23rd September 2008
Ghana is a developing country on the West Coast of Africa. The capital is Accra. Facilities for tourism are available in the population centers of the greater Accra regio
A passport and visa are required, as is evidence of a yellow fever vaccination. Travelers should obtain the latest information and details from the Embassy of Ghana, 3512 International Drive NW, Washington, DC
20008; telephone (202) 686-4520. Consular services are also available at the Ghana Permanent Mission to the UN at 19 East 47th Street, New York, NY
10017, telephone (212) 832-1300, and the Honorary Consulate of Ghana, 3434 Locke Lane, Houston, TX, telephone (713) 960-8806. Overseas, inquiries should be made at the nearest Ghanaian embassy or consulate. Visit the Embassy of Ghana web site at www.ghanaembassy.org for the most current visa information.
Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.
SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Due to the potential for violence, U.S. citizens should avoid political rallies and street demonstrations and maintain security awareness at all times. There will be frequent political rallies across Ghana in the run-up to the presidential and parliamentary elections on December 7, 2008.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.
Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll-free in the U.S. and Canada, or for other callers, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).
The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.
Pick-pocketing, purse snatching, and various types of scams are the most common forms of crime confronting visitors. U.S. travelers have reported these types of theft at crowded markets, beaches, parks, and tourist attractions. Incidences of violent crime, such as armed robbery, are on the rise, including reports of armed robberies in expatriate residential areas. Victims who resist attackers run a high risk of serious physical injury. Take security measures, such as traveling in groups and avoiding travel at night. Avoid travel in communal taxis. Travelers who limit their display of jewelry and handle their cash discreetly reduce their vulnerability to crime. Travelers are advised to carry limited amounts of cash and only photocopies of key documents.
Use of credit cards in Ghana should be avoided if possible, as a growing number of travelers have been victims of credit card fraud.
In recent years, U.S. citizens have reported substantial financial losses from questionable transactions involving gold and other precious metals. The Government of Ghana maintains strict regulations on these natural resources. All agents must be licensed and all transactions must be certified. (See Special Circumstances below).
Perpetrators of business fraud often target foreigners, including Americans. Such fraud schemes are now prevalent throughout West Africa, including Ghana.
Please refer to the Country Commercial Guide for Ghana at http://www.buyusa.gov/ghana/en/doing_business_in_ghana.html, for further information.
American citizens frequently consult the Embassy regarding questionable business offers sent by people in Ghana. These are scams and typically begin with an unsolicited communication (usually by e-mail) from an unknown individual who describes a situation that promises quick financial gain, often by assisting in the transfer of a large sum of money or valuables out of the country.
A series of “advance fees” must be paid in order to conclude the transaction, such as fees to open a bank account or to pay certain taxes.
In fact, the final payoff does not exist; the purpose of the scams is simply to collect money from the victim.
The Embassy has also received reports of fraudulent charities soliciting contributions through the Internet or direct mail. If you receive such business offers or charity requests, carefully check them out before you commit any funds, provide any goods or services, or undertake any travel. Check with the U.S. Embassy in Ghana at telephone (233-21) 741-100 for an assessment of the offer’s credibility.
Another type of fraud is committed by persons claiming to live in Ghana or who claim to be traveling to Ghana on business, and who profess friendship or romantic interest over the Internet. Once a relationship has been established, the correspondent typically asks the American to send money for living expenses, travel expenses, or visa costs. Sometimes a “hospital” or “doctor” telephones to say that the friend has suffered an “accident” and needs immediate financial assistance to cover medical bills. There are other variations of this scam, but the common goal is to fraudulently obtain as much money as possible from the victim.
Americans have reported losing thousands of dollars through such scams. The anonymity of the Internet means that the victim cannot be sure of the real name, age, marital status, nationality, or even gender of the correspondent. In most cases reported to the Embassy, the correspondent turned out to be a fictitious persona created to lure Americans into sending money.
Visitors to Ghana should also be wary of overly-friendly locals offering tours, discounted lodging or other services that seem too good to be true.
Tourists are often targeted by touts and scam artists.
Some Americans have been the victims of false criminal accusations and have found themselves separated from time, money and trust as they seek to resolve these difficult situations.
For additional information, please see the Department of State brochure International Financial Scams.
INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.
Ghana maintains a specialized Domestic Violence Victim Support Unit (DOVVSU) within the Ghana Police Service to assist victims of domestic violence, especially women and children. In addition to its law enforcement responsibilities, the Unit can refer victims to medical providers and counselors, as well as to community support services. Further information is available by following the DOVVSU link at www.ghanapolice.org
The local equivalent to the “911” emergency line in Ghana is: 191
See our information on Victims of Crime.
MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Medical facilities in Ghana are limited, particularly outside Accra, the capital. Travelers should carry adequate supplies of any needed prescription medicines, along with copies of their prescriptions, the generic name of the drugs, and a supply of preferred over-the-counter medications. For information on avian influenza (bird flu), please refer to the Department of State's Avian Influenza Fact Sheet.
Documentation of Yellow fever vaccination is required upon arrival from all countries.
There are no HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Ghana.
Motor vehicle accidents, drownings and water-related accidents due to Ghana’s rough surf, muggings and other violent attacks, and the development of sexually transmitted diseases—including HIV—are
health and safety concerns that have been reported by U.S. citizens and can be at least partially mitigated by using common-sense safety precautions.
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.
TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Ghana is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
Primary roads are generally paved and well maintained. However, some side roads within major cities and roads outside of major cities are in poor condition. The road from Accra to the central region tourist area of Cape Coast continues to be the site of many accidents. Travel in darkness, particularly outside the major cities, is extremely hazardous, due to poor street lighting and the unpredictable behavior of pedestrians, bicyclists and farm animals, particularly goats and sheep. Aggressive drivers, poorly maintained vehicles and overloaded vehicles pose serious threats to road safety.
The safety standards of the small private buses that transit roads and highways are uncertain. Travelers are encouraged to consider this when making travel arrangements.
Travelers are routinely stopped at police checkpoints throughout Ghana, and vehicles and passengers may be searched. Drivers must possess an international driver’s license (available from AAA and the American Automobile Touring Alliance). Foreign nationals should carry documentation of their status, such as a passport and visa.
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. Visit the website of Ghana’s national tourist office at http://www.touringghana.com/default.asp and the national authority responsible for road safety at http://www.mrt.gov.gh/
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Ghana’s Civil Aviation Authority as not being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for the oversight of Ghana’s air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.
Service provided by a number of regional air carriers is reported to be unreliable. The airlines may alter scheduled stops, cancel or postpone flights on short notice, and regularly overbook flights. Travelers may experience unexpected delays even after checking in. Passengers should get the required seat reconfirmation stamped on the ticket, have enough emergency funds for food and lodging in case of unexpected delays, and arrive at the airport at least two hours before the scheduled departure time.
Effective July 1, 2007, the Government of Ghana redenominated the local currency, the cedi, introducing new banknotes (Ghana Cedi) and coins (Ghana Pesewa). 10,000 cedis = 1 Ghana Cedi = 100 Ghana Pesewas. The old cedi was taken out of circulation on December 31, 2007, and as of January 1, 2008, can be converted only at commercial banks or the Bank of Ghana. Travelers should be alert to persons who may try to defraud them with the old and new bills. The Government of Ghana established a web site in 2007, www.ghanacedi.gov.gh, to inform the public about the redenomination exercise. The web site includes a useful currency converter.
Visitors arriving or departing Ghana with more than $5,000 in cash are required to declare the amount at the border. Currency exchange is available at most banks and at licensed foreign exchange bureaus, but currency transactions with private citizens are illegal. The Government of Ghana also prohibits departing travelers from carrying more than 5,000,000 cedis (500 Ghana Cedis) out of the country. Ghanaian currency must either be spent or exchanged before departure, or it will be confiscated.
Strict customs regulations govern temporary importation into or export from Ghana of items such as gold, diamonds and precious natural resources. Only agents licensed by the Precious Metals and Mining Commission, telephone (233-21) 664-635 or 664-579, may handle import-export transactions of these natural resources. Any transaction without the commission’s endorsement is illegal and/or fraudulent. All transactions must be completed through the commission at the price set daily by the London exchange. Any transaction that discounts this price, or includes a previously negotiated price, is either illegal or fraudulent. Export of gold dust is rare as it encourages dangerous and environmentally destructive practices, and transactions involving the export of gold dust are probably fraudulent. Attempts to evade regulations are punishable by imprisonment. It is advisable to contact the Embassy of Ghana in Washington, DC, or one of the Ghanaian consulates in the United States, for specific information regarding customs requirements.
In rare instances, visitors arriving in Ghana with sophisticated electronic equipment (video cameras and laptop computers) may have to deposit 17.5 per cent of the item's value with the Customs and Excise office at the airport. To get the deposit refunded, visitors must apply to the Customs and Excise Office in central Accra 48 hours before departure.
Taking pictures near sensitive installations, including military sites and some government buildings, is prohibited. These sites are not always clearly marked and application of these restrictions is subject to interpretation. Permission may be obtained from Ghanaian security personnel. Permission should also be obtained before photographing anyone in uniform (e.g., police officers and military officers). In some cases, film and cameras have been confiscated. For security reasons, taking photographs of the U.S. Embassy is also prohibited.
It is strictly prohibited to wear any military apparel such as camouflage jackets or trousers, or any clothing or items that may appear military in nature.
Please see our Customs Information.
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Ghana laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Ghana are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.
REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Ghana are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Ghana. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located at No. 24 Fourth Circular Road, Cantonments, Accra; telephone (233-21)741-000. The public entrance to the Consular Section is No. 19 Fifth Link Road, Cantonments, Accra; telephone (233-21) 741-100; fax (233-21) 741-362 or 741-426; after-hours (233-21) 741-775.
This replaces the Country Specific Information for Ghana dated February 21, 2008, to update sections on safety and security, crime, information for victims of crime, and medical facilities and health information.
Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS
Accra, Oct 18, 2019 (AFP) - Floods caused by eight days of torrential downpours in north-eastern Ghana have left 28 people dead and displaced hundreds, officials said Friday. "At the moment the death toll is 28. About 640 people in some six communities have been displaced and we are providing shelters for them," George Ayisi, spokesman for the National Disaster Management Organisation, told AFP. "We've counted about 286 collapsed houses during this disaster and that is making life difficult for the people."
Relief items were being transported 800 kilometres (500 miles) by road from the capital Accra to the affected region on the border with Burkina Faso as meteorologists warned the rains could last into November. "We have to just prepare for anything," Ayisi said. So far this year 46 people have been killed in floods in the West African nation, the disaster relief agency said. Flooding in northern and other parts of Ghana happens each year during the rainy season. Last year, 34 people died in northern Ghana during flooding caused by heavy rains and waters spilling from a dam in Burkina Faso.
Received from HPSC (Ireland)
HPSC website: https://www.hpsc.ie/a-z/vaccinepreventable/polio/
HPSC has received an alert through IHR regarding a recent case of cVDPV2 in a 2 year old female in Ghana who presented with AFP. Hence the cVDPV2 outbreak originating in Jigawa state, Nigeria, continues to spread in West Africa. Given cross-border population movements with Nigeria and across West Africa, subnational immunity and surveillance gaps, Ghana is considered at high-risk for further transmission of the isolated cVDPV2. In Ghana, the last wild poliovirus was reported in 2008 and this is the first ever cVDPV2 outbreak reported in the country. [Authorities in] G
cVDPV2 outbreak originating in Jigawa state, Nigeria, continues to spread in West Africa. In Ghana, cVDPV2 was isolated from an acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) case in Ando-Nyamanu, Chereponi district, Northern Region, bordering Togo. The case is a two-year and eight-month old girl who had onset of paralysis on 27 July 2019. Stool samples were taken on 27 and 28 July 2019 and were sent to the National Polio Laboratory at Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research for laboratory investigations. The sample tested positive for cVDPV2 as per result received on 17 August 2019. The sequencing information of the AFP case revealed 25 nucleotide differences compared to the reference Sabin 2 and 6 nucleotides with the closest matching sequence of the AFP case from Kwara State of Nigeria in 2018. Earlier, a related cVDPV2 had been isolated from an environmental sample, collected on 11 June 2019, from Northern Region in Ghana. Both isolated viruses are linked to an outbreak originating in Jigawa, Nigeria, in 2018. This same strain has already spread within Nigeria, and internationally to the Republic of Niger, Benin and Cameroon. On 25 August 2019, the Polio Laboratory reported the isolation of polio virus type 2 in an environmental surveillance (ES) site at Agbogbloshie in Accra, Greater Accra Region, from routine surveillance. This was confirmed as cVDPV2 on 26 August. An emergency meeting with key stakeholders and partners of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was held on the 19 August 2019, to discuss response measures in response to this, the Ministry of Health / Ghana Health Service has taken these immediate actions: 1. A national team made up of the Ghana Health Service and the WHO has been deployed to support the regional and district teams carry out detailed investigations and response measures
The Ministry of Health has declared detection of this virus to be a national public health emergency, in line with temporary recommendations issued by the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee regarding the international spread of poliovirus. The Ministry of Health and its Partners are working tirelessly to contain the situation and to prevent the spread of the disease.
2. A full epidemiological and field investigation is ongoing, active surveillance is being strengthened, subnational population immunity levels are being analysed and outbreak response actions are being planned
3. Areas at risk are mapped conduction of reactive vaccination campaign in the affected and adjoining high risk districts and planned following approval from the Polio Advisory Group for monovalent Oral Polio Vaccine Type 2 (mOPV2)
Given cross-border population movements with Nigeria and across West Africa, subnational immunity and surveillance gaps, Ghana is considered at high-risk for further transmission of the isolated cVDPV2. As the current detected case is in a district sharing international land border with Togo where there is a very low population immunity against type 2 poliovirus (IPV coverage of 20% in 2018), there is an increased risk of further international spread of this outbreak. As this outbreak, originating in Jigawa Nigeria has already spread to Niger, Cameroon and Benin the risk of further international spread across West Africa associated with this virus, remains high.
It is important that all countries, in particular those with frequent travel and contacts with polio-affected countries and areas, strengthen surveillance for AFP cases in order to rapidly detect any new virus importation and to facilitate a rapid response. Countries, territories and areas should also maintain uniformly high routine immunization coverage at the district level to minimize the consequences of any new virus introduction.
<< < P <<>Polio is a highly infectious disease and can cause permanent paralysis or death. The risk of paralytic polio due to exposure to cVDPV2 remains high due to the low population immunity against polio type-2 virus, after the global switch from trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) to bivalent OPV (bOPV). The national immunization coverage for Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (IPV) in Ghana was 55% for 2018 (WHO/UNICEF estimation). Poliovirus is a pathogen slated for global eradication. In July 2019, cVDPV2 has been confirmed in Ghana in an environmental sample and the last wild poliovirus was reported in 2008. Any detected Poliovirus subtype either in humans or the environment after the global synchronized withdrawal of tOPV in April 2016 is unusual and unexpected and remains to be of a huge cause of concern. Poliovirus spreads easily and across large distances. There is evidence of genetic linkage of polio virus isolated from Ghana with polio viruses originating in, Nigeria which has already spread to Niger, Cameroon and Benin. The Chereponi district from where the case is reported also shares an international border with Togo that has low population immunity to type 2 Polio (IPV coverage was 20% for 2018). The risk of further spread to Togo cannot be ruled out.
WHO does not recommend any restriction on travel and/or trade to Ghana based on the information available for the current polio outbreak.
cVDPV2 outbreak originating in Jigawa state, Nigeria, continues to spread in West Africa. In Ghana, cVDPV2 was isolated from an acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) case in Ando-Nyamanu, Chereponi district, Northern Region, bordering Togo. The case is a two-year and eight-month old girl who had onset of paralysis on 27 July 2019. Stool samples were taken on 27 and 28 July 2019 and were sent to the National Polio Laboratory at Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research for laboratory investigations. The sample tested positive for cVDPV2 as per result received on 17 August 2019. The sequencing information of the AFP case revealed 25 nucleotide differences compared to the reference Sabin 2 and 6 nucleotides with the closest matching sequence of the AFP case from Kwara State of Nigeria in 2018. Earlier, a related cVDPV2 had been isolated from an environmental sample, collected on 11 June 2019, from Northern Region in Ghana. Both isolated viruses are linked to an outbreak originating in Jigawa, Nigeria, in 2018. This same strain has already spread within Nigeria, and internationally to the Republic of Niger, Benin and Cameroon.
On 25 August 2019, the Polio Laboratory reported the isolation of polio virus type 2 in an environmental surveillance (ES) site at Agbogbloshie in Accra, Greater Accra Region, from routine surveillance. This was confirmed as cVDPV2 on 26 August.
An emergency meeting with key stakeholders and partners of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was held on the 19 August 2019, to discuss response measures in response to this, the Ministry of Health / Ghana Health Service has taken these immediate actions:
1. A national team made up of the Ghana Health Service and the WHO has been deployed to support the regional and district teams carry out detailed investigations and response measures
By Stacey KNOTT
Cape Coast, Ghana, April 30, 2019 (AFP) - Ghana on Tuesday rolled out the world's only proven malaria vaccine for infants as part of a landmark campaign against the deadly mosquito-borne disease, one week after Malawi became the first country to do so. Malaria kills hundreds of thousands of people each year, mainly in Africa, and it is hoped a vaccine will bring down the toll. Children are especially at risk, and babies were Ghana's first vaccine recipients Tuesday in the town of Cape Coast, 150 kilometres (90 miles) west of the capital Accra. "I hope this will help us to be able to eliminate malaria, so Ghana can be a malaria-free country," said Justice Arthur, the doctor running the clinic.
The vaccines will be given to children between the ages of six months and two years, in a project run by Ghana's health ministry and the World Health Organization (WHO). "I am really hopeful that the vaccine is going to help me and my family," said Abigail Aguanyi, a woman waiting to get her child, Blessing, vaccinated. Many of her family members had previously been stricken. The vaccine, known by its lab initials RTS,S, has passed lengthy scientific trials which found it to be safe and effective at preventing about four in ten cases of malaria in infants -- the best ever recorded. To achieve this level of partial protection, four successive doses must be administered on a strict timetable -- a challenge for rural Africa.
- 'Exciting' -
The rollout in Ghana, Malawi, and soon also Kenya, will seek to evaluate the vaccine's effectiveness as a complementary tool, augmenting -- but not replacing -- measures such as insecticide-treated bed nets and the use of sprays. It will also test the feasibility of administering the four required doses in children in areas of the world with limited access to healthcare. Data from the programme will inform a WHO policy on the broader use of RTS,S. Malaria is spread to people by mosquitoes, which transfer the parasite while sucking blood from humans. RTS,S is effective against the Plasmodium falciparum parasite most prevalent in Africa. In Ghana alone, there were 5.5 million confirmed cases of malaria last year, and many more suspected.
Worldwide, the WHO says malaria killed 435,000 people worldwide in 2017. The number of cases climbed to 219 million in 2017, two million more than in 2016. Over 90 percent of cases occurred in Africa. "This is an exciting and long-awaited step forward to fight malaria and its devastating effects on the most vulnerable," said WHO boss in Ghana, Owen Kaluwa.
Source: Ghana Web [edited]
A new surge of the contagious viral eye disease known [locally] as "apollo" or haemorrhagic conjunctivitis has been confirmed by doctors at the Tamale Central Hospital in the northern regional capital. Apollo is an infection caused by the Coxsackie virus and presents with painful swollen red eyes, purulent discharges and headache, and affects the lining of the eyelids and eyeball. It usually affects both eyes but may affect one eye and later spread to the other. The disease affects people of all ages, particularly those in crowded living conditions (i.e., homes, schools, daycare centres, and work places) and those who engage in poor handwashing practices.
Apollo is spread by contact with the hands, towels, face cloths, goggles and other surfaces exposed to secretions that contain the virus. The symptoms of apollo include sore eyes, feeling of grittiness or burning, redness, watery discharge, swelling of eyelids and light sensitivity. The disease has damaged eyes of many people since its last outbreak 7 years ago in the country. A report of the outbreak has been issued by the senior optometrist of the hospital, Dr. Daniel Opoku, to the National Health Directorate in the region. The report said the hospital had received an increasing number of cases of the disease since last month [October 2018], without specifying a figure.
The statement also confirms some of the hospital staff have been affected in the outbreak and have been asked to visit the eye clinic for treatment. The hospital staff have been cautioned to be careful in their contact with patients and their folders. The staff have also been advised to practice proper hand hygiene to avoid being infected. The Ophthalmological Society of Ghana (OSG) in the region has not commented on the report, and there have not been any comments from the Red Cross Society. The Regional Health Service has confirmed the report but said the situation is being contained.
[Acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) was 1st described in Ghana in 1969 . Its appearance coincided with the 1st Apollo moon landing, prompting the Ghanaians to give it the name Apollo 11 disease . The etiological agent in this outbreak was identified as enterovirus 70 (EV70) [2, 3]. In the following year , an outbreak of apollo was described in Singapore ; however, in this case, the cause was determined to be a Coxsackie virus A24 variant (CVA24v) .
Since then, numerous reports of AHC have emerged from across the world, associated with either EV70 or CVA24v. These 2 viruses are now recognized as the primary agents of AHC . ... AHC usually resolves without sequelae, although secondary corneal infection has been reported after treatment with topical steroids .
1. Chatterjee S, Quarcoopome CO, Apenteng A. Unusual type of epidemic conjunctivitis in Ghana. Br J Ophthal 1970;54:628-630.
2. Kono R. Apollo 11 disease or acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis: a pandemic of a new enterovirus infection of the eyes. Am J Epidemiol 1975;101:383-390.
3. Mirkovic RR, Kono R, Yin-Murphy M, et al. Enterovirus type 70: the etiologic agent of pandemic acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis. Bull World Health Org 1973;49:341-346.
4. Mirkovic RR, Schmidt NJ, Yin-Murphy M, Melnick JL. Enterovirus etiology of the 1970 Singapore epidemic of acute conjunctivitis. Intervirology A 1974;4:119-127.
5. Line KH, Yin-Murphy M. An epidemic of conjunctivitis in Singapore in 1970. Singapore Med J 1971;12:247-249.
6. Wright PW, Strausss GH, Langford MP. Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis. Am Fam Phys 1992;45:173-178. …
8. Vajpayee RB, Sharma N, Chand M, et al. Corneal superinfection in acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis. Cornea 1998;6:614-617. Excerpted from Burr SE, Sillah, Joof H, et al. An outbreak of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis associated with coxsackievirus A24 variant in The Gambia, West Africa. BMC Res Notes 2017;10:692. - ProMED Mod.LK]
Accra, Sept 20, 2018 (AFP) - At least 34 people have died in northern Ghana during flooding caused by heavy rains and waters spilling from a dam in neighbouring Burkina Faso, relief agency officials said Thursday. Bagre Dam is located on the White Volta river that begins in Burkina Faso and which converges with the Black Volta downstream and feeds into Lake Volta in southern Ghana. The authorities open the dam's spillways during annual rains, but the excess volumes of water regularly flood communities along the rivers.
People living along the White Volta have been urged to stay away from its banks.Others have been told to move to higher ground. Seji Saji, deputy head of Ghana's National Disaster Management Organisation, said the situation was under control and teams were working flat out to reach those affected. "In all we have on record 34 deaths and two people missing. The affected people are over 52,000 and we are still assessing the situation," he added. "All these happened during the time that the river overflowed its banks but the rate of spillage has reduced considerably and fortunately since last week and this week there has not been any heavy rainfall."
Ghana's President Nana Akufo-Addo and his government have been criticised for not visiting victims of the floods. Aid agency Oxfam's inequality programmes and campaign manager in Ghana, Zakaria Sulemana, said the situation required "high-powered political attention". "People want to hear the president, in fact we should have seen the president visit the area to console them or better still initiate an action to ensure that this does not happen again," he added. Saji said Vice-President Mahamudu Bawumia will be visiting flood victims this weekend. In 1999, flooding in the Upper West, Upper East, Northern and Brong Ahafo and Volta regions of northern Ghana affected more than 300,000 people, according to NADMO.
World Travel News Headlines
Manila, Nov 20, 2019 (AFP) - Philippine police were ordered Wednesday to arrest anyone caught vaping in public, just hours after Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte announced he would ban e-cigarettes. The abrupt prohibition, revealed by Duterte late Tuesday adds to a growing global backlash against a product once promoted as less harmful than tobacco smoking.
Duterte, a former smoker, called the devices "toxic" and said vaping introduced "chemicals" into the user's body. He ordered the arrest of anyone vaping publicly in a country that already has some of Asia's toughest anti-smoking rules. No formal, written order has been made public that spells out the scope of the ban or penalties for violations. Duterte is notorious internationally for his deadly anti-narcotics crackdown, but he has also targeted tobacco with a wide-ranging ban on smoking in public. Citing "the order of the president", on Wednesday a statement from the head of the Philippine police ordered "effective today, all police units nationwide to enforce the ban on use of vapes; ensure that all violators will be arrested".
The ban came days after Philippine health authorities reported the nation's first vaping-related lung injury, which resulted in a 16-year-old girl being hospitalised. Vaping has taken off in the Philippines, with speciality shops and vapers puffing away in public a common sight. E-cigarette users were caught off guard by the ban and questioned the utility of arresting people who, at worst, were hurting themselves. "It's inappropriate. In any case, we don't hurt people, the environment or animals," said 22-year-old student Alexis Martin. "Why are vapers being targeted?"
E-cigarettes warm flavoured liquid to produce vapour that is free of the estimated 7,000 chemicals in tobacco smoke, but does contain a number of substances that could potentially be harmful. Critics say that apart from being harmful in themselves, the multiple exotic flavours of e-cigarette liquids appeal particularly to youngsters and risk getting them addicted to nicotine.
The devices have become hugely popular in the past decade but a rash of vaping-linked deaths and illnesses in the United States is feeding caution about the product, already banned in some places. In September 2019 India became the latest country to ban the import, sale, production and advertising of e-cigarettes, citing in particular concerns for its youth. The devices are already banned in several places such as Brazil, Singapore, Thailand and the US state of Massachusetts.
Lagos, Nov 20, 2019 (AFP) - Nigerian President Muhammadu Buhari on Wednesday announced a campaign to end defecation in public, in a country where tens of millions of people going to the toilet outside poses a major health risk. "Nigeria has committed to end open defecation throughout the country by 2025," a statement by the presidency said a day after the United Nations marked World Toilet Day. The decree set up a new body called the Clean Nigeria Campaign Secretariat to ensure "that all public places including schools, hotels, fuel stations, places of worship, market places, hospitals and offices have accessible toilets and latrines within their premises".
According to the United Nations children agency, UNICEF, Nigeria has amongst the highest number of people practising open defecation in the world, estimated at over 46 million people -- almost a quarter of the population. Around Nigeria each year 87,000 children die from diarrhoea, with more than 90 per cent of deaths caused by a lack of water, sanitation and hygiene, according to the World Bank. The new agency will be disbanded when the goal of ending open defecation has been met, the presidency said.
Kampala, Nov 20, 2019 (AFP) - Global health charity Marie Stopes said Wednesday it had recalled hundreds of thousands of faulty condoms on sale in Uganda, where HIV rates are among the highest in the world. The recall followed a warning from Uganda's National Drug Authority (NDA) that the Life Guard brand condoms had failed manufacturing "quality tests" because they contained holes and may burst. The affected condoms were manufactured by India-based MHL Healthcare in April 2019 and have an expiry date of April 2024, the government regulator said. Marie Stopes Uganda spokesman David Kamu told AFP on Wednesday that the two affected batches each contained "around 400,000" condoms.
Earlier reports had suggested millions of condoms could have been involved but NDA spokesman Fred Ssekyana told AFP the figure was below one million. Marie Stopes Uganda said more than half of the condoms of concern had been recalled. "While the LifeGuard brand follows strict quality controls, unfortunately two recent batches have fallen short of the quality we demand," the charity's country director, Carole Sekimpi, said in a statement Tuesday. Marie Stopes is the largest and most specialised sexual reproductive health organisation in Uganda, the charity says on its website. According to UNAIDS, 1.4 million Ugandans are living with HIV. Last year 53,000 people were newly infected with the disease in the East African country, the UN agency said.
Luanda, Nov 20, 2019 (AFP) - Angola recorded an outbreak of polio this week after almost a decade without cases of the paralysing viral disease, the government said. The highly infectious condition mainly affects children under the age of five. It attacks the nervous system and can lead to total paralysis, or in some cases death. "After seven years without polio we are unfortunately confronted with a difficult situation," Angola's health minister Sante Silvia Lutucuta said on Monday, at the launch of a new vaccination campaign in the capital Luanda. "We have recorded 44 new cases in ten of the country's 18 provinces," she added.
The vaccination campaign is expected to reach 2.5 million children aged five and under. "All children must be protected by three doses of the oral anti-poliomyelitis vaccine," said Lutucuta, adding that the campaign would span over two weeks to "control the epidemic". Two out of three strains of the wild polio virus have been eradicated so far, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). While only 33 wild polio cases were reported globally last year, vaccine-derived polio still breaks out sporadically in some parts of Africa and Asia. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended that all travellers to Angola be fully vaccinated against the virus.
Bangkok, Nov 21, 2019 (AFP) - A 6.1-magnitude earthquake hit north-western Laos near the Thai border early Thursday, the United States Geological Survey reported. The shallow quake hit at 6:50 am local time (2350 Wednesday GMT), USGS said.
Sydney, Nov 21, 2019 (AFP) - The fire danger was elevated across wider swathes of southern Australia on Thursday, with residents warned to avoid at-risk areas as smoke from bushfires choked Sydney and other major cities. Devastating fires along the country's east coast have claimed six lives and destroyed more than 500 homes since mid-October, with climate change and unseasonably hot, dry conditions fuelling the unprecedented blazes. Now the fire danger has moved into states further south, with a so-called "Code Red" -- the highest possible fire risk in Victoria -- being declared in the state's northwest for the first time in a decade. "What that means is that if we see fires in those areas they will be fast moving, they will be unpredictable, they will be uncontrollable," emergency management commissioner Andrew Crisp told reporters.
Country Fire Authority chief Steve Warrington told people living in rural areas to leave for the safety of cities. "We are saying, 'do not be there, do not be there when a fire occurs, because you will not survive if you are there'," he said. "There is a good chance if a fire occurs that your home will be destroyed." The fire danger was also elevated to "severe" in the island state of Tasmania off mainland Australia's southeastern coast, where a total fire ban was declared. Two bushfires in the state's northeast did not pose an immediate threat to residents, the Tasmania Fire Service said.
For the second time in two days, smoke from bushfires blanketed Sydney, Australia's biggest city and home to more than five million people, sending air quality plummeting to hazardous levels. More than 110 fires are still burning in worst-hit New South Wales and neighbouring Queensland, while in South Australia more than 40 fires broke out during catastrophic fire conditions Wednesday. A South Australia Country Fire Service spokeswoman said all of those blazes had been brought under control or extinguished by Thursday, with the exception of a major fire on the Yorke Peninsula that had come perilously close to a small town.
Conditions were expected to ease in the coming days in South Australia, where the state capital Adelaide was also shrouded in bushfire smoke and residents were being told to stay indoors for health reasons. Bushfire-prone Australia has experienced a horror start to its fire season, which scientists say is beginning earlier and becoming more extreme as climate change pushes temperatures higher and saps moisture from the environment after months of severe drought. Growing calls to curb fossil fuels and drastically cut greenhouse gas emissions are being ignored by the country's conservative government, which is eager to protect its lucrative mining industry. The country is bracing for challenging fire conditions to continue throughout the Southern Hemisphere summer.
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