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Greenland

Located to the northeast of Canada, Greenland lies mostly within the Arctic Circle, extending to within less than 500 miles (800 km) of the North Pole. It is bordered on the north by the Lincoln Sea and the Arctic Ocean, and on the east and south by the G
eenland Sea, the Denmark Strait, and the Atlantic Ocean.

Its climate is bleak and Arctic, although rapid changes like bright sunshine and powerful blizzards are common. Average January and July temperatures in the south are 21°F (-6°C) and 45°F (7°C). In the north, average January and July temperatures are -31°F (-35°C) and 39°F (4°C). Average monthly precipitation decreases from 9 inches (24 cm) in the south to about half an inch (1.5 cm) in the north. Although summer rainfall is concentrated in the southwest, snow can fall in any month. Summers can be rather pleasant on the southwest coast, but the inland ice is uniformly cold, with a July average of 10°F (-12°C) and a February mean of -53°F (-47°C).

Health Precautions
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General Cautions
Recent medical and dental exams should ensure that the traveler is in good health. Carry appropriate health and accident insurance documents and copies of any important medical records. Bring an adequate supply of all prescription and other medications as well as any necessary personal hygiene items, including a spare pair of eyeglasses or contact lenses if necessary.

Denmark, Greenland and the Faeroe Islands US Consular Information Sheet
August 15, 2006
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: Denmark is a highly developed stable democracy with a modern economy. Greenland is a self-governing dependency of Denmark. The Faroe Islands are a self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Denmark for additional information.

ENTRY REQUIREMENTS: Passport and visa regulations are similar for Denmark, Greenland, and the Faroes. A valid passport is required. U.S. citizen tourist and business travelers do not need visas for visits of up to 90 days. That period begins when entering any of the following countries which are parties to the Schengen agreement: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden. See our Foreign Entry Requirements brochure for more information on Denmark and other countries. Contact the Royal Danish Embassy at 3200 Whitehaven Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20008, telephone (202) 234-4300 or visit its website at for the most current visa information.

Note: Although European Union regulations require that non-EU visitors obtain a stamp in their passports upon initial entry to a Schengen country, many borders are not staffed with officers carrying out this function. If an American citizen wishes to ensure that his or her entry is properly documented, it may be necessary to request a stamp at an official point of entry. Under local law, travelers without a stamp in their passports may be questioned and asked to document the length of their stay in Schengen countries at the time of departure or at any other point during their visit, and could face possible fines or other repercussions if unable to do so.

Find more information about Entry and Exit Requirements pertaining to dual nationality and the prevention of international child abduction .
SAFETY AND SECURITY: Denmark remains largely free of terrorist incidents, however the country shares, with the rest of Western Europe, an increased threat of Islamic terrorism. Like other countries in the Schengen area, Denmark's open borders with its Western European neighbors allow the possibility of terrorist groups entering and exiting the country with anonymity. Americans are reminded to remain vigilant with regard to their personal security and to exercise caution.

Public demonstrations occasionally occur in Copenhagen and other Danish cities and are generally peaceful events. Prior police approval is required for public demonstrations, and police oversight is routinely provided to ensure adequate security for participants and passers-by. Nonetheless, as with any large crowd comprised of diverse groups, situations may develop which could pose a threat to public safety. U.S. citizens are advised to avoid areas where public demonstrations are taking place.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State's web site , where the current Worldwide Caution Public Announcement , Travel Warnings, and Public Announcements can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll-free in the United States, or, for callers outside the United States and Canada, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State's pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad .
CRIME: Denmark, Greenland, and the Faroes all have very low violent crime rates, however, non-violent crimes of opportunity have slightly increased over the last few years, especially in Copenhagen and other major Danish cities, where tourists can become targets for pickpockets and sophisticated thieves. Criminals frequent airports, train stations, and cruise ship quays to take advantage of weary, luggage-burdened travelers. Thieves also operate at popular tourist attractions, shopping streets, and restaurants. In hotel lobbies and breakfast areas, thieves take advantage of even a brief lapse in attention to snatch jackets, purses, and backpacks. Women's purses placed either on the backs of chairs or on the floor are typical targets for thieves. Car and home break-ins are also on the rise.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends, and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

Denmark has a program to provide financial compensation to victims who suffer serious criminal injuries. According to existing regulations, the victim must report the incident to the police within 24 hours. Danish police routinely inform victims of serious crime of their rights to seek compensation. The relevant forms can be obtained from the police or the Danish Victims' Compensation Board: Civilstyrelsen, Erstatningsnaevnet, Gyldenløvesgade 11, 1600 Copenhagen V, TEL: (45) 33-92- 3334; FAX: (45) 39-20-45-05; www.erstatningsnaevnet.dk ; Email: erstatningsnaevnet@erstatningsnaevnet.dk . Claim processing time is a minimum of 4 weeks. There is no maximum award limit.

See our information for Victims of Crime .
MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Excellent medical facilities are widely available in Denmark. In Greenland and the Faroe Islands, medical facilities are limited and evacuation is required for serious illness or injury. Although emergency medical treatment is free of charge, the patient is charged for follow-up care.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC's website at . For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int.en. Further health information for travelers is available at .

MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas .

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Denmark is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

A valid U.S. driver's license may be used while visiting Denmark, but the driver must be at least 18 years old. Driving in Denmark is on the right side of the road. Road signs use standard international symbols. Many urban streets have traffic lanes reserved for public transport only. Unless otherwise noted on traffic signs, the speed limit is 50 km/h in urban areas, 80 km/h on open roads, and 130 km/h on expressways.

Use of seat belts is mandatory for drivers and all passengers. Children under three years of age must be secured with approved safety equipment appropriate to the child's age, size, and weight. Children from three to six years of age may use approved child or booster seats instead of seat belts.

Driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs is considered a very serious offense. The rules are stringently enforced, and violations can result in stiff fines and possible jail sentences.

Copenhagen, the capital and largest city in Denmark, has an extensive and efficient public transportation system. Trains and buses connect Copenhagen with other major cities in Denmark and to Norway, Sweden, and Germany. Bicycles are also a common mode of transportation in Denmark. Passengers exiting public or tourist buses, as well as tourists driving rental cars, should watch for bicycles on their designated paths, which are usually located between the pedestrian sidewalks and the traffic lanes.

Danish expressways, highways, and secondary roads are of high quality and connect all areas of the country. It is possible to drive from the northern tip of Denmark to the German border in the south in just four hours. Greenland has no established road system, and domestic travel is performed by foot, boat, or by air. The majority of the Faroe Islands are connected by bridges or serviced by boat. Although the largest islands have roads, most domestic travel is done on foot, horseback, boat, or by air.

The emergency telephone number for police/fire/ambulance in Denmark and the Faroe Islands is 112. In Greenland contact the local police.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. Visit the website of the country's national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at . See also additional information on driving in Denmark at .

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the government of Denmark's Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for the oversight of Denmark's air carrier operations. This rating applies to Greenland and the Faroe Islands as well. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA's Internet website at www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa .

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: The official unit of currency in Denmark is the Danish krone. ATM machines are widely available throughout Denmark. Please see our information on customs regulations .

For information concerning the importation of pets into Denmark, please visit the following website:
.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protection available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Denmark's laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Denmark are severe and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties .

CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children's Issues website.

REGISTRATION/EMBASSY LOCATION: Americans living or traveling in Denmark are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department's travel registration website , and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Denmark. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located at Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24; 2100 Copenhagen, telephone: (45) 33-41-71-00; Embassy fax: (45) 35-43-02-23; Consular Section fax: (45) 35-38-96-16; After-hours emergency telephone: (45) 35-55-92-70. Information is also available via the U.S. Embassy's website at http://www.usembassy.dk. The United States has no consular presence in Greenland or the Faroe Islands.
* * *
This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated February 10, 2006, to update the section on Entry Requirements and Traffic Safety and Road Conditions.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu, 17 Oct 2019 05:32:08 +0200 (METDST)
By Tom LITTLE

Kulusuk, Denmark, Oct 17, 2019 (AFP) - Kayaking past blue-white icebergs drifting along near a pristine harbour, wandering around colourful houses or trekking in the snow-capped wilderness: July and August are high season for tourists in eastern Greenland.   Many of the 85,000 tourists who visit each year head to the west coast, but eastern Greenland, with its glaciers, wilderness and wildlife starring whales and polar bears, is also drawing visitors.

Sarah Bovet, a 29-year-old Swiss artist, said it's hard to know what to expect.   "Thinking you're going to be surprised, you are even more so in reality," she said standing outside a hostel in the tiny village of Kulusuk.   Bovet was on an artistic residency in Greenland when she visited Kulusuk and its 250 souls.   Although she had imagined a small village before arriving, its stunning views and bright colours still came as a surprise.   With just one supermarket, an airport built in the 1950s by the US military to serve a Cold War radar base, and a harbour surrounded by brightly painted wooden houses, most of the villagers appreciate the extra revenue from tourism.

Justus Atuaq, a young hunter in Kulusuk, takes tourists out on sled tours in March and April -- the spring high season -- earning money that helps him feed and care for the dogs he uses for racing and hunting.   "Now I can take dogsleds for hunting, and sometimes tourists coming from other countries also want to dogsled," he said outside his wooden house.   Tourists also take boat trips during the summer high season from July to August.   Arrivals to the island grew 10 percent year-on-year from 2014 to 2017, and three percent in 2018, according to the tourist board, Visit Greenland.   Many adventure seekers and nature lovers arrive by plane, but cruise ships also bring admirers, hugging the picture perfect coastline.

- Growing strategic importance -
But they are not alone in taking an interest in the world's largest island.   The Danish territory's rich natural resources and growing strategic importance as the Arctic ice sheet melts have attracted the attention of US President Donald Trump.   The Arctic region has untapped reserves of oil, gas and minerals, as well as abundant stocks of fish and shrimp.   In August, Trump offered to buy Greenland, then called off a visit to Copenhagen over its refusal to sell.

Denmark colonised Greenland in the 1700s, granting it autonomy in 1979.    Today, many Greenlandic political parties advocate full independence.   The territory still receives an annual subsidy from Copenhagen, which was 4.3 billion Danish kroner (576 million euros) in 2017, and tourism could help it to become economically self-reliant.   Like many parts of Greenland, Kulusuk has no tarmac roads and visitors must travel by plane or boat.   The growth in tourism could put a strain on the village's infrastructure, and the sector faces unique challenges given Greenland's location, weather and the cost of travelling there.

Day tours of Kulusuk with flights from the Icelandic capital Reykjavik are 97,000 Icelandic kronur ($780, 700 euros).   Jakob Ipsen, a 48-year-old who grew up between Denmark and Greenland's west coast, runs Kulusuk's sole hotel.   The 32-room hotel stands beside a fjord, and from its dining room, guests can watch icebergs drift by during the summer.    But the region's isolation can be problematic, Ipsen admits.    "We have to get all our supplies in with the first ship for the whole summer season, and for the winter season when everything is frozen over, we have to get all our supplies in with the last ship for the whole winter," he said.

- 'They go back as different people' -
Greenland must tackle its infrastructure challenges if it wants to develop tourism, Visit Greenland says.   Government-funded work is under way to extend runways at the capital Nuuk and Ilulissat, both on the west coast, and a new airport is planned in the south.   The tourist body said it would weigh the environmental impact of boosting infrastructure, both on the environment and on local communities.    Ipsen worries about the effects of uncontrolled tourism to the region.   "We want to try to maintain it as it is, so it's not exploding," he said.

Already, said Johanna Bjork Sveinbjornsdottir, who runs tours in Kulusuk for an Iceland-based company, the rise in visitor numbers is making itself felt.   "In the campsites here out in nature where you used to be alone, there's two, three groups at a time," she said.   Like Ipsen, she is also concerned about the effect that rising visitor numbers could have on the wilderness around the village.    "If you want nature to survive that, you have to build up the infrastructure," she said, pointing to the lack of officially designated campsites around Kulusuk, with no rubbish bins or toilets for travellers outdoors and no one supervising the sites.   Despite the concerns, Sveinbjornsdottir hopes visitors will keep coming.   "They go back as different people," she said. "Everything is beyond what you ever imagined."
Date: Fri, 16 Nov 2018 14:19:01 +0100

Copenhagen, Nov 16, 2018 (AFP) - Greenland's parliament has adopted a plan to upgrade or build airports to serve the massive North Atlantic island, keen to attract more tourists to its pristine Arctic wilderness.   Two airports -- in the capital Nuuk and in the tourism centre Ilulissat -- will be substantially upgraded, making it possible to fly directly to Greenland from Europe and North America.

A new national airport will be built in Qaqortoq in the south.   Greenland is an autonomous Danish territory. The plans have been controversial because of Copenhagen's direct financial involvement.   The project is estimated to cost at least 3.6 billion kroner (482 millions euros, $546 million).   Almost 20 percent of the financing will be provided by Denmark, which contributes 3.6 billion kroner to the island's annual budget.   Parliament adopted the proposal late Thursday with 18 out of 29 votes.

In September, the project plunged Greenland into a three-week political crisis, with an independent supporting party quitting the government coalition in protest against Denmark's involvement.   The social democratic Siumut party, which has dominated Greenland politics for four decades, was ultimately able to cling to power with a new, narrower majority.   "We are creating lots of opportunities for Greenland's future. We are not selling out," Prime Minister Kim Kielsen insisted in parliament's debate, local television KNR reported.   The three airports will serve the main population centres of the island, which is home to 55,000 people spread out across an area more than four times the size of France.

Smaller communities have meanwhile complained they will remain isolated.   In addition, "other risks have also been raised, like the reaffirmed presence of the US military, which not everyone sees as a positive thing, and the environmental risks brought on by better international connections," Mikaa Mered, a professor of Arctic geopolitics at the ILERI School of International Relations in Paris, told AFP.

Since 2009, Greenland has been largely independent when it comes to its economic policy but foreign and defense issues remain under Copenhagen's control.   "The big winner in this affair is Copenhagen. Both on the political, economic and geopolitical levels, Copenhagen is strengthening its positions across the board, vis-a-vis China and the triangular alliance with Washington," Mered said, referring to Beijig's eagerness to invest in the Arctic which has raised concern in the US.   Construction of the airports is scheduled to be completed by 2023.
Date: Fri, 13 Jul 2018 14:25:42 +0200

Stockholm, July 13, 2018 (AFP) - A massive iceberg drifting near the coast of Greenland has triggered fears of flooding if it breaks up, leading the authorities to  evacuate a high-risk zone.    The authorities have urged residents of the Innarsuit island settlement with houses on a promontory to move away from the shore over fears that the iceberg, which was spotted on Thursday, could swamp the area.   "We fear the iceberg could calve and send a flood towards the village," Lina Davidsen, a security chief at the Greenland police, told Danish news agency Ritzau on Friday.

The settlement in northwestern Greenland has 169 inhabitants, but only those living closest to the iceberg have been evacuated, Ritzau reported.    "The iceberg is still near the village and the police are now discussing what do to next," Kunuk Frediksen, a police chief in the Danish autonomous territory, told AFP.   The incident comes weeks after scientists at New York University shot and released a video of a massive iceberg breaking free from a glacier in eastern Greenland in June.    Last year, four people died and 11 were injured after an earthquake sparked a tsunami off another island settlement called Nuugaatsiaq, sending several houses crashing into the sea.
Date: Mon, 14 Aug 2017 17:54:23 +0200

Stockholm, Aug 14, 2017 (AFP) - Police in Greenland warned people to stay away from western areas of the island as wildfires scorched swathes of scrubland.     In a statement, the police said it "still discourages all traffic -- including hiking and hunting -- in two areas around Nassuttooq and Amitsorsuaq."     "The fires are not expected to end within the next few days," the statement added.    Some of the blazes have been burning since July 31.

Denmark's meteorological service BMI said the island registered its hottest-ever temperature of 24.8 degrees (77 Fahrenheit) on August 10.   Last year was Greenland's hottest on record.    The Danish territory has lost about 4,000 gigatons of ice since 1995, British researchers said in June, making ice melt on the huge island the biggest single contributor to rising sea levels.
Date: Sun, 18 Jun 2017 16:10:26 +0200

Stockholm, June 18, 2017 (AFP) - Four people were listed as missing Sunday after an earthquake sparked a tsunami off Greenland and forced some residents to be evacuated.   "Four people are missing," local broadcaster KNR quoted local police chief Bjorn Tegner Bay as telling a news conference in the autonomous Danish territory.   There were no confirmed fatalities, but Bay said 11 houses had been swept away after a magnitude 4 overnight quake off Uummannaq, a small island well above the Arctic Circle.    "The huge waves risk breaking over Upernavik and its environs. The residents of Nuugaatsiaq are going to be evacuated," police said on Facebook, referring to nearby hamlets.

Some residents posted images to social media showing huge waves breaking over buildings in the town.   "A good explanation is that the quake created a fault at the origin of a tsunami," meteorologist Trine Dahl Jensen told Danish news agency Ritzau, warning of potential aftershocks.   "It's not normal, such a large quake in Greenland," she said.   KNR quoted Ole Dorph, mayor of Qaasuisup, a municipality in the area affected, as lamenting "a serious and tragic natural catastrophe which has affected the whole region."   Danish Prime Minister Lars Lokke Rasmussen tweeted news of what he termed a "terrible natural catastrophe at Nuugaatsiaq."   The world's largest island situated between the North Atlantic and Arctic oceans, Greenland, population 55,000, has an ice sheet particularly vulnerable to climate change.
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Burkina Faso

Burkina Faso US Consular Information Sheet
May 07, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Burkina Faso, previously known as Upper Volta, is a landlocked, developing country in the Sahel region of West Africa.
Its capital is Ouagadougou.
Burki
a Faso is a former French colony; the official language is French.
It is one of the world’s poorest countries, and tourism infrastructure is limited.
Please read the Department of State Background Notes on Burkina Faso for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A valid passport, visa, evidence of yellow-fever vaccination are required for entry into the country. Visas valid for seven days are available at land borders and for 21 days at the airport; however, both can be converted into visas of up to five years validity at the Direction du Controle des Migrations, a government office in central Ouagadougou.
U.S. travelers should obtain longer-validity visas from the Embassy of Burkina Faso, 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC
20008, telephone (202) 332-5577. Overseas inquiries should be made at the nearest Burkinabe embassy or consulate.
Visit the Embassy of Burkina Faso web site at http://www.burkinaembassy-usa.org/ for the most current visa information.
Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Ouagadougou occasionally experiences demonstrations and civil unrest.
U.S. citizens traveling to and residing in Burkina Faso are urged to exercise caution and maintain a high level of security awareness at all times.
Although most demonstrations are generally peaceful, there have been several incidents of violence and destruction within recent years.
U.S. citizens should avoid crowds, political gatherings, and street demonstrations, even if they appear to be peaceful.
There have been no known terrorist incidents (bombings, hijackings or kidnappings) directed against foreigners in Burkina Faso.
Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
Street crime in Burkina Faso poses high risks for visitors. Most reported incidents involve purse-snatchers and street scam artists, who target wallets, jewelry, cell phones and other valuables. Thieves are especially active during international meetings or events, which draw large crowds to the capital. The areas near and around the U.N. Circle, Avenue Kwame N’Krumah, and the former Central Market in Ouagadougou experience the highest incidence of purse snatchings and muggings. Travelers should stay alert, remain in groups, and avoid poorly lit areas. Be especially cautious at night, when most reported incidents have taken place.
There continue to be frequent armed robberies and attacks on intercity roads throughout the country. Although these armed individuals and groups operate mostly at night, there have been daytime attacks. They have injured and/or killed individuals who refused their demands or attempted to drive through their roadblocks. Several attacks have been directed at intercity public buses. U.S. travelers should avoid all intercity travel at night. Check with the U.S. Embassy for the latest security information before setting out on your journey.

Perpetrators of business fraud often target foreigners.
Recent scams that have victimized U.S. citizens have taken many forms, including fraudulent transactions for gold and antiquities.
Typically these scams begin with an unsolicited communication (usually by e-mail) from an unknown person who describes a situation that promises quick financial gain, often involving the transfer of a large sum of money or valuables out of the country. A series of "advance fees" must be paid to conclude the transaction, such as fees to provide legal documents or to pay certain taxes. In fact, the final payoff does not exist; the purpose of the scam is simply to collect the advance fees. One common variation involves individuals claiming to be refugees or other victims of western African conflicts who contact U.S. citizens to request help in transferring large sums of money out of Burkina Faso. Another typical ploy involves persons claiming to be related to present or former political leaders who need assistance to transfer large sums of cash.

While such fraud schemes in the past have been associated with Nigeria, they are now prevalent throughout West Africa. The scams pose a danger of both financial loss and physical harm.
You should carefully check and research any business proposal originating in Burkina Faso or elsewhere before you commit any funds, provide any goods or services, or undertake any travel. For additional information on scams, see the Department of State’s publication, International Financial Scams.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.
See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Medical facilities and emergency hospital care are very limited, particularly in areas outside the capital, Ouagadougou.
Some medicines are, however, available through local pharmacies.
Travelers requiring medicines should bring an adequate supply for the duration of their stay in Burkina Faso.
Malaria is a serious risk to travelers in Burkina Faso.
Travelers who become ill with a fever or flu-like illness while traveling in a malaria-risk area and up to one year after returning home should seek prompt medical attention and tell the physician their travel history and what anti-malarial drugs they have been taking. For additional information on malaria, including protective measures, see the CDC travelers’ health web site at http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/faq.htm.

Meningitis is endemic in Burkina Faso, and cases are most frequent during the drier, dustier months of January through June. Travelers should confirm that their meningitis A, C, Y, W, 135 inoculations are up to date.

There have been several confirmed cases of avian influenza (H5N1) in Burkina Faso over the last year, although in each case the disease was confined to birds, and was contained. A new outbreak could occur at any time. Travelers should avoid poultry farms and markets, avoid contact with visibly sick or dead birds and any raw poultry, and ensure poultry products are thoroughly cooked prior to consumption. For further information on avian influenza, consult the U.S. Department of State's Avian Influenza Fact Sheet , and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) web site at http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/index.htm. World Health Organization (WHO) guidance related to avian influenza is available at http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/en/.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s website at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.
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TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Burkina Faso is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
Public transportation is not safe.
While urban road conditions are fair, rural roads are in poor condition and roadside assistance is not available.
Travelers should exercise great caution when traveling by land in Burkina Faso.
All but a few roads are unpaved, narrow, and full of potholes.
Livestock and children often dart onto the road without warning.
Road travel at night is especially dangerous and, if at all possible, should be avoided.
At night, there is a high volume of truck traffic passing through the country and pedestrians, bicycles, and carts pose a major hazard on unlit, unmarked roads.
Vehicles are often dangerously overloaded and poorly maintained.
Drivers, including motorcyclists and bicyclists, are often careless.
The police rarely enforce traffic laws and are virtually absent on non-urban roads.
Emergency services are unreliable and overtaxed.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
As there is no direct commercial air service between the United States and Burkina Faso, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Burkina Faso’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s Internet web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Burkina Faso’s customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning export from Burkina Faso of items such as masks, religious materials, and antiquities. The Director of the National Museum has stated that all exportation of objects of art (old or traditional artists’ works, and all old material of the national cultural patrimony) is subject to the prior approval of the Ministry of Culture. Contact the Embassy of Burkina Faso in Washington (see contact information in the Entry Requirements section) for specific information regarding customs requirements.
Foreigners should always carry an identity document, such as a passport or U.S. driver’s license.
Credit cards are accepted at only a few high-end establishments in Ouagadougou. Travelers' checks may be cashed at local banks, but euro-denominated traveler’s checks are much more widely accepted than dollar-denominated ones. There are a few ATMs in Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso, but they do not always accept cards from foreign banks.
ATMs generally accept Visa credit cards with a personal identification number.

Burkina Faso’s laws concerning photography have recently changed.
Photo permits from the Tourist Office are no longer required for tourists.
Film crews still do require permits.
Note that the Tourist Office publishes a list of buildings, installations, and areas that may not be photographed at all.
Contact the U.S. Embassy in Ouagadougou for more details regarding taking photographs in Burkina Faso.

Local telephone service is adequate but expensive.
Cell phone networks are available in most urban areas.
However, telephone coverage in rural areas is limited. International calls cannot always be made from hotels; it is often necessary to make international calls from a Post and Telecommunications Office, where only local currency is accepted.
Collect calls are not possible.
Cyber-cafes for Internet access are common in both Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso.

Please see our Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Burkina Faso laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Burkina Faso are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Burkina Faso are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Burkina Faso.
Americans withoutInternet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy is located on Avenue Raoul Follereau.
The Consular entrance is located on Avenue John F. Kennedy; consular telephone 50-30-67-23; consular fax: 50-30-77-75.
The Embassy hours of operation are Monday to Thursday from 07:30 to 12:00 and 12:45 to 17:00; Friday 07:30 to 12:30.
The Embassy’s website address is: http://burkinafaso.usembassy.gov/.
The Embassy is closed on both U.S. and Burkinabe holidays.
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information dated March 30, 2007 with some changes to the crime section, as well as changes under Country Description, Entry/Exit Requirements, and Medical Facilities and Health Information.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Fri, 18 Oct 2019 04:33:10 +0200 (METDST)
By Patrick FORT

Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, Oct 18, 2019 (AFP) - "They've placed us in the red zone, which means the tourists aren't coming like before. Even the aid workers don't come," said Antoine Atiou, governor of Burkina Faso's Hauts-Bassins region.   The "red zone" refers to the risk of jihadist attacks -- a top-end warning by Western embassies to travellers wanting to visit southwest Burkina and the economic capital, Bobo-Dioulasso, once a popular tourist destination.   The impact has been brutal for local businesses. The city's hotels have emptied, its heritage sites are quiet and the souvenir shops shuttered.    "It's hard, hard, hard!... We haven't seen a tourist for a fortnight," said Sanou Moumouni, a guide at the city's mosque and in the historic Kibidwe district for 22 years.   In the past he could sometimes earn 100,000 CFA francs ($167, 150 euros) in two days, he said, but he has not made 5,000 francs in the last three months.    "I'm living on loans," he said. "We no longer have work because of the murderers. We're sick of it."    The north and the east of the landlocked country in West Africa endure frequent Islamist attacks, which have claimed some 600 lives in the past four years. There have also been some raids in the west.

In December 2018, an Italian man and his Canadian companion were kidnapped on the road from Bobo to the capital Ouagadougou. Last April, the Burkinabe government said it had information that the couple was still alive, but might have been taken to another country.   Bobo-Dioulassou itself has been relatively spared as the jihadist threat expands across poor nations of Africa's Sahel region.   Ministry of tourism statistics from 2017 show that of about half a million annual visitors to Burkina Faso, fewer than 150,000 came from abroad -- down 5.6 percent from 2015.   The number of nights stayed in the country by Westerners fell from 30,000 in 2012 to fewer than 15,000 in 2017. "This trend has probably sped up in 2018 and 2019," a local tour operator said.

- Crafts and wonders -
Renowned for its traditional masks, its batik print textiles and the balafon -- a West African instrument like a xylophone -- Bobo attracted thousands of Western tourists.   The Lonely Planet guide, which notes the security situation currently prohibits travel, says the city's "tree-lined streets exude a languid, semitropical atmosphere that makes it a favourite rest stop for travellers", adding that highlights include a "thriving live-music scene and excellent restaurants". 

The city itself has an array of charms, with its grand railway station, bustling market and striking Great Mosque -- an undulating white-plastered mud structure studded with wooden poles that dominates the historic centre.   Bobo-Dioulasso is a jumping-off point to visit regional highlights like the ruined fortress of Loropeni, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It was also a base for exploring the Dogon country in Mali, Ivory Coast and Ghana.   "Everyone came through Bobo. We really were a tourist region. Now it's over," said Benjamin Ouedraogo, owner of the Watinoma hotel and president of the professional association of hotel and restaurant owners in High Basins.   He said hotels in the region only do a third of the business they did before the attacks   To avoid closing his hotel, Ouedraogo took on a second job in the building trade. "We asked for help, but state aid is a disaster," he said, explaining that the authorities rejected applications for tax rebates and preferential tariffs on water and electricity.

- 'We subsist' -
In Kibidwe, an old neighbourhood of the city near the mosque, children play in alleys and women wash clothes in the open air, but most of the shops that catered for tourists are now shut.   Sanon Bissiri, an artist, was quick to bring out his batik prints on spotting Western journalists.    "I don't hang them every day any more, that's pointless. Since July, I haven't even sold two. All this because of those jihadists. Now I have to do masonry whenever I'm wanted."   Bissiri used to sell his textiles to an Italian association that made regular visits.   "That's over. We just get by. It's my wife who meets our needs," he said. "I come in to work each day on foot, six kilometres (nearly four miles). I can't afford medicine for my son with his cough."   Bobo's nightlife is not what it was, though the locally-brewed beer is the same.    "There's still a little activity with Burkinabe visitors," said musician Gaoussou Ben Sanou. But "there's less money, fewer dates, fewer gigs. We can't sell records".   Governor Atiou said people were reluctant to go out.   "All that weighs on economic activity. Unfortunately, this is the aim of the terrorists."
Date: Wed 11 Sep 2019
Source: BBC Afrique [In French, trans. Mod.LXL, edited]

At least 18 people died in 10 days after eating pesticide-contaminated food in 2 localities in Burkina Faso. A dozen still remain under observation in hospitals, according to the Minister of Health.  The 1st cases were reported on [1 Sep 2019] in the town of Didyr in the centre-west of the country, said Professor Claudine Lougue, Minister of Health.  About 15 members of the same families felt unwell after eating local dishes made from bean leaves and small millet seeds, which are actually seed remains. Thirteen died later despite medical care.

On Monday [2 Sep 2019], the ministry received another alert, this time from the central-eastern region. Here again, 14 people from the same family were admitted to the health centres. Five have lost their lives. After analysis, doctors diagnosed massive food poisoning, said the minister. Complementary examinations incriminate pesticides, she said.  "Investigations have been made on samples of biological products such as blood and urine, and we found an unusually high level of pesticides in foods that were consumed. There was an abnormally high level of pesticides, and these pesticides were strongly incriminated," said the minister.

The remains of food have been secured, announced Professor Lougue, who calls on citizens to observe strict hygiene measures in the use of plant leaves for consumption. Pesticides are used for the needs of field work, especially in the countryside during this period of wintering.
Date: Mon, 24 Jun 2019 20:27:21 +0200

Ouagadougou, June 24, 2019 (AFP) - Hundreds of doctors and nurses demonstrated Monday in the Burkina Faso capital Ouagadougou to protest against declining health facilities and to demand better working conditions.   The main doctors' union also warned it would stage a general strike from June 30 to July 7 to demand "concrete responses" to their grievances.

Health professionals staged a series of strikes at the end of May, seriously disrupting work at health centres in the poor West African country.   "We are... asking health authorities not to underestimate the health crisis," said Alfred Ouedraogo, general secretary of the Union of Burkina Doctors.   "For several months, there have been recurring breakdowns in laboratories," he said. "In most health centres, there are no X-ray films."    The protesters marched to the health ministry and submitted their demands.

Health worker Idrissa Compaore said that ever since the introduction of free medical care for children under five and pregnant women, "basic goods were regularly lacking" at health facilities.   "The situation is the same in health centres," he said.   The doctors also want the implementation of an accord signed with the government in 2017 promising better working conditions which they say remains only on paper.   If their demands are not met, the health workers could launch an open-ended strike which would affect consultations and surgeries, Ouedraogo said.
Date: Thu, 29 Nov 2018 16:17:59 +0100

Ouagadougou, Nov 29, 2018 (AFP) - Several thousand people took the streets of Burkina Faso's capital Ouagadougou on Thursday as workers downed tools in a nationwide strike over higher fuel prices.   Petrol and diesel prices have shot up 12 percent over the past three weeks, sparking a wave of protest.   A grassroots group, the National Coalition Against Costly Living (CCVC), called the strike and protest, with a march from the chamber of commerce to the trade ministry in the heart of the capital of this West African country.   "No to the impoverishment of the citizens" read one of the slogans alongside others reading: "Bread and freedom for the people".   "Enough is enough," said civil servant Charles Coulibaly, 42.    "We can't get by on what we make, and now they're raising fuel prices, which will have the knock-on effect of making all products and services more expensive."

Another marcher, 36-year-old bookseller Prosper Zebango, expressed exasperation.   "Raising the price of petrol and diesel just when the price of a barrel was decreasing and justifying it with a so-called international increase?" he asked rhetorically.   "I think the government is showing incompetence."   Since reaching four-year highs in October, world oil prices have plunged around 30 percent as worries about falling demand in a slowing world economy have taken their toll.   In Burkina Faso, petrol and diesel prices have risen 12 percent since November 9, with a litre now costing 75 CFA francs (0.11 euros/$0.12), the equivalent of 47 US cents a gallon.   The protesters handed a list of demands to Trade Minister Harouna Kabore, who promised to relay them to the prime minister.

In addition to the revocation of the fuel price hike, they are also demanding the scrapping of a bill that would curtail the right to strike, according to CCVC vice president Chrisogone Zougmore.   "We are all fighting for improved living conditions for workers and people in general," Zougmore said.   The government cited rising fuel prices on international markets to justify the increase, as well as a need for increased revenue to fight jihadists operating in the restive north and east of the country.    The former French colony, among the world's poorest countries, has suffered jihadist attacks since 2015 that have claimed 229 lives, according to the last official toll published in late September.
Date: Mon, 19 Nov 2018 13:31:53 +0100

Maputo, Nov 19, 2018 (AFP) - The World Health Organisation on Monday said global efforts to fight malaria have hit a plateau as it reported there were more cases of the killer disease in 2017 than the previous year.   The latest WHO report showed that the number of malaria cases climbed to 219 million last year, two million higher than 2016, while international funding has declined.

"The world faces a new reality," WHO director-general Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, warned as the UN agency launched the new report.   "As progress stagnates, we are at risk of squandering years of toil, investment and success in reducing the number of people suffering from the disease," the WHO chief said.   Malaria, which is spread to people through the bites of infected female mosquitoes, occurs in 91 countries but about 90 percent of the cases and deaths are in sub-Saharan Africa.

Foreign funding to some of the most affected countries has declined, in certain instances by more than 20 percent for every individual at risk of contracting the disease.    "A considerable proportion of people at risk of infection are not being protected, including pregnant women and children in Africa," the WHO chief said.   The disease killed 435,000 people last year, the majority of them children under five in Africa.

Another constraint in fighting malaria has been mosquitoes building up resistance to some commonly used insecticides, according to the report.   WHO said it was embarking on new ways to scale up the battle against one of the world's deadliest diseases.   The plan includes country-led projects to "jumpstart aggressive" control efforts, said Kesete Admasu, who heads Roll Back Malaria, a global partnership initiative to curb the parasitic disease.   Mozambique is one of the target countries.   "Business as usual is no longer an option," said Admasu.

Most malaria cases reported last year were in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, India, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda.   Five countries accounted for nearly half of the cases: Nigeria (25 percent), DR Congo (11 percent), Mozambique (five percent), and India and Uganda with four percent each.    However countries such as Ethiopia, India, Pakistan and Rwanda recorded "substantial" declines in malaria cases.
More ...

Uganda

Uganda - US Consular Information Sheet
March 02, 2009
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Uganda is a landlocked, developing country in central eastern Africa. Infrastructure is adequate in Kampala, the capital, but is limited in other areas.
Read t
e Department of State Background Notes on Uganda for additional information.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport valid for three months beyond the date of entry, visa and evidence of yellow fever vaccination are required.
Visas are available at Entebbe Airport upon arrival or may be obtained from the Embassy of the Republic of Uganda.
The current fee for a three month tourist visa obtained upon arrival at Entebbe Airport is $50.00.
Travelers should be aware that a visa does not determine how long a person may remain in Uganda.
The Ugandan immigration officer at the port of entry will determine the length of authorized stay, which is generally from one to three months as a tourist.
Extensions of duration of stay may be requested at Ugandan immigration headquarters on Jinja Road in Kampala.
Airline companies may also require travelers to have a visa before boarding.
Travelers should obtain the latest information and details from the Embassy of the Republic of Uganda at 5911 16th Street, NW, Washington, DC
20011; telephone (202) 726-7100.
The Ugandan Embassy may also be contacted by email.
Travelers may also contact the Ugandan Permanent Mission to the United Nations, telephone (212) 949-0110. Overseas, inquiries may be made at the nearest Ugandan embassy or consulate.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
U.S. citizens residing in or planning to visit Uganda should be aware of threats to their safety posed by insurgent groups operating in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and southern Sudan, and the potential of cross border attacks carried out by these armed groups.
In addition, U.S. citizens traveling to the area commonly known as Karamoja in northeastern Uganda should also be aware of ongoing conflict and armed banditry in this region.

Northern Uganda:
After years of conflict, relative stability has returned to northern Uganda with the departure of the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) insurgent group in 2006.
Recent LRA activity has been restricted to the remote region of Garamba National Park in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), where LRA insurgents have continued to attack and terrorize civilian populations.
LRA attacks have also occurred in the neighboring Central African Republic and southern Sudan.
The Governments of Uganda, the DRC, and southern Sudan initiated joint military operations against LRA bases in Garamba National Park on December 14, 2008, after LRA leader Joseph Kony refused to sign a peace agreement following two years of negotiations.
These military operations continue and in order to deter an LRA return to Uganda, the Uganda Peoples Defense Force (UPDF) maintains a significant presence in the northern districts.
Given the continued threat to regional security posed by the LRA, American citizens should exercise caution when traveling in those districts of northwestern Uganda that border the DRC and southern Sudan and which could potentially be subject to LRA incursions.
The Ugandan Government also continues to expand and improve the capacity of the civilian police force in northern Uganda by deploying additional personnel and concentrating resources to further recovery and re-development activities throughout the north.

American citizens traveling to northern Uganda are advised to ensure that they have made appropriate travel, lodging, and communication arrangements with their sponsoring organization before visiting the region.
Local officials in northern Uganda have expressed concern for the safety and security of foreigners visiting the area to assist with relief efforts, but without any specific arrangements with a sponsoring organization.
Foreign citizens who travel to the region without a sponsoring organization may not find secure lodging or safe transport, and may become more susceptible to crime.
They may also find that local officials are unable to provide assistance in the event of an emergency.
There is a general lack of infrastructure throughout northern Uganda, and services such as emergency medical care are nonexistent.
Given crime and other security concerns in northern Uganda, American citizens are advised to restrict travel to primary roads and during daylight hours only.

Cattle rustling, armed banditry, and attacks on vehicles are very common in the Karamoja region of northeastern Uganda, and the UPDF continues to implement a program to disarm Karamojong warriors.
Past incidents have included ambushes of UPDF troops, and attacks on vehicles, residences, and towns that resulted in multiple deaths.
Most of the violence occurred in the districts of Kaabong, Kotido, and Abim, although some violent incidents also occurred in Moroto and Nakapiripirit Districts.
American citizens are advised to avoid travel to the Karamoja region given the frequent insecurity.
Any travel to Karamoja (excluding charter flights to Kidepo National Park) by U.S. Embassy personnel must first be authorized by the Chief of Mission.

Southwestern Uganda:
American citizens traveling in southwestern Uganda should also exercise caution given the ongoing conflict in the districts of North and South Kivu in the DRC, and the close proximity of fighting to the Ugandan border.
During spikes in the conflict, refugee flows across the border number in the thousands and there is also a risk of incursions by armed combatants.
American citizens should review the Travel Warning for the Democratic Republic of the Congo for the most up-to-date information regarding the conflict in the DRC.

On August 8, 2007, a group of armed assailants entered Uganda from the DRC and raided Butogota, a town in Kanungu District, southwestern Uganda.
Three Ugandans were killed and many others assaulted during the raid.
Ugandan officials believe that the perpetrators of the attack were members of one of the various militia groups operating in the southeastern region of the DRC or possibly remnants of the "Interahamwe," a group that participated in the 1994 genocide in Rwanda and was also responsible for the 1999 attack on Bwindi Impenetrable National Park.
The 1999 Bwindi attack killed four Ugandans and eight foreign tourists.
The 2007 raid on Butogota is in an area transited by tourists traveling to Bwindi, a popular gorilla-trekking destination.
Within Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, armed security personnel accompany tourists on the daily gorilla hikes and the UPDF maintains a military presence.
At Ishasha Camp, another popular tourist destination located in the southern sector of Queen Elizabeth National Park, the UPDF also maintains a small military base near the park headquarters for security purposes.

Eastern Uganda:
In February 2008, an isolated incident occurred in Mount Elgon National Park in eastern Uganda that resulted in the death of a foreign tourist.
A Belgian tourist climbing Mt. Elgon in the company of park rangers was shot and killed.
The attack occurred while the group was camped for the night and assailants fired into the campsite.
The tourist was reportedly struck by gunfire when exiting her tent in the darkness.
Ugandan security and park officials suspected that the attack was perpetrated by smugglers engaged in cattle rustling or other illicit activities that are common in the border area.

Demonstrations:
Demonstrations take place in Kampala and other Ugandan cities from time to time in response to world events or local developments.
In most cases, these demonstrations occur with no warning and demonstrations intended to be peaceful can turn confrontational and possibly violent.
American citizens are therefore urged to avoid the areas of demonstrations if possible, and to exercise caution if they find themselves in the vicinity of any demonstration.
American citizens should stay current with media coverage of local events and be aware of their surroundings at all times.
Because many demonstrations are spontaneous events, the U.S. Embassy may not always be able to alert American citizens that a demonstration is taking place and to avoid a specific area.
If employed with an institution or other large organization, American citizens may find it helpful to request that local employees notify expatriates when they learn of a demonstration from local radio reports or other sources.
Recent protests have occurred over land disputes involving Kampala market areas, university closures and strikes, opposition political party demonstrations, and protests by taxi drivers over the enforcement of traffic regulations.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State's, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll-free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
Crimes such as pick pocketing, purse snatching, and thefts from hotels and parked vehicles or vehicles stalled in traffic jams are common.
The Embassy receives frequent reports of theft of items from locked vehicles, even when the stolen items were secured out of sight and the vehicle was parked in an area patrolled by uniformed security personnel.
Pick pocketing and the theft of purses and bags is also very common on public transportation.
Armed robberies of pedestrians also occur, sometimes during daylight hours and in public places.
Although infrequent, the Embassy also receives reports of armed carjackings and highway robbery.
In May 2007, two American citizens reported an attempted robbery when they were traveling near the town of Bugiri in eastern Uganda.
The Americans reported that a second vehicle with at least one armed assailant tried to stop their vehicle by forcing it off the road.
This incident occurred during daylight hours.
On June 27, 2007, two American citizens were robbed and held at gunpoint when the vehicle transporting them to Entebbe Airport was stopped by a group of armed men.
This incident occurred during the early morning hours on Entebbe Road.
Although some of these attacks are violent, victims are generally injured only if they resist.
U.S. Embassy employees are advised against using roads at night, especially in areas outside the limits of cities and large towns. Home burglaries also do occur and sometimes turn violent.
In April 2008, the Ugandan police reported an increase in armed robberies in the Kampala neighborhoods of Bukoto, Kisaasi, Kiwatule, Naalya, Najera, and Ntinda.
Several of these robberies occurred as the victims were arriving at their residences after nightfall and the assailants struck as they were entering their residential compounds.

Women traveling alone are particularly susceptible to crime.
In early 2008, there was an increase in reports of sexual assaults against expatriate females.
In some instances, the victims were walking alone, or were single passengers on one of the common modes of public transport which include "boda boda" motorcycle taxis.
If the victim of a sexual assault, medical assistance should be sought immediately and counseling provided regarding prophylactic treatment to help prevent the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. The U.S. Embassy provides a list of local medical providers for those with medical needs.

American citizens visiting Uganda are advised not to accept food or drink offered from a stranger, even a child, because such food may contain narcotics used to incapacitate a victim and facilitate a robbery or sexual assault.
In addition, patrons of bars, casinos, nightclubs, and other entertainment centers should never leave their drink or food unattended.
When visiting such establishments, it is advisable to remain with a group of friends as single individuals are more likely to be targeted.
Victims have included female patrons who reported they were drugged, and taken to another location and sexually assaulted.
Robberies have been facilitated on public transportation under similar circumstances.
In 2006, an American citizen traveling by bus from Kenya to Uganda was incapacitated and robbed on the bus when the passenger accepted a sealed beverage from a fellow traveler.
Expatriates traveling by bus to the popular tourist destination of Bwindi Impenetrable National Forest in southwest Uganda were also incapacitated and robbed when they accepted snacks from fellow bus passengers.

There has been a recent, marked increase in financial crime, including fraud involving wire transfers, credit cards, checks, and advance fee fraud perpetrated via email.
The U.S. Embassy recommends using money orders for all fund transfers and protecting all bank account and personally identifiable information such as social security numbers and other types of information.

An increasing number of U.S. exporters (primarily vendors of expensive consumer goods such as computers, stereo equipment, and electronics) have been targeted by a sophisticated check fraud scheme.
A fictitious company in Uganda locates a vendor on the Internet, makes e-mail contact to order goods, and pays with a third-party check.
The checks, written on U.S. accounts and made out to entities in Uganda for small amounts, are intercepted, chemically "washed" and presented for payment of the goods with the U.S. vendor as payee and an altered amount.
If the goods are shipped before the check clears, the U.S. shipper will have little recourse, as the goods are picked up at the airport and the company cannot be traced.
American companies receiving orders from Uganda are encouraged to check with the Political - Economic Section of the Embassy to verify the legitimacy of the company.
The Embassy strongly cautions U.S. vendors against accepting third-party checks as payment for any goods to be shipped to Uganda.

Additional information about the most common types of financial fraud can also be found in the State Department Financial Scams brochure.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate for assistance.
The embassy/consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

The local equivalent to the "911" emergency line in Uganda is: 999.
Please see our information on Victims of Crime, including possible victim compensation programs in the United States.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Ugandan laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Uganda are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Please note that U.S. currency notes in $20 and $50 denominations are exchanged at a lower rate than $100 currency notes.
In addition, travelers often find that they cannot exchange or use U.S. currency printed earlier than the year 2000.
Travelers who find they cannot pay for accommodation or expenses often must request that friends or family wire money to them in Uganda.
There are offices that facilitate Western Union, MoneyGram, and other types of money transfers in Kampala and other cities throughout the country.
ATMs are available in Uganda, particularly in downtown Kampala, but usually only customers who have an account with a specific Ugandan bank may use them.
A few machines function with overseas accounts.

The U.S. Embassy frequently receives requests from American citizens to verify the bona fides of nongovernmental (NGO) and charity organizations operating in Uganda.
The Embassy is unable to provide information regarding the bona fides of these organizations and American citizens traveling to Uganda to work for an organization are encouraged to request that the charity provide references of past volunteers whom they may contact.
American citizens have also reported intimidation and harassment by directors of organizations, when the Americans questioned the organization's activities or use of donated funds.
While the vast majority of NGOs operating in Uganda are legitimate organizations aiding development efforts, there have been reports from concerned Americans regarding the suspected diversion of charity funds for personal gain, etc.

Ugandan Customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning the importation of pets.
A Ugandan import permit is required, along with an up-to-date rabies vaccination certificate and a veterinary certificate of health issued by a USDA-approved veterinarian no more than thirty days before arrival.
Travelers are advised to contact the Ugandan Embassy in the United States for specific information regarding customs requirements.
Please see our Customs Information sheet.

Photography in tourist locations is permitted.
However, taking pictures of military/police installations or personnel is prohibited.
Military and police officers have detained tourists for taking photographs of Entebbe Airport and of the area around Owen Falls Dam, near Jinja, although the prohibition on taking photographs is not publicly displayed on signs.

The U.S. Embassy receives frequent inquiries from American citizens wishing to register a nongovernmental organization (NGO) in Uganda.
Information about registering an NGO can be obtained from the Ugandan NGO Board which has offices within the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
The NGO Board can be reached on phone number: 256 414 341 556.
One of the requirements for registering an NGO is that a foreign national employee or volunteer must provide a Certificate of Good Conduct/Criminal Background Check.
The U.S. Embassy Kampala cannot provide a Certificate of Good Conduct or Criminal Background Check, so American citizens intending to travel to Uganda as an employee an NGO or who plan to register an NGO should obtain a Certificate of Good Conduct from their local police or the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) before departing the United States.
More information on how to obtain a Criminal Background Check can be found on the FBI web page about Identification Record Requests.
MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Medical facilities in Uganda, including Kampala, are limited and not equipped to handle most emergencies, especially those requiring surgery. Outside Kampala, hospitals are scarce and offer only basic services.
Recently, American citizens involved in automobile accidents required immediate evacuation from Uganda as surgery could not be performed due to insufficient blood supplies at the hospital where they sought treatment.
Equipment and medicines are also often in short supply or unavailable.
Travelers should carry their own supplies of prescription drugs and preventive medicines.
A list of medical providers is available at the U.S. Embassy.

Tuberculosis is an increasingly serious health concern in Uganda.
For further information, please consult the CDC's Travel Notice on TB.

Malaria is prevalent in Uganda.
Travelers who become ill with a fever or flu-like illness while traveling in a malaria-risk area and up to one year after returning home should seek prompt medical attention and tell the physician their travel history and what antimalarials they have been taking.
For additional information on malaria, including protective measures, see the CDC’s information on malaria.

In January, 2009, the CDC’s Special Pathogens Branch retrospectively diagnosed a case of Marburg hemorrhagic fever in a U.S. traveler, who had returned from Uganda in January, 2008. The patient developed illness four days after returning to the United States.
The Amcit had visited the “python cave” in Queen Elizabeth Park, western Uganda, which is a popular destination among tourists to see the bat-infested cave.
For additional information on Marburg hemorrhagic fever, including protective measures, visit the CDC web site.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad, consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site.
Further health information for travelers is available from the WHO. Uganda has experienced recent outbreaks of Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever, Pneumonic Plague, Meningitis, and other types of infectious diseases.

The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Uganda.
MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
American citizens who are seriously injured in vehicle or other types of accidents in Uganda generally seek medical evacuation to Kenya or other destinations for more advanced emergency medical treatment.
These medical evacuations can be very expensive, and in the event the American citizen does not have sufficient insurance coverage, the evacuation is carried out at their personal expense.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Uganda is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Most inter-city transportation in Uganda is by small van or large bus.
Many drivers of these vehicles have little training and some are reckless.
Small vans and large buses are often poorly maintained, travel at high speeds, and are the principal vehicles involved in the many deadly single and multi-vehicle accidents along Ugandan roads.
Accident victims have included American citizens traveling in small vans and personal cars, passengers on motorcycle taxis locally known as "boda bodas," and pedestrians.
Large trucks on the highways are often over-loaded, with inadequately secured cargo and poor braking systems.
Alcohol frequently is a contributing factor in road accidents, particularly at night.
Drivers are advised to take extra care when driving.
Nighttime driving and road transportation should be avoided whenever possible.
Pedestrians often walk in the roads and may not be visible to motorists.
Large branches or rocks in the road sometimes indicate an upcoming obstruction or other hazard.
Highway travel at night is particularly dangerous, including the road between Entebbe Airport and Kampala.
The Embassy recommends caution on this road and use of a reliable taxi service to and from the airport.

Traffic accidents draw crowds.
Ugandan law requires that the drivers stop and exchange information and assist any injured persons.
In some cases where serious injury has occurred, there is the possibility of mob anger.
In these instances, Ugandans often do not get out of their cars, but drive to the nearest police station to report the accident.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
For specific information concerning Ugandan driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, please contact Tourism Uganda, IPS building, 14, Parliament Avenue, Kampala, Uganda; telephone 256-414-342 196. You may also wish to consult the Tourism Uganda web site or, for information on government agencies, see the My Uganda web site.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Uganda, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Uganda's Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA web site.

International airlines offer several weekly flights to Europe and the United Arab Emirates, and Kenya Airways has daily flights between Entebbe Airport and Nairobi.
Other regional airlines operate weekly flights to other destinations in Africa, such as Dar es Salaam, Addis Ababa, Cairo, and Johannesburg.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Uganda are encouraged to register with the U.S. Embassy in Kampala through the State Department’s travel registration web site to obtain updated information on travel and security within Uganda.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy is located at 1577 Ggaba Road, Kampala; telephone 256-414-259-791 or 256 414 306 001; fax 256-414-258-451.
You may contact the Embassy via e-mail.
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information dated May 6, 2008, to update sections on Entry/Exit Requirements, Safety and Security, Crime, Information for Victims of Crime, Medical Facilities and Health Information, Medical Insurance, Traffic Safety and Road Conditions, Special Circumstances, Aviation Safety Oversight, Special Circumstances, and Registration/Embassy Location.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Wed, 20 Nov 2019 12:59:15 +0100 (MET)

Kampala, Nov 20, 2019 (AFP) - Global health charity Marie Stopes said Wednesday it had recalled hundreds of thousands of faulty condoms on sale in Uganda, where HIV rates are among the highest in the world.   The recall followed a warning from Uganda's National Drug Authority (NDA) that the Life Guard brand condoms had failed manufacturing "quality tests" because they contained holes and may burst.   The affected condoms were manufactured by India-based MHL Healthcare in April 2019 and have an expiry date of April 2024, the government regulator said.   Marie Stopes Uganda spokesman David Kamu told AFP on Wednesday that the two affected batches each contained "around 400,000" condoms.

Earlier reports had suggested millions of condoms could have been involved but NDA spokesman Fred Ssekyana told AFP the figure was below one million.   Marie Stopes Uganda said more than half of the condoms of concern had been recalled.   "While the LifeGuard brand follows strict quality controls, unfortunately two recent batches have fallen short of the quality we demand," the charity's country director, Carole Sekimpi, said in a statement Tuesday.   Marie Stopes is the largest and most specialised sexual reproductive health organisation in Uganda, the charity says on its website.   According to UNAIDS, 1.4 million Ugandans are living with HIV.   Last year 53,000 people were newly infected with the disease in the East African country, the UN agency said.
Date: Mon 28 Oct 2019
Source: Daily Monitor [edited]

Yellow fever vaccine cards are being sold on the streets for Shs 60,000 [about USD 16] to unvaccinated Ugandan travellers, who upon presenting them at Entebbe International Airport, are cleared to proceed to their destinations. Daily Monitor has established the scam has been ongoing for some time.

Our 3-week investigation shows how one can easily get a yellow fever immunisation card without being vaccinated. According to our investigations, these cards are acquired mainly by people scheduled to travel out of the country who do not want to pay the higher fee charged by hospitals accredited to administer the vaccine. Hospitals charge about Shs 100,000 [about USD 27] for the vaccination.

According to World Health Organisation (WHO), yellow fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes of the _Aedes_ and _Haemagogus_ species [_Haemagogus_ mosquitoes are South American forest mosquitoes not found in Africa. - ProMED Mod.TY]. Its symptoms include fever, headache, jaundice, muscle pain, nausea, vomiting, and fatigue.

The yellow fever card became a mandatory requirement for travellers following the outbreak of the disease in Masaka and Rukungiri districts in 2016. The Ministry of Health directed that all travellers exiting or entering Uganda must be vaccinated against the disease to prevent infection or spreading. Yellow fever cards are only issued by the Health Ministry and given to accredited hospitals to administer the vaccine. The cards are engraved with the Ministry's logo but accredited hospitals are required to stamp and engrave them with a seal to validate them.

A list of all the accredited hospitals is sent to Entebbe airport and other border posts for officials to verify the seal of the hospital on the card when it is presented by a traveller. According to the Health ministry's guidelines, the card is supposed to be given only to someone who has been vaccinated against yellow fever. It is this card that a traveller presents to officials at either the airport or immigration offices at borders before being allowed to enter or travel out of the country.

However, our investigation shows that while officials at Entebbe airport and border immigration offices have a list of accredited hospitals, they cannot tell whether a traveller, who carries the card, was vaccinated or not because details of all those vaccinated remain at the hospitals. This has given leeway to unscrupulous people to forge the cards.

Mr Jacob Siminyu, the spokesperson of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, which oversees the directorate of Citizenship and Immigration, told Daily Monitor that the health ministry has not alerted them on the ongoing scam. But he added that whereas immigration officials are mandated to allow only travellers with the cards to leave the country, they do not have the means to determine whether a traveller was vaccinated or not. "The Ministry of Health needs to put mechanisms which can help our officials ascertain whether a traveller was vaccinated or not. Otherwise, it is very hard for our officials to identify those who were not vaccinated because they come with valid cards at the borders," Mr Siminyu said.

The scam involves a cartel of city medical practitioners, who use brokers to carry out the fraudulent transactions on their behalf to avoid detection. The brokers accept to meet you only after being satisfied that you are a genuine traveller, not a spy. Our reporter carried out an undercover [investigation] to unravel the cards scam and how it is executed. The reporter disguised as a labour worker scheduled to travel to South Africa. He shares his findings.

"I was connected to a medical officer working at Kisenyi Health Centre IV in Kampala's Central Division. The official asked for Shs 60,000 [about USD 16] but he declined to discuss much on phone and proposed that they meet the next day. He postponed the meeting several times and after 4 days of pleading, he told me to meet a man at Kisenyi Health Centre IV on 9 Oct [2019]. The health officer at the centre said he only had yellow fever cards from Norvik Hospital. Norvik Hospital, located on Bombo Road, Kampala, is one of the hospitals accredited to vaccinate against the disease.

"Upon reaching the health centre, a man ushered me into an office within the hospital. The official opened one of the drawers and pulled out a bundle of yellow fever cards and filled in the forged details of the passport number and name which I had given him.

"The bundles of cards were meticulously arranged in the drawer and were engraved with the Ministry of Health logo with a stamp and seal reading Norvik Hospital. He backdated the time of issuance to 14 Jul 2019, and forged the batch number of the yellow fever vaccine and signature. As I waited for the card, 2 women, who had made an earlier appointment, sauntered in to pick their cards too.

"I later learnt from their conversation with the health official that they were scheduled to travel to United Arab Emirates in the next 3 days. When I inquired why the official was issuing out cards from Norvik Hospital, a private facility, yet he works in a government one, he said they get the cards from their colleagues at the hospital. He also claimed that Norvik receives a big number of the cards from the Ministry of Health hence it becomes easy for his colleagues to get some of them, which they sell to desperate travellers on the black market. However, Daily Monitor could not independently verify the claims.

"Kisenyi Health Centre IV is among the 8 public facilities managed by Kampala Capital City Authority (KCCA). It is only City Hall Health Centre II out of the 8 that is accredited to administer the vaccine. The KCCA health centre charges Shs 102 000 [about USD 28] per vaccine but other hospitals in the country have varying charges. The official told us that many travellers prefer to acquire the cards without being vaccinated because of the high cost at the accredited hospitals and the urgency of the flight.

"We have helped very many people and they have never met any resistance at the airport and other borders. I am very sure of what I am giving you," he said before handing the card to me.

Vaccination at Norvik Hospital
------------------------------
To verify the authenticity of the yellow fever card, which we acquired undercover from Kisenyi Health Centre IV, I visited Norvik on 16 Oct [2019] to be vaccinated.

I was asked to pay Shs 60,000 [about USD 16] and a receipt was issued to me. My details, including date of birth, age, nationality, and date of vaccination, were entered in the system. Upon vaccination, I was asked to sign in a book to prove I had been vaccinated and given the card. The card bears the stamp and seal of the hospital and is also engraved with the logo of Ministry of Health.

Both the Norvik Hospital card and one I acquired undercover at Kisenyi bear the same stamp and Ministry of Health's logo. It is hard to detect forgery. However, the serial numbers differ in length. The genuine Norvik Hospital card's serial number has 6 digits while the forged one from the Kisenyi health centre has 9 digits. The rest of the features look the same.

When contacted yesterday [27 Oct 2019], Mr Emmanuel Ainebyoona, the Health Ministry senior spokesperson, advised that we ask Norvik Hospital to explain the variations since both cards bear their stamp and seal but with different serial numbers. He added that he was unable to confirm the features by yesterday.

However, this newspaper's attempt to speak to Norvik Hospital authorities for the past one week hit a snag. Ms Mildred Obeja, hospital's client care officer, declined to comment on the matter, saying it is only the medical director who is mandated to speak to the media. She promised to have an interview with me with the hospital's medical director, but our efforts to have it were futile. Our follow-up calls to her mobile phone number went unanswered. She did not reply our WhatsApp messages either.

When contacted on [Thu 24 Oct 2019], the health state minister for general duties, Ms Sarah Opendi, said the ministry was not aware of the cards scam. "I am shocked that this is happening because we thought that we had solved this challenge. Now that you have alerted me, I need to inform the officials at the Civil Aviation Authority about this fraud. We shall look into it and take action," she said.

Health warning
--------------
Ms Opendi wondered why someone would choose to travel with a fake card yet vaccination would prevent them from acquiring the deadly haemorrhagic disease. "Why are people risking their lives by travelling outside the country without vaccination? When you choose to use a fake card, it means you are taking your life for granted," she said.

Asked why the details of those who are vaccinated from accredited hospitals are not shared with officials at the airport for verification, Ms Opendi said the ministry would look into that option. However, she warned all accredited hospitals against loopholes in the issuance of the cards, saying such an anomaly not only points at laxity in their systems to fight fraud, but also breaches the agreement they made with the ministry.

Laxity at airport
-----------------
On 18 Oct [2019], I visited Entebbe airport to ascertain how immigration officials verify the cards presented by travellers. I found out that unlike passports, which are scanned to prove authenticity, yellow fever cards are not. Officials look at the seal and stamp of the hospital on the card and if these details correspond with the list of hospitals which they have, they let the traveller to proceed.

I also found out that officials cannot tell whether a traveller was vaccinated or not because they do not have details of all those who were vaccinated at the accredited hospitals. I spoke to at least 3 different officials at the airport and they intimated that they only look out for the Ministry of Health's logo, seal, and stamp of the accredited hospital and whether the card bears the passport number. If the name of the hospital on the seal corresponds with the list of the accredited hospitals they have, they allow the traveller to proceed. They also said there is no digital verification of the cards except that of the passport.

I also interviewed several people, who recently travelled out of the country to corroborate my findings at the airport and they confirmed immigration officials only looked at the seal and stamp of the hospital on the cards and allowed to travel."

Dr Simon Abachu, a [a member of] health personnel at Entebbe airport, confirmed by telephone on Friday [25 Oct 2019] that some travellers use forged cards. Dr Abachu said checking the cards at the airport is no longer done by medical officers. "Initially, our medical doctors used to check at the departure centre but there were some internal issues where it was found out that verifying the travellers' yellow fever cards was delaying flights. It is now handling agents who check the cards," he said. According to Dr Abachu, the scam is commonest among labour export companies, which he alleged acquire the cards for their workers without vaccination.

Asked how they intend to close this loophole, Dr Abachu said the Ministry of Health must give full mandate of verification of the cards to health officers at the airport, adding that currently, they do not have powers over the exercise.  [byline: Amos Ngwomoya]
======================
[Fake yellow fever (YF) vaccination cards have been a recurring problem in several African countries in the recent past. The sale of fake yellow fever vaccination cards to individuals who did not receive the vaccine presents a serious public health problem inside and outside of Uganda. The new cards were supposed to avoid purchase of cards without receiving the vaccine. Uganda has had an outbreak of sylvan-origin YF in 2016. Although it was declared ended on 6 Sep 2016, the risk of additional cases from forest sources remains. An unvaccinated, viremic individual with a fake card who becomes infected outside Uganda could carry YF virus to localities in the country where vector mosquitoes are present and initiate an outbreak of this serious disease. An unvaccinated individual who becomes infected in Uganda and travels to an area abroad where there are vectors could initiate a new outbreak.

One wonders, if the practice of issuance of fake YF cards continues, whether countries that are currently YF-free but are most at risk of ongoing transmission should the virus be introduced, in Central and North America, South and South East Asia, will deny visas to or admittance of individuals coming from Uganda unless they can prove that their cards are legitimate. The Ugandan government authorities should put a stop to these practices immediately. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Uganda:
Date: Tue 1 Oct 2019
From: John Frean <johnf@nicd.ac.za> [edited[]

The patient is a 23-year-old male international student, who has been studying in South Africa since late July 2019. Between [6 and 16 Sep 2019] he was on vacation in Uganda.

Places visited in Uganda were:
Entebbe: Jinja music festival for 3 days
Sipi Falls: hiking/waterfalls/homestay
Moroto: visited tribes
Murchison Falls: 2 days
Masindi: 1 day
Entebbe, then back to South Africa.

He did not see any tsetse flies, nor was he aware of any insect bites.

On [Sun 22 Sep 2019] he felt unwell and noticed a lesion on his chin. He was admitted to hospital and on [26 Sep 2019] underwent surgery for a presumed submandibular abscess. No abscess was found but histological examination of tissue removed at surgery showed some areas of necrosis, and evidence of fibrin thrombi compatible with disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. No organisms were seen.

The white cell count was about 3 x 109/L and platelets were 34 x 109/L, then 29 x 109/L, and postoperatively dropped to 4 x 109/L.

Blood films were examined and numerous trypanosomes were seen, estimated density of about 56,000/microlitre. On review of the blood sample from [26 Sep 2019], scanty trypanosomes were seen.

The patient was transferred to the care of an infectious diseases physician on [Sat 28 Sep 2019]. On admission he was very ill with unrelenting fever, tachycardia, periodically hypotensive, dyspnoeic, renal dysfunction (creatinine 300 micromol/L), jaundiced with raised transaminases, and slightly confused. Test dose and 1st dose of suramin were well tolerated, and the 2nd dose was given on [30 Sep 2019]. Clinically the patient is slightly improved today (1 Oct 2019), with a platelet count now 12 x 109/L and creatinine around 200 micromol/L.

According to WHO EAT [East African trypanosomiasis] experts, the infection was most likely acquired at Murchison Falls, where there have been sporadic cases; alternatively at Moroto [both in northern Uganda].

This is the 4th case of EAT evacuated to Johannesburg in 2019. The other cases acquired the infection in Zambia and Malawi.
----------------------------------------------
Lucille Blumberg
John Frean <johnf@nicd.ac.za>
National Institute for Communicable Diseases, GeoSentinel Site,
Johannesburg
Evan Shoul (infectious diseases specialist);
Pieter Ekermans (Ampath Laboratories)

[ProMED-mail thanks Lucille Blumberg, John Frean, Evan Shoul, and Pieter Ekermans for their submission. - Mod.ML]

[Sleeping sickness is endemic in 36 sub-Saharan Africa countries where there are tsetse flies that transmit the disease (WHO Trypanosomiasis fact sheet <https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/trypanosomiasis-human-african-(sleeping-sickness)>).

Trypanosomiasis is endemic in the national parks in southern Africa, where there are tsetse flies and a reservoir of the trypanosomes in the wildlife. It is important to consider trypanosomiasis in febrile travellers to these national parks with negative tests for malaria. - ProMED Mod.EP]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of South Africa:
Murchison Falls (Uganda):
Date: Thu, 29 Aug 2019 22:36:01 +0200 (METDST)

Kampala, Aug 29, 2019 (AFP) - A nine-year-old girl who had travelled from the Democratic Republic of Congo has been found to have Ebola, authorities in Uganda said on Thursday.   The child, who is of Congolese origin, was diagnosed after exhibiting symptoms at a border crossing in the southwestern Kasese district on Wednesday. She was subsequently isolated and transferred to an Ebola treatment unit.

A rapid response team had been dispatched to Kasese to support local teams, the Ugandan Health Ministry said in a statement.   Earlier this month, Uganda said it had started a trial of an experimental Ebola vaccine that may be used in neighbouring DR Congo where an outbreak of the disease has killed more than 1,900 people.   The trial of the MVA-BN vaccine developed by Johnson & Johnson is expected to last two years.   At present there is no licenced drug to prevent or treat Ebola although a range of experimental drugs are in development.

Uganda has suffered Ebola outbreaks in the past but nothing on the scale of the DR Congo epidemic, which began in August 2018.    It is the second-worst outbreak on record, eclipsed only by the 2013-2016 epidemic in West Africa, which killed more than 11,300 out of 29,000 documented cases.   Uganda has been declared Ebola-free but in June three people from one family died there from the haemorrhagic fever after crossing back from DR Congo.
Date: Tue, 27 Aug 2019 16:19:47 +0200 (METDST)

Kampala, Aug 27, 2019 (AFP) - Uganda on Tuesday re-launched its national airline after two decades with an inaugural flight to Nairobi, becoming the latest East African nation seeking to revive their aviation industry.   "The airline will first fly to seven destinations. Starting with Nairobi, Mogadishu, Juba and Dar es Saalam. And then to Mombasa, Kilimanjaro and Bujumbura," said Prime Minister Ruhakana Rugunda at Entebbe International Airport.

Uganda Airlines is launching into increasingly crowded East African skies, where both Rwanda and Tanzania have in recent years revived their national airlines in a bid to capture a slice of the booming market.   They are taking on regional giants Kenya Airways -- which continues to expand despite struggling with years of losses and management woes -- and Ethiopian Airlines, which largely dominates the skies.    Uganda Airlines is coming to compete in the market alongside other airlines", said Transport Minister Monica Azuba.
 
Uganda Airlines was founded by former Ugandan dictator Idi Amin in 1976 but the carrier was liquidated in 2001 after a failed bid to privatise the floundering company, dogged by corruption and mismanagement.   The country has acquired two new Bombardier CRJ 900 jets, and will take delivery of another two in September, while the addition of two Airbus A330-800 planes in 2020 will allow it to carry out long-haul flights.   "Uganda Airlines will have direct flights from Uganda to China plus other countries, and it will be very important in hitting the four million tourist goal the government has set," said Tourism Minister Ephraim Kamuntu.   Uganda welcomed 1.8 million tourists in 2018, according to official statistics.

Meanwhile, neighbouring Tanzania has invested heavily in reviving its airline, with the purchase of six planes including Bombardiers, Airbus and one Boeing dreamliner since 2016. Air Tanzania launched its first route outside of the continent to Mumbai, India, in July.    Rwanda has massively invested in its national airline Rwandair, with a fleet of 12 jets which now fly 29 routes around the world, with the most recent flight launched to Israel in June.   According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) Rwanda breached its debt ceiling of $500 million by $87 million due to the lease of new aircrafts in 2018, and is seeking further loans to expand routes and make a profit.   Numerous airlines in Africa have failed to stay afloat, or survive on government bailouts.
More ...

Panama

Panama - US Consular Information Sheet
June 05, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: Panama has a developing economy. Outside the Panama City area, which has many first-class hotels and restaurants, tourist facilities vary in quality. The U.S. dollar is t
e paper currency of Panama, and is also referred to as the Panama balboa. Panama mints its own coinage. Read the Department of State Background Note on Panama for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: U.S. citizens traveling by air to and from Panama must present a valid passport when entering or re-entering the United States. Sea travelers must have a valid U.S. passport (or other original proof of U.S. citizenship, such as a certified U.S. birth certificate with a government-issued photo ID). American citizens can visit travel.state.gov or call 1-877-4USA-PPT (1-877-487-2778) for information on applying for a passport.

Panamanian law requires that travelers must either purchase a tourist card from the airline serving Panama or obtain a visa from a Panamanian embassy or consulate before traveling to Panama. Further information may be obtained from the Embassy of Panama, 2862 McGill Terrace NW, Washington, DC 20009, tel. (202) 483-1407, or the Panamanian consulates in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Juan, San Diego, San Francisco or Tampa.

U.S. citizens transiting the Panama Canal as passengers do not need to obtain visas, report to customs, or pay any fees. U.S. citizens piloting private craft through the canal should contact the Panama Canal Authority at 011-507-272-1111 or consult the canal’s web page at http://www.pancanal.com.

In an effort to prevent international child abduction, many governments have initiated procedures at entry/exit points. These often include requiring documentary evidence of relationship and permission for the child's travel from the parent(s) or legal guardian not present. Having such documentation on hand, even if not required, may facilitate entry/departure.

Panamanian law requires all persons to carry official identification documents at all times. This law applies to both Panamanian citizens and visitors to the country. Due to an increase in illegal aliens in Panama, the police have been checking documents more frequently, resulting in the detention of people not carrying identification. For this reason, all Americans are encouraged to carry their passports or other official identification at all times.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site. For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

Visit the Embassy of Panama web site at http://www.embassyofpanama.org/cms/index4.phpfor the most current visa information.

SAFETY AND SECURITY: U.S. citizens are warned not to travel to Darien Province. Embassy personnel are only allowed to travel to Darien Province on official business with prior approval of the Embassy’s Regional Security Officer. This restricted area encompasses the Darien National Park as well as privately owned nature reserves and tourist resorts. While no incidents have occurred at these resorts, U.S. citizens, other foreign nationals and Panamanian citizens have been the victims of violent crime, kidnapping and murder in this general area. Reliable communications and medical infrastructure are not readily available in the region, which makes travel therein potentially hazardous. Moreover, all around the Panama-Colombia border area the presence of Colombian terrorist groups, drug traffickers and other criminals is common, increasing the danger to travelers. Note: The Secretary of State has designated the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), the National Liberation Army (ELN) and the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC) as Foreign Terrorist Organizations.

There is increasing evidence that the Revolutionary Armed Forced of Colombia (FARC), a designated foreign terrorist organization, has increased its operations in Panama’s Darien Province, including in areas far removed from the immediate vicinity of Panamanian-Colombian border. In February 2008 encounters between six FARC members and the Panamanian police near the city of Jaque resulted in the arrest of the FARC members.

From time to time, there may be demonstrations protesting internal Panamanian issues, or manifestations of anti-American sentiment by small but vociferous groups. While most demonstrations relate to labor disputes or other local issues and are typically non-violent, it is nonetheless a good security practice to avoid demonstrations. U.S. citizens are advised to exercise caution on the campus of the University of Panama, where members of radical, anti-U.S. student groups are active. For updated security information, contact the U.S. Embassy Consular Section at the address below.

Visitors should be cautious when swimming or wading at the beach. Some beaches, especially those on the Pacific Ocean, have dangerous currents that cause drowning deaths every year. These beaches are seldom posted with warning signs.

On the Pacific coast, boaters should be wary of vessels that may be transporting narcotics northward from Colombia. Special permission is needed from the Ministry of Government and Justice and the National Environment Authority to visit the National Park on Coiba Island. At this time, the island, a former penal colony, has fewer than 20 prisoners. Boaters should avoid the southeastern coast of Kuna Yala Comarca (San Blas Islands), south of Punta Carreto, on the Atlantic Coast.

Local maritime search and rescue capabilities are limited and well below U.S. standards.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME: Crime in Panama City is moderate but increasing, particularly because of the activities of youth gangs. The city of Colon is a high crime area. Police checkpoints have become commonplace on weekends on roads in both cities. Based upon reported incidents by local police, the high-crime areas around Panama City are San Miguelito, Rio Abajo, El Chorrillo, Ancon, Curundu, Veracruz Beach, Panama Viejo, and the Madden Dam overlook. Crimes there are typical of those that plague metropolitan areas and range from rapes to armed robberies, muggings, purse-snatchings, "express kidnappings" from ATM banking facilities, in which the victim is briefly kidnapped and robbed after withdrawing cash from an ATM, and petty theft. Tourists recently experienced a problem with armed bandits during an organized canoe trip on the Chagres River. There have been several targeted kidnappings, including in Panama City, one of which involved a U.S. citizen, and one which involved the complicity of corrupt law enforcement officials. If concerned for their safety when being stopped by Panamanian law enforcement, U.S. citizens should consider slowing down and turning on their hazard lights, acknowledging the request to stop, and proceeding deliberately to a safe public place at which to stop.

Panama City has a curfew for persons under 18 years of age. Under the law, students attending night classes must have a carnet or permit, issued by the school or, if employed, a Certificate of Employment. Minors who are picked up for a curfew violation are subject to detention at a police station until parents or legal guardians can arrange for them to be released into their custody. Parents or legal guardians may be fined up to U.S. $50.00 for the violation.
INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed. The Panamanian Government also sponsors a program for Assistance to Victims of Crimes. The program is managed by the Oficina de Asistencia a Víctimas de Crímenes, located at the Policia Tecnica Judicial in the Ancon area of Panama City, telephone number is 011-507-262-1973 or 011-507-512-2222.
See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Although Panama City has some very good hospitals and clinics, medical facilities outside of the capital are limited. When making a decision regarding health insurance, Americans should consider that many foreign doctors and hospitals require payment in cash prior to providing service and that a medical evacuation to the U.S. may cost well in excess of $50,000. Uninsured travelers who require medical care overseas often face extreme difficulties, whereas travelers who have purchased overseas medical insurance have, when a medical emergency occurs, found it to be life-saving. Some insurance policies also include coverage for psychiatric treatment and for disposition of remains in the event of death. In Panama, most hospitals accept credit cards for hospital charges, but not for doctors' fees.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Panama is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Panama's roads, traffic and transportation systems are generally safe, but traffic lights often do not exist, even at busy intersections. Driving is often hazardous and demanding due to dense traffic, undisciplined driving habits, poorly maintained streets, and a lack of effective signs and traffic signals. On roads where poor lighting and driving conditions prevail, night driving is difficult and should be approached with caution. Night driving is particularly hazardous on the old Panama City – Colon highway.

Buses and taxis are not always maintained in a safe operating condition due to lack of regulatory enforcement. Auto insurance is not mandatory and many drivers are uninsured. If an accident occurs, the law requires that the vehicles remain in place until a police officer responds to investigate. Traffic in Panama moves on the right, as in the U.S., and Panamanian law requires that drivers and passengers wear seat belts.

Flooding during the April to December rainy season occasionally makes city streets impassible and washes out some roads in the interior of the country. In addition, rural areas are often poorly maintained and lack illumination at night. Such roads are generally less traveled and the availability of emergency roadside assistance is very limited. Road travel is more dangerous during the rainy season and in the interior from Carnival through Good Friday. Carnival starts the Saturday prior to Ash Wednesday and goes on for four days.

Traveling on the Pan American Highway: There is often construction at night on Panama's main Pan American highway. There are few signs alerting drivers to such construction and the highway is not well lit at night. When traveling on the highway, travelers should be aware of possible roadblocks. The Pan American Highway ends at Yaviza in the Darien Province of Panama and does not go through to Colombia. The paved portion of the road ends at Santa Fe, with all-weather surface through Canglón. Travelers going to South America by car may wish to ship their cars on a freighter.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. Visit the web site of the country’s national tourist office at http://www.ipat.gob.pa/ and the national authority responsible for road safety at http://www.mop.gob.pa/default0.asp.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Panama’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight ofPanama’s air carrier operations. For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: Panamanian customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from Panama of items such as firearms and ammunition, cultural property, endangered wildlife species, narcotics, biological material, and food products. It is advisable to contact the Embassy of Panama in Washington or one of Panama's consulates in the United States for specific information regarding customs requirements. In many countries around the world, counterfeit and pirated goods are widely available. Transactions involving such products are illegal and bringing them back to the United States may result in forfeitures and/or fines. Please see our Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Panamanian laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Panama are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Panama are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Panama. Americans withoutInternet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy and U.S. Consular Section are located in Avenida Demetrio Basilio Lakas, Building No.783 in the Clayton section of Panama City. The international mailing address is: Apartado 0816-02561, Zona 5, Panama, Republic of Panama.

The U.S. mailing address is U.S. Embassy Panama, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-9100. The telephone numbers for the Embassy are 011-507-207-7000, or for after-hours emergencies, 011-507-207-7200; Consular Section 011-507-207-7030 and fax 011-507-207-7278 or 011-507-207-7303. The Embassy web site is http://panama.usembassy.gov/. E-mail inquiries may be addressed to Panama-ACS@state.gov.
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information for Panama dated December 2007, to update sections on Security and Information for Victims of Crimes.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Tue 25 Jun 2019 10:30 EST
Source: La Prensa [in Spanish trans. Mod.TY, edited]

The Ministry of Health (MINSA) reported this [Tue 25 Jun 2019] 5 cases of equine encephalitis in Darien province. The Minister of Health Designate, Rosario Turner, explained that they are dealing with children.

Meanwhile, the current Minister of this office, Miguel Mayo, signalled that now it is being determined if they are dealing with Venezuelan equine encephalitis or eastern equine encephalitis, since both have circulated in Panama.

Mayo added that currently the patients are being treated in the Hospital del Nino Jose Renan Esquivel and that the ministry will provide more details of these cases in the coming hours.

The disease, transmitted by the bite of infected _Culex_ mosquitoes, attacks the nervous system causing disorientation, reduction in reflexes and movement of arms and legs. The usual hosts are horses and humans.  [Byline: Urania Cecilia Molina]
========================
[This is not the 1st time there have been human cases of encephalitis caused by both Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) and eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) in Darien province of Panama. As noted earlier, both viruses occur in Panama. The case fatality rate for humans infected with VEEV is relatively low -- less than 1 percent, whereas it is much higher in individuals with neurological disease from EEEV infections. Children are more severely affected by VEEV infection than adults.

If VEE virus infection in these children is confirmed, it would be of interest to know which VEEV subtype is involved in these cases, as subtype IAB or IC can cause massive equine epizootics over wide geographic areas with spillover to many humans. Subtype ID usually causes a few sporadic human cases (see ProMED-mail archive no. http://promedmail.org/post/20100617.2034). The results of confirmation of the virus involved in these cases is awaited with interest. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Panama:
Date: Mon, 13 May 2019 06:50:44 +0200

Panama City, May 13, 2019 (AFP) - A 6.1-magnitude earthquake hit Panama on Sunday, injuring at least five people and causing damage to businesses and homes, officials said.   The strong quake struck at a depth of 37 kilometers (23 miles) in the far west of the country near the Costa Rican border, according to the US Geological Survey.

It was followed by a smaller 5.4-magnitude quake in Colon province, on central Panama's Caribbean coast, according to the country's National Civil Protection System (Sinaproc).   Five people were injured in the first quake, which hit 22 km from the town of Puerto Armuelles, said Sinaproc.   Four homes were damaged, including two that collapsed, it said.

President Juan Carlos Varela had said on Twitter earlier that just one person was hurt, in Puerto Armuelles.    He reported damage to homes and businesses in the Central American nation.   School classes were suspended for Monday in Baru district, where the first quake struck.   There was no tsunami alert issued from the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center.

The second quake occurred late Sunday and was not related to the afternoon quake near Puerto Armuelles, Sinaproc said.   So far no damage has been reported from the second quake, it added.   In November 2017 a 6.5-magnitude quake on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica left buildings swaying in the capital San Jose and contributed to the deaths of two people who had heart attacks.   Further north, two months earlier in September 2017 a 7.1-magnitude earthquake killed more than 300 people in Mexico.
Date: Fri 4 Jan 2019
Source: WHO Emergencies preparedness response [edited]

The Panama Ministry of Health has reported an increase in cases of hantavirus infection in Los Santos Province, Republic of Panama, to the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO). Between 1 Jan - 22 Dec 2018, a total of 103 confirmed cases of hantavirus [infections] have been reported at the national level, 99 of which were reported in Los Santos Province. In Los Santos Province, 51 cases were classified as hantavirus fever (HF) without pulmonary syndrome, and 48 cases were classified as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), including 4 deaths.

Of the 51 HF cases, 41 percent were female, 55 percent aged between 20-59 years, with 76 percent occurring between June 2018 and November 2018.

Of the 48 HPS cases, 56 percent were female, 67 percent aged between 20-59 years, with more than half of the cases occurring in February 2018 (17 percent) and between June 2018 and September 2018 (42 percent).

Of HPS cases, 4 deaths were reported (2 female, 2 male, all aged over 60 years).

Cases were confirmed by serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequencing determined that the type of virus associated with this outbreak is Choclo virus. It was 1st isolated in 1999 in the western Republic of Panama.

Hantavirus cases have been reported in the Republic of Panama since 1999 (Figure 1). In the last 5 years, transmission has been documented in Los Santos, Herrera, Veraguas, and Cocle provinces. During 2018, cases have been reported in Los Santos (99 cases, Figure 2), Herrera (2 cases), Cocle (one case) and Veraguas (one case) provinces (Figure 3). Since the reservoir for hantavirus is sylvatic rodents and transmission can occur when people come in contact with rodent habitats, the current increase in hantavirus cases in the Republic of Panama could be related to changes in the abundance and distribution of rodent species, as well as strengthened surveillance and laboratory capacity at the provincial level. Environmental and ecological factors affecting rodent populations can have a seasonal impact on disease trends.

Figure 1 [graph]. Distribution of HF and HPS cases by year, Republic of Panama, 1999-2018 (as of November 2018).
Figure 2 [graph]. Distribution of confirmed hantavirus [infection] cases by epidemiological week, Los Santos Province, Republic of Panama, January-December 2018.
Figure 3 [map]. Geographical distribution of confirmed hantavirus [infection] cases, Republic of Panama, January-November 2018.

Public health response

The public health responses currently being implemented include:
- Investigation and monitoring of cases, including case management.
- Enhanced surveillance and active case finding.
- Rodent control and mitigation measures.
- Increasing awareness and health promotion in the affected areas.

WHO risk assessment
------
HPS is a zoonotic, viral respiratory disease. The causative agent belongs to the genus _Hantavirus_, family Bunyaviridae. Infections are acquired primarily through inhalation of aerosols or contact with the excreta, droppings or saliva of infected rodents. Cases of human hantavirus infection usually occur in rural areas (forests, fields, farms, etc.), where rodents hosting the virus might be found. Infected individuals may experience headache, dizziness, chills, fever and myalgia. They may also experience gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pains, and diarrhoea, followed by sudden onset of respiratory distress and hypotension. Symptoms of HPS typically occur from 2-4 weeks after initial exposure, though symptoms may appear as early as one week to as late as 8 weeks following exposure. The case fatality rate can reach 50 percent.

In the Americas, HPS cases have been reported in several countries. In January 2019, World Youth Day will be hosted in the Republic of Panama. This mass gathering will take place predominantly in Panama City, while side events will occur in other provinces. Though a seasonal increase of hantavirus during the month of January has not been previously documented, increases in cases have been related to outdoor and agricultural activities in rural environments. Nevertheless, participants to the World Youth Day should be provided with recommendations and guidance on how to take appropriate precautionary measures to reduce their risk of infection. Health awareness campaigns for health personnel and the general public are planned for the coming weeks. Organisers and public health authorities should collaborate with travel and tourism sectors in placing educational materials and appropriate signage at strategic locations and points of entry (e.g. airports, public transport stations, travel agent offices). Alternative forms of media including public service announcements on planes, ships and public radio should also be considered.

Based on current epidemiological data and public health response, WHO's risk assessment is that there is no significant risk of international spread of HPS in relation to this event.

WHO advice

PAHO/WHO recommends that Member States continue efforts of detection, investigation, reporting, and case management for the prevention and control of infections caused by hantavirus.

Particular attention should be paid to travellers returning from the affected areas, who are advised to report their travel history, as early identification and timely medical care can improve clinical outcomes.

Care during the initial stages of the illness should include antipyretics and analgesics as needed. In some situations, patients should receive broad-spectrum antibiotics while confirming the etiologic agent. Given the rapid progression of HPS, clinical management should focus on the patient's haemodynamic monitoring, fluid management, and ventilation support. Severe cases should be immediately transferred to intensive care units (ICUs).

Health awareness campaigns should aim to increase detection and timely treatment of the illness and prevent its occurrence by reducing people's contact with rodents. Preventive measures should cover occupational and eco-tourism related hazards. While most usual tourism activities pose little or no risk of exposing travellers to rodents or their excreta, people who engage in outdoor activities such as camping or hiking should take precautions to reduce possible exposure to potentially infectious materials.

HPS surveillance should be part of a comprehensive national surveillance system and must include clinical, laboratory and environmental components. WHO recommends the implementation of integrated environmental management, with the goal of reducing rodent populations. Throughout the World Youth Day event, syndromic surveillance may alert public authorities to increased influenza-like and GI symptoms among mass gathering participants.

At this time, WHO does not recommend any restrictions on travel and/or trade to the Republic of Panama based on available information for the current hantavirus outbreak.

References:
- Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO). Epidemiological Alert Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS). 17 Oct 2013.
- Hantavirus in the Americas: Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control.
- Hantavirus information: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

[Footnotes]
Hantavirus fever (HF): Cases who present with fever, myalgia, headache, gastrointestinal symptoms, and weakness. This case definition is used for epidemiological surveillance purposes to detect patients potentially exposed to the virus. Source: Guide for Hantavirus Disease Management in Republic of Panama, Gorgas Memorial Institute, Panama Ministry of Health.

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS): Cases who present with cardio-respiratory symptoms, classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Source: Guide for Hantavirus Disease Management in Republic of Panama, Gorgas Memorial Institute, Panama Ministry of Health.

National Reference Laboratory, Gorgas Memorial Institute,

World Youth Day Panama 2019. (<https://bit.ly/2KdmDxT>)

For the last 5 World Youth Day events (2016 in Krakow, Poland; 2013 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2011 in Madrid, Spain; 2008 in Sydney, Australia; and 2005 in Cologne, Germany), the range in the number of attendees was 500 000 in Australia (<https://bit.ly/2rXptP1>) to 3,700,000 in Brazil (<https://bit.ly/2EVxs77>).
====================
[Although ProMED-mail has reported most of the cases of hantavirus infections in Panama during 2018, this WHO summary and the graphs and map may be of interest to subscribers and other readers. It is helpful to note that laboratory diagnosis has been carried out by the Gorgas Memorial Laboratory, the national reference laboratory in Panama. The methods used for diagnosis are mentioned in this report. Interestingly, Choclo is the hantavirus identified in these cases, based on genomic sequence analysis. Curiously, Choclo virus is never mentioned in the popular press reports that come to ProMED-mail from Panama. It is reassuring to know that the virus responsible for these cases, or at least the ones for which samples and diagnostic testing was done, confirm the ProMED conclusion that Chocolo virus was involved. Earlier, Dr. Jan Clement suggested that Seoul hantavirus might be involved in some of the cases in the Americas including Panama. Presumably, genomic analysis by the Gorgas Lab would have detected this virus. Nonetheless, diagnostic laboratories should be aware of this possibility and look for it.

The WHO report indicates that rodents are the reservoir hosts of Choclo virus but does not specify which rodents play that role. The rodent host of Choclo virus is the pygmy rice rat (_Oligoryzomys fulvescens_), a photograph of which can be accessed at <http://www.medwave.cl/medios/perspectivas/Hantavirus/Actualiz/Fig2.jpg>. These rodents live in and around agricultural areas and adjacent houses and buildings. They can be persistently infected with the virus and shed it in urine, feces, and saliva, the source of human infections.

Map of Panama: <http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/americas/panama.jpg>. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Date: Mon 2 Jul 2018
Source: La Prensa [in Spanish trans. Mod.TY, edited]

A 9-year-old child, resident of Cambutal de Tonosi, a victim of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome, was moved early this morning, 2 Jul 2018, to the Children's Hospital in the capital city.  The Los Santos regional epidemiology coordinator, Carlos Munoz, stated that as of this Monday morning [2 Jul 2018], the number of cases of hantavirus [infection] is 40.

Munoz indicated that the child was moved because in the area there is no intensive care unit that attends children. He stated that in the month of June [2018], 11 cases of the disease were diagnosed. He added that this month [July 2018] more cases were added.  The Tonosi district has reported 27 cases so far in 2018.  [Byline: Vielka Corro Rios]
==================
[The number of cases of hantavirus infection continues to increase in Los Santos province. Hantavirus infections occur in Los Santos province relatively frequently. The specific situation in which the above patient might have acquired the infection is not mentioned.

There is no indication of which hantavirus is involved in this or in previous cases in Panama. However, as noted in comments in previous posts, Los Santos and adjoining provinces are endemic for Choclo hantavirus. Although no data on this or the previous cases in earlier years include an indication of which hantavirus is responsible, Choclo is the only one of the 3 hantaviruses known to be endemic in Panama that causes HPS (hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome) or hantavirus fever. No vaccine is available for Choclo virus.

The rodent host of Choclo virus is the pygmy rice rat (_Oligoryzomys fulvescens_), a photograph of which can be accessed at <http://www.medwave.cl/medios/perspectivas/Hantavirus/Actualiz/Fig2.jpg>. These rodents live in and around agricultural areas and adjacent houses and buildings. They can be persistently infected with the virus and shed it in urine, faeces and saliva, the source of human infections. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[Maps of Panama:

HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Date: Tue 26 Jun 2018, 10:20 AM
Source: La Prensa [in Spanish, trans., ProMED Mod.TY, edited]
<https://www.prensa.com/provincias/Reportan-nuevos-casos-virus-Santos_0_5062743696.html>

A total of 7 new hantavirus [infection] cases in Los Santos province were reported this [Tue 26 Jun 2018] by health authorities in the province. Delfina Saez, head of Los Santos regional Public Health, indicated that 4 of them remain hospitalized in the Joaquín Pablo Franco Sayas Hospital in Las Tablas. Sa¡ez said that 2 are being attended in intensive care (a 79-year-old woman from La Laguna de Pocra­ and a 73-year-old man from Flores de Tonosa).

The official stated that with these 7 cases the number of people ill from hantavirus [infections] is raised to 38 so far in 2018. She added that with the evident increase in cases of the disease, provincial, local and municipal authorities are involved, as well as rice and corn producers, to seek together new strategies to prevent and promote [measures] in the affected communities and avoid occurrence of new cases. [Byline: Vielka Corro Ríos]
======================
[There is a recent increase in the number of hantavirus infections in Los Santos province. Hantavirus infections occur in Los Santos province relatively frequently. The specific situations in which these patients acquired the infection are not mentioned. There is no indication of which hantavirus is involved in this or in previous cases in Panama.

However, as noted in comments in previous posts, Los Santos and adjoining provinces are endemic for Choclo hantavirus. Although no data on this or the previous cases in earlier years include an indication of which hantavirus is responsible, Choclo is the only one of the 3 hantaviruses known to be endemic in Panama that causes HPS (hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome) or hantavirus fever.

No vaccine is available for Choclo virus. The rodent host of Choclo virus is the pygmy rice rat (_Oligoryzomys fulvescens_), a photograph of which can be accessed at <http://www.medwave.cl/medios/perspectivas/Hantavirus/Actualiz/Fig2.jpg>.

These rodents live in and around agricultural areas and adjacent houses and buildings. They can be persistently infected with the virus and shed it in urine, feces and saliva, the source of human infections. - ProMED Mod.TY]
 
[Maps of Panama: <http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/americas/panama.jpg>
and <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/41725>]
More ...

World Travel News Headlines

Date: Thu, 21 Nov 2019 22:38:09 +0100 (MET)

Bogota, Nov 21, 2019 (AFP) - Tens of thousands of Colombians took to the streets of the capital Bogota on Thursday amid a general strike to protest the policies of President Ivan Duque's right-wing government.   There were no reported outbreaks of major violence as trade unions, students, opposition parties and the South American country's indigenous organizations challenged the full gamut of Duque's economic, social and security policies.   "It is an accumulation of situations that we hope to see reviewed after today, including a great national dialogue of conciliation," Robert Gomez, president of the main workers' union, told AFP.   The protest comes amid social upheaval across South America, as a wave of unrest over the past two months has battered governments in Chile, Bolivia and Ecuador.   The popularity of Duque's right-wing government -- a key US ally -- has been on the wane since his election 18 months ago, as it deals with hosting 1.4 million refugees from neighboring Venezuela's economic meltdown as well as the complex fallout of a 2016 peace deal with FARC rebels and rampant drug trafficking.

- Troops deployed -
Troops were deployed in the capital and other cities to protect "strategic facilities," authorities said.   The Colombian office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights voiced concern over the deployment, saying states must limit the use of military forces "for the control of internal disturbances."   Authorities said the protests were largely peaceful, though riot police fired tear gas to break up groups of demonstrators in isolated clashes in Bogota and the western city of Cali. Blocked roads in some areas snarled transportation.

The general strike was widely followed in Bogota, and other big cities like Bucaramanga in the northeast and Medellin in the northwest.   Several separate marches converged on Bolivar Square, the historic center of the capital close to the presidency.   "We are marching because in Colombia we are tired of corruption, of impunity, that the government does nothing for the poor," Olga Canon, 55, told AFP.   Organizations that participated in the strike take issue with Duque's security policy as well as attempts to introduce a more flexible labor market, weaken public pension funds and raise the retirement age.   Students are demanding more funding for education, while indigenous communities insist on greater protection in remote areas where 134 activists have been killed since Duque came to power in August 2018.

- 'Afraid to march' -
"We are very afraid to march in the streets but we do it anyway because the state is spreading so much fear with its militarization and by closing the borders," political science student Valentina Gaitan, 21, told AFP.    Duque admitted some of the criticisms were legitimate in a televised speech on the eve of the strike, but said the campaign against his government was based on lies seeking to provoke violence.   "We recognize the value of peaceful protests, but also guarantee order," he said.   The borders with Brazil, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela were closed until Friday to avoid any threat to "public order and security," authorities said.   Political analyst Jason Marczak said the outrage against the government, the target of several demonstrations in recent months, is part of a "considerable demonstration of discontent in the region."   "The unsatisfied claims and deep polarization are the basis for this massive event," said Marczak, of the Washington-based Atlantic Council.
Date: Thu, 21 Nov 2019 09:12:36 +0100 (MET)

Bangkok, Nov 21, 2019 (AFP) - A shallow 6.1-magnitude earthquake hit north-western Laos near the Thai border early Thursday, the United States Geological Survey reported, alarming locals who felt buildings shake as far away as Bangkok.  The quake hit at 6:50am (2350 GMT Wednesday), roughly three hours after a 5.7-magnitude earthquake in the same region triggered an immediate suspension to Laos' largest-capacity power plant located near its epicentre.    Tremors could be felt more than 700 kilometres (435 miles) away in the Thai capital, where Pope Francis is currently on a four-day visit.    "The shaking... was the main shock from a quake in Laos at 6:50 am and was felt in northern and northeastern Thailand and Bangkok and suburbs," said Sophon Chaila, an official at the Thai Meteorological Department.

The department said the quake affected nine provinces in Thailand and there were four lesser aftershocks.    It also became a top trending topic on Twitter in Thailand, as locals shared videos of swaying overhead lights and rattling window blinds in office buildings.    Residents in the Vietnamese capital Hanoi also felt buildings sway.    "The ceiling lights were shaking quite strongly. I felt dizzy and scared," said Hanoi resident Tran Hoa Phuong, who felt the earthquake in her 27-storey apartment building.    After the first quake, the 1,878-megawatt Hongsa Power Plant -- Laos' largest-capacity thermal energy generator -- immediately suspended operations according to a statement from the Thai-owned company.

No "fundamental" damages or injuries have been found so far, "merely damages to the external texture of the buildings", it said, adding that Hongsa is expected to take 24 hours to complete its inspection.    Photos shared by Thai news showed portions of the power plant's walls had collapsed, and debris littered its premises.    Nearby Xayaburi dam project, one of Laos' largest hydropower dams, has seen "no impact" so far, and is continuing to generate electricity "as normal", said a statement from CK Power.   Information is slow to trickle out of the closed communist state, and there were similarly no official reports of injuries after the twin quakes hit early Thursday.

Impoverished Laos has ploughed ahead with ambitious dam-building projects that critics say lack transparency and stringent safety measures.   The cost was laid bare last year when a massive hydropower project collapsed in southern Laos, killing dozens and leaving thousands homeless.   Pope Francis arrived in Bangkok on Wednesday and has a busy agenda Thursday meeting officials and the Thai king before he leads a mass in the evening.    There was no word from his team on whether he felt the quake.    Powerful earthquakes occasionally strike hard in Southeast Asia.   In 2016 a 6.8-magnitude quake struck Myanmar, killing at least three people and damaging temples in the ancient temple town of Bagan.
Date: Tue, 19 Nov 2019 14:25:40 +0100 (MET)

Ottawa, Nov 19, 2019 (AFP) - Train operators at Canadian National Railway went on strike on Tuesday after months of contract talks failed, effectively shutting down the largest rail network in Canada.   The union representing more than 3,000 CN workers had given a midnight (0500 GMT) deadline to reach a deal to replace an agreement that expired in July.   "Unfortunately, we were unable to reach a deal with CN," the Teamsters Canada Rail Conference said in a statement.   "The company remains unwilling to address our member's health and safety issues. As a result, members at CN will be on strike... at 00:01 Eastern Time."

The workers had expressed concerns over long hours and fatigue leading to dangerous working conditions. Wages are not in dispute.   The labour dispute follows layoffs of 1,600 staff in North America announced by CN on Friday.    Employment Minister Patty Hajdu has encouraged both sides to continue the negotiations and reach an agreement.    "We are monitoring the situation closely," she said on Saturday after the Teamsters gave a 72-hour strike notice.
Date: Tue, 19 Nov 2019 09:24:19 +0100 (MET)

Wellington, Nov 19, 2019 (AFP) - The death toll from a measles outbreak raging in the Pacific nation of Samoa has risen to 15, with most of the victims young children, UNICEF said Tuesday.   The UN children's agency said that suspected measles cases had topped 1,000 in the island nation, which has declared a state of emergency and launched a compulsory vaccination programme.   "The epidemic has claimed the lives of 14 children under-five years old and one adult," it said in a statement.   UNICEF said it was in the process of delivering more than 110,000 doses of measles vaccine to Samoa's population of about 200,000.   With the virus sweeping through the South Pacific, the agency said it had also sent vaccines to Tonga and Fiji.

Officials were also helping with preparations for potential outbreaks in Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, Kiribati, the Cook Islands, the Marshall Islands and Micronesia.   It said Samoa, which is by far the worst affected, had low measles vaccination rates of 28-40 percent.   In Tonga and Fiji, which have vaccination rates of 99 percent and 81 percent respectively, the outbreak is more contained and there have been no fatalities.   Children are the most vulnerable to measles, which typically causes a rash and fever but can also lead to brain damage and death.   Samoa has closed all schools and kindergartens, as well as banning children from public gatherings, in a bid to halt the spread of the virus.    After initially facing criticism for its slow response, the government had opened a national emergency operations centre to roll out mass vaccinations.
Date: Mon, 18 Nov 2019 19:25:45 +0100 (MET)

Srinagar, India, Nov 18, 2019 (AFP) - An avalanche on Monday hit an Indian patrol in the world's highest militarised zone in the Himalayas, killing four soldiers and two porters, an army spokesman said.   The disaster was the latest on the Siachen Glacier at more than 5,000 metres (16,500 feet) that is claimed by India and rival Pakistan.

Hundreds of troops from both sides have died in avalanches and from the fierce climate in the region over the past three decades.   An Indian military spokesman told AFP that the avalanche engulfed eight people in the patrol at the northern end of the glacier in the Karakoram mountain range.   Rescue teams managed to dig the patrol members out of the snow, and they were taken by helicopter to hospital.   "Despite best efforts, six casualties which includes four soldiers and two civilian porters succumbed to extreme hypothermia," said the spokesman, Colonel Rajesh Kalia.

Avalanches are common on the 700-square-kilometre (270-square-mile) glacier, where temperatures regularly fall to minus 60 degrees Celsius (-76 Fahrenheit).   In 2016, 10 Indian soldiers were buried and killed.   About 900 Indian soldiers alone have died on the glacier since 1984, when Indian forces took complete control of Siachen.   The glacier is located at the northern end of the Line of Control that divides Kashmir, which India and Pakistan have fought over since 1947.
Date: Mon, 18 Nov 2019 16:10:29 +0100 (MET)

Vienna, Nov 18, 2019 (AFP) - A man died on Monday in a landslide that destroyed much of his home in southern Austria, which has been hit by heavy rainfall and snow affecting transport and electricity.   The retiree was behind his house in Carinthia state when part of the hill above it slid off, killing the 79-year-old, police said.   Earlier Monday, two women were rescued from the rubble of two houses after another landslide, this one in the spa town of Bad Gastein in Salzburg state.   Salzburg, Tyrol and Carinthia states have all seen heavy rain and snowfall since last week, leading to power cuts in thousands of homes.   Many roads and railway lines have also been cut, and several schools in these areas remained closed on Monday.
Date: Fri, 15 Nov 2019 13:19:27 +0100 (MET)

Karachi, Nov 15, 2019 (AFP) - Lightning strikes killed at least 18 people and injured several more during a deadly night in Pakistan's Thar desert, police said Friday, describing the deaths as "unprecedented".   Thunderstorms and a heavy downpour caused havoc in several villages, destroying dozens of homes, in an unusual rainfall event that a meteorologist says could be linked to climate change.

It was the lightning strikes in 18 different places which had the greatest impact.   "We have so far confirmation of 18 deaths in our district," Abdulah Ahmed, the police chief of the region -- which is located in southern Sindh province and stretches over 22,000 square kilometres (8,500 square miles)-- told AFP.   He said that officers in each village had verified that each death was caused by lightning strike.    In contrast, lightning kills an average of three people each year in the UK, according to the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents.

The Thar desert, straddling the Indian border and one of Pakistan's poorest areas, is dependent on monsoon rains.   But such a heavy rainfall in November is "unusual", while "lightning of that intensity is unprecedented," said Dr Syed Sarfraz, a senior meteorological officer in Karachi.   He said the causes were still being investigated but suggested hot air over the desert had met with a cold air mass entering from Iran, fuelling the storms. Climate change could also be playing a role, he added.    Dozens of tents and blankets were dispatched from Karachi in a relief effort for the families who lost their homes in the rain.
Date: Fri, 15 Nov 2019 09:41:09 +0100 (MET)

Phnom Penh, Nov 15, 2019 (AFP) - Cambodia will ban all elephant rides at the country's famed Angkor temple park by early next year, an official said Friday, a rare win for conservationists who have long decried the popular practice as cruel.   The Angkor archaeological complex in northern Siem Reap attracts the bulk of the kingdom's foreign tourists -- which topped six million in 2018 -- and many opt for elephants rides around the ancient temples.

But these rides "will end by the start of 2020", said Long Kosal, a spokesman with the Apsara Authority, which manages the park.   "Using elephants for business is not appropriate anymore," he told AFP, adding that some of the animals were "already old".   So far, five of the 14 working elephants have been transferred to a community forest about 40 kilometres (25 miles) away from the temples.   "They will live out their natural lives there," Kosal said.   The company that owns the elephants will continue to look after them, he added. 

Cambodia has long come under fire from animal rights groups for ubiquitous elephant rides on offer for tourists, also seen in neighbouring Thailand, Vietnam and Laos.    The elephants are broken in during training and rights groups have accused handlers of overworking them.   In 2016, a female elephant died by the roadside after carrying tourists around the Angkor Wat temple complex in severely hot weather.   The animal had been working for around 45 minutes before she collapsed.
Date: Fri, 15 Nov 2019 05:28:34 +0100 (MET)

Bangkok, Nov 15, 2019 (AFP) - A French tourist has died after falling from a waterfall while trying to take a selfie in Thailand, police said Friday.   The accident happened Thursday afternoon on the tropical island of Koh Samui, whose palm-fringed, white-sand beaches are a magnet for both backpackers and high-end tourists.   The 33-year-old man fell from Na Mueang 2 waterfall, the same spot where a Spanish tourist died in a fall in July, Lieutenant Phuvadol Viriyavarangkul of the island's tourist police told AFP.

"It took several hours to retrieve his body because the waterfall is slippery and steep," he said by phone, adding that the spot is roped off and there is a sign warning tourists of the danger.   "His friend said he was trying to take a selfie and then he slipped and fell."   Thailand is largely considered a safe destination for tourists and typically draws more than 35 million visitors each year.    But the industry took a hit in 2018 after a ferry carrying Chinese visitors in the country's south sank last year, killing 47 people.   The accident highlighted lax safety rules in the tourism sector and authorities have been scrambling to restore the country's image since.
Date: Fri, 15 Nov 2019 01:13:41 +0100 (MET)
By Sophie PONS

Dakhla, Western Sahara, Nov 15, 2019 (AFP) - In the heart of disputed Western Sahara, a former garrison town has become an unlikely tourist magnet after kitesurfers discovered the windswept desert coast was perfect for their sport.  In Dakhla, an Atlantic seaport town punctuated with military buildings in Morocco-administered Western Sahara, swarms of kitesurfers now sail in the lagoon daily.y    "Here there is nothing other than sun, wind and waves. We turned the adversity of the elements to our advantage: that's the very principle of kitesurfing," said Rachid Roussafi. 

After an international career in windsurfing and kitesurfing, Roussafi founded the first tourist camp at the lagoon at the start of the 2000s.    "At the time, a single flight a week landed in Dakhla," the 49-year-old Moroccan said.   Today, there are 25 a week, including direct flights to Europe.   "Dakhla has become a world destination for kitesurfing," said Mohamed Cherif, a regional politician.

Tourist numbers have jumped from 25,000 in 2010 to 100,000 today, he said, adding they hoped to reach 200,000 annual visitors.    The former Spanish garrison is booming today with the visitor influx adding to fishing and trade revenue.   Kitesurfing requires pricey gear -- including a board, harness and kite -- and the niche tourism spot attracts well-off visitors of all nationalities.    Peyo Camillade came from France "to extend the summer season", with a week's holiday costing about 1,500 euros ($1,660). 

Only the names of certain sites, like PK 25 (kilometre point 25), ruined forts in the dunes and the imposing and still in-use military buildings in Dakhla, remind tourists of the region's history of conflict.   In the 1970s, Morocco annexed Western Sahara, a former Spanish colony, and fought a war with the Algeria-backed Polisario Front from 1975 to 1991, when a ceasefire deal was agreed.   A United Nations mission was deployed to monitor the truce and prepare a referendum on Western Sahara's independence from Morocco, but it never materialized.   Without waiting for the political compromise that the UN has been negotiating for decades, hotels have sprouted from the sand along the coast, and rows of streetlights on vacant lots announce future subdivisions.

- 'Good communication' -
"The secret to success is to develop kitesurfing with good communication focused on the organisation of non-political events," said Driss Senoussi, head of the Dakhla Attitude hotel group.    Accordingly, the exploits of kitesurfing champions like Brazilian Mikaili Sol and the Cape Verdian Airton Cozzolino were widely shared online during the World Kiteboarding Championships in Dakhla last month.   The competition seemed to hold little interest for Dakhla's inhabitants however.

Only a few young people with nothing to do and strolling families found themselves on the beach for the finals.   Just as rare are the foreign tourists who venture into the town of 100,000 residents to shop.   Like her friends, Alexandra Paterek prefers to stay at her hotel, some 30 kilometres (19 miles) from downtown.    "Here is the best place in the world for learning kitesurfing," said the 31-year-old Polish stewardess.    On her understanding of the broader regional context, she said: "It's an old Spanish colony and they have good seafood, for sure."

Like many tourists, she was under the impression that the area belonged to Morocco, as the destination tends to be marketed in the travel industry as "Dakhla, Morocco".   That angers the Polisario, which wants independence for the disputed region and tried last year in vain to sue businesses it said were "accomplices to the occupying military power."   The independence movement is now focused on challenging commercial deals between Morocco and the European Union that involve Western Sahara, according to the group's French lawyer Gilles Devers.   Moroccan authorities are looking actively for investors for their development projects on the west coast, the most ambitious being the Dakhla Atlantique megaport with a budget of about $1 billion to promote fishing.

- Environmental concerns -
On the lagoon, surrounded by white sand and with its holiday bungalows, "there is a struggle between developing aquaculture and tourism," said a senior regional representative, who spoke on condition of anonymity.    "One has less impact on the environment, but the other generates more revenue and jobs," said the representative, adding that "pressure from real-estate investors is very high."

With the influx of tourists, the protection of the environment has become a major concern.   "Everything is developing so quickly... we need to recycle plastic waste and resolve the issue of wastewater," said Rachid Roussafi.    Daniel Bellocq, a retired French doctor, worries for the future of this lagoon, that was "once so wild" that he has kitesurfed in for 20 years.   "There is green algae that wasn't there before, it's becoming a septic tank," he said.   Regional councillor Cherif, though, insists the bay is clean, saying: "All the hotels are equipped with wastewater management systems."   For him, the real threat is from plastic waste, whether it is dropped by tourists or brought by sea currents.