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Morocco

General
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Morocco is a North African country and a favourite destination for many Irish tourists. The climate, relative shortness of the flights and the idyllic swimming conditions encourage many to vis
t.
Safety & Security
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The border regions of the country can be volatile and travellers planning to visit away from the main tourist routes should take extra precautions. The Western Sahara region is still in dispute though there has been an official cease-fire in place since 1991. The possibility of unexploded mines exists though it should be remembered that this area is many miles away from the normal tourist resorts. The level of street crime in Morocco is low but growing. Busy market places, parks and beaches are popular locations for petty criminals. Tourists should take care not to flaunt personal wealth and to avoid travelling away from the main tourist zones late at night. Travelling alone is a particular risk and only authorised guides and taxis should be used. Tourists have been threatened with serious injury at knife point if they have refused to purchase cannabis.
Laws & Customs
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It is an Islamic country and ladies in particular should take care to dress modestly. Islamic festivals can cause significant changes to occur which affect tourists including the holy month of Ramadan when all street cafés close until 5.30pm each day as strict Muslims do not eat during the daylight hours. The main tourist hotels continue to serve food as normal but many shops will remain closed. During these times tourists will need to carefully check their tickets and any travel arrangements may need to be changed. Banks and larger shops will remain open between 9am and 3pm Monday to Friday. Drug offences are treated very seriously and those visiting the Rif Mountains should realise this is a major cannabis growing area. Visitors with Arabic Bibles or those involved in any perceived outreach activity may find they are subjected to prolonged interrogation.
Health Facilities
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The level of health care available in many of the main hotels and resorts is perfectly adequate but care should be taken if your illness necessitates admission. Communication in English may be difficult and many medications will be unavailable. Frequently small private hospitals are used where standards vary greatly. Check that your travel insurance provides adequate cover for repatriation if required.
Food & Water Facilities
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The food and water provided in many of the main tourist resorts is very satisfactory but variations can easily occur and travellers should be careful at all times. Lettuce, undercooked bivalve shellfish (mussels, oysters, clams etc) and untreated water are all frequently implicated in sickness among travellers. Eating previously peeled fruit is also unwise and should be avoided. Bottled water purchased from main shops or hotels should be used for drinking and brushing your teeth.
Insect Bites & Mosquitoes
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There is only a very small risk of malaria transmission throughout Morocco and prophylaxis is not recommended for the majority of tourists. However, sandflies do abound during the summer months and can transmit a nasty disease known as Leishmaniasis. These small flies tend to hover close to the ground in shaded areas and can easily bite without the individual noticing. It is essential to use good insect repellent when at risk and to report any slow healing bite or sore to a doctor after your return home.
Sun Exposure
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The level of sun exposure in Morocco during the summer months can be intense. Take care to avoid the midday sun and use high sun blocking creams at all relevant times. Take particular care of children while in such a hot climate. Extra water and salt will be required to replace the amounts lost through perspiration. Salted crisps and nuts will be a useful source of salt.
Water Sports & Activities
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Many tourist locations in Morocco offer extended water sport facilities for tourists. Always check out what the standard of care is before agreeing to take part. Ask tourists who arrived before you and check with your holiday representative if possible. Confirm that good safety procedures are in place and that your travel insurance covers any accidents as a result of your activities.
Cash Facilities
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Traveller’s cheques and credit cards are accepted in many of the main tourist resorts. ATM machines are available in Casablanca and Rabat. It may be difficult to reconvert Moroccan money back to sterling and so care should be taken not to change too much initially until you clarify your expenses.
Travel by Train
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To visit other parts of the country many travellers use the train journey south from Tangier. However, be wary of any invitation from fellow passengers to alight at Asilah rather than continuing the journey south. A number of tourists have been held hostage and forced to make credit card transactions or cash withdrawals before being freed.
Road Transport
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Many tourists to Morocco hire motorbikes or cars to see more of the country. This is regarded as a high-risk activity and special care will be required at all times. Driving practices throughout Morocco are poor and traffic signals do not always function. Modern freeways link the main cities of Tangier, Rabat, Fez and Casablanca. Flash flooding can occur during the rainy season (November – March).
Rabies
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Rabies does occur in Morocco and it is essential that you avoid any and all contact with at risk animals. Typically this includes dogs, cats and monkeys but this viral disease can infect any warm-blooded animal. Take particular care to warn children to avoid animals and to report any contact as soon as possible.
Vaccinations
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There are no essential vaccines for entry into Morocco from Ireland. However most tourists are advised to consider adequate cover against:
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Poliomyelitis (childhood booster)
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Tetanus (childhood booster)
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Typhoid (food and water disease)
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Hepatitis A (food and water disease)
Those planning a longer or more rural trip will also need to consider cover against diseases like Hepatitis B and Rabies.
Summary
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The majority of tourists visiting Morocco will remain very healthy and well. However, following simple precautions against food and water disease and sun exposure will be essential.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Wed, 6 May 2020 19:47:21 +0200 (METDST)
By Sophie PONS

Rabat, May 6, 2020 (AFP) - Morocco has rapidly expanded its fleet of drones as it battles the coronavirus pandemic, deploying them for aerial surveillance, public service announcements and sanitisation.   "This is a real craze. In just weeks, demand has tripled in Morocco and other countries in the region," said Yassine Qamous, chief of Droneway Maroc, African distributor for leading Chinese drone company DJI.   Moroccan firms have been using drones for years and Qamous says it "is among the most advanced countries in Africa" for unmanned flight, with a dedicated industrial base, researchers and qualified pilots.

But restrictive regulations have long limited civilian drones to specific applications such as filming, agriculture, monitoring solar panels and mapping.   That changed rapidly as the novel coronavirus swept across the world.    In recent weeks, authorities have employed drones to issue warnings, identify suspicious movement in the streets and disperse illegal rooftop and balcony gatherings.   A strict lockdown imposed in March has not been uniformly respected, with local media reporting on nighttime gatherings of neighbours and collective prayers on roofs, beyond the view of street patrols.

- 'Vital technology' -
Last week local authorities in Temara, a town near the capital Rabat, launched a high-precision aerial surveillance system developed by local company Beti3D, which previously specialised in aerial mapping.   Other countries in Europe, Asia and the Middle East have also adopted technology deployed in China since the start of the pandemic, whether for tracking the movements of citizens, disinfecting public spaces or facilitating deliveries.   "Drones have quickly emerged as a vital technology for public safety agencies during this crisis as they can safely monitor public spaces," according to the website of DJI, by far the world's top drone maker.

Like most countries, Morocco primarily uses imported Chinese drones. But the emergence of new applications linked to the pandemic is also driving local production of specialised aerial vehicles.   "There is real demand," said Abderrahmane Krioual, the head of Farasha, a start-up that has raised funds to produce drones for thermal surveillance and aerial disinfectant spraying.   The aeronautics department of the International University of Rabat (UIR) offered its facilities, expertise and prototypes to authorities in March, deploying drones with loudspeakers or infrared cameras able to detect movement at night or spot individuals with high temperatures.

Several projects are underway across the country ahead of the widespread deployment of various models of drones, said Mohsine Bouya, the university's director of technology development and transfer.    Teams are also developing tracking applications, but "we'll have to wait for a change to the law" before launching them, he said.   Moroccan authorities declined to comment on the use of drones or the numbers deployed since the start of the public health emergency in mid-March.

- 'Toxic lockdown culture' -
Unlike in some countries, the use of surveillance drones has not sparked public debate in Morocco, where the kingdom's authoritarian response to the pandemic is widely supported.   Morocco closed its borders early and tasked law enforcement with imposing strict confinement measures on the population.

They include movement restrictions and the compulsory wearing of masks, with a nighttime curfew since the start of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan -- enforced by a heavy police presence.   Those found guilty of violating lockdown measures face one to three months in prison, a fine equivalent to $125, or both.    Officials say 59,000 people have been prosecuted for breaching lockdown measures.

Authorities say the measures have limited transmission of the virus, with 5,382 COVID-19 cases reported including 182 deaths since the state of emergency was announced.   But the kingdom's high number of arrests -- some 85,000 people by April 30 -- has drawn criticism from Georgette Gagnon, director of field operations at the United Nations' Human Rights Office.   Last week she listed Morocco among countries where repressive coronavirus measures have created a "toxic lockdown culture".    Morocco disputed this, saying its measures were "in line with legal frameworks respecting human rights".
Date: Mon, 13 Apr 2020 12:38:28 +0200 (METDST)

Rabat, April 13, 2020 (AFP) - More than 4,300 people were arrested over the weekend in Morocco for breaching emergency rules in place to combat the novel coronavirus, according to official figures.   More than half of those detained were taken into police custody.   Since mid-March, authorities have arrested 28,701 people across the North African country, 15,545 of whom have been referred to court after being held in custody, according to the country's national security force DGSN.

Penalties for violating measures in place to curb the spread of the COVID-19 disease include up to three months in jail and fines of up to 1,300 dirhams ($130), or both.   Morocco imposed a public health state of emergency on March 19, confining everyone to their homes except those with a permit to be out for work.   Last week, authorities made wearing face masks in public obligatory.   Police and security agents supported by soldiers in armoured cars have been deployed around the country, erecting road barriers and control points to enforce the measures.

Morocco has recorded 1,746 COVID-19 cases, with 120 deaths and 196 recoveries. Fewer than 7,000 tests have been carried out.   The largest number of arrests were made in the country's economic centre of Casablanca and the capital Rabat, according to the DGSN.   Isolation measures have proved most challenging in densely populated, working-class neighbourhoods, according to local media reports.

Economic paralysis brought on by the pandemic has left millions of Moroccans in a precarious existence, with the bulk of the workforce made up of informal workers dependent on odd jobs and lacking access to social safety nets.   In the absence of a social database, authorities are working to identify needy families to distribute direct financial aid and food baskets.
Date: Tue, 7 Apr 2020 00:04:15 +0200 (METDST)

Rabat, April 6, 2020 (AFP) - Wearing face masks in public will be obligatory in Morocco from Tuesday in a bid to stem the spread of coronavirus, according to an official decree.   The decision was announced late Monday after a government meeting on how to control the epidemic.   Morocco imposed a public health state of emergency on March 19, confining everyone to their homes except those with a permit to be out and about for their work.

Police, security agents and soldiers in armoured cars have been deployed around the country, erecting road barriers and control points.   The official number of COVID-19 cases in Morocco has doubled in a week to 1,120, including 80 fatalities.   The real numbers are likely to be significantly higher as there is a lack of testing gear in the country.
Date: Tue, 24 Mar 2020 18:49:02 +0100 (MET)

Rabat, March 24, 2020 (AFP) - Morocco has authorised hospitals to use antimalarial drugs in treating the new coronavirus, according to a document seen by AFP, as scientists urge caution over encouraging results from small trials.   The Moroccan health ministry on Monday gave hospitals and regional health directors the green light to start using hydroxychloroquine and related compound chloroquine "in the care of confirmed COVID-19 cases".

In a message seen by AFP, it said that "efforts have been made to ensure the availability of these medicines", urging caution in how the stocks are managed.   Rabat last week ordered the Moroccan branch of French drug maker Sanofi to hand over its entire stock of Nivaquine and Plaquenil, both of which contain chloroquine.   Studies in France and China have found that the drug helped patients suffering from the COVID-19 illness, and France on Monday ordered its use in severe cases.

US President Donald Trump on Monday said chloroquine could be a "gift from God".   He has been criticised by scientists for overhyping the drug, and on Monday the World Health Organization urged caution over its use.   NBC later reported that a woman in Arizona who heard Trump talk about chloroquine ended up in hospital and her husband died after they took a form of chloroquine she had used to treat her koi fish.   Authorities in Nigeria said hospitals had seen cases of chloroquine poisoning after Trump's comments.   Experts have urged the public to remain cautious until larger clinical trials validate the smaller studies.

In its note, Morocco's health ministry said it took its decision after consulting with a scientific committee which recommended prescribing chloroquine along with another drug called azithromycine.   Morocco's transport minister, Abdelkader Amara, who tested positive for the new coronavirus on March 14, has already said he was taking Nivaquine.   "My health is stable. I have no fever or respiratory symptoms. The headaches are almost gone. I just feel a little tired," he told private radio station Medi 1.   Morocco has recorded 143 cases of the COVID-19 illness, with four dead. The country has three screening centres and 1,642 intensive care beds for 35 million inhabitants.
Date: Sat, 14 Mar 2020 22:11:12 +0100 (MET)
By Hamza Mekouar with Sophie Pons in Rabat

Fnideq, Morocco, March 14, 2020 (AFP) - Thousands of tourists were stranded in Morocco on Saturday after the kingdom suddenly announced strict border restrictions in response to the coronavirus, leaving travellers stuck at borders, ports and airports.   "We are lost!" said David, an Italian tourist waiting at the closed border with the Spanish enclave of Ceuta in northern Morocco.

Late on Saturday, Rabat announced a suspension of air links with 21 countries including Austria, Denmark, Greece, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland in Europe, as well Turkey and Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Tunisia, and the United Arab Emirates.   Africa's Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Senegal, and Canada and Brazil were also in the list.   Morocco had already suspended air, sea and land links with European countries and Algeria on Friday, as well as taking measures to confine citizens to prevent the spread of coronavirus.

Flights to and from Algeria, Spain, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Portugal and Italy were suspended "until further notice", while sea links for passengers and Morocco's land borders with Ceuta and a second Spanish enclave, Melilla, were closed.   But France announced that Rabat had agreed to allow repatriation flights for French nationals.   "New flights are being organised to enable (stranded French tourists) to return to France," President Emmanuel Macron tweeted Saturday.   The first flights back to France had already taken off that day, Foreign Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian said earlier.

The closure of the only land border between Africa and the European Union at Cueta and Melilla saw Spaniards rushing to leave on Thursday evening, as Moroccan day workers hastily returned in the opposite direction.   The land borders are busiest in summer and the border sees regular traffic throughout the year. Now though a Moroccan police roadblock bars the road towards the border with Cueta.

- 'Who will pay?' -
David said he tried to go to Spain because links with Italy, a hotspot of the disease, are suspended.   After arriving in Morocco for a motorcycle tour with his partner earlier this month, the 33-year-old Italian was stuck at a service station outside Cueta.

The border at Cueta, like that at Melilla, was reopened Friday only for Spaniards.    The Spanish embassy in Morocco tweeted Saturday that ferries were still operating between the enclaves and mainland Spain.   Its French counterpart also tweeted that "passage (into Ceuta and Melilla) is open to French ferry ticket holders with vehicles."

But except for a few travellers, the normally busy border post near the Moroccan town of Fnideq was deserted.   At the service station, camper vans bearing various European license plates were parked waiting.   "We don't know how long this will last, no one has told us anything," said Rene, a 71-year-old French man, speaking before Le Drian and Macrons' announcements.   "The weather is good here, there's surely fewer cases of coronavirus in Morocco than in France," he said.

Moroccan authorities have reported 17 cases of COVID-19, including one death. France and Spain have together announced more than 210 COVID-19 deaths.   Morocco's Transport Minister Abdelkader Amara has tested positive for the disease after an official visit to Europe, his ministry announced Saturday.   On the Spanish side at Cueta, stuck Moroccans were wondering why their country would not let them back in.   "If I need to get a hotel, who will pay?" asked a man hoping to return home.

At Tangiers port some 30 kilometres to the west, containers and trucks were unloaded as usual but the passenger terminal was closed.   The busiest port in North Africa, the facility welcomed 568,000 foreign tourists in 2019, while some 473,000 entered from Cueta and Melilla, according to official figures.   The travel restrictions are causing panic in the kingdom's tourism sector, which accounts for 10 percent of GDP and is a key source of foreign revenues.
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Mexico

General Information
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Mexico is becoming a very popular destination for Irish travellers. The country has many well known tourist destinations including the idyllic resort of Acapulco on the Pacific Ocean and t
e Yucatan Peninsula stretching out between the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico. There is a rapidly developing economy and luxury hotels are widely available throughout the country. Tourist facilities in the more remote regions (seldom visited by tourists) may be very limited.
Climate
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The country experiences a wide temperature profile with cool to cold temperatures on the mountainous ranges to a hot sub-tropical climate on the sea coasts. There is a rainy season from June to October and a dry season from November to May each year. Temperatures in April May and June tend to be in the mid 20’s centigrade. The southern and eastern regions tend to experience the heaviest rainfall.
Food & Water
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Some tourists visiting Mexico will undertake a trekking holiday for part of their time in the country. This will bring them out from the major cities into many of the poorer regions of the country. In these areas the level of food and water hygiene may be poor and travellers need to exercise continuous caution in this regard. Typically great care should be taken with the consumption of any cold foods. Lettuce would be a common cause of illness and should be avoided. Undercooked shellfish (prawns, oysters, mussels etc.) should be avoided at any time. The risk of contamination with a variety of diseases is just too high.
Street Vendors
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Many of the larger towns have a number of street vendors selling their produce on the side of the road. In general purchases of food from these vendors should be avoided. This is especially true with regard to buying ‘freshly squeezed’ fruit juice drinks. In some cases potentially contaminated tap water may have been used to supplement the supply. Another particular risk in Mexico involves the purchase of water melons from the market place. These are usually sold by their weight and it is reported that certain vendors may inject them with tap water to increase their value. Be sensible and take care.
Rabies
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This is another viral disease that occurs throughout Mexico. 69 cases of human Rabies were reported in 1990 but this figure has dropped to 24 in 1995. The disease is transmitted through the bite of any infected warm blooded animal (dog, cats, monkey etc.). Animals should be avoided at all costs and any bite (lick or scratch) should be immediately washed out with water and then have a strong antiseptic applied. The individual should then always seek urgent competent medical attention. Cycling in the early morning is a high risk time. Dogs may become agitated and run out at the bicycle.
Protection against Mosquitoes & Sandflys
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Travellers will need to exercise care against mosquito bites throughout the year and this has become particularly important due to regular outbreaks of Dengue Fever. This viral disease has swept through the Caribbean region over the past decade and Mexico has also been involved. There were approx. 4,500 cases during 1995 with about 16 deaths. More recently (Oct ‘99) the disease has been reported close to the US border with over 5000 patients affected. The disease seldom kills travellers but causes a severe flu like illness and pronounced skin rash in many of those infected. It is an unpleasant disease and can leave an individual ill for many weeks after infection. The mosquitoes can bite during the day or night. Most tourists should take care against mosquitoes by;
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Using adequate Insect Repellent
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Covering up well with pale coloured clothing
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Refraining from using Perfumes or Aftershaves at the risk times for bites.
Malaria
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For many tourists to Mexico the chance of contracting malaria is negligible. The disease does occur in some of the country and those planning to trek through the rural areas may be advised to consider prophylaxis. The states most affected are Oaxaca, Hiapas, Sinaloa, Campeche, Quintana Roo, Nayarit, Tabasco, Michoacán, Chihuahua and Hidalgo. The risk extends throughout the year and visitors to these regions always should consider adequate malaria prophylaxis.

Larva Migrans
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Walking on the beach above the high tide mark in many of the hotter countries without shoe covering may expose the traveller to infection with the Larva Migrans parasite. Mexico is no exception. This minute worm penetrates through the skin and causes a significant irritation just under the skin in those infected. The rash moves and becomes very itchy. Treatment is straightforward once a diagnosis is reached. Travellers walking along the beaches (above the high tide mark) should always wear shoe covering and avoid sitting straight on the sand.
Vaccinations
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No vaccines are essential for entry to Mexico however, in most cases, short term travellers will be advised to consider vaccination cover for;
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Tetanus (childhood booster)
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Typhoid (food & water borne)
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Hepatitis A (food & water borne)
For those undertaking a trekking holiday (or those who will live in the region for some months) vaccination cover against Rabies (animal bites), Meningococcal Meningitis (air borne) and Hepatitis B (accidents) may need to be considered.
General Health
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Further information on staying healthy while abroad may be obtained from the Tropical Medical Bureau.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Sun, 17 May 2020 22:46:20 +0200 (METDST)
By Román ORTEGA, Iván DUARTE y Germán CAMPOS

Puebla, Mexico, May 17, 2020 (AFP) - Scores of Mexicans are dying from drinking adulterated liquor, a consequence of the shortage of mainstream alcoholic beverages during the coronavirus pandemic, authorities say.   The first of at least 121 deaths in recent weeks occurred at the end of April in the western state of Jalisco, almost exactly a month after the government declared a health emergency over the spread of COVID-19.   Much of Mexico has run out of beer after factories producing liquor and beer were shut down, along with other non-essential firms.

Beer stocks were practically depleted within a month, and in some areas the prices of what was left doubled, according to industry sources.    Many of the 53 deaths in central Puebla province have been linked to a wake where people drank moonshine containing methanol -- a wood alcohol that in non-lethal doses can cause blindness and liver damage.    Twenty-three people died in the hours following the gathering in the town of Chiconcuautla, according to authorities.   The town's mayor said the popular "refino" drink, made from sugarcane, had been adulterated.

German Hernandez said his father died after being poisoned by drink known locally as "tejon" -- a blend of brandy with tejocote fruit (a type of hawthorn), in the Puebla town of Cacaloxuchitl.   "They sell it in the stores, and you can buy it and take it out. My father began trembling and feeling weak. He told us he felt bad, and we took him to the hospital," Hernandez told AFP.   "This has never happened before."    Deaths have also been recorded in the central state of Morelos and Yucatan and Veracruz in the east.

- Mafia trade -
Gangs specializing in bootleg booze are trying to take advantage of the lack of alternative alcohol sources during the shutdown.    "They usually have very well-structured mafias, and some escape the surveillance of the authorities," Ricardo Cardenas of the Federal Commission for Protection against Sanitary Risks told AFP.   "We presume that, as a result of this shortage and demand being very high, some people are offering or trying to sell methanol instead of ethyl alcohol," said Denis de Santiago, head of Sanitary Risks in Jalisco.

Methanol is used in fuel, solvents and antifreeze.   The country's largest beer producers, Grupo Modelo -- which makes the popular Corona beer -- and Heineken, which makes Sol, halted production in early April.   Alcohol sales have been banned in some states, including Yucatan. In others, alcoholic beverages can only be purchased at certain times.   Some drinks companies have switched production to antibacterial gel that they are donating to the federal government and health workers.

- 'Who would have thought?' -
In Yucatan, where 38 people have died so far, victims unknowingly drank methanol in their usual "pajaretes" -- a common cocktail that includes milk, coffee, vanilla and brand-name sugarcane alcohol.   Humberto Macias, 36, said he saw three of his relatives die within days of each other after drinking a pajarete cocktail, made using a trusted brand of alcohol.   "We had always drunk it, including myself, many people. Who would have thought it was like this?" Macias said.

In the Yucatan peninsula town of Acanceh, seven people have died from alcohol poisoning.   "It's the first time I've heard of a case like this. I don't remember anything similar," the town's mayor Felipe Medina told AFP.   In Veracruz, Morelos and Yucatan, investigators are still trying to determine what drinks the victims consumed.
Date: Thu, 14 May 2020 07:52:29 +0200 (METDST)

Puebla, Mexico, May 14, 2020 (AFP) - At least 42 people are now dead after drinking adulterated alcohol at a funeral in Mexico's central Puebla state, officials said.    Eleven others are fighting for their lives after attending the service in Chinconcuatla, around 200 kilometres (125 miles) northeast of Mexico City, according to a Wednesday statement from the local government.

Dozens of people were rushed to hospitals on Tuesday, vomiting and suffering headaches after drinking the tainted beverages.   Authorities said the coronavirus epidemic had led to shortages of beer and other alcoholic drinks, leading to the consumption of dangerous adulterated liquor.   Last month, 21 people died in the western state of Jalisco after drinking tainted alcohol.
Date: Thu, 30 Apr 2020 04:31:04 +0200 (METDST)

Guadalajara, Mexico, April 30, 2020 (AFP) - Some 21 people have died and 13 others have been seriously injured in the Mexican state of Jalisco after ingesting contaminated liquor, regional authorities said Wednesday.     In total, 56 people have been affected in two municipalities in the western state since Saturday, state health official Huge Esparza said during a press conference, including the 21 who have died and 29 who have become ill.    The 13 who became seriously ill were transported via helicopter to hospitals in Guadalajara, the capital of Jalisco, while the rest were discharged, Esparza said.

On Saturday, patients began presenting with "symptoms of blurred vision and/or vision loss, intense abdominal pain, difficulty breathing and convulsions," he said.    They had ingested a form of cane alcohol purer than that made for drinking that was manufactured in neighbouring Michoacan state.    Some 700 litres of the liquor were seized over the following days.    Laboratory tests showed the liquor contained a "high concentration" of methanol used "as an additive to liquid fuels," according to another Jalisco health official, Denis Santiago   "This chemical agent is for industrial use," he said.    One other person was affected in Michoacan, though Jalisco authorities did not provide details on their condition.
Date: Sat 4 Apr 2020
Source: Outbreak News Today [abridged, edited]

Health officials in Mexico are reporting a measles outbreak that has affected 101, including 87 cases in Mexico City, according to a La Silla Rota report.

The outbreak began in North Reclusorio in Mexico City on 23 Feb 2020, and state health officials reported on 21 Mar 2020 that the number of cases had grown to 49. In the 10 days since, that number has more than doubled to 101.

The cases are reported in Mexico City (87), the State of Mexico (13) and the state of Campeche (1).
=======================
[Also see: Measles (03) - Mexico: (Mexico City) increase in cases, spread to other areas: Wed 1 Apr 2020; Mexico News Daily:
This is an increase of 20 cases in relation to the last cut. Of the 101 cases, 96 were detected in CDMX (Ciudad de Mexico)

While the global COVID-19 pandemic is the priority for health officials the world over, a smaller outbreak of a similar kind is also worrying those in Mexico state, Mexico City, and now Campeche.

According to the Health Ministry's epidemiology department, the number of measles cases in the country doubled in just 10 days.

The outbreak began in a prison in the north of Mexico City on 23 Feb 2020, and state health officials reported on 21 Mar 2020 that the number of cases had grown to 49. In the 10 days since, that number has more than doubled to 101.

A Health Ministry epidemiology report issued at 10:00 p.m. on Tue [31 Mar 2020] said that 87 of the cases are located in Mexico City, 13 are in Mexico state, and one has been identified in the state of Campeche, the 1st of this outbreak confirmed outside of the Valley of Mexico.

Smaller concentrations of imported measles cases sprouted up in several states last year [2019], including Quintana Roo, Chihuahua, Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi and Mexico state, but none of them grew to such numbers as the current outbreak.

The borough of Gustavo A. Madero, where the outbreak's epicentre -- the Reclusorio Norte prison -- is located, has most of the city's measles patients with 47. Cases have also been confirmed in 11 other boroughs in the city.

Five of the 13 infected people in Mexico state are in Ecatepec, and there are also measles cases in Tecamac, Tlalnepantla, Naucalpan, Atizapan de Zaragoza, Nezahualcoyotl and Chimalhuacan.

The case reported in Campeche is in the municipality of Champoton, where a 5-year-old girl contracted the disease despite having received the measles vaccine.

Of the 101 confirmed cases, 57 are adults aged 17-68, while 44 are children ranging from 4 months to 13 years old, and 19 had been vaccinated against the disease before contracting it. - ProMed Mod.LK]
Date: Tue 24 Mar 2020
Source: Explica [abridged, edited]

The Valley of Mexico currently faces 2 diseases that day by day infect a greater number of citizens. Not only has the so-called coronavirus pandemic caused the authorities to take preventive measures, measles became a latent risk.

Shortly after the health authorities began to implement preventive measures for Covid-19 throughout Mexico, it was revealed that 16 people were infected with measles, but, from 5-23 Mar 2020, cases have reached 67 infected.

It was the General Directorate of Epidemiology of the Ministry of Health that released the report of confirmed measles cases in the Valley of Mexico. Although 62 cases were located in Mexico City, the rest occurred in people who live in the State of Mexico.

In 24 hours, a total of 20 cases were confirmed, most of which are found in the Gustavo A. Madero, Alvaro Obregon, Miguel Hidalgo and Cuajimalpa mayoralties.

The cases in the State of Mexico were located in the municipalities of Ecatepec, Naucalpan, Tecamac, Nezahualcoyotl and Tlalnepantla, which have infected cases in each one.

Of the 67 cases, only 10 of them had a history of vaccination for the disease.

It all started when last 5 Mar 2020, the health authorities of the capital announced the existence of an outbreak of measles in 16 people.

The information caused a stir, because all the cases were related to the North Male Preventive Prison, located at Jaime Nuno 155, Cuautepec Barrio Bajo, Guadalupe Chalma neighbourhood, city hall Gustavo A. Madero.

According to the newspaper El Universal, among the confirmed infections was a minor of 8 years who was linked to one of the inmates.

Before more than 10 cases, the authorities decided to carry out a sweep inside the prison, that is, a vaccination campaign for the more than 3000 inmates incarcerated, but also for the personnel who work in the facilities, the custodians and the relatives who commonly visit the prisoners.

For the 8-year-old girl who was infected, El Heraldo de Mexico reported that a perimeter of 25 blocks around the house in which the minor lives, located in the Alvaro Obregon city hall, was swept. However, the general director of Epidemiology, Jose Luis Alomia Zegarra, clarified that the 1st measles patient registered was an imported case.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), measles is caused by a virus in the paramyxovirus family and is one of the leading causes of death in children. During 2017, measles took the lives of 110,000 children under the age of 5 around the world.

The disease begins to appear between 10 and 12 days after the 1st contact with the virus, as a runny nose, cough, red eyes, tears, and white spots appear on the inside of the cheeks.  The best known feature of the disease are red welts, known as anaxems, that appear between day 7 and 18 after contact.
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Brazil

General

 Brazil is the largest country in South America and extends from the Atlantic Ocean to the Caribbean to the depths of the Amazon basin. The climate varies throughout the country but generally it experiences a humid

tropical climate.

Safety & Security

The level of crime in many of the main urban centres is certainly rising and tourists need to be aware of the risks involved in travelling particularly in the evening hours. It is wise to use an official taxi for any journeys after dark. It is sensible not to flaunt any personal wealth and to use the hotel safety boxes for any valuables and your travel documents. The amount of crime against tourists tends to be greater in areas surrounding hotels, discotheques, bars, nightclubs and other similar establishments that cater to visitors, especially at dusk and during the evening hours. There are frequent reports of theft on city buses and such transportation should be avoided. A number of the main cities have established specialised tourist police units to patrol areas frequented by tourists. Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Brasilia all continue to experience a high incidence of crime.

Road Safety

Throughout this huge country the state of the roads varies greatly. In many regions the roads are dirt tracks and assistance would be hard to obtain for those travelling off from the main tourists routes. Bag snatching from traffic lights occurs in the main cities. If considering hiring a car make certain that your travel insurance is sufficient.

Jet Lag

After your flight you will experience a degree of jet lag. Travelling from Europe this will be less than when you travel home but nevertheless it will still cause your body to complain for 24 to 48 hours. Try to have a more relaxing time for the first few days (and also after returning home if possible!). Be careful not to fall asleep by the pool and then awaken with sunburn which could ruin your time abroad.

Medical Facilities

In any country of this size the level of medical care will vary greatly. This is particular true out side the main tourist resorts. English speaking doctors should be available but the level of hospital care can be worrisome. Make certain you carry sufficient supplies of any medication you may require for your entire holiday. Essential drugs (asthma, diabetes, epilepsy etc) should be divided for security.

Sun Exposure and Dehydration

The hot humid tropical climate often leads to quite significant problems for the Irish traveller. Make sure you cover your head when out in the sunlight and drink plenty of fluids to replenish that lost through perspiration. Replace the salt you loose by eating crisps etc orby putting salt on your meal (providing there is no contraindication).

Visiting the Iguassu Falls

These huge waterfalls border Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. There is only minimal risk of malaria and so malaria prophylaxis is not generally recommended. Also, Yellow fever is not transmitted in this area but mosquitoes can abound. Sensible insect bite precautions should be followed at all times.

Food & Water

Many tourists who visit Brazil stay in the main resorts along the southern coast. The food and water preparation in the hotels is normally excellent but eating food from street vendors is generally unwise. Shell fish (bivalve oysters, mussels, clams etc) are unwise even in a five star hotel. Check the water from the cold water tap in your room. If you can’t easily smell chlorine (swimming pool style) don’t use it even for brushing your teeth. If travelling around the country (Caribbean coast or into the Amazon regions) take significantly more care.

Rabies 

This viral disease occurs throughout Brazil and it is usually transmitted through the bite from an infected warm-blooded animal (eg dogs, cats & monkeys). Any contact should be avoided but if it occurs treat it very seriously and seek competent medical attention immediately after you wash out the area and apply an antiseptic.

Malaria

The risk of malaria is significant all year throughout the Amazon regions. There is insignificant risk for those staying along the coast up as far as Fortaleza and for those remaining in this region prophylaxis is not usually recommended. The risk in the region of Brasilia is also thought to be minimal though this is an area which has unusually experience an outbreak of Yellow Fever recently, and so the situation will require review.

Mosquito Borne Diseases  Apart from malaria the other two main diseases transmitted by mosquitoes which cause problems in Brazil are Dengue Fever (mainly along Caribbean Coast but has been reported much further south) and Yellow Fever (mainly in the Amazon Basin but thought to be spreading to other regions). Avoidance techniques are important at all times throughout the day. Swimming **************************************** Most of the main tourist swimming pools will be well maintained and the smell of chlorine will be evident. If sea swimming is on your agenda make sure you go where there are plenty of others and never swim alone. Look for warning signs and pay attention to local advice. Be very careful of local currents which can be dangerous. Vaccinations **************************************** The Brazilian Embassy is advising all travellers to Brazil to have vaccination cover against Yellow Fever. Also for your personal protection it is wise to consider some further vaccines. Generally we would recommend the following vaccination cover; * Yellow Fever (mosquito borne) * Tetanus (childhood booster) * Typhoid (food & water borne) * Hepatitis A (food & water borne) For those travelling more extensively or staying in the country for longer periods we would usually suggest that further vaccines are considered including Hepatitis B, Meningitis and Rabies. Summary **************************************** Many travellers to Brazil will remain perfectly healthy and well providing they follow some sensible precautions. Further information is available from either of our centres regarding any recent disease outbreaks.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Mon, 6 Apr 2020 22:58:13 +0200 (METDST)

Sao Paulo, April 6, 2020 (AFP) - The epicentre of the coronavirus outbreak in Latin America, Brazil's Sao Paulo state, said Monday it expects 111,000 deaths in the next six months, and extended its stay-at-home measures another two weeks.   The forecast -- an official projection, the state government said -- would appear to put Brazil on track to become one of the worst-hit countries in the world.   The global death toll from the virus currently stands at 70,000, according to a tally compiled by AFP.

Sao Paulo, the teeming industrial hub where the new coronavirus first appeared in Latin America, has confirmed 4,620 cases and 275 deaths so far.   Governor Joao Doria, who closed non-essential businesses on March 24 and advised people to stay home, said containment measures would be needed for at least two more weeks or the situation would get far worse.   "If we continue seeing people in the streets and gathering unnecessarily, we will go to more restrictive measures," he told a news conference.   Police are already authorized to break up crowds by force if necessary, he said.

Without containment measures, Sao Paulo -- whose capital is the mega-city of the same name -- would register 270,000 deaths in the next six months, said the head of the state's public health research institute, Dimas Covas.   Brazil has been the Latin American country hit hardest by the new coronavirus, with 553 deaths and more than 12,000 confirmed cases so far.   Health experts warn under-testing means the real number is likely much higher.

Sao Paulo, a state whose population of 46 million makes it about the size as Spain, has seen more infections and deaths than any other.   The state is probably facing another 1,300 deaths this week, Covas said.   The governor has openly clashed over containment measures with far-right President Jair Bolsonaro, who claims they are needlessly wrecking the economy over a disease he has compared to a "little flu."
Date: Thu 26 Mar 2020
Source: Mongabay.com [edited]

In April 2018, workers with the Associacao Mico-Leao-Dourado, a Brazilian non-governmental organisation [NGO] dedicated to the protection of the golden lion tamarin, found one of the endangered primates, apparently sick and unable to climb trees, lying on the forest floor in Aldeia, some 80 km (50 mi) north east of Rio de Janeiro city. The following day, field staff searched for the animal but could not find it within the sprawling tropical forest. But later that month, the dead bodies of 2 others were discovered in nearby forest in Cambucaes and Imbau.

The stricken animals immediately set off alarm bells in Brazil's conservation community. By 17 May 2018, their worst fears were realized, as the 1st confirmed death of a golden lion tamarin due to yellow fever was announced by the Brazilian Ministry of Health and Ministry of the Environment.  "Until this report we didn't know if the [animals] were susceptible to the disease, even after 4 decades of working with the tamarins, but we now understand that they are even more susceptible to it than humans," explains Dr Carlos Ruiz, president of the Associacao Mico-Leao-Dourado (the Golden Lion Tamarin Association).

Known for their distinctive, lion-like manes and gold-orange pelage, the golden lion tamarin, or _Leontopithecus rosalia_, is a primate endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome that once stretched uninterrupted for hundreds of miles along Brazil's eastern coast, but which has since been reduced to only patches. By the 1980s, _L. rosalia_ was critically endangered due to habitat loss and extremely high levels of poaching.

By then, the population was down to just a few hundred individuals in isolated forest fragments scattered around the Sao Joao river basin in Rio de Janeiro state. However, a hugely successful campaign of intensively focused conservation action, including the introduction of zoo-born tamarins to wild populations, raised that number to 3700 by 2014.

Then came the outbreak of yellow fever, in late 2017-2018, Brazil's largest human epidemic since mass vaccinations began in the 1940s. The mosquito borne disease, normally found in remote reaches of the Amazon, spread to the populous southern states of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, killing hundreds of people and infecting thousands more.

Scientists, alerted by the 1st yellow fever casualties in 2018 among the golden lion tamarin, were astonished to see the species decline by 32% due to the disease, a terrible setback for an animal already classified as Endangered by the International Union for Conservation and Nature (IUCN).

Compounding the crisis was a misinformed reaction to the yellow fever outbreak by local people who made a spurt of attacks on all monkeys, apparently based on the false belief that tamarins, rather than mosquitoes, were capable of directly transmitting the disease to humans. Some primates were illegally killed by poisoning and others shot dead with rifles.

More bad news: Research published by Strier and colleagues in 2018 found that muriqui (woolly spider monkey) numbers also suffered "catastrophic" declines in the Atlantic Forest's Reserva Particular do Patrimonio Natural due to yellow fever, declining 10% and 26% for 2 separate populations.

"The impact of yellow fever has been absolutely devastating" on these primates, especially the tamarins, says Dr Ruiz. "It could set us back 30 years of conservation efforts." He does report some good news: Charity service volunteers are now continuously monitoring the surviving tamarin populations, aiding local health officials to ensure near 100% vaccination of people in stricken areas, and the regular exchange of information with government bodies to help prevent further significant outbreaks.

Yellow fever is believed to have originated in Africa and spread to Brazil as a result of the transatlantic slave trade. The disease first appeared in Recife, north east Brazil, in 1685, according to historical records. However, yellow fever is not endemic to the majority of the country, and therefore most monkeys have not developed resistance [or tolerance] to it, leaving them particularly vulnerable, according to the Brazilian Society of Primatology.

How, or whether, tamarin populations will bounce back after such significant losses remains unknown. "The biggest problem is how these species then recover from crashes," says Karen Strier, an anthropologist at the University of Wisconsin who has studied Atlantic Forest monkeys since the 1980s. "Either they must reproduce within the surviving group...or they must look to recruit from other populations. But the more fragmented the landscape, the more difficult [recruiting] is." The trouble with reproducing within just one group is that "if the population is small that may not work, and it also produces low genetic diversity."

Ominously, primate experts now fear that yellow fever outbreaks could become a regular occurrence in the Atlantic Forest biome, and that disease could be a looming new threat to the golden lion tamarin, even as illegal trafficking remains a serious concern. "From time to time, [yellow fever] reemerges...and may affect regions beyond the Amazon, if it has viability of transmission," says a spokesperson for the Brazilian Society of Primatology. "But it could become an endemic disease also of the Atlantic Forest."

A combination of climate change and deforestation in areas that serve as buffer zones between tropical forest and urban areas has allowed yellow fever to spread, the society representative added. Logging and charcoal production, agriculture and urbanization have devastated the tamarin's habitat, reducing it to only 2% of its original area in the Atlantic Forest, home to 22 of Brazil's 77 primate species.

Hope is now focused on a newly developed vaccine for non-human primates that could immunize species like the golden lion tamarin and perhaps save them from disease and help them evade extinction. Marcos Freire, a researcher at the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, who previously worked on a team producing a human yellow fever vaccine, has been seeking an alternative for primates since 2017, and thinks he now has one that could work. "We would like to vaccinate some of these animals and then transport them back to areas where there have been mortalities," he says. "But nobody has ever vaccinated a species of monkey before and so there are a lot of challenges." Freire says that he is currently applying to the nation's Ministry of Health and Ministry of Agriculture for permission to capture and immunize wild populations of tamarins. "In Brazil, there have not yet been any licenses to administer vaccines for non-human primates," he says. "Dogs, cats and cows, yes -- but not primates."

The vaccine, which he initially hopes to use on 500 primates, is based on a dilution of the yellow fever vaccine administered to humans and uses a similar process and formula. "We applied different quantities of dosage to species in our primate center in Rio de Janeiro, and the results have been effective," he reveals. But practical challenges remain: How, for example, "would you test it on animals that are critically endangered?" asks Strier, who supports the vaccine's development. "And how do you administer it to animals in the wild in a cost-effective way? And what about the fact that there are humans that still haven't been vaccinated?"

Even if these hurdles are overcome, vaccination won't entirely eliminate the disease because some female mosquitoes pass the virus directly to their eggs. Meanwhile, other solutions offer promise, such as neutralizing mosquitoes by means of genetic modification, as explored in the case of the Zika virus, or using mathematical models to anticipate the arrival of the virus in various locales in order to immediately combat it.

The vaccine, should it prove efficacious, could offer important relief to these endangered primates, even as other human disruptions put heightened pressure on ecosystems in south eastern Brazil. No matter what the results, ongoing vaccine research will offer "a good opportunity to learn what happens," concludes Freire. "Do the [tamarins] survive because they are immune, or not infected? Any kind of [observed] result will be important. Because if every year we get another episode [of yellow fever and lack an effective response], then we'll have to go back to captive reproduction."  [byline: Peter Yeung]
====================
[The current expansion of yellow fever in South America raises concern for public health and also about potential conservation problems for susceptible non-human primate species in the continent. The virus is endemic in much of central and northern South America and makes sporadic incursions to southern areas of the continent, like the states of Santa Catarina, Parana and Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil, Misiones in Argentina, or Paraguay.

The yellow fever virus was introduced into the Americas approximately 400 years ago, yet the complex interactions that were established after its introduction are far from being elucidated. There is need for more research on the eco-epidemiology of the disease in the continent, specifically on the role of each non-human primate species, and especially in the presence of the persistent anthropogenic global environmental change.
Developing a vaccine to be used in golden lion tamarins can be a powerful tool, but there are some issues that need to be considered. First, applying the vaccine to 500 wild tamarins may be risky, as it involves capturing and restraining wild animals, so this should be fine-tuned to minimize the probability of seriously injuring the tamarins in the process. Using an effective vaccine in 500 individuals would preserve those individuals during an outbreak, but yellow fever is not a transient problem for South American non-human primates of the Atlantic rainforest, so in parallel non-vaccinated tamarins should be monitored to evaluate the evolution of resistance or tolerance, or otherwise they will be dependent on vaccination in aeternum.

For a picture of a golden lion tamarin, go to

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Brazil:
Date: Thu, 19 Mar 2020 17:36:17 +0100 (MET)

Brasília, March 19, 2020 (AFP) - Brazil on Thursday announced it was closing its land borders for 15 days to nearly all its neighbours to prevent the spread of the coronavirus.   A ministerial decree said it was blocking entry "by road or land" from all neighbouring countries with the exception of Uruguay to the south.   It shut its border with Venezuela on Tuesday.
Date: Tue, 3 Mar 2020 22:38:28 +0100 (MET)

Sao Paulo, March 3, 2020 (AFP) - At least 21 people have been killed in torrential rain that hit the Brazilian states of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, triggering flash floods and destroying homes, authorities said Tuesday.   Another 32 people are missing in Sao Paulo, raising fears the toll could rise further.   Violent storms in recent days have dumped a month's worth of rain on some areas in a matter of hours, devastating the southern coast of Sao Paulo state and poor neighborhoods on the outskirts of Rio de Janeiro, the country's second most populous city.

At least 16 people were killed early Tuesday in Sao Paulo state after floods and landslides hit the coastal cities of Santos, Sao Vicente and Guaruja, authorities said.   One of the victims was a rescue worker who was killed by a landslide.   "I express my solidarity with those who are suffering from these heavy rains," Sao Paulo Governor Joao Doria wrote on Twitter.   Several highways were blocked by fallen trees and landslides, including some linking Santos, the biggest port in South America, to Sao Paulo, Brazil's largest city and economic capital.

In Rio de Janeiro, authorities said the death toll had risen to at least five after three days of violent rain that destroyed houses, swept away cars, and left some communities covered in water or mud.   The victims were electrocuted, buried in landslides or drowned, emergency officials said.   The disaster turned political in Rio when the city's Mayor Marcelo Crivella, a far-right evangelical Christian bishop, blamed residents for the flooding.   During a visit to an affected community, he complained to journalists that "people can't be throwing trash on hillsides, in storm drains and in the street."

In the middle of the press conference someone pelted Crivella in the face with a mud ball -- which was captured in a video that went viral online.   "The water knocked my granddaughter and I and off the sofa. Dirty water came flooding into my kitchen, bathroom, bedrooms, everything. I lost everything," Ivone Cardoso, 65, a resident of Rio's Realengo neighbourhood, told AFP as she swept mud and water out of her house.   Brazil is having an especially intense rainy season this summer.   In January, more than 50 people were killed in Minas Gerais state, which neighbors Sao Paulo, in several days of violent rain.
Date: Thu 20 Feb 2020
Source: G1 [in Portuguese, trans. ProMED Mod.TY, edited]

The Office of Epidemiological Surveillance (DIVE-SC) confirmed another human yellow fever case this year [2020] in the state. The patient, a resident of Pomerode in the Vale do Itajai, is 45 years old and has not been vaccinated. As of this Thursday (20 [Feb 2020]) he was interned in the intensive care unit of the Nereu Ramos Hospital in Florianopolis. He was in stable condition as of this afternoon. He was sent to the [state] capital the same day since the Nereu Ramos Hospital is the reference facility for infectious diseases.

The other confirmed human yellow fever cases are in Blumenau, also in Vale do Itajai, and 2 other cases are in the north of the state, in Jaragua do Sul and Sao Bento do Sul. In 2019, there were 2 cases, and both died.

Vaccination
Everyone from 9 months of age and above needs to receive a dose of the vaccine that protects for life against the disease. A dose of the vaccine is free of charge and is available in health units in the entire state.

Yellow fever
Yellow fever is a disease caused by a virus that can lead to death in a week if not treated rapidly. It is transmitted by the bite of mosquitoes. In the forest, the vectors are insects of the _Haemagogus_ and _Sabethe_ genera. In the city it is _Aedes aegypti_.

The symptoms of the disease are
- initially, a rapid rise in fever
- chills and fever
- intense headache
- back and body pain
- nausea and vomiting
- weakness and fatigue
- abdominal pain
- yellow skin

Monkeys
In addition to humans, monkeys in the state also have yellow fever. There were 2 cases in Blumenau, another 2 in Pomerode, and one each in the following municipalities: Timbo, Gaspar and Indaial in the Vale do Itajai, and Jaragua do Sul, according to the most recent DIVE-SC bulletin issued on Monday [17 Feb 2020]. All were found dead.

Monkeys do not transmit the disease [directly] to people but are indicators that yellow fever virus is circulating in the region.
=====================
[In 2019, 2 cases of yellow fever [YF] were the 1st since almost one year ago. There were several yellow fever epizootics confirmed in non-human primates in 2020. In other words, it is more than predictable that, without effective and timely preventive actions, cases of yellow fever in humans would reoccur: no surprise. As we have mentioned numerous times, for yellow fever, in the current epidemiological scenario of sylvan transmission, as (or more) important as prioritizing goals of high rates of vaccination coverage in the general population in the short term is vaccinating the right people in the right places at the right time, that is, susceptible individuals residing or visiting the areas at greatest risk. Not infrequently, this is only feasible with differentiated strategies, including active searches. The question: Have the 4 confirmed cases so far not been vaccinated due to refusal, misinformation, or difficult access? - ProMED Mod.RNA]

[The human cases this year (2020) are due to YF virus spill-over from the sylvan (forest) transmission cycle. The dead monkeys indicate that the virus has been circulating in the state for over a year. It is important that the human population YF vaccination coverage reach the 95% goal set by the Ministry of Health. Vaccination is the only way to avoid these sylvan cases, since elimination of the forest YF virus transmission cycle is not feasible. Without prevention of these human sylvan cases, there is the risk that YF virus could be introduced by them into the urban cycle of virus transmitted by _Aedes aegypti_ and spread quickly. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Santa Catarina, Brazil: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/2975>]
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Ethiopia

Ethiopia - US Consular Information Sheet
November 26, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia is a developing country in East Africa.
It is comprised of nine states and two city administrations (Addis Aba
a and Dire Dawa).
The capital is Addis Ababa.
Tourism facilities can be found in the most populous regions of Ethiopia, but infrastructure is basic.
The ruling EPRDF party and Prime Minister Meles Zenawi maintain strong control of the government and economy.
Despite several years of high economic growth, the country remains vulnerable to external economic shocks and recurring drought.

Read the Department of State Background Notes on Ethiopia for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
To avoid possible confusion or delays, travelers are advised to obtain a valid Ethiopian visa at the nearest Ethiopian Embassy prior to arrival, and must do so if entering across any land port-of-entry.
For example: travelers wishing to enter Ethiopia from Kenya at the land border at Moyale, must obtain an Ethiopian visa first.
Ethiopian visas ARE NOT available at the border crossing point at Moyale.
Travelers should apply for Ethiopian visas at the Ethiopian Embassy in Nairobi or at other Ethiopian embassies in other countries.
Ethiopian visas are available to U.S. citizens upon arrival at Bole International Airport in Addis Ababa.
U.S. citizens may obtain one-month or three month, single-entry tourist visas or 10-day single-entry business visas upon arrival at Bole International Airport.
This service is available only at Bole International Airport and is not available at any other ports of entry in Ethiopia.
The visa fee at Bole International Airport is payable in U.S. dollars.
Such visas can be extended by applying at the Main Immigration Office in Addis Ababa.
Business visas of up to three-months validity can also be obtained at Bole International Airport upon arrival if the traveler has a sponsoring organization in Ethiopia that has made prior arrangements for issuance through the Main Immigration Office in Addis Ababa.
Travelers whose entry visa expires before they depart Ethiopia, must obtain a visa extension and pay a monthly penalty fee of $20 USD per month.
Such travelers may also be required to pay a court fine of up to 4000 ETB (USD $435) before being permitted to depart from Ethiopia.
Travelers are required to pay the penalty fee before they will be able to obtain an exit visa (USD $20) permitting them to leave Ethiopia.

Individuals intending to stay in Ethiopia for a prolonged period of time are advised to contact the Ethiopian Embassy in Washington prior to traveling.
The Ethiopian Embassy is located at 3506 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 364-1200; fax (202) 587-0195.
For the most current visa information, visit the Embassy’s web site at www.ethiopianembassy.org.
Inquiries by Americans located overseas may be made at the nearest Ethiopian embassy or consulate.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.
SAFETY AND SECURITY:
While Ethiopia is generally stable, domestic insurgent groups, extremists from Somalia, and the heavy military buildup along the northern border pose risks to safety and security, particularly along Ethiopia’s border areas and in the Somali region.
In the past year, there has been an increase in targeted bombings in Addis Ababa and in other parts of Ethiopia.
In November 2008, the Government of Ethiopia issued a warning to its citizens alerting them of the potential for terrorist attacks and subsequently increased security measures to unprecedented levels.

Throughout Ethiopia:
Americans are strongly advised to review their personal safety and security posture, to remain vigilant and to be cautious when frequenting prominent public places and landmarks.
Targeted bombings in Addis Ababa and south eastern Ethiopia in 2008 resulted in numerous injuries and deaths.
Americans are advised to avoid public gatherings and public places, including hotels, if possible, and using public transportation and transportation hubs.
They are advised to beware of unattended baggage or packages left in any location, including in mini-buses and taxis.

Ethiopia/Eritrea Border Area:
Ethiopia and Eritrea signed a peace agreement in December 2000 that ended their border war.
However, the border remains an issue of contention between the governments of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
The border area is a militarized zone where there exists the possibility of armed conflict between Ethiopian and Eritrean forces.
American citizens are advised to avoid travel in the areas along the Eritrean/Ethiopian border (within 50 km/30 miles of the Ethiopian/Eritrean border) because of the dangers posed by land mines and because of the possibility of conflict between Ethiopian and Eritrean defense forces.
Due to abductions and banditry, Americans are advised to avoid travel within 30 miles of the Ethiopian-Eritrean border west of Adigrat to the Sudanese border, with the exception of the town of Axum, and within 60 miles east of Adigrat to the Djiboutian border.
Embassy personnel are permitted to travel in these areas only on a case-by-case basis. Travel to the northern Afar Region towards the Eritrean border is also discouraged.
Embassy personnel are permitted to travel there only on a case-by-case basis.

Somali Region:
Since the mid-1990's the members of the Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF) have clashed with Ethiopian government forces near the city of Harar and in the Somali regional state, particularly in the Ogaden zones.
In April 2007, the ONLF claimed responsibility for attacking a Chinese oil exploration installation south of Jijiga, in Ethiopia's Somali region.
The attack resulted in deaths, kidnappings and the wounding of dozens of Chinese and Ethiopian citizens.
In 2008, a hotel in the town of Jijiga was bombed and two hotels in the town of Negele Borena were bombed.

American citizens are reminded that the U.S. Embassy strongly discourages travel to Ethiopia's Somali region and that a Travel Warning for Somalia has been issued that advises against all travel to that country.
Armed insurgent groups operate within the Somali, Oromiya and Afar regions of Ethiopia.
In December 2006, the Ethiopian Government, at the invitation of the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia, began military operations against extremists in Somalia.
As of November 2007, military operations continue in Mogadishu, where an African Union peacekeeping force, AMISOM, is deployed.
In 2008, two staff members of a non-governmental organization (NGO) were abducted in the Somali region.

Gambella Region:
Sporadic inter-ethnic clashes remain a concern throughout the Gambella region of western Ethiopia following outbursts of violence there in 2003 - 2004.
There is a heavy military and police presence in the town of Gambella.
While the security situation in the town of Gambella is calm, it remains unpredictable throughout the rest of the region, and violence could recur without warning.
Travel to this region is discouraged.

Travel in Ethiopia via rail is discouraged due to past episodes of derailment, sabotage, and bombings.
In southern Ethiopia along the Kenyan border, banditry and incidents involving ethnic conflicts are also common.
Travelers should exercise caution when traveling to any remote area of the country, including the borders with Eritrea, Somalia, Kenya and Sudan.
Ethiopian security forces do not have a widespread presence in those regions.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll-free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME:
Pick-pocketing, “snatch and run” thefts, and other petty crimes are common in Addis Ababa.
These are generally crimes of opportunity rather than planned attacks.
Travelers should exercise caution in crowded areas and should avoid visiting the Mercato in Addis Ababa, a large open-air market.
Violence in the Mercato has been on the rise.
In 2008 an explosion in the Mercato killed several and wounded more than a dozen individuals.
Also in 2008, there was a shooting in the Mercato.
Travelers should limit the amount of cash they carry and leave valuables, such as passports, jewelry, and airline tickets in a hotel safe or other secure place.
Travelers should keep wallets and other valuables where they will be less susceptible to pick-pockets.
Travelers should be cautious at all times when traveling on roads in Ethiopia.
There have been reports of highway robbery, including carjacking, by armed bandits outside urban areas.
Some incidents have been accompanied by violence.
Travelers are cautioned to limit road travel outside major towns or cities to daylight hours and travel in convoys, if possible.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.
See our information on Victims of Crime.

There is no local equivalent to the “911” emergency line in Ethiopia.
Distress calls should be made to the local police station, the telephone number of which can be obtained by calling directory assistance at 997.
This is the number for directory assistance throughout Ethiopia.
In Addis Ababa, the number for police is 991, for the fire brigade 939, and for an ambulance 907.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Health facilities in Addis Ababa are very limited and are generally inadequate outside the capital.
Even the best hospitals in Addis Ababa suffer from inadequate facilities, antiquated equipment, and shortages of supplies (particularly medicines).
There is a shortage of physicians.
Emergency assistance is limited.
Psychiatric services and medications are practically nonexistent.
Serious illnesses and injuries often require travelers to be medically evacuated from Ethiopia to a location where adequate medical attention is available.
Such “medevac” services are very expensive and are generally available only to travelers who either have travel insurance that covers medevac services or who are able to pay in advance the considerable cost of such services (often in excess of USD 40,000).
See Medical Insurance below.
Travelers must carry their own supplies of prescription drugs and preventive medicines, as well as a doctor's note describing the medication.
If the quantity of drugs exceeds that which would be expected for personal use, a permit from the Ministry of Health is required.
Malaria is prevalent in Ethiopia outside of the highland areas.
Travelers who become ill with a fever or flu-like illness while traveling in a malaria-risk area and up to one year after returning home should seek prompt medical attention and explain to the health care provider their travel history and which anti-malarials they have been taking.
For additional information on malaria, protection from insect bites, and anti-malarial drugs, please visit the CDC Travelers' Health web site at http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/index.htm.
Tuberculosis is an increasingly serious health concern in Ethiopia.
For further information, please consult the CDC's Travel Notice on TB at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/yellowBookCh4-TB.aspx

Ethiopia is a mountainous country and the high altitude may cause health problems, even for healthy travelers.
Addis Ababa is located at an altitude of 8,300 feet.
Travelers may experience shortness of breath, fatigue, nausea, headaches, and inability to sleep.
Individuals with respiratory (including asthma) or heart conditions should consult with a health care professional before traveling to Ethiopia.
Travelers to Ethiopia should also avoid swimming in any lakes, rivers, or still bodies of water.
Most bodies of water have been found to contain parasites.
Travelers should be aware that Ethiopia has a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS.
Ethiopia has had outbreaks of acute watery diarrhea, possible cholera, typhoid, or other bacterial diarrhea in the recent past, and the conditions for reoccurrences continue to exist.
Further information on prevention and treatment of cholera and other diarrheal diseases can be found at the CDC web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/contentDiseases.aspx.
Ethiopian authorities are monitoring the possibility of avian influenza following the deaths of poultry and birds; preliminary results are negative.
For additional information on avian flu please visit the CDC website at http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/.
The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Ethiopia.
Please verify with the embassy of Ethiopia before you travel.
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en
MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Specific medevac insurance, which generally covers evacuation of a patient from Ethiopia to a location where adequate medical attention is available, is often inexpensive and available through a variety of companies that can be accessed online.
Medicare and Medicaid recipients are not covered overseas and are advised to purchase supplemental health and medical evacuation insurances.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.
TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Ethiopia is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Ethiopia has the highest rate of traffic fatalities per vehicle in the world.
Roads in Ethiopia are poorly maintained, inadequately marked, and poorly lighted.
Road travel after dark outside Addis Ababa and other cities is dangerous and discouraged due to hazards posed by broken-down vehicles left in the road, pedestrians walking in the road, stray animals, and the possibility of armed robbery.
Road lighting in cities is inadequate at best and nonexistent outside of cities.
Excessive speed, unpredictable local driving habits, pedestrians and livestock in the roadway, and the lack of basic safety equipment on many vehicles are daily hazards on Ethiopian roads.
While travel during daylight hours on both paved and unpaved roads is generally considered safe, land mines and other anti-personnel devices can be encountered on isolated dirt roads that were targeted during various conflicts.
Before undertaking any off-road travel, it is advisable to inquire of local authorities to ensure that the area has been cleared of mines.
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Ethiopia’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Ethiopia’s air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa/.
The Ethiopian government has closed air routes near the border with Eritrea and has referred to the airspace as a “no-fly zone.”
The FAA currently prohibits U.S. aircraft and U.S. pilots from flying in Ethiopian airspace north of 12 degrees north latitude, the area along the country's northern border with Eritrea.
For complete information on this flight prohibition, travelers may visit the FAA's web site at http://www.faa.gov/airports_airtraffic/air_traffic/publications/notices/2008-11-20/PART3_SEC1.cfm.
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Ethiopia does not recognize dual nationality.
The government of Ethiopia considers Ethiopians who have become naturalized U.S. citizens to be Americans.
Such individuals are not subject to Ethiopian military service.
The Ethiopian government has stated that Ethiopian-Americans in almost all cases are given the same opportunity to invest in Ethiopia as Ethiopians.
Several years ago the government of Ethiopia arrested people of Eritrean origin who initially failed to disclose their U.S. citizenship.
However, this has not occurred in recent years.
Ethiopian officials have recently stated that Eritrean-Americans are treated as U.S. citizens and are not subject to arrest simply because of their ties to Eritrea.
For additional information, see our dual nationality flyer.
Permits are required before exporting either antiques or animal skins from Ethiopia.
Antique religious artifacts, including "Ethiopian” crosses, require documentation from the National Museum in Addis Ababa for export.
Foreign currency should be exchanged in authorized banks, hotels and other legally authorized outlets and proper receipts should be obtained for the transactions.
Exchange receipts are required to convert unused Ethiopian currency back to the original foreign currency.
Penalties for exchanging money on the black market range from fines to imprisonment.
Credit cards are not accepted at most hotels, restaurants, shops, or other local facilities, although they are accepted at the Hilton and Sheraton Hotels in Addis Ababa.
Some hotels and car rental companies, particularly in Addis Ababa, may require foreigners to pay in foreign currency or show a receipt for the source of foreign exchange if paying in local currency.
However, many hotels or establishments are not permitted to accept foreign currency or may be reluctant to do so.

Ethiopian institutions have on occasion refused to accept 1996 series U.S. currency, although official policy is that such currency should be treated as legal tender.
Ethiopian law strictly prohibits the photographing of military installations, police/military personnel, industrial facilities, government buildings, and infrastructure (roads, bridges, dams, airfields, etc.).
Such sites are rarely marked clearly.
Travel guides, police, and Ethiopian officials can advise if a particular site may be photographed.
Photographing prohibited sites may result in the confiscation of film and camera.
There is a risk of earthquakes in Ethiopia.
Buildings may collapse due to strong tremors.
General information about natural disaster preparedness is available via the Internet from the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) at http://www.fema.gov/
Please see our Customs Information.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Ethiopia’s laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Ethiopia are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Ethiopia are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration website so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Ethiopia.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy is located at Entoto Avenue, P.O. Box 1014, in Addis Ababa; telephone: 251-11-124-2424; emergency after-hours telephone: 251-11-124-2400; consular fax: 251-11-124-2435; web site: http://ethiopia.usembassy.gov/
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information for Ethiopia dated April 30, 2008 to update sections on Country Description, Entry/Exit Requirements, Safety and Security, Crime, Information for Victims of Crime, Medical Facilities and Health Information, and Traffic Safety and Road Conditions.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Fri 17 Apr 2020
Source: WHO Newsroom [edited]

Eradicating dracunculiasis: Ethiopia investigates 6 suspected human cases in Gambela region
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
After reporting zero human cases for more than 2 years, Ethiopia has recorded 6 suspected new human cases (1) of dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) over the past 2 weeks. All of them are from Gog district in the region of Gambela.

"All the 6 suspected new cases of infection are people who used water from farm side-ponds and all of them are now being followed-up in a containment centre (2)" said Dr Zeyede Kebede, Acting NTD Programme Coordinator, WHO Country Office, Ethiopia. "4 of the suspected cases were detected from Dulli farm side village and 2 others from 2 different villages namely -- Metaget Dipach and Wadmaro in Gog Dipach Kebele."

Besides the 6-suspected new infections, a further 40 suspected cases are also being followed up in the Guinea Worm Case Containment Center. Furthermore, an estimated 200 households have been visited and 1254 people interviewed and provided with health education.

The Ethiopian Dracunculiasis Eradication Programme (EDEP) is scheduled to continue the larviciding of ponds in the area; further assess the utilization of filters by residents and devise a mechanism to maximize and maintain its utilization. The EDEP also plans to work with relevant stakeholders to provide safe water to the villages with suspected cases.

"Despite redeployment of health staff due to COVID-19, response to this outbreak was swift and in accordance with established protocols," said Mr Kassahun Demissie, National Programme Coordinator for Guinea Worm Eradication, Ethiopian Public Health Institute. "Preliminary investigations were carried out and immediate intervention measures taken, including active case search in 7 villages where the suspected cases were detected and in nearby at-risk villages."

Other measures that have been immediately implemented include:
- treatment of more than 41 ponds in the vicinity with the larvicide Temephos (3). This is in addition to the regular cycle of larviciding of all ponds in the area;
- assessment of water filter utilization and their replacement;
- delivery of health education in all villages that were visited.

A visit is also scheduled to the region by WHO's National Programme Officer and the acting National Coordinator from [24 Apr to 1 May 2020] to monitor containment and prevention activities and provide overall support as part of the outbreak response.

1. The 6 cases are macroscopically consistent with Guinea worm disease and are pending laboratory confirmation.
2. Containment centres have been set up in chosen locations in endemic regions of countries reporting active transmission of dracunculiasis. The centres are equipped to provide treatment and support to infected people to prevent them from contaminating drinking water sources. 3. Temephos is a cyclopicide. It is used to kill water fleas (cyclops) that carry the infective Guinea worm larvae.

Dracunculiasis eradication in Ethiopia
--------------------------------------
Since Ethiopia established its national dracunculiasis eradication programme in 1994 considerable progress has been made to reduce the number of human cases, with most of them focused in Gambela.

For the past decade, the region consistently reported low level transmission, including few infections in animals. In 2019, health and rural development officials in the region announced a series of measures aimed at ending transmission of dracunculiasis. It included a high-level advocacy mission led by the Federal Minister of Health and the announcement of a Board to oversee the functioning of the eradication programme in the region.

To increase the sensitivity of the surveillance system, the authorities have also introduced a cash reward for the voluntary reporting of dracunculiasis cases.

Human cases in 2019
-------------------
In 2019, a total of 54 human cases were reported to WHO, with Chad reporting 48 out of the 54 cases. Chad is also reporting a high number of animal infections.

The other 3 countries that reported human cases last year were Angola (1 case), South Sudan (4 cases), and Cameroon (1 case which is likely a spillover from neighbouring endemic villages in Chad). Mali, where animal infections are occurring, has not reported any human case since 2016.

The disease
-----------
Dracunculiasis is a crippling parasitic disease caused by infection with _Dracunculus medinensis_, a long, thread-like worm. It is usually transmitted when people drink stagnant water contaminated with parasite-infected water fleas. During the 1980s, dracunculiasis was endemic in 20 countries.

Finding and containing the last remaining cases, particularly in settings where there are security concerns and displaced populations, are the most difficult stages of the eradication process.
====================
[There was an outbreak of Guinea worm (dracunculiasis, infection with the nematode _Dracunculus medinensis_) in Gambela region in 2017 (see ProMED post cited below from 21 Jan 2018). The infection is acquired by drinking untreated water infected with small copepods carrying the nematode. The incubation period is up to 18 months. For further information see <https://www.cdc.gov/dpdx/dracunculiasis/index.html>. - ProMed Mod.EP]

[Maps of Ethiopia:
Date: Wed, 8 Apr 2020 13:14:26 +0200 (METDST)
By Robbie COREY-BOULET

Addis Ababa, April 8, 2020 (AFP) - Ethiopia on Wednesday declared a state of emergency to fight the coronavirus pandemic, which has so far infected 55 people and resulted in two deaths there.    It is the first state of emergency announced under Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed, who came to power in 2018 and won last year's Nobel Peace Prize in part for expanding political freedoms in the authoritarian nation.    "Because the coronavirus pandemic is getting worse, the Ethiopian government has decided to declare a state of emergency under Article 93 of the constitution," Abiy said in a statement.     "I call upon everybody to stand in line with government bodies and others that are trying to overcome this problem," he added, warning of "grave legal measures" against anyone who undermines the fight against the pandemic.

It was not immediately clear how the state of emergency would affect day-to-day life in Ethiopia.   The government has so far refrained from imposing a lockdown similar to those in effect elsewhere in the region, including in Rwanda, Uganda and Mauritius.

According to the country's constitution, under a state of emergency the Council of Ministers has "all necessary power to protect the country's peace and sovereignty" and can suspend some "political and democratic rights".    The constitution also says lawmakers need to approve a state of emergency, which can last for six months and be extended every four months after that.

Wednesday's decree is likely to "beef up security operations with a greater role for the ederal government, including the military," said William Davison, Ethiopia analyst for the International Crisis Group, a conflict-prevention organisation.    "While this approach is understandable given the situation, it is critical that there is transparency over the government's extra powers and that there is adequate monitoring of implementation," Davison said.

-Opposition challenges move-
Since reporting its first COVID-19 case on March 13, Ethiopia has closed land borders and schools, freed thousands of prisoners to ease overcrowding, sprayed main streets in the capital with disinfectant, and discouraged large gatherings.    But Abiy said over the weekend that a harsher lockdown would be unrealistic given that there are "many citizens who don't have homes" and "even those who have homes have to make ends meet daily."    Jawar Mohammed, a leading opposition politician, said Wednesday this called into question why a state of emergency was necessary.   "Officials have been saying the country is too poor to stop population movement. So why do you need a state of emergency if you are not planning to impose stricter rules?" Jawar told AFP.

During consultations with Abiy earlier this week, the opposition Oromo Liberation Front (OLF) voiced worries that a state of emergency would lead to human rights abuses -- a well-documented problem under previous states of emergency imposed during several years of anti-government protests that swept Abiy to power.    "We explained our concern that the state of emergency has been initiated several times and it has been abused to violate the rights of citizens and other political activists," OLF chairman Dawud Ibsa told AFP.   It's also unclear how the state of emergency might affect planning for hotly-anticipated general elections in Ethiopia.

The country's electoral board announced last week that voting planned for August would need to be postponed because of the pandemic.    It did not provide a timeline for when the elections would ultimately be held, and lawmakers' constitutional mandates expire in October.   Davison, with the International Crisis Group, said the state of emergency could be used "to formally postpone elections" past that deadline, though such a move risks sparking opposition backlash.    "It is therefore essential that the government works with opposition parties on managing this constitutionally sensitive period and making new electoral arrangements," Davison said.
Date: Sun 5 Apr 2020
Source: WHO [edited]
WHO: Weekly bulletin on outbreaks and other emergencies, week 14: 30 Mar-5 Apr 2020 Data as reported by 5 Apr 2020 17:00

Event description
On 3 Mar 2020, the Ethiopian Public Health Institute (EPHI) reported 3 suspected yellow fever cases in Ener Enor woreda [3rd level administrative districts], Gurage zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR). These cases were reported from the same household (father, mother, and son) located in a rural kebele. Of the 3 samples, 2 tested positive at the national level on reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and were subsequently confirmed positive by plaque reduction neutralization testing at the regional reference laboratory, Uganda Viral Research Institute (UVRI), on 28 Mar 2020.

Following the positive test results, an in-depth investigation and response was conducted by a multidisciplinary team, with support from the government and partners. As of 4 Apr 2020, a total of 85 cases (2 confirmed cases, 6 presumptive positive cases, and 77 suspected cases) have been notified from 6 kebele [the smallest  administrative unit of Ethiopia, similar to a ward, a neighbourhood, or a localized and delimited group of people] in Ener Enor woreda, of which 54 suspected cases are reported from Wedesha kebele. The other 31 cases were reported from 4 kebele: Doba, Shimorow, Kend, and Terbe. Samples from the suspected cases are currently being tested at the national laboratory. There are 4 deaths recorded from a single kebele (Wedesha) with an overall case fatality ratio of 4.7% among suspected cases. The preliminary results from the entomological findings indicate presence of larvae of suspected _Aedes_ mosquitos, which are found in the surroundings of several homesteads.

Public health actions
- Rapid response teams have been deployed to conduct detailed epidemiological and entomological investigations in Ener Enor woreda.
- The country rapidly mounted a reactive vaccination campaign from 26 to 31 Mar 2020 targeting approximately 32,000 persons in the affected and surrounding kebeles (12 in total).
- A request for yellow fever vaccines for a larger-scale reactive mass vaccination campaigns has been drafted by the country and submitted to the International Coordinating Group (ICG).
- An application for funds to facilitate preventive mass vaccination campaigns and to introduce yellow fever vaccine in routine immunization programme is under preparation, to be submitted to GAVI.
- Samples collected from presumptive positive cases have been shipped and are being tested at the arboviral reference laboratory in UVRI.
- Active case search and case management for all patients with
suspected, probable, and confirmed yellow fever is ongoing in the affected woreda. - Risk communication to sensitize the populations on preventive measures against yellow fever are being conducted in the affected districts.

Situation interpretation
Yellow fever is known to be endemic in Ethiopia, with a history of outbreaks in 1960 to 1962, 1966, 2013, and lately in 2018. The country is classified as a high-risk in the "Eliminate Yellow Fever Epidemics" (EYE) Strategy, and the estimated overall population immunity is very low in the current affected woreda. The onset of the rainy season since early March is anticipated to increase the vector burden in coming weeks, thereby increase the risk of ongoing yellow fever transmission to crowded urban areas. However, the country, with support of partners, has rapidly mounted a targeted reactive campaign in the affected woreda. A larger-scale vaccination response is planned and will require careful assessment and planning due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting widespread travel restrictions. The introduction of yellow fever vaccine into the routine immunization schedule can reduce the risk of future outbreaks.
======================
[The yellow fever (YF) cases have occurred in several localities. The rainy season is just beginning, so occurrence of additional cases can be expected given the low proportion of the population that has been vaccinated. This situation illustrates the need to maintain yellow fever routine vaccination coverage at 80% or above to prevent outbreaks as happened in Angola. This is not easy to do since YF cases are sporadic, and cases are often separated after a lapse of several years. The cost of maintaining ample coverage is less than emergency expenses of dealing with an outbreak. One hopes that the planned vaccination campaign is implemented promptly. - ProMed Mod.TY]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region, Ethiopia:
Date: Thu, 26 Mar 2020 20:22:40 +0100 (MET)

Abidjan, March 26, 2020 (AFP) - Almost all of Africa's airlines are currently grounded because of the coronavirus pandemic and several could go bankrupt, the African Airlines Association (AFRAA) warned Thursday.   "Today, 95 percent of African planes are grounded owing to the pandemic, save for cargo flights," AFRAA secretary general Abderrahmane Berthe told AFP.

A large number of African states have closed their airports and borders because of the virus, forcing carriers to scrap inter-African as well as inter-continental flights.   "If the African carriers do not receive support they will find themselves insolvent come the end of June," warned Berthe, who calculated that the sector would require a bailout of between $2.5 to 3 billion (2.3 to 2.8 billion euros) in emergency aid or tax concessions.

"African carriers were already in a precarious state well before the COVID-19 pandemic. They have been making losses for a decade while other companies elsewhere were making money," Berthe said.   "The past fortnight has been catastrophic for African carriers whose planes are grounded. They have no revenue while at the same time they face costs they cannot squeeze" such as plane hire, maintenance, insurance and parking fees.   AFRAA's 45 member carriers account for 85 percent of inter-African traffic totalling 93 million passengers a year.   Although Africa accounts for just a two percent share of global air traffic, passenger numbers on the continent have been doubling every 15 to 20 years.
Date: Mon, 23 Mar 2020 15:36:01 +0100 (MET)

Addis Ababa, March 23, 2020 (AFP) - Ethiopia on Monday shut its land borders to nearly all human traffic as part of efforts to curb the spread of the coronavirus.    Africa's second-most populous country has so far recorded just 11 infections and no deaths, but officials have struggled in recent days to enforce prevention measures including bans on large gatherings, raising fears the tally could climb.    The land border closure was part of a set of new measures announced Monday by Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed's office.   Soldiers will be empowered "to halt the movement of people along all borders, with the exception of incoming essential goods to the country," a statement said.

Security forces will also play a role in enforcing existing measures prohibiting large gatherings and meetings, it added.   Ethiopia has so far refrained from imposing the kind of shutdown seen in other East African countries like Rwanda and Mauritius.    But even its more limited measures have not been fully enforced, and Abiy's Prosperity Party has been criticised on social media for holding large meetings in various parts of the country where attendees have sat close together.    Monday's statement said political parties would "adhere to social distancing and preventative measures when convening meetings."

Ethiopia has kept its main airport open for international flights, although Ethiopian Airlines has been forced to suspend services to destinations in nearly 40 countries, according to its website.    Monday marked the first day of a new rule requiring all passengers arriving in Ethiopia to be quarantined in hotels for two weeks at their own expense.    Ethiopia shares land borders with countries including Eritrea, Sudan, Kenya, Djibouti and Somalia -- all of which have confirmed coronavirus cases.    Djibouti announced its second case on Monday.

Eritrea, with one case, on Monday announced new measures of its own including a ban on gatherings of more than 10 people.   The country's health ministry also urged residents to avoid public transportation and said Eritreans currently living abroad should refrain from returning.   Ethiopia's refugee population of more than 735,000 includes large numbers from neighbouring South Sudan, Somalia, Eritrea and Sudan.

The UN refugee agency UNHCR has voiced concern about how border restrictions implemented to fight the coronavirus could affect the rights of asylum seekers.    The UN "requests that measures be put in place to take into account access to territory of asylum seekers for those fleeing persecution," Ann Encontre, UNHCR's Ethiopia representative, told AFP on Monday.
More ...

World Travel News Headlines

Date: Mon, 1 Jun 2020 10:23:53 +0200 (METDST)

Yerevan, June 1, 2020 (AFP) - Armenian Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan and his family have tested positive for the coronavirus, he said Monday, as the rate of new infections soared in the Caucasus nation.   "My coronavirus test was positive yesterday," Pashinyan said in a self-recorded video message on Facebook, adding that his family were also infected.   He said he had no "viable symptoms" of the virus and would be working from home.   The prime minister and his wife Anna Hakobyan, who is a journalist, have four children.   The ex-Soviet republic of some three million has so far reported 9,492 cases of the coronavirus and 139 deaths.

Coronavirus patients have overwhelmed Armenia's hospitals and last week health officials said that intensive care treatment could be soon restricted to patients with the best chance of survival.   Pashinyan's announcement came nearly one month after Armenia on May 4 lifted a state of emergency imposed in March to slow the spread of the coronavirus.

The prime minister acknowledged his government had failed to enforce anti-virus measures and there had been widespread quarantine violations.   Pashinyan was elected prime minister in the wake of mass popular protests he led two years ago against veteran leader Serzh Sarkisian and his Republican Party.   He has since led a relentless crusade against graft and initiated sweeping judicial reforms.
Date: Mon, 1 Jun 2020 09:17:15 +0200 (METDST)

San Salvador, June 1, 2020 (AFP) - Tropical Storm Amanda triggered flash floods, landslides and power outages as it barrelled through El Salvador and Guatemala Sunday, killing 14 people, authorities said, warning of further heavy rain to come.   El Salvador President Nayib Bukele declared a 15-day state of emergency to cope with the effects of the storm, which he estimated to have caused $200 million in damage, but which weakened later in the day as it moved into Guatemala.

Amanda, the first named storm of the season in the Pacific, unleashed torrents of floodwater that tossed vehicles around like toys and damaged about 200 homes, the head of the Civil Protection Service William Hernandez said.   The fatalities were all recorded in El Salvador, Interior Minister Mario Duran said, warning that the death toll could rise.   One person is still missing, senior government official Carolina Recinos added.   "We are experiencing an unprecedented situation: one top-level emergency on top of another serious one," San Salvador mayor Ernesto Muyshondt said, referring to the coronavirus pandemic.

He added that half of those killed died in the capital, and that 4,200 people had sought refuge in government-run shelters after losing their homes or being forced to leave because they were in high-risk areas.   In some flooded areas, soldiers worked alongside emergency personnel to rescue people.   "We lost everything, we've been left with nowhere to live," said Isidro Gomez, a resident of hard-hit southeastern San Salvador, after a nearby river overflowed and destroyed his home.

Another victim, Mariano Ramos, said that at dawn residents of his San Salvador neighborhood were slammed by an avalanche of mud and water. An elderly man died in the area, officials said.   El Salvador's environment ministry warned residents of the "high probability" of multiple landslides that could damage buildings and injure or kill people.

Nearly 90 percent of El Salvador's 6.6 million people are considered vulnerable to flooding and landslides due to its geography.   In neighboring Guatemala, officials said roads had been blocked by at least five landslides and some flooding was reported, but no evacuations were underway.   Even though Amanda weakened to tropical depression status, Guatemalan officials warned that heavy rain would continue, with swollen rivers and possible "landslides affecting highways ... and flooding in coastal areas."
Date: Mon, 1 Jun 2020 06:55:18 +0200 (METDST)

Lima, June 1, 2020 (AFP) - Peru on Sunday reported 8,800 new COVID-19 infections, setting a new daily record for a country that already has the second highest number of novel coronavirus cases in Latin America after Brazil.   The death toll is now at 4,506, the third highest in the region -- itself the new hotspot of the deadly disease -- after Brazil and Mexico, with President Martin Vizcarra warning the country is only halfway through the crisis.

Infections have jumped in Peru despite a months-long mandatory lockdown and a nigh time curfew and the government ordering international borders to be closed.   The spike is concentrated around the capital Lima, where one third of the population lives, and put tremendous strain on Peru's economy and healthcare system.   Four out of every ten Peruvians lost their source of income when the lockdown began, according to one study, and last week Peru secured a two-year, $11 billion credit line from the International Monetary Fund.

- 'Tremendous challenge' in Chile -
Neighbouring Chile on Sunday reported 57 more fatalities in the past 24 hours, a new record that brings the country's COVID-19 death toll to 1,054.   "We are facing the largest pandemic of the past 100 years," said Deputy Health Minister Paula Daza, as she announced the latest figures.    "It is a tremendous challenge; we are living very difficult times in our country."

In Santiago, where the 80 percent of the virus cases were reported, 96 percent of the emergency room beds were taken, officials said.   Officials reported a sharp increase in cases over the past two weeks.   In early May the government of President Sebastian Pinera said that the number of virus cases had hit a plateau, and lockdown restrictions would be loosened.
Date: Mon, 1 Jun 2020 03:38:38 +0200 (METDST)
By Anna SMOLCHENKO

Moscow, June 1, 2020 (AFP) - Shopping malls and parks are set to reopen in Moscow on Monday as the Russian capital eases coronavirus restrictions despite having the world's third-largest caseload.   The relaxation of the confinement orders in Moscow, the epicentre of Russia's outbreak with a population of more than 12 million, comes after President Vladimir Putin announced the epidemic had passed its peak in the country.

Under lockdown since March 30, residents of Europe's most populous city were until now only allowed to leave their homes for brief trips to shop, walk dogs or travel to essential jobs with a permit.   While Muscovites welcomed the opportunity to return to parks and malls after weeks of being cooped up at home, many ridiculed the Moscow mayor's "experiment" aimed at regulating people's walks and exercise.

As a two-week test measure, Sergei Sobyanin said residents of Moscow will be allowed to take walks according to a staggered schedule based on their home address.   "Regular walks are allowed between 9am and 9pm but no more than three times a week -- twice on weekdays and once on a weekend," said Sobyanin on his blog, adding that a detailed schedule would be released separately.   People can jog or exercise between 5am and 9am but must wear masks, according to the new rules.   Sobyanin said he feared that without limits on walking, people would throng the streets in scenes reminiscent of May Day outpourings in Soviet times.

- 'Sheer lunacy' -
The new regulations unleashed a flood of mockery on social media, with political commentator Alexander Golts calling them "sheer lunacy".   Critics quipped that life in Moscow was beginning to imitate dystopian fiction such as the novels of Aldous Huxley and Yevgeny Zamyatin.

Popular comedian Maxim Galkin, who has nearly eight million followers on Instagram, released a sketch in which Putin and Sobyanin discuss a "breathing schedule" for Moscow residents.   The five-minute parody has been viewed nearly six million times over the past few days.   When the restrictions are relaxed, dry-cleaners, laundry services and repair workshops will be allowed to reopen, while restaurants, cafes and cinemas will remain closed for now.

Moscow authorities also said that no mass gatherings would be allowed during the city-wide quarantine that will remain in place until at least June 14.   On Thursday authorities sentenced prominent reporter and activist Ilya Azar to 15 days in jail for staging a lone protest in central Moscow.   Dozens of his supporters have also been briefly detained over the past few days.   Rights organisations including Amnesty International and the Council of Europe have warned Moscow against using the coronavirus lockdown as a pretext to muzzle activists.

Many critics have also questioned the move to lift the restrictions as Russia reported more than 9,000 new infections on Sunday.   With more than 405,000 confirmed infections and over 4,600 deaths, the country has the world's third-largest caseload after the United States and Brazil.   Analysts say Putin is keen to open up the Russian economy and has recently ordered a World War II victory parade postponed by the contagion to be held on June 24.   The 67-year-old leader is also widely expected to announce a new date for a vote on constitutional reforms that could pave the way for him to potentially stay in power until 2036.
Date: Sun, 31 May 2020 11:16:20 +0200 (METDST)

Mogadishu, May 31, 2020 (AFP) - At least 10 people died and 12 were wounded when an explosive device ripped through a minibus outside the Somali capital Mogadishu on Sunday, the government said.   The deadly explosion occurred near Lafole village along the Afgoye-Mogadishu where the passenger bus was travelling early in the day.   "At least 10 civilians were killed in an explosion at Lafole area this morning, those who died were all civilians," the information ministry said in a statement, adding that the victims were on their way to a funeral.

Witnesses said the minibus was completely destroyed, and described an horrific scene with everyone on board either dead or wounded and many bodies ripped apart or burned beyond recognition.   "This was a horrible incident this morning, the explosive device went off as the bus was passing by the area and destroyed it completely," said Daud Doyow, a witness.   "Bodies of civilians were strewn in pieces and most of the people died," he added.   "There were more than 20 people on board and 10 of them were confirmed dead while the rest are seriously wounded and taken to hospital, this is a horrible scene here," said another witness, Abdirisak Adan.   No group immediately claimed responsibility for the bombing, but Somalia's al Qaeda-aligned Shabaab group carries out regular attacks in and around the capital, often killing civilians.
Date: Wed, 27 May 2020 17:58:12 +0200 (METDST)

Nairobi, May 27, 2020 (AFP) - Kenya said Wednesday it had documented a record 123 cases of coronavirus in the past 24 hours, a "staggering" figure although one also explained in part by wider testing.   "Today, I come to you with sombre news," Health Minister Mutahi Kagwe said.   "Our figures today are staggering. Out of the 3,077 samples tested, we have 123 positive cases. For the first time we have hit a triple digit.    "This is the highest number of positive cases we have ever recorded in a single day since we recorded the first case on March 13."

A total of 1,471 cases of COVID-19 have been recorded in Kenya since the start of the epidemic. Of these, 55 have been fatal.   The tally of infections has doubled since mid-May but the country has also tripled its number of daily tests, from less than 1,000 to nearly 3,000, which has helped unearth more cases.

Kagwe sounded a warning about the vulnerability of crowded slums in the capital Nairobi, which leads the list of new cases followed by the port city of Mombasa.   "There is a raging number of infections in these areas," he said, adding: "No-one should have a false sense of security about their immunity to COVID-19."   Among its anti-coronavirus measures, Kenya has a national 7pm-5am curfew, which is currently in force until June 6, and has a ban on entering or exiting the cities of Nairobi, Mombasa, Kilifi, Kwale and Mandera.
Date: Wed, 27 May 2020 16:38:21 +0200 (METDST)

Nicosia, May 27, 2020 (AFP) - Cyprus hopes to attract tourists after its coronavirus lockdown by paying the medical costs of anyone who tests positive for COVID-19 while holidaying on the island, officials said Wednesday.   The plan was outlined in a letter to tour operators and airlines detailing the measures Cyprus is taking to ensure the safety of its tourism sector.   The letter was made public Wednesday and signed by the ministers of foreign affairs, transport, and tourism.

The Mediterranean island is marketing itself as a safe holiday destination during the global pandemic.   The Republic of Cyprus has reported 939 novel coronavirus cases and only 17 deaths.   The government said it is "committed to taking care of all travellers who test positive during their stay, as well as their families and close contacts".   It pledged to cover accommodation, dining and medical care if a tourist falls ill with the virus.   The "traveller will only need to bear the cost of their airport transfer and repatriation flight," it said.

- 'Quarantine hotels' -
A 100-bed hospital will be available exclusively for tourists who test positive, with more beds available "at very short notice if required".   An additional 112 beds in intensive care units with 200 respirators will be reserved for critically ill patients.   Designated "quarantine hotels" will have 500 rooms available for family members and close contacts of patients.

Other hotels on the island will be allowed to remain open if a guest tests positive, but their room will "undergo a deep clean".   Authorities have forecast a 70 percent decline in tourist arrivals in 2020.    Tourism earned Cyprus EUR2.68 billion ($2.94 bn) in 2019 -- about 15 percent of gross domestic product -- down one percent from the previous year, which was bolstered by a record 3.97 million arrivals.   Cyprus plans to reopen its airports on June 9 to arrivals from 13 countries considered low risk.   These include Israel, Greece, Germany, Austria and Malta but the island's two biggest markets Britain and Russia are not on the approved list.

hose arriving between June 9-19 will need to provide a health certificate proving they do not have the virus.   That requirement will be dropped from June 20, when another six countries will be added to the approved list, including Switzerland and Poland.   Cyprus says it will update the list of approved countries on a weekly basis based on scientific advice.

Officials will administer temperature checks and free random testing of arrivals.   Having tested over 10 percent of its population, Cyprus says it has one of the lowest coronavirus infection rates in Europe.   "Very few countries worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean, can boast about such statistics," the letter said.
Date: Wed, 27 May 2020 14:45:11 +0200 (METDST)

Stockholm, May 27, 2020 (AFP) - Airline SAS said Wednesday it would resume flights on several domestic and international routes in June, over two months after the operator grounded most of its fleet over the new coronavirus' impact on travel.   "This primarily includes domestic flights within and between the Scandinavian countries, but flights to New York, Chicago and Amsterdam from Copenhagen are also set to resume," SAS said in a statement.

The Scandinavian airline announced in mid-March it was halting most of its traffic and furloughing around 90 percent of its staff.   In late April the airline, whose two largest shareholders are the Swedish and Danish states, announced it was laying off about 5,000 people, representing 40 percent of the company's workforce.

In early May the company secured a state-guaranteed credit line of 3.3 billion Swedish kronor ($344 million or 313 million euros) to help it navigate the impact of the new coronavirus.   Even with the resumption of some flights, the airline continues to operate at a reduced capacity, but the added routes means an effective doubling of the aircraft in use from 15 to 30, according to SAS.   Finnair, of Nordic neighbour Finland, announced early last week it would start resuming its long-haul flight to Asia in July.
Date: Wed, 27 May 2020 14:25:21 +0200 (METDST)

Yerevan, May 27, 2020 (AFP) - Virus cases have overwhelmed Armenia's hospitals, officials said Wednesday, raising the prospect that intensive care treatment could be restricted to patients with the best chance of survival.   The tiny Caucasus nation of some three million has so far reported 7,774 coronavirus cases and 98 deaths.   At a cabinet meeting on Wednesday, Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan said "the situation with the coronavirus pandemic is very severe in Armenia."

Health ministry spokeswoman Alina Nikoghosyan told AFP: "if the current situation persists, in the coming days, intensive care will only be available for the patients with the best survival chances."   Health Minister Arsen Torosyan said Sunday that out of the country's 186 intensive care beds for coronavirus patients, only 32 remained empty and would soon be filled.

The prime minister called for stricter enforcement of measures aimed at containing the outbreak such as the wearing of face masks in public spaces.   This comes after the country lifted a state of emergency on May 4 which it had declared in March because of the pandemic.   Pashinyan said his government had failed to enforce anti-virus measures and there had been widespread quarantine violations.   "Our mistake was that we put too much trust in our citizens' sense of responsibility," he said.

Deputy Prime Minister Tigran Avinyan said he did not rule out that the government could have to impose a fresh nationwide lockdown.   Analysts have criticised the government's handling of the crisis, saying a decision to close borders was taken too late and officials sent the public "confusing messages."   "Officials were calling for the wearing of face masks, but they themselves didn't wear them until recently," said analyst Tatul Hakobyan.
Date: Wed, 27 May 2020 09:53:01 +0200 (METDST)

New Delhi, May 27, 2020 (AFP) - India is wilting under a heatwave, with the temperature in places reaching 50 degrees Celsius (122 degrees Fahrenheit) and the capital enduring its hottest May day in nearly two decades.   The hot spell is projected to scorch northern India for several more days, the Meteorological Department said late Tuesday, "with severe heat wave conditions in isolated pockets".   As global temperatures rise, heatwaves are a regular menace in the country -- particularly in May and June. Last year dozens of people died.

Met officials said Churu in the northern state of Rajasthan was the hottest place on record on Tuesday, at 50 Celsius, while parts of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh sweltered in the high 40s.   Parts of the capital, New Delhi, recorded the hottest May day in 18 years with the mercury hitting 47.6 Celsius.   No deaths have been reported so far this year, but last year the government said the heat had killed 3,500 people since 2015. There have been fewer
fatalities in recent years.

The country of 1.3 billion people suffers from severe water shortages with tens of millions lacking running water -- to say nothing of air conditioning.   Parts of Delhi and elsewhere regularly see scuffles when tankers arrive to deliver water. Last year Chennai made international headlines when the southern city ran out of water entirely.   The heatwave adds to problems the country already has dealing with the spread of coronavirus.   India now has the 10th highest number of coronavirus cases globally, climbing above 150,000 on Wednesday with almost 4,500 deaths.

Last week cyclone Amphan killed more than 100 people as it ravaged in eastern India and Bangladesh, flattening villages, destroying farms and leaving millions without power.   Huge swarms of desert locusts, meanwhile, have destroyed nearly 50,000 hectares (125,000 acres) of crops across western and central India, and may enter Delhi in coming days.   The north-eastern states of Assam and Meghalaya are also currently experiencing floods, with more heavy rainfall forecast in the coming days.