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Hungary

Hungary US Consular Information Sheet
April 07, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Hungary is a stable democracy with a market economy. Tourist facilities outside Budapest are widely available, if not as developed as those found in Western Europe.
isitors considering a trip are encouraged to read the Embassy’s consular web site at http://budapest.usembassy.gov/information_for_travelers.html.
Please read the Department of State Background Notes on Hungary.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport is required. A visa is not required for tourist stays of up to ninety (90) days as of May 1, 2004. American citizen tourists may remain in Hungary for up to ninety days during any six-month period from the date of first entry. If you plan to reside or study in Hungary for a period of more than ninety days, a visa must be obtained from the Embassy of the Republic of Hungary at 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008, telephone (202) 362-6730. More information can be found on the Hungarian Embassy’s web site, http://www.huembwas.org, or at the nearest Hungarian Consulate in Los Angeles or New York.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on the State Department’s web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Prior police approval is required for public demonstrations in Hungary and police oversight is routinely provided to ensure adequate security for participants and passersby. Nonetheless, situations may develop which could pose a threat to public safety. This has been the case several times since 2006, as large demonstrations continue to occur in protest of various domestic political issues. While demonstrations have occurred throughout the country, demonstrations often occurred at Budapest’s Kossuth Lajos ter, outside the Hungarian Parliament Building and very close to the U.S. Embassy. On several occasions the demonstrations turned violent, resulting in local law enforcement response that included the use of water canons and tear gas. Domestic politics also appears to be the impetus behind a recent rash of Molotov cocktail and “white powder” incidents across the country. While Americans and U.S. interests are not specifically targeted by these incidents, many take place in areas popular with tourists. As a result, U.S. citizens are advised to avoid areas in which public demonstrations are taking place.

While Hungary does not appear to be experiencing the wave of race or ethnic-based violence associated with other countries in East and Central Europe, there has been an increase in the profile of a number of small groups espousing religious, ethnic and social intolerance. One such group, calling itself the Magyar Garda (Hungarian Guard), gained prominence in 2007 due to its radical nationalist message of intolerance and its efforts to intimidate opponents by adoption of imagery reminiscent of Hungary’s fascist regime of the 1940’s. Although such groups are not avowedly anti-American, their targeting of people based on their ethnicity, race or sexual orientation should be noted by Americans traveling in Hungary, and steps should be taken to avoid confrontations with the group and its members.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Worldwide Caution, Travel Warnings, and Travel Alerts can be found.

Up to date information on security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or, for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays.

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
Hungary has a low rate of violent crime. However, street crime occasionally involving violence has been reported, especially near major hotels and restaurants and on public transportation. Theft of passports, currency, and credit cards is a frequent problem, especially in train stations and on public transportation.

The U.S. Embassy’s Consular Section offers an informational brochure for tourists in Hungary, including a section on crimes and scams that have been encountered by other tourists. To consult the advisory, please visit the Embassy’s consular web site at http://budapest.usembassy.gov/tourist_advisory.html.

Drivers should be cautious when stopping at gas stations and highway parking lots, or fixing flat tires or other mechanical problems, especially at night. There have been reports of scams perpetrated on unsuspecting victims while traveling the highways. One reported scam involves someone who attracts the driver’s attention by saying that there is something wrong with his/her car (e.g. a smoking hood or flat tire) in order to encourage the driver to pull over to the side of the road. Once pulled over, the people participating in the scam will remove purses, passports, etc., from the car and drive away. Luggage and valuables should not be left unattended inside any vehicle.

A common scam involves young women asking foreign men to buy them drinks. When the bill arrives the drinks cost hundreds of dollars each. Americans should avoid bars and restaurants promoted by cab drivers or people on the street. Every bar and restaurant should provide a menu with prices before ordering.

In many countries around the world, counterfeit and pirated goods are widely available. Transactions involving such products may be illegal under local law. In addition, bringing them back to the United States may result in forfeitures and/or fines. More information on this serious problem is available at http://www.cybercrime.gov/18usc2320.htm.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy or Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.
Tourists who become victims of a crime in Hungary are strongly encouraged to call a 24-hour multilingual crime reporting telephone number. The number from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. is 01-438-8080; from 8 p.m. to 8 a.m., the number is 06-8066-0044. There is also a 24-hour police Tourist Information office that provides service in English and German and is located in one of downtown Budapest’s busiest tourist area: 1051 Budapest.

For more information, see Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Medical treatment in Hungary is adequate, but hospital facilities and nursing support are not comparable to those in the United States. Physicians are generally well trained, but there is a lack of adequate emergency services. Some doctors, particularly in Budapest, speak English. Doctors and hospitals usually expect immediate cash payment for health services.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith..

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.

Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning the Hungary is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

In Hungary, fatal traffic accidents number approximately 1,200 per year, with about 7,000 traffic accidents per year resulting in serious injuries. While this may seem low compared to the United States, Hungary has a much higher rate of accidents per mile driven. Americans should drive with caution and always be alert for other vehicles that may be violating traffic laws. Road travel is more dangerous during the Christmas season, summer months, and at night. Roadside assistance, including medical and other services, is generally available. English is usually spoken at the emergency numbers listed below. In case English is not spoken, dial 112.

Ambulance: 104 or 350-0388
Police: 107
Fire: 105
24-hour English speaker: 112

Bus, train and taxi services are readily available for inter-city travel.
Hungarian motorways and highways are generally in good condition.
Urban roads and road maintenance are also good although areas under construction are not always adequately marked or blockaded. In Budapest, many roads are often under construction. In rural areas, however, roads are often narrow, badly lit, and can be in a state of poor repair in some areas. Pedestrians, agricultural machinery, and farm animals often use these small rural roads. This requires increased caution on the part of drivers. Additional information on road conditions is available from “Utinform” at phone number (38) (1) 336-2400.

Hungary has a policy of zero tolerance for driving under the influence of alcohol. Police often conduct routine roadside checks where breath-analyzer tests are administered. Persons found to be driving while intoxicated face jail and/or fines. Possible penalties for a car accident involving injury or death are one to five years in prison. Police have instituted a widespread practice of stopping vehicles, particularly in Budapest, to check driver identity documents in a search for illegal aliens and residents in Hungary, and to check vehicle registration and fitness documentation. It is against the law to use a hand-held cell phone while driving anywhere in Hungary.

Hungary recognizes international driver’s permits (IDP) issued by the American Automobile Association (AAA) and the American Automobile Touring Alliance when presented in conjunction with a state driver’s license. American driver’s licenses will be accepted in Hungary for one year after arrival provided that a certified Hungarian translation has been attached to the license. Those with IDPs do not need to have the license translated, but must present both IDP and state driver’s license together. After one year in Hungary, U.S. citizens must obtain a Hungarian driver’s license. For further information on this procedure visit the embassy’s consular web site at http://budapest.usembassy.gov/information_for_travelers.html.

The speed limit for cars and motorcycles on the motorway is 130 km per hour (approximately 80 mph); on highways, the limit is 110 km per hour (approximately 65 mph);
and in town and village areas, the speed limit is 50 km per hour (approximately 30 mph). Many drivers, however, do not observe the speed limits, and extra care should be taken on two-way roads.
Special seats are required for infants. Children under age 12 may not sit in the front seat of an automobile. Seats belts are mandatory for everyone in the car. Unless another instruction sign is displayed, yielding the right of way to cars approaching from the right is the general rule. Turning right on a red light is prohibited. The police write up tickets for traffic violations and levy any applicable fine(s) on the spot. The police will give the offender a postal check (money order) on which the amount of the fine to be paid is written, and this postal check may be presented and paid at any Hungarian post office. Sometimes in disputes about fines or the offense, the police will confiscate the person’s passport and issue a receipt for the passport with an “invitation letter” to appear at the police station the ext day or day after to resolve the dispute. The passport is returned after resolution and/or the payment of the fine.

For specific information about Hungarian driver’s permits, vehicle inspection, road taxes and mandatory insurance, visit the Hungarian National Tourist Organization Office in New York web site at http://www.gotohungary.com.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for information.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Hungary’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Hungary’s air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: The acceptance of traveler’s checks is not universal in Hungary. The presence of ATMs is increasing in Budapest and other major cities.

Hungary’s custom authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from Hungary of items such as firearms, antiquities, and prescription medications. It is advisable to contact the Embassy of Hungary in Washington or one of Hungary’s consulates in the United States for specific information regarding customs requirements.

Please see our information on Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Hungarian laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Hungary are strict and convicted offenders can expect jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in illicit sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.

Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION/EMBASSY AND CONSULATE LOCATIONS:
Americans living in Hungary are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy of Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site, https://travelregistration.state.gov, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Hungary.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy in Budapest is located at 1054 Budapest 12; telephone (36) (1) 475-4703 or (36) (1) 475-4929. The Consular Section’s fax is (36) (1) 475-4188 or (36) (1) 475-4113, and the Consular Section’s web site is located at http://hungary.usembassy.gov/.
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This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated August 23, 2007 with updated information on Safety and Security.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Fri, 27 Mar 2020 10:46:26 +0100 (MET)

Budapest, March 27, 2020 (AFP) - Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orban on Friday ordered a nationwide lockdown for two weeks to fight the spread of the new coronavirus.   "We are introducing curfew restrictions throughout Hungary between March 28 and April 11," he told public radio.   "For two weeks we can all leave our homes or places of residence only for work or for managing basic needs."

Exemptions include trips to shops and pharmacies for necessities, with infringements liable to police fines of up to 500,000 forints (1,400 euros, $1,550).   Shops will be open exclusively for those aged over 65 between 9 am and 12 noon to "separate youth from elderly in a bearable way," said Orban.   The move is the latest in a series of government decrees including school closures introduced after a state of emergency was announced March 11.

Hungary closed its borders to non-nationals from March 17, which led to chaos for travellers and freight hauliers at border crossings and Budapest airport.   Parliament is set Tuesday to grant Orban sweeping powers of decree until the government declares an end to the state of emergency.   Hungary, which has a population of almost 10 million, has so far recorded 300 infections from the virus and 10 deaths.
Date: Mon, 16 Mar 2020 12:44:48 +0100 (MET)

Budapest, March 16, 2020 (AFP) - Hungary became the latest European country to announce drastic restrictions on public life Monday, closing its borders and curtailing movement in a bid to curb the spread of the novel coronavirus.   "We are closing Hungary's borders to passenger traffic," Prime Minister Viktor Orban said in a speech in parliament on Monday.   "The international talks to coordinate this are taking place now, this means that in future only Hungarian citizens will be able to enter Hungary," he said.

Several countries in the region have already announced similar restrictions at their borders, including Hungary's neighbours Ukraine and Slovakia.  Orban also said that from midnight on Monday local time (2300 GMT) all public events would be prohibited.   "Places of entertainment, cinemas, cultural institutions must be closed," he said, adding that restaurants and cafes would be only be allowed to open up until 3pm.   People aged 70 are asked not to leave their homes, Orban said, while admitting that they could not be prohibited from doing so.   Hungary has recorded 39 cases of the novel coronavirus so far and one death.
Date: Thu, 30 May 2019 08:06:11 +0200

Budapest, May 30, 2019 (AFP) - Seven South Korean tourists died and 21 others were missing after a sightseeing boat capsized and sank on the Danube in Budapest, Hungarian and South Korean officials said Thursday.   The accident happened near the parliament building in the heart of the Hungarian capital after a collision with a larger river cruise boat during torrential rain around 09:15 pm (1915 GMT) on Wednesday, according to officials.   A total of 33 South Koreans were on board, Seoul's foreign ministry said, confirming the seven dead were Korean.   The youngest was a six-year-old girl, travel agency officials said.

The 26-metre tourist boat, called the "Mermaid," was also carrying two Hungarian crew members.   "Our services have recorded the death of seven people," Pal Gyorfi, a spokesman for Hungarian emergency services, said early Thursday morning.   "Seven people have been taken to hospital in a stable condition with hypothermia and shock symptoms," Gyorfi added.   "A further 21 people are missing," a Hungarian police spokesman Kristof Gal told AFP.   "Police are searching the river throughout the entire length of the Danube in Hungary south of where the incident took place," he said.

- All night search -
Local media reported that one of the bodies was found several kilometres south of the collision location, although Gal declined to confirm.   The temperature of the river water is between 10 and 15 degrees, according to local media.   The search for the missing with the help of divers and police shining lights continued through the night, said an AFP photographer at the scene.   A film crew working from a bridge south of the accident site also used reflector lights to help light up the water through the gloom and pouring rain, reported local media.   Heavy rainfall since the beginning of May has led to high water levels and a fast-moving river current, complicating rescue efforts.

The accident happened on a popular part of the Danube river for pleasure trips, from where passengers can view the city and parliament building illuminated at night.   The boat was regularly serviced and had no apparent technical faults, Mihaly Toth, a spokesman for Panorama Deck that owned the vessel, told the Hungarian news agency MTI.     "It was a routine sightseeing trip," said Toth.   "We know nothing about how it happened, the authorities are investigating, all we know is that it sank quickly," he said. 

- Hit by bigger cruise boat -
An eye-witness told the Index.hu news-site that the Mermaid, which could hold 60 people on board, had been hit from behind by a large cruise boat.   Web camera footage from a hotel rooftop posted on local news-sites appeared to show the bigger boat colliding with the Mermaid.     The wreckage of the Mermaid was found on the riverbed after several hours of searching near the Margaret Bridge, one of the main bridges connecting the two parts of the Hungarian capital, local media said.   Access to the river has been blocked by the authorities, according to public television.

South Korea's President Moon Jae-in instructed the government to "deploy all available resources" for the rescue, the presidential office said.   Seoul planned to send a team of 18 officials to assist the authorities in Budapest, South Korea's Yonhap news agency reported.   The foreign ministry said minister Kang Kyung-wha would leave for Budapest later Thursday as head of a government taskforce.   Embassy staff have also been assisting the emergency services in the identification of victims.   The Hungarian interior and health ministers visited the scene and expressed condolences to the families of the victims.
Date: Thu, 30 Aug 2018 05:07:31 +0200
By Géza MOLNAR

Siófok, Hungary, Aug 30, 2018 (AFP) - With its inviting turquoise waters, white sandy banks, picturesque mountainous landscapes and resort towns, Hungary's Lake Balaton has plenty for tourists to write home about.   But a labour shortage exacerbated by low salaries and Hungary's
anti-immigration policies is making life difficult for the lake's tourism industry.   Already popular under communism, visitors still flock in increasing numbers to central Europe's largest lake to soak up its warm summer climate and enjoy the beaches, bars and eateries, as well as locally produced wines.

But that's proving a headache for restaurant and hotel owners, who struggle to find workers, as unemployment in Hungary is historically low at 3.6 percent, while nationalist firebrand Prime Minister Viktor Orban is strongly against immigration.   "It's impossible to find a gardener, or a waitress or a cook," said Balazs Banlaki, the owner of Kali-Kapocs, a restaurant nestled in the hills of Mindszentkalla on the northern shore of the lake, which lies about 80 kilometres (50 miles) southwest of the capital, Budapest.   Banlaki usually needs about 10 employees to run his restaurant, which he only opens during the summer months, but he has to do more and more himself.   "Before each new season, we repaint the restaurant, but even for that kind of work, it's me who takes up the brush now," he told AFP.

- 'Young people don't stay' -
With a national average salary of less than 530 euros ($610) per month and half a million people having left the country to work in western Europe over the past decade, Hungary lacks workers.   Despite having one of the lowest fertility rates in the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) and a population currently of less than 10 million, its government has not heeded appeals from businesses to open its borders to qualified workers.

Banlaki recalled how last year he could only offer drinks, coffee and sandwiches because he could not find a cook.    After raising salaries, he is glad to have at least a handful of workers this year.   "But even when we find someone, there is a high chance that he or she will quit again quickly. With festivals, holiday plans with friends and other occasions, young people don't stay. I don't dare to criticise our workers for fear they will just leave," he said.   On the other side of the lake -- known also for its big beach parties and discotheques -- the high-end Plazs Siofok beach complex that can hold close to 10,000 people faces similar challenges.   "We advertise (job openings) everywhere and all the time... The lack of qualified workers is a constant problem," manager Erzsebet Mazula said.

- Online check-in? -
Due to its trendy image -- with numerous restaurants, an outdoor gym, beach bars and a concert stage drawing Hungary's best DJs and singers -- Plazs Siofok can attract student workers, Mazula said.   "They are certainly not professionals, but we train them before the season starts. Being involved and friendly and smiling is more important than knowing how to make complicated cocktails," she told AFP.   "But even with this system, you can see there are not enough waiters and waitresses to serve our clients."   At Siofok, mother-of-two Petra Lisztes, 39, said they spent several weeks at the lake every year and she had noticed that many of the small food and drinks stands had remained shut this time and that service in restaurants was slower.   The problem extends far beyond Lake Balaton.

Seen as a relatively cheap holiday destination, the number of tourists to Hungary has climbed seven percent this year so far, according to official data released by the KSH Hungarian Central Statistical Office, after already reaching a record 29.5 million hotel overnight stays last year.   To compensate for a lack of workers, several Budapest hotels have started to simplify reception services inspired by airline companies' online check-in systems.   But the problem is hard to solve for jobs that require expertise, such as cooks, head waiters and waitresses or managers.   Seeking to offer a solution, the government is trying to convince pensioners to return to work by exempting them from having to pay social contributions and capping taxes at 15 percent.    Since last year, Budapest has permitted workers from neighbouring non-EU countries Ukraine and Serbia to work in Hungary for up to 90 days without a work permit.   But, so far, the measures have failed to solve the shortage.
Date: Tue 3 Jul 2018
Source: Food Poison Journal [edited]

Frozen corn and possibly other frozen vegetables are the likely source of an outbreak of _Listeria monocytogenes_ that has been affecting Austria, Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and the United Kingdom since 2015.

Experts used whole genome sequencing to identify the food source, which initially was thought to be limited to frozen corn. As of 8 Jun 2018, 47 cases including 9 deaths had been reported.

The same strains of _L. monocytogenes_ have been detected in frozen vegetables produced by the same Hungarian company in 2016, 2017, and 2018. This suggests that the strains have persisted in the processing plant despite the cleaning and disinfection procedures that were carried out.

The available information confirms the contamination at the Hungarian plant. However, further investigations, including thorough sampling and testing, are needed to identify the exact points of environmental contamination at the Hungarian plant. The same recommendation applies to other companies belonging to the same commercial group if environmental contamination is detected.

On 29 Jun 2018, the Hungarian Food Chain Safety Office banned the marketing of all frozen vegetable and frozen mixed vegetable products produced by the affected plant between August 2016 and June 2018, and ordered their immediate withdrawal and recall. This last measure is likely to significantly reduce the risk of human infections and contain the outbreak. All freezing activity at the plant has been stopped.

New cases could still emerge due to the long incubation period of listeriosis (up to 70 days); the long shelf-life of frozen corn products; and the consumption of frozen corn bought before the recalls and eaten without being cooked properly.

To reduce the risk of infection, consumers should thoroughly cook non ready-to-eat frozen vegetables, even though these products are commonly consumed without cooking (such as in salads and smoothies). This applies especially to consumers at highest risk of contracting listeriosis -- such as the elderly, pregnant women, newborns and adults with weakened immune systems.  [Byline: Josh Fensterbush]
======================
[When last reported by ProMED-mail in March 2018 (Listeriosis - EU: fatal, ST6, frozen corn, 2015-18, recall http://promedmail.org/post/20180325.5708506), there was a total of 32 confirmed listeriosis cases, including 6 deaths, between December 2015 and 8 Mar 2018, in a multi-country outbreak in 5 EU member states (Austria, Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and the United Kingdom) linked by whole genome sequencing (genotyping) of clinical isolates of _Listeria monocytogenes_ to frozen corn that was packed in Poland and processed/produced in Hungary. As of 8 Jun 2018, there are now 47 reported cases, including 9 deaths.

Possibly other frozen vegetables produced by the Hungarian facility are also being implicated and on 29 June 2018, the Hungarian Food Chain Safety Office ordered recall and banned further the marketing of all frozen vegetable and frozen mixed vegetable products produced by the affected facility between August 2016 and June 2018. All freezing activity at the plant has been stopped.

_Listeria monocytogenes_ is widely distributed in the environment where it can form biofilms, which enables them to attach to solid surfaces and become extremely difficult to remove, especially in parts of equipment that are difficult to access. In a prior ProMED-mail report of a listeriosis outbreak in Canada, the design of a commercial meat slicer responsible for contamination of deli meat made its regular cleaning difficult and costly for the food processor (Listeriosis - South Africa (04): comment http://promedmail.org/post/20180126.5586393). The contamination occurred in parts of the machinery "well beyond the [manufacturer's] recommended sanitation process" and was "found only after the devices were completely disassembled" (<https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/maple-leaf-eyes-meat-slicers-in-outbreak/article1060898/>).  Perhaps a similar situation is responsible for this prolonged multicountry EU outbreak.

Serotyping of _L. monocytogenes_ strains, based on variations in the somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens, has determined that only 3 (1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b) of the 12 serotypes of _L. monocytogenes_ cause 95 per cent of human cases; serotype 4b is most commonly associated with outbreaks (<https://www.cdc.gov/listeria/pdf/listeriainitiativeoverview_508.pdf>). The serotype of the strain of _L. monocytogenes_ responsible for this multi-country European outbreak is 4b, multi-locus sequence type 6 (ST6). Whole genome sequence (WGS) analysis of _L. monocytogenes_ isolates from 2 different samples of mixed frozen vegetables and an isolate from a surface where various vegetables could have been processed closely matched that of the clinical isolates (ProMED-mail post Listeriosis - EU: fatal, ST6, frozen corn, 2015-18, recall http://promedmail.org/post/20180325.5708506).

HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Europe:
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World Travel News Headlines

Date: Thu, 9 Apr 2020 07:30:18 +0200 (METDST)
By Mary Lyn Fonua

Nuku'alofa, Tonga, April 9, 2020 (AFP) - A resurgent Tropical Cyclone Harold flattened tourist resorts in Tonga Thursday, extending a week-long trail of destruction across four South Pacific island nations that has claimed more than two dozen lives.   The cyclone gathered pace as it bore down on the tiny island kingdom, which declared a state of emergency, warning residents to seek shelter from destructive winds and massive sea surges.

By early Thursday it had again become a scale-topping Category Five superstorm -- surprising meteorologists after signs earlier in the week that its intensity was dropping.   Packing winds of up to 260 kilometres per hour (160 miles per hour), it cut power in parts of the country and police said at least three tourist resorts north of the capital Nuku'alofa had been reduced to rubble.

The cyclone killed 27 people in the Solomons late last week before barrelling southeast to directly hit Vanuatu as a Category Five, obliterating entire towns in the northern provinces.   There have been no reports of deaths in Vanuatu, Fiji or Tonga, with emergency workers saying residents in the hardest hit areas took shelter early.   "It appears that many buildings and crops have been destroyed and some people in the most affected areas have lost everything," Red Cross Vanuatu secretary general Jacqueline de Gaillande said.

Harold weakened slightly to a still-formidable Category Four as it lashed Fiji on Wednesday but hopes the storm was dissipating were dashed as it regathered momentum heading towards Tonga.   "It's been a tricky one to predict," meteorologist Bill Singh from New Zealand's Metservice told AFP.   "We knew the track it was going to take but initially everyone thought it was just going to be Cat 3 or 4, but as it progressed over open warm waters it deepened."

- Closed borders -
The storm is expected to head away from Tonga onto the open ocean late Thursday but WeatherWatch.co.nz head forecaster Philip Duncan said there were no certainties.   "It's almost unheard of to see a cyclone tracking south away from the equator, weakening, then suddenly returning back to Cat 5 so far south," he said.

The COVID-19 pandemic has complicated disaster relief efforts, with Vanuatu reluctant to open its international borders as it seeks to remain one of the few countries without any confirmed virus cases.   "No foreign personnel are being brought to Vanuatu for response efforts at the present time, this will be an internally run operation," Vanuatu's National Disaster Management Office said.

Fiji has 15 virus cases and Prime Minister Frank Bainimarama said the virus and cyclone meant "our economy and our people have been dealt two body blows to start the year".   "This storm must not compromise our coronavirus containment efforts, lest we risk damage far more painful than the aftermath of any cyclone," he said.

Australian Foreign Minister Marise Payne said an air force plane carrying essential supplies such as tents and water containers was on its way to Vanuatu, while assistance had also been offered to other impacted nations.   "We are acutely conscious that this comes on top of the impact and difficulties created by COVID-19 for those countries," she said.   Vanuatu said any supplies that came into the country would be handled with protective equipment and the air crews delivering them would be isolated in transit areas.
Date: Wed, 8 Apr 2020 18:07:06 +0200 (METDST)

London, April 8, 2020 (AFP) - Britain on Wednesday reported a record 938 new COVID-19 deaths in its daily update, 152 more than its previous highest toll, as the total number of deaths passed 7,000.    "As of 5pm on 7 April, of those hospitalised in the UK who tested positive for coronavirus, 7,097 have sadly died," the health ministry tweeted, up from 6,159 on Tuesday.
Date: Wed, 8 Apr 2020 16:50:53 +0200 (METDST)
By Sofia CHRISTENSEN

Johannesburg, April 8, 2020 (AFP) - A pride of lions flops lazily across a track at a South African game reserve, enjoying newfound tranquility since last month's closure of all national parks to support an anti-coronavirus lockdown.   Rather than the usual Land Rover, a lone elephant rumbles down the road, causing the felines to scatter into the surrounding bush.   A vehicle stands in the background, live streaming the scene for thousands of people watching the animals from the comfort of their homes.   "Since the lockdown occurred we have seen an amazing explosion in our audience," said Graham Wallington, head of a live safari broadcaster called WildEarth.

As the number of viewers tripled over the last days of March, Wallington noted that the audience -- typically American -- was increasingly from South Africa.   "It just happened overnight because all these kids at home with their families are watching these live safaris," he told AFP.   South Africa is almost two weeks into a 21-day lockdown meant to halt the spread of COVID-19.   The country is the worst-affected in Africa, with more than 1,700 infections recorded so far, including 13 deaths.

WildEarth operates from two vehicles in two private game reserves bordering the internationally famous Kruger National Park.   Guides take viewers along for a virtual game drive, finding wildlife and sharing facts about animals encountered along the way.   The cameras are positioned at the back of the vehicles, where passengers would usually be seated, in order to create a real-life experience.   "There it is," guide James Hendry whispered excitedly to the camera after stumbling across a mother hyena and her newborn cubs.   "Tell me, have you ever seen anything that cute in your life before?"   Participants can also send questions to the guides as they go along.

- Rare species emerge -
"You want to know how much water an elephant drinks in a day?" asked ranger Trishala Naidoo, as she drove along a bumpy bush track.   "Around 100 litres if not more," she answered, before pulling over to show viewers a leopard tortoise crossing the road.   Aside from providing entertainment, Wallington believes virtual safaris are an opportunity to observe how wildlife behave in the absence of tourists.   "It's kind of an interesting time where the animals are being left alone," Wallington said, adding that rare species such as the endangered African wild dogs had started venturing into his areas.   "Wild dogs coming in and hunting almost every day... is unheard of," he exclaimed.    "It's because there is no one else there and they've got the run of the place for themselves."
Date: Wed, 8 Apr 2020 16:44:56 +0200 (METDST)

Monrovia, April 8, 2020 (AFP) - Liberian President George Weah declared a state of emergency in the West African country on Wednesday, with the capital Monrovia set to go into lockdown in a bid to curb coronavirus.    In a televised statement, the president said that all movement between Liberia's 15 counties would be banned from 11:59 pm on Friday, and that all non-essential businesses and government offices would close.

Residents of four counties -- including Monrovia's, which is home to about 1 million people -- must also stay at home for two weeks, he said.    Authorities in those counties will allow people to leave their homes only to buy food or for health reasons.     "We have to ask ourselves why we should abide by these measures. The answer is simple: to save lives," Weah said.

Wednesday's announcement escalates earlier health measures which banned large gatherings as well as flights to and from virus-stricken countries.   As with other poor countries in the region, there are fears that Liberia is ill prepared to handle a large outbreak.

The nation of some 4.8 million has recorded 13 coronavirus cases to date, with three deaths.  But Liberia was badly hit during the West Africa's 2014-16 Ebola crisis, which killed more than 4,800 people in the country.    Weah warned that the coronavirus was the greatest threat facing Liberia since Ebola.    "The horrific scenarios that are beginning to emerge should serve as sufficient warning for every one of us to spring into action," he said.   Coronavirus "has already arrived in Liberia, and confirmed cases are now on the rise," Weah added.   Decimated after back-to-back civil wars from 1989 to 2003, Liberia also suffers economic woes including rampant inflation and fuel shortages.
Date: Wed, 8 Apr 2020 16:42:52 +0200 (METDST)

Cairo, April 8, 2020 (AFP) - Egypt will extend a nationwide night-time curfew by a further two weeks in a bid to slow the spread of the coronavirus, Prime Minister Mostafa Madbouli said on Wednesday.   He told a news conference the measure would be enforced from 8:00 pm (1800 GMT) to 6:00 am and run until April 23.   The curfew would start an hour later, he said, to avoid overcrowding in public transport.   Schools and universities, as well as restaurants and cafes would also remain closed until then, while food outlets would be allowed to offer delivery services only.   To stem the spread of the coronavirus, authorities have also halted air traffic until the end of the month and closed tourist and religious sites.

Penalties against violators including fines of up to 4,000 Egyptian pounds (just over $250) and even prison, the prime minister said.  Madbouli also announced that cabinet members will take a 20 percent salary cut for three months, and allocate that sum to underprivileged Egyptians.   Egypt's health ministry has so far declared 94 fatalities out of 1,450 confirmed cases of COVID-19.   Authorities have in recent weeks carried out sweeping disinfection operations at archaeological sites, museums and other sites across the country.   In tandem, strict social distancing measures were imposed to reduce the risk of contagion among the country's 100 million inhabitants.
Date: Wed, 8 Apr 2020 15:46:57 +0200 (METDST)

Beirut, April 8, 2020 (AFP) - Millions in Lebanon risk food insecurity due to a coronavirus lockdown unless the government provides urgent assistance, Human Rights Watch warned Wednesday.   Lebanon in mid-March ordered residents to stay at home and all non-essential businesses to close to halt the spread of COVID-19, which has officially infected 575 people and killed 19 nationwide.   Before the pandemic erupted, Lebanon was struggling with its worst economic crisis in decades, with 45 percent of the population facing poverty according to official estimates.   Lockdown measures to slow the spread of the virus have made matters worse with "millions of Lebanon's residents... at risk of going hungry", HRW said in a statement.

Lebanon is home to 4.5 million people, and also hosts around 1.5 million Syrians who have fled the nine-year war next door, most of whom rely on aid to survive.   "The lockdown... has compounded the poverty and economic hardship rampant in Lebanon before the virus arrived," said HRW senior researcher Lena Simet.    "Many people who had an income have lost it, and if the government does not step in, more than half the population may not be able to afford food and basic necessities."

The economic crisis since last year had already caused many people to lose their jobs or take salary cuts, and stay-at-home measures to counter the virus have now prevented even more from earning a wage.   Media has carried reports of a taxi driver who set his car on fire after security forces fined him for breaking the lockdown rules.   And an unemployed Lebanese construction worker unable to afford rent offered to sell his kidney, in an image widely shared online.   HRW Lebanon researcher Aya Majzoub said many families are struggling due to a lack of savings.

The government has said it will pay out 400,000 Lebanese pounds (less than $150 at the market rate) to the most vulnerable.   HRW said the government should also consider suspending rent and mortgage payments throughout the lockdown.   Majzoub said Syrian refugees were also affected.   "Many of them were seasonal workers -- they worked in agriculture, they worked in the service industry -- and they're not able to do that anymore," she said.   But their ability to cope will depend largely on international aid, as before the pandemic.

The World Bank last week said it had re-allocated $40 million from its support to Lebanon's health sector to fight the virus, including for tests and ventilators.   And it has also been discussing "assistance to help mitigate the impact of the economic and financial crisis on the poor through emergency social safety nets", World Bank spokeswoman Zeina El-Khalil told AFP in March.    On Monday, Lebanon's President Michel Aoun urged the international community to provide financial assistance to back economic reforms.
Date: Wed, 8 Apr 2020 15:13:03 +0200 (METDST)

Dublin, April 8, 2020 (AFP) - Irish police set up nationwide traffic checkpoints on Wednesday, armed with new powers to enforce a lockdown designed to stem the spread of the coronavirus.   Emergency legislation passed in the Irish parliament two weeks ago allows the government to curb non-essential travel during the crisis.

People violating the ban risk a fine of up to 2,500 euros ($2,700) and/or six months in prison.   "The regulations now are in effect," Garda -- Irish police -- commissioner Drew Harris said at a press conference.   "People only should be moving if they have an essential reason to move throughout country. What we'll be doing is making sure that movement is essential."

Over 2,500 officers will be involved in the operation at any one time as it runs from noon Wednesday until midnight on Sunday, with an extension possible.   "It will involve thousands of checkpoints every day," police said in a statement. The roadblocks have been put in place ahead of Easter holidays, traditionally used as an occasion for travel in Ireland.

Harris said nationwide compliance with the ban on movement -- which allows for exercise within two kilometres of home -- had been strong.   But there is a "small minority and perhaps... an increasing number" in breach of the government order.   There have been 210 COVID-19 related deaths and 5,709 confirmed cases of the virus in Ireland according to health department figures released Tuesday.
Date: Wed, 8 Apr 2020 13:24:23 +0200 (METDST)

Tehran, April 8, 2020 (AFP) - Iran on Wednesday reported 121 new deaths from the novel coronavirus, bringing its overall number of fatalities to 3,993.   In the past 24 hours, 1,997 new cases of COVID-19 infection were detected in Iran, state news agency IRNA quoted health ministry spokesman Kianoush Jahanpour as saying.   That put the number of confirmed cases at 64,586, he added.

Iran, which announced its first COVID-19 cases on February 19, is by far the worst hit by the pandemic in the Middle East, according to official tolls.   But there has been speculation abroad that the real number of deaths and infections in the country could be higher.   Jahanpour said that while 3,956 patients were in critical condition, those who recovered had reached 29,812.   The spokesman added that Iran had carried out 220,975 COVID-19 tests to date, according to IRNA.   In a bid to halt COVID-19, Iran has ordered the closure of non-essential businesses and imposed inter-city travel bans, while refraining from a lockdown.

Iran's President Hassan Rouhani said a "second wave" of the fight against the coronavirus would start from Saturday, and that it would be more difficult.   "Low-risk" businesses would be allowed to reopen from Saturday, he said, because "we want to continue economic activities as much as possible while fighting coronavirus at the same time".   The decision to reopen businesses has drawn criticism from health experts and even some government officials.   But Rouhani said "there is no other way".
Date: Wed, 8 Apr 2020 13:14:26 +0200 (METDST)
By Robbie COREY-BOULET

Addis Ababa, April 8, 2020 (AFP) - Ethiopia on Wednesday declared a state of emergency to fight the coronavirus pandemic, which has so far infected 55 people and resulted in two deaths there.    It is the first state of emergency announced under Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed, who came to power in 2018 and won last year's Nobel Peace Prize in part for expanding political freedoms in the authoritarian nation.    "Because the coronavirus pandemic is getting worse, the Ethiopian government has decided to declare a state of emergency under Article 93 of the constitution," Abiy said in a statement.     "I call upon everybody to stand in line with government bodies and others that are trying to overcome this problem," he added, warning of "grave legal measures" against anyone who undermines the fight against the pandemic.

It was not immediately clear how the state of emergency would affect day-to-day life in Ethiopia.   The government has so far refrained from imposing a lockdown similar to those in effect elsewhere in the region, including in Rwanda, Uganda and Mauritius.

According to the country's constitution, under a state of emergency the Council of Ministers has "all necessary power to protect the country's peace and sovereignty" and can suspend some "political and democratic rights".    The constitution also says lawmakers need to approve a state of emergency, which can last for six months and be extended every four months after that.

Wednesday's decree is likely to "beef up security operations with a greater role for the ederal government, including the military," said William Davison, Ethiopia analyst for the International Crisis Group, a conflict-prevention organisation.    "While this approach is understandable given the situation, it is critical that there is transparency over the government's extra powers and that there is adequate monitoring of implementation," Davison said.

-Opposition challenges move-
Since reporting its first COVID-19 case on March 13, Ethiopia has closed land borders and schools, freed thousands of prisoners to ease overcrowding, sprayed main streets in the capital with disinfectant, and discouraged large gatherings.    But Abiy said over the weekend that a harsher lockdown would be unrealistic given that there are "many citizens who don't have homes" and "even those who have homes have to make ends meet daily."    Jawar Mohammed, a leading opposition politician, said Wednesday this called into question why a state of emergency was necessary.   "Officials have been saying the country is too poor to stop population movement. So why do you need a state of emergency if you are not planning to impose stricter rules?" Jawar told AFP.

During consultations with Abiy earlier this week, the opposition Oromo Liberation Front (OLF) voiced worries that a state of emergency would lead to human rights abuses -- a well-documented problem under previous states of emergency imposed during several years of anti-government protests that swept Abiy to power.    "We explained our concern that the state of emergency has been initiated several times and it has been abused to violate the rights of citizens and other political activists," OLF chairman Dawud Ibsa told AFP.   It's also unclear how the state of emergency might affect planning for hotly-anticipated general elections in Ethiopia.

The country's electoral board announced last week that voting planned for August would need to be postponed because of the pandemic.    It did not provide a timeline for when the elections would ultimately be held, and lawmakers' constitutional mandates expire in October.   Davison, with the International Crisis Group, said the state of emergency could be used "to formally postpone elections" past that deadline, though such a move risks sparking opposition backlash.    "It is therefore essential that the government works with opposition parties on managing this constitutionally sensitive period and making new electoral arrangements," Davison said.
Date: Wed, 8 Apr 2020 13:08:25 +0200 (METDST)

Madrid, April 8, 2020 (AFP) - Spain recorded Wednesday a second successive daily rise in coronavirus-related deaths with 757 fatalities, lifting the total toll in Europe's second-hardest-hit country after Italy by 5.5 percent to 14,555.   The number of new infections rose by 4.4 percent to 146,690, the health ministry said, as Spain has ramped up its testing for the disease.   The number of daily deaths, which peaked on Thursday at 950, rose for the first time on Tuesday after falling for four straight days.

But the rate of increase in both deaths and new infections on Wednesday was largely in line with that recorded the previous day, and half of what was recorded just a week ago.   "We have consolidated the slowdown in the spread of the virus," Health Minister Salvador Illa tweeted after the latest figures were published.   The Spanish government on March 14 imposed one of the toughest lockdowns in Europe to curb the spread of the virus, with people allowed out of their homes only to work, buy food and seek medical care.

The pandemic has stretched the country's public healthcare system close to breaking point, with a shortage of intensive care beds and equipments, but in recent days hospitals have said the situation has improved.   "We have observed a de-escalation at this hospital in particular, and I believe at all hospitals," the spokesman for the Hospital Severo Ochoa in Leganes near Madrid, Jorge Rivera, told AFP.   "We can't let down our guard, emergency services are now working below their full capacity and are working well, they are not saturated and overcrowded but it does not mean that we can relax and go to the emergency ward because you have an ailment."