghana -- report the majority of cases. In Africa, most cases occur in children under 15 years, whereas in Australia, only 10 per cent are children under 15 years; and in Japan, 19 per cent are children under 15 years.

_M. ulcerans_ has been identified in fresh and brackish water and soil in swampy areas. Abrasions of the skin after contact with contaminated water, soil, or vegetation are likely routes of entry. _M. ulcerans_ is not believed to be transmitted from person to person; but the exact mode of transmission is unknown and may vary by geographic region. Vectors, in particular aquatic insects and mosquitoes, may also play a role in some locations.

In south-eastern coastal Australia, possums, which have laboratory-confirmed _M. ulcerans_ skin lesions and/or _M. ulcerans_ PCR-positive faeces, may be a reservoir (ProMED-mail post Buruli ulcer - Australia: (VI) M. ulcerans, possum faeces http://promedmail.org/post/20140913.2771412).

Buruli ulcer has been reported to develop in travellers at the site of a trauma after having left a disease-endemic area. 80 per cent of cases detected early can be cured with a combination of antibiotics; however, late diagnosis can result in long and costly hospitalizations with significant morbidity and disability.

Medical treatment is rifampin, combined with either streptomycin, clarithromycin, or moxifloxacin for 8 weeks, in addition to surgical wound management.

Pictures of Buruli ulcers can be seen at (<https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XCQ67NGmytI>). - ProMED Mod.ML]

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/63>.]
Date: Thu, 5 Jan 2006 From: ProMED-mail Source: Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA) [edited] In response to a cholera outbreak that struck Sao Tome and Principe in Oct 2005, the Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA) is helping to control the outbreak by distributing disinfectants among the community, as well as promoting improved health and sanitation practices through campaigns that teach villagers how to prevent the transmission of this contagious disease. ADRA has organized an awareness campaign among 50 rural community groups targeting 1000 women, focusing primarily on the districts of MeZochi and Caue. With this training, the women become health promoters in their communities, teaching other people the same health and hygiene practices they have been taught. Each woman will receive training on how cholera is transmitted, how it can be treated, and how to prevent it. They will also receive bottles of lye, which they will use to safely disinfect water, food, and any other potential contaminant. In addition, ADRA will distribute 10 health education leaflets to each woman; one for her personal use, and 9 additional leaflets to share among her community. ADRA will also perform a theatre play that will be performed in 24 communities to educate the community on the cholera outbreak. As of 1 Jan 2006, nearly 30 people have succumbed to the disease, since the outbreak began 3 months ago, out of an estimated 1849 severe cases that have been reported since its inception.
Date: Tue, 20 Dec 2005 From: ProMED-mail Source: XinHuaNet.com [edited] The 2-month-old cholera epidemic sweeping Sao Tome and Principe shows no sign of letup, having claimed 5 more lives and doubling the number of reported cases. According to reports reaching here on Mon, 19 Dec 2005, the spokesman for the national committee overseeing the anti-cholera campaign, Jose Manuel de Carvalho, said that 5 more people had died from the disease in the preceding 2 weeks for a total of 25 fatalities. In the same period, de Carvalho added, the number of cases more than doubled to 1374 from 650. The outer island of Principe has so far been spared. He repeated government appeals for increased attention to personal and public hygiene to help staunch the highly infectious disease. Last week, a riot erupted in the archipelago's capital when a police officer tried to enforce a ban on the sale of street food at a Sao Tome market.
More ...

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

More ...

World Travel News Headlines

Date: Mon, 30 Mar 2020 12:35:06 +0200 (METDST)

Brussels, March 30, 2020 (AFP) - Belgium's death toll from the novel coronavirus passed the 500 mark Monday, with almost 12,000 cases detected since the start of the epidemic.   Health authorities in the country of 11.4 million said 513 COVID-19 deaths had been recorded and 11,899 cases confirmed by laboratory tests.

But officials said the rise in admissions to hospital and to intensive care units had slowed slightly over the previous 24 hours.   "We're not at the peak, but at what we call the inflection point -- that means the force of the epidemic is beginning to diminish thanks to the efforts we have all made over the last two weeks," said Emmanuel Andre, spokesman for government's epidemic team.   "It is extremely important to keep up these efforts -- just because the curve is softening slightly today, it doesn't mean it won't get worse if we let up our efforts."

On Friday, Belgium extended lockdown measures by two weeks to April 18 to slow the spread of the virus.   Schools, restaurants and most shops are closed, entry to supermarkets is restricted to allow room for social distancing and people have been told to work from home.

Outdoor sports activities and walks outside are still allowed, but only in small groups, with a friend or with family members living under the same roof.    Prime Minister Sophie Wilmes said the lockdown could be extended by another two weeks to May 3 if the spread of the virus demanded it.
Date: Mon, 30 Mar 2020 12:16:41 +0200 (METDST)

Madrid, March 30, 2020 (AFP) - Spain confirmed another 812 deaths in 24 hours from the coronavirus on Monday, bringing the total number of deaths to 7,340, according to health ministry figures.   It is the first decline in the number of deaths in a 24-hour period since Thursday in Spain, which has the world's second most deadly outbreak after Italy. Spain recorded 838 virus deaths on Sunday.   The number of confirmed cases in Spain has now reached 85,195 -- after the one-day increase of 8.0 percent.

However, officials have pointed to a slower growth rate for both deaths and confirmed cases and expressed hope that the peak of the outbreak was approaching.   The percentage increase in the number of deaths on Monday over the previous day was of 12.4 percent, less than half the increase of 27 percent recorded on Wednesday.

Spain imposed a near-total nationwide lockdown on March 14 to try to curb the spread of the virus, banning people from leaving their homes except to go to work, buy food and medicine or care for a sick relative.   Prime Minister Pedro Sanchez on Saturday announced even stricter lockdown measures which will force all non-essential workers in the nation of around 47 million residents to stay home for the next two weeks.
Date: Mon, 30 Mar 2020 11:21:42 +0200 (METDST)

Harare, March 30, 2020 (AFP) - Zimbabwean authorities on Monday began enforcing a three-week lockdown in its fight against the spread of coronavirus after the disease left one person dead and infected six others.   President Emmerson Mnangagwa declared a 21-day "total" lockdown from Monday curtailing movement within the country, shutting most shops and suspending flights in and out of Zimbabwe.    Police mounted checkpoints on routes leading to Harare's central business district, stopping cars and turning away pedestrians who had no authorisation to be in the area.

Elsewhere truckloads of metropolitan and national police armed with batons were on patrol, ordering people back to their homes.   "We don't want to see people here on the streets. We don't want to see people who have no business in town just loitering," a policewoman said through a loud hailer. "Everyone to their homes."   Her colleagues, in riot gear, dispersed people standing in small groups at the Copacabana minibus terminus, which is usually abuzz with people including foreign currency dealers.    In the township of Mbare, the usually bustling  terminus for long-distance buses was deserted with only municipal street cleaners sweeping the empty bus ranks.   A traditionally busy downtown area of Harare referred to as "The Third World" resembled a ghost town with few people on the streets. Most shops had their shutters down.

For many of the country's 16 million people, who are already suffering a grim economic recession, the lockdown means even tougher hardship.   With unemployment rate estimated at around 90 percent, most Zimbabweans have informal jobs to eke out a living and few have substantial savings.   Some were trying to leave the city for rural villages.   "We would rather spend the 21 days at our rural home, where we don't have to buy everything. I can't afford to feed my family here when I am not working," said Most Jawure.   "We have been waiting here for more than two hours but there are no buses," Jawure told AFP while standing with his wife and daughter beside a bulging suitcase.
Date: Mon, 30 Mar 2020 09:48:42 +0200 (METDST)

Moscow, March 30, 2020 (AFP) - Moscow on Monday imposed a lockdown in a bid to slow the spread of the coronavirus as Russian Prime Minister Mikhail Mishustin asked regional authorities to make similar preparations.    The enforcement of the tough new rules, which were suddenly announced by Moscow Mayor Sergei Sobyanin late Sunday, coincide with the beginning of a "non-working" week declared by President Vladimir Putin last week.   Europe's largest city announced the strict new isolation measures after many Muscovites refused to heed official recommendations and self-isolate at the weekend and instead went to parks for barbecues.

On Monday, the streets of Moscow were deserted following the closure of all non-essential shops, including restaurants and cafes, but traffic was still seen on the roads in the city centre.   "I ask regional heads to work on the introduction of quarantines similar to the one introduced in Moscow," Mishustin said at a government meeting.   In a rare televised address last Wednesday, Putin announced that Russians would not be required to go to work this week, but would still get paid.   The country has so far reported 1,534 cases of coronavirus and eight deaths, with more than one thousand infections in the capital.   The new restrictions apply to all of the city's residents, regardless of age.

Muscovites will only be allowed to leave their homes in cases of a medical emergency, to travel to jobs judged essential, and to shop for food or medicines.   People will be allowed to take out trash and walk their dogs within a 100-metre (330-foot) radius of their homes.   The new isolation rules, which will be policed by a vast system of facial-recognition cameras in Moscow, come into force as Russia closes its borders as part of increasingly stringent measures to stop the spread of COVID-19.
Date: Mon, 30 Mar 2020 08:20:07 +0200 (METDST)

Shanghai, March 30, 2020 (AFP) - A passenger train derailed after striking debris from a landslide in central China on Monday, injuring a number of passengers and staff, officials said.   The accident happened around midday in a rural part of Hunan province and came after recent heavy rains triggered landslides in the area, the state-run railway system said.   The statement said one car caught fire and five derailed. An unspecified number of staff and passengers were sent to hospital for treatment.

There were no immediate reports of deaths.   Unverified video posted on Chinese social media sites showed at least three cars lying on their side and smoke rising from a fire in the distance.   The train was travelling from the eastern city of Jinan to Guangzhou in the nation's south.   Parts of southern, eastern and central China have been soaked by steady rains beginning last week.
Date: Mon, 30 Mar 2020 08:10:11 +0200 (METDST)

Mogadishu, March 30, 2020 (AFP) - A governor in Somalia's Puntland has been killed in a suicide bombing claimed by the al-Shabaab jihadist group, police and hospital sources said Monday.   Abdisalan Hassan Hersi, governor of Nugaal region, succumbed to his injuries after being rushed to hospital in Garowe, the capital of Puntland where the blast occurred Sunday.   "The doctors tried to save the governor's life but unfortunately he died from his injuries," Mohamed Weli, a police officer in Puntland, told AFP by phone.   "He was in a critical condition when he was admitted to hospital."   A source at the hospital, who did not wish to be identified, said the governor died less than an hour after being admitted to the intensive care ward.   "He was badly wounded in the blast and he had little chance of surviving such serious injuries," the source told AFP.

A former police commander and a civilian also wounded in the blast were being treated at hospital, officials said Monday.   Several witnesses described the attacker running at the governor's vehicle before detonating a suicide vest, triggering an explosion.   Al-Shabaab, an Islamist militant group waging a deadly insurgency in Somalia, claimed responsibility for the attack in a statement.   The Al-Qaeda affiliate was driven out of Mogadishu in 2011 and lost most of their strongholds, but still control vast swathes of the countryside.   They have vowed to overthrow the internationally-backed government in Mogadishu and have carried out many attacks in the capital.
Date: Sun, 29 Mar 2020 20:06:11 +0200 (METDST)

Luanda, March 29, 2020 (AFP) - Angola has recorded its first two deaths from coronavirus, out of the seven confirmed cases in the southwestern African country, health minister said Sunday.   "We now have seven confirmed cases and unfortunately two people lost their lives between last night and this morning," Health Minister Silvia Lutucuta told a news conference.   The fatalities were both Angolan citizens -- a 59-year-old, who was regularly resident in Portugal,but returned home on March 12 and a 37-year-old who had returned home from Lisbon the following day.
Date: Sun, 29 Mar 2020 11:48:20 +0200 (METDST)

Montevideo, March 29, 2020 (AFP) - Uruguay reported its first death linked to the novel coronavirus on Saturday, a former minister and ally of the ruling party, the government said.   "With deep sadness we announce the first death due to coronavirus in Uruguay," Secretary of the Presidency Alvaro Delgado told a press conference, naming the victim as Rodolfo Gonzalez Rissotto.

Gonzalez Rissotto was one of nine patients with the coronavirus who were in intensive care, Delgado said, adding his death was "all the more reason to reinforce the request to everyone to take care of themselves and stay home."   President Luis Lacalle Pou paid tribute in a tweet.   "A big hug for the family and friends of Rodolfo Gonzalez Risotto. Friend and counselor. RIP."   Uruguay has reported 304 confirmed cases of the virus.
Date: Fri 27 Mar 2020
Source: AP News [edited]

Standing over the still body of an intubated 5-year-old boy wearing nothing but a plastic diaper, an Iranian healthcare worker in a hazmat suit and mask begged the public for just one thing: Stop drinking industrial alcohol [methanol, the most common industrial alcohol] over fears about the new coronavirus.

The boy, now blind after his parents gave him toxic methanol in the mistaken belief it protects against the virus, is just one of hundreds of victims of an epidemic inside the pandemic now gripping Iran.

Iranian media report nearly 300 people have been killed and more than 1000 sickened so far by ingesting methanol across the Islamic Republic, where drinking alcohol [ethanol] is banned and where those who do rely on bootleggers. An Iranian doctor helping the country's Health Ministry told the Associated Press on Friday [27 Mar 2020] the problem was even greater, giving a death toll of around 480 with 2850 people sickened. [Apparently all from methanol intoxication. - ProMed Mod.TG]

The poisonings come as fake remedies spread across social media in Iran, where people remain deeply suspicious of the government after it downplayed the crisis for days before it overwhelmed the country.

"Other countries have only one problem, which is the new coronavirus pandemic. But we are fighting on 2 fronts here," said Dr. Hossein Hassanian, an adviser to Iran's Health Ministry, who gave the higher figures to the AP. "We have to both cure the people with alcohol [methanol] poisoning and also fight the coronavirus."

For most people, the new coronavirus causes mild or moderate symptoms, such as fever and cough, clearing up in 2-3 weeks. For some, especially older adults and people with existing health problems, it can cause more severe illness, including pneumonia, or death.

The pandemic has swept across the world, overwhelming hospitals, crippling economies, and forcing governments to restrict the movements of billions of people. Particularly hard hit has been Iran, home to 80 million people.

As of now, there is no known cure for COVID-19, the illness caused by the virus. Scientists and doctors continue to study the virus and search for effective medicines and a vaccine.

But in messages forwarded and forwarded again, Iranian social media accounts in Farsi falsely suggested a British schoolteacher and others cured themselves of the coronavirus with whiskey and honey, based on a tabloid story from early February [2020]. Mixed with messages about the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers, some wrongly believed drinking high-proof alcohol would kill the virus in their bodies.

The Islamic Republic has reported over 29 000 confirmed cases [of COVID-19] and more than 2200 deaths from the virus, the highest toll of any country in the Middle East. International experts also fear Iran may be under-reporting its cases, as officials for days played down the virus ahead of a parliamentary election.

That fear of the virus, coupled with poor education and internet rumours, saw dozens sickened by drinking bootleg alcohol containing methanol in Iran's southwestern Khuzestan province and its southern city of Shiraz. Videos aired by Iranian media showed patients with IVs stuck in their arms, lying on beds otherwise needed for the fight against the coronavirus, including the intubated 5-year-old boy. Iranian media also reported cases in the cities of Karaj and Yazd.

In Iran, the government mandates manufacturers of toxic methanol add an artificial color to their products so the public can tell it apart from ethanol, the kind used in cleaning wounds. Ethanol is also the kind of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, though its production is illegal in Iran.

Some bootleggers in Iran use methanol, adding a splash of bleach to mask the added color before selling it as drinkable. Sometimes it is mixed with consumable alcohol to stretch supply, and other times it comes as methanol, falsely advertised as drinkable. Methanol also can contaminate traditionally fermented alcohol.

Methanol cannot be smelled or tasted in drinks. It causes delayed organ and brain damage. Symptoms include chest pain, nausea, hyperventilation, blindness, and even coma.

Hassanian said his figures included reports from coroner's offices around Iran also counting those who died outside of hospitals from the poisonings.

"Unfortunately, in some provinces, including Khuzestan and Fars, deaths from drinking methanol has exceeded the number of deaths from the new coronavirus," he said.

Dr. Knut Erik Hovda, a clinical toxicologist in Oslo, said to expect more methanol poisoning victims.

"The virus is spreading, and people are just dying off, and I think they are even less aware of the fact there are other dangers around," Hovda said. "When they keep drinking this [methanol], there's going to be more people poisoned."

Even before the outbreak, methanol poisoning had taken a toll in Iran. One academic study found methanol poisoning sickened 768 people in Iran between September and October 2018 alone, killing 76.

Other Muslim nations banning their citizens from drinking also see such methanol poisoning, although Iran appears to be the only one in the pandemic so far to turn toward it as a fake cure. In Buddhist Cambodia, police said they seized 4200 liters (1100 gallons) of methanol from a man who unwittingly planned to make toxic hand sanitizer because of the virus outbreak.

Muslim drinkers in Iran can be punished with cash fines and 80 lashes. However, minority Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians can drink alcoholic beverages in private.

While police occasionally announce alcohol busts, the trade in nontoxic alcohol also continues. Locally made Iranian arak from fermented raisins, known as Aragh sagi, sells for USD 10 for a 1.5 l [1.6 qt] bottle. Imported vodka sells for USD 40 a bottle.

"Every year during Nowruz, or the Persian New Year holidays beginning 21 Mar 2020, my customers double," said Rafik, an Iranian-Armenian who makes vodka in the basement of his Tehran home. He spoke on the condition only his 1st name be used for fear of arrest. "This year [2020], because of coronavirus, it jumped up by 4- or 5-fold."

Farhad, a self-described heavy drinker who lives in central Tehran, said alcohol remains easy to find for those looking for it. "Even you can find it offered when you are walking down the street, " he said.

Since 1979, Iran's 40 alcohol factories have seen their production changed to pharmaceutical needs and sanitizers. Others had been left idle, like the abandoned Shams alcohol factory east of Tehran.

But now, in a time when even some mosques in Iran hand out high-proof alcohol as a sanitizer, officials plan to start work again at Shams to produce 22 000 l [23 247 qt] of 99% alcohol a day. [This alcohol is not for internal consumption but can be used in hand sanitizers. - ProMed Mod.TG]  [Byline: Nasser Karimi and Jon Gambrell]
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[Methanol toxicity initially lacks severe toxic manifestations. Its pathophysiology represents a classic example of lethal synthesis in which toxic metabolites cause fatality after a characteristic latent period. In other words, these people may not realize they are sick or ill until sometime after consumption.

Methanol is sometimes used as an ethanol substitute for alcohol. Foods such as fresh fruits and vegetables, fruit juices, fermented beverages, and diet soft drinks containing aspartame are the primary sources of methanol in the human body, but [they contain] minute quantities.

Wood alcohol is also known as methanol. It is a commonly used toxic organic solvent causing metabolic acidosis, neurologic issues, and death when ingested. It is a part of many commercial industrial solvents and of adulterated alcoholic beverages or is mistaken as being the same as alcohol for ingestion. Methanol toxicity remains a common problem in many parts of the developing world, especially among members of lower socioeconomic classes.

Neurological complications are recognized more frequently due to advanced technologies and because of early recognition of the toxicity and advances in supportive care. Hemodialysis and better management of acid-base disturbances remain the most important therapeutic improvements.

Serum methanol levels of greater than 20 mg/dL correlate with ocular injury. Funduscopic changes are notable within only a few hours after methanol ingestion. The mechanism by which the methanol causes toxicity to the visual system is not well understood. Formic acid, the toxic metabolite of methanol, is regarded as being responsible for ocular toxicity, and blindness can occur in humans.

The prognosis in methanol poisoning correlates with the amount of methanol consumed and the subsequent degree of metabolic acidosis; more severe acidosis confers a poorer prognosis. Methanol has a relatively low toxicity. The adverse effects are thought to be from the accumulation of formic acid, a metabolite of methanol metabolism. The prognosis is further dependent on the amount of formic acid that has accumulated in the blood, with a direct correlation existing between the formic acid concentration and morbidity and mortality. Little long-term improvement can be expected in patients with neurologic complications.

The minimal lethal dose of methanol in adults is believed to be 1 mg/kg of body weight. The exact rates of morbidity and mortality from methanol intoxication are not available.

Rapid, early treatment is necessary for survival, but sequelae such as blindness may be permanent.

Metabolic acidosis in methanol poisoning may necessitate the administration of bicarbonate and assisted ventilation. Bicarbonate potentially may reverse visual deficits. In addition, bicarbonate may help to decrease the amount of active formic acid.

Antidote therapy, often using ethanol or fomepizole, is directed towards delaying methanol metabolism until the methanol is eliminated from the patient's system either naturally or via dialysis. Like methanol, ethanol is metabolized by ADH [alcohol dehydrogenase], but the enzyme's affinity for ethanol is 10-20 times higher than it is for methanol. Fomepizole is also metabolized by ADH; however, its use is limited because of high cost and lack of availability.

Hemodialysis can easily remove methanol and formic acid. Indications for this procedure include (1) greater than 30 mL [1 oz] of methanol ingested, (2) serum methanol level greater than 20 mg/dL, (3) observation of visual complications, and (4) no improvement in acidosis despite repeated sodium bicarbonate infusions.

Intravenous administration of ethanol in a 10% dextrose solution may be helpful. As ethanol prolongs the elimination half-life of methanol, the treatment may take several days, and the patient should be hospitalized. Dialysis may be necessary to prevent kidney failure as well. Hemodialysis remains an effective treatment.

Portions of this comment were extracted from

This tragic development is another example of the broader deleterious impact of a pandemic on other aspects of public health.  Anecdotal reports of other potentially harmful "home remedies" for COVID-19 being hawked on the internet reminds us that education of the general public and responsible messaging are more important now than ever. - ProMed Mod.LXL]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Date: Fri, 27 Mar 2020 22:49:49 +0100 (MET)

Dublin, March 27, 2020 (AFP) - Ireland is to impose a lockdown in a bid to stem the spread of the coronavirus, Prime Minister Leo Varadkar said on Friday.   "Everybody must stay at home, in all circumstances," he said of the new measures to come into force at midnight (0000 GMT) on Saturday and last until 12 April.   Exceptions will be made for essential workers, medical appointments and the purchase of food.   Travel for "vital family reasons", for farming and exercise within two kilometres (one mile) of homes will also be allowed.

All public or private gatherings "of any number of people" outside a single household are also prohibited.   "These are radical actions aimed at saving as many people's lives as possible," said Varadkar at a press conference.   "I'm asking us for a time to forego our personal liberties and freedoms for a greater cause."   There have been 22 COVID-19 related deaths and 2,121 confirmed cases of the virus in Ireland, according to department of health figures released earlier Friday.   Earlier this month the Irish government ordered schools, universities and pubs to close nationwide.   Swathes of non-essential businesses were also ordered shut earlier this week as Ireland braced for an uptick of COVID-19 cases within its borders.

Emergency coronavirus legislation passed through the final stages of Irish parliament and was signed into law by president Michael D. Higgins earlier Friday.   The bill enacts a rent freeze and a moratorium on evictions for the duration of the crisis.   It also streamlines the registration of healthcare and defence forces staff returning to the workforce, and enables the Irish government's financial supports to those laid off as a result of COVID-19 business closures.   "The legislation is emergency legislation for a time of crisis," said Higgins in a statement.   "These are difficult times, but our difficulties will come to an end."