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Netherlands

The Netherlands - US Consular Information Sheet
January 04, 2007
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
The Netherlands is a highly developed, stable democracy.
Tourist facilities are available throughout the Kingdom.
Read the Department of State
ackground notes on The Netherlands for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport is required.
Visas are not required for U.S. citizens for tourist visits of up to 90 days.
That period begins when you enter any of the Schengen group of countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden.
To be admitted into the Netherlands, travelers must have a passport with a validity that exceeds their intended stay, a return airline ticket, and enough money to finance the planned stay.
For further information on entry requirements, contact the Embassy of the Netherlands at 4200 Linnean Ave. N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008, telephone (202) 244-5300, or one of the Dutch consulates in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York or Miami.
Additional information is available on the Netherlands' National Bureau for Tourism's Internet web site at http://www.goholland.com.
See our Foreign Entry Requirements brochure for more information on the Netherlands and other countries.
Visit the Embassy of the Netherlands web site at http://www.netherlands-embassy.org/homepage.asp for the most current visa information.
Information on work, residency and immigration requirements in the Netherlands can be found on the web site of the Dutch immigration authorities at www.ind.nl.

Note: Although European Union regulations require that non-EU visitors obtain a stamp in their passport upon initial entry to a Schengen country; many borders are not staffed with officers carrying out this function.
If an American citizen wishes to ensure that his or her entry is properly documented, it may be necessary to request a stamp at an official point of entry.
Under local law, travelers without a stamp in their passport may be questioned and asked to document the length of their stay in Schengen countries at the time of departure or at any other point during their visit, and could face possible fines or other repercussions if unable to do so.

See Entry and Exit Requirements for more information pertaining to dual nationality and the prevention of international child abduction.
Please refer to our Customs Information to learn more about customs regulations.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
In 2004, the Dutch government implemented heightened security measures in response to concerns of international Islamic extremist terrorist activity on Dutch soil.
The November 2004 murder of Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh by an Islamic extremist in Amsterdam further increased concerns over Islamic extremist activity in the Netherlands.
One individual was arrested and later sentenced to life in prison for van Gogh's murder and related Islamic extremist activities.
Since the murder, the Dutch government has remained on heightened alert.

U.S. citizens in the Netherlands are encouraged to monitor media reports, and are reminded to maintain a high level of vigilance and to take appropriate steps to increase their security awareness.
As with other countries in the Schengen area, the Netherlands' open borders with its European neighbors allow the possibility of terrorist groups entering/exiting the country with anonymity.
Demonstrations are commonplace in the Netherlands and may range in number from a few people to several thousand.
Prior police approval is required for public demonstrations, and police oversight is routinely provided.
Nonetheless, situations may develop which could pose a threat to public safety.
U.S. citizens are advised to avoid areas in which public demonstrations are taking place.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department's Internet web site where the current Travel Warnings and Public Announcements, including the Worldwide Caution Public Announcement, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S., or, for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State's pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME:
While the rate of violent crime in the Netherlands is low, tourists are often targets of thieves.
Visitors frequently fall prey to pickpockets, bag snatchers and other petty burglars.
Theft from automobiles and hotel rooms are also on the rise.
Never leave baggage or other valuables unattended.

While thieves may operate anywhere, the U.S. Consulate General in Amsterdam receives frequent reports of thefts from specific areas.
Within Amsterdam, thieves are very active in and around train and tram stations, the city center and public transport.
More specifically, trains to and from Schiphol Airport are considered to be high risk, and theft of laptop computers has increased.
Thieves often work in pairs; one distracts the victim, often by asking for directions, while the accomplice moves in on the victim's momentarily unguarded handbag, backpack, laptop or briefcase.
The timing of these thefts usually coincides with train stops, enabling the thieves to escape.
In addition, many Americans have reported that their purses and briefcases have been stolen while eating in downtown restaurants, including hotel breakfast rooms.
A good rule of thumb is to never leave your personal items unattended when going to the restroom, buffet table, etc.

Confidence artists have victimized a number of Americans.
Typically, a U.S. citizen is notified via email of a winning lottery ticket, an inheritance, or other offer, which requires his/her assistance and cooperation to conclude.
The American is asked to forward advance payments for alleged"official expenses," "taxes," etc. and, often, to come to Amsterdam to conclude the operation.
Several Americans have lost tens of thousands of dollars in such scams.
Funds transferred in response to such offers cannot be recovered.
Information on fraud schemes can be found on the U.S. Embassy's web page.
For additional information, please contact the nearest office of the U.S. Secret Service or visit that agency's web site at www.secretservice.gov.
Additional information is also provided in the Department of State's pamphlet, Advance Fee Business Scams.
Travelers may also contact the Fraud Unit, Amsterdam Police, Police Headquarters, PB 2287, 1000 CG Amsterdam, Netherlands, tel. (31) (20) 559-2380, fax (31) (20) 559-5755.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
In the Netherlands, the U.S. Consulate General in Amsterdam provides all passport and American citizen services.
A lost or stolen passport can usually be replaced within a few hours during normal working hours for those with immediate travel plans.
If you are the victim of a crime while in the Netherlands, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the U.S. Consulate General for assistance.
It is a good idea to make a photocopy of the "biographic page" of your passport, to bring extra passport photos, and to keep these separate from your actual passport just in case it is lost or stolen.
Consulate staff can, for example, help you find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.
Contact information is provided at the bottom of this document.

The Criminal Injuries Compensation Fund (CICF) of the Netherlands provides financial compensation, under specific circumstances, for victims of crime and for those who have suffered injuries and consequent loss caused by such incidents.
The fund also provides for dependents or immediate family members of homicide victims.
For more information, contact the Dutch Ministry of Justice at (31) (70) 414-2000.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Good medical facilities are widely available.
Emergency medical response can be accessed by calling 1-1-2.
Reputable pharmacies are widely available and can assist with emergency prescription needs.
Some common medications are not available in the Netherlands without a prescription, and some prescription drugs cannot be mailed into the country.
Travelers are therefore urged to carry an adequate supply of prescription drugs in their original container while traveling.
Some U.S. over-the-counter medications are not available in the Netherlands and travelers should carry an adequate supply of these as well.
Those traveling with any preexisting medical problems should bring a letter from the attending physician, describing the medical condition and any prescription medications, including the generic name of prescribed drugs.

Vaccinations are not required for travel to the Netherlands.
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC's Internet site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's (WHO) website at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Medical evacuations cost thousands of dollars and are not always covered by travel insurance.
Foreign doctors and hospitals usually require payment at the time service is rendered, and this too may not be covered by a traveler's policy.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning the Netherlands is provided for general reference only, and it may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance:

Travel in, around, and between cities is possible via a highly advanced national train, light rail, tram, and bus network, by use of an extensive system of bike paths, and by automobile and motorcycle on the modern highway system.
Rail is often a convenient alternative to driving, particularly in the areas around Amsterdam, The Hague, and Rotterdam, where road congestion is frequent.
Rail network information is available at http://www.ns.nl.

Intercity travel by road is relatively safe in comparison with some other European countries.
Nonetheless, more than 1,000 people die and another 10,000 are injured in traffic accidents in the Netherlands each year.
More than two thirds of the fatal accidents occur outside urban areas.

A valid driver's license issued by a Department of Motor Vehicles in the U.S. is valid for use in the Netherlands for up to 180 days.
Seat belt and child seat use is compulsory.
Driving is on the right side of the road.
The maximum speed limit on highways is 120 km/h, with a highway speed limit of 100 km/h posted in most urban areas.
Secondary roads and some urban area highways have a speed limit of 80 km/h.
The speed limit in towns and cities is 50 km/h, with 30 km/h posted in residential areas.
The Dutch government has reduced speed limits on certain roads near cities in an effort to reduce air pollution.
During traffic jams, authorities also reduce speed limits; drivers should be sure to check for revised limits posted on electronic billboards above the highways.
Please note that drivers must yield the right-of-way to drivers and bikers coming from the right at intersections or traffic circles, unless otherwise posted.
The maximum allowable blood alcohol level in the Netherlands is 0.5 per mille.
The use of cellular telephones while driving is illegal without the use of a "hands-free" device.

Lanes at the center of many urban two-way streets are reserved for buses, trams and taxis.
In cities, pedestrians should be mindful of trams, which often cross or share bicycle and pedestrian paths.
Motorists must be especially mindful of the priority rights of bicyclists.
Pedestrians should not walk along bicycle paths, which are often on the sidewalk and usually designated by red pavement.
Travelers should also be watchful for one-way roads.

Taxi service in the Netherlands is safe but expensive.
Trams and buses are both convenient and economical, but often frequented by pickpockets.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
Visit the website of the Netherlands Bureau for Tourism at http://www.goholland.com.
Information also is available from the Netherlands Ministry of Transportation, Public Works and Water Management (Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstraat) at http://www.minvenw.nl.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of the Netherlands' Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of the Netherlands' air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA's website at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Dutch customs authorities stringently enforce regulations concerning importation into the Netherlands of items such as firearms and other controlled materials.
Contact the Embassy of the Netherlands in Washington, D.C., or one of the Dutch consulates in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles or New York for specific information regarding customs requirements.
Please see our Customs Information sheet.

Everyone age 14 and above is required to carry identification at all times while in the Netherlands.
Accepted forms of identification for U.S. citizens are either a Dutch residence card, issued by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, or a U.S. passport.

U.S. citizens who obtain Dutch nationality may be required by the Dutch authorities to relinquish their U.S. citizenship.
For further information visit http://www.ind.nl/EN/verblijfwijzer/ and/or http://netherlands.usembassy.gov/dual_nationality.html.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Dutch laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use or trafficking in illegal drugs in the Netherlands are strict and convicted offenders can expect jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in illicit sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children's Issues website.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in the Netherlands are encouraged to register with the U.S. Consulate General through the State Department's travel registration website, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within the Netherlands.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the U.S. Consulate General in Amsterdam.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency and to provide periodic information on issues of interest to American citizens.

The U.S. Embassy is located in The Hague, at Lange Voorhout 102; tel. (31) (70) 310-2209.
However, all requests for consular assistance should be directed to the Consulate General in Amsterdam at Museumplein 19, tel. (31) (20) 575-5309.
The after-hours emergency telephone number is (31) (70) 310-2209.
The U.S. Embassy and Consulate General web site at http://netherlands.usembassy.gov/ answers many questions of interest to Americans visiting or residing in the Netherlands.
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This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated June 28, 2006, to update the sections on Safety and Security and Aviation Safety Oversight.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Tue, 25 Jun 2019 15:49:33 +0200

The Hague, June 25, 2019 (AFP) - Dutch health authorities said Tuesday they are dealing with a measles outbreak in a devout Protestant fishing village where vaccination rates are among the lowest in the country.   Nine children and one adult have been diagnosed with the disease in the village of Urk, part of the so-called "Bible Belt" in the northern Netherlands, the Flevoland province health service said.

The health service said it was "actively monitoring the situation" and examining whether it was necessary to vaccinate or administer antibodies to people who have been in contact with the infected patients.   "In 2013 and previously, the disease occurred more often on Urk. Many people on Urk have experienced this disease and that means that a natural defence has built up," it said.   Only 61.1 percent of people are vaccinated against measles in Urk, one of the lowest rates in the Netherlands, where the national average is 92.9 percent, according to the National Public Health and Environment Institute.

Urk is regarded as one of the most devout of the villages in the "Bible Belt" of conservative Protestant communities running from Zeeland in the south of the Netherlands across the country to the north west.   Ninety-four percent of people in Urk regularly go to church, according to the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics, compared to one in six of all Dutch people.

Dutch newspaper De Telegraaf said that in this devout community of Urk people believe that life and death are in God's hands, and so vaccinations are not permitted.   Urk is considered a "closed' community because of its fisheries culture and Protestant orthodox religion," a European Commission report from 2010 said.

The UN warned in April of a global resurgence of measles -- a highly contagious viral infection that can prove fatal -- amid a growing "anti-vax" movement worldwide.   The WHO says cases of the once all-but-eradicated disease surged 300 percent in 2018 across the globe.   The anti-vax phenomenon has adherents across Western countries but especially in the United States, where it has been fuelled by the spread on social media of claims that the jab could cause autism, which medical officials have found are baseless.
Date: Tue, 28 May 2019 11:27:14 +0200

The Hague, May 28, 2019 (AFP) - A strike by public transport workers in the Netherlands forced the cancellation of dozens of flights at the country's main airport on Tuesday as passengers faced difficulties reaching the airport.   "Several airlines cancelled their flights," said Willemeike Koster, spokeswoman of Amsterdam's Schiphol airport.

Dutch carrier KLM, along with budget airlines Ryanair and EasyJet, were among the airlines cancelling some 80 flights overall. Several other flights were delayed.   "It's busy on the roads to the airport due to the strike because there is very limited train traffic between Schiphol and Amsterdam," she said. "There are four trains per hour today instead of the usual 25."

Once passengers reach the airport, services are functioning normally, she added.   Dutch trade unions called the strike to secure better pension benefits and to call for the country's retirement age to be fixed at 66 years.   The FNV, the largest trade union in the Netherlands, also plans for brief strike actions among security and cleaning staff at Schiphol airport on Wednesday.
Date: Sun, 26 May 2019 18:19:48 +0200

The Hague, May 26, 2019 (AFP) - A Dutch judge Sunday ruled against plans by the country's largest trade union to allow train drivers serving Amsterdam's busy Schiphol airport to join a country-wide strike.   Thousands of bus, train and tram drivers are expected strike on Tuesday in
protest at government plans to raise the retirement age from 66 and to demand higher pension payments.

"Our right to call a 24-hour strike remains, with the exception of a limited number of trains running to and from Schiphol," the FNV union said in a statement.   "There will be four trains an hour between Schiphol and Amsterdam Central station... in order to guarantee public order at the airport," the FNV said.   Last year, Schiphol was Europe's third-busiest airport with 71.5 million passengers, behind London Heathrow and Paris-Charles de Gaulle, according to figures by the Airports Council International Europe (ACI).   Apart from being the gateway to Amsterdam, Schiphol is also a major transit hub for flights from all around the globe.

The decision by the judge comes after negotiations between Schiphol Airport's management and the FNV broke down earlier on Sunday "despite intensive talks," the FNV said.   Schiphol, in a statement, warned of "traffic congestion, limited train access and no buses" during Tuesday's strike.   "If you're travelling to or from Schiphol Airport on 28 May, please note that travelling by train is limited and trains and stations will be crowded," the airport said.   Although no figures re available, FNV spokeswoman Mariette van Dijk told AFP that "thousands of bus, train and tram drivers, as well as ferry boat captains" were expected to join the strike.

Tuesday's day-long strike follows similar industrial action in March, when public transport was shut down for 66 minutes -- symbolic of the current retirement age.   But the government led by business-friendly Dutch Prime Minister Mark Rutte's Liberal VVD party accelerated plans to increase the retirement age to 67 years in 2021 and 67 years and three months in 2022.   "People are healthier and they live longer," the Dutch government said on its pensions website.   "The higher life expectancy makes working for longer and a gradual increase in the state pension age possible," the Dutch government said.
Date: Tue 2 Apr 2019
Source: Dutch News.nl [abridged, edited]

Three children at a creche in The Hague have come down with measles, and a 4th child may have the disease, public broadcaster NOS reports. The children involved had not been vaccinated, and one of them may have caught the disease when on holiday, the broadcaster said. One of the children is over the age of 14 months, when it should have been vaccinated against the disease, but the others are younger.

The children in The Hague bring the total measles cases in the Netherlands to 12 so far this year [2019], compared with an average annual infection rate of 10-20.

The RIVM public health institute said that at the moment no link can be made between The Hague cases and the drop in the number of children being vaccinated in the Netherlands. Currently, 90.2% of Dutch children are vaccinated against potentially serious illnesses such as measles, polio, and whooping cough. This is below the level of 95% the World Health Organisation considers safe.

Vaccine uptake has been declining, prompting a government information campaign, while daycare centres have been demanding the right to refuse children who have not been vaccinated. At the moment this is not yet legally possible.

The last measles epidemic in the Netherlands hit the Dutch Bible belt in 2013. In total, 2600 people were diagnosed with measles, and the outbreak was concentrated in families with young children who had not been vaccinated for religious reasons. One girl, who had not been vaccinated, died.
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[HealthMap/ProMED map of Netherlands:
Date: Sun, 10 Mar 2019 20:42:44 +0100

Amsterdam, March 10, 2019 (AFP) - Tens of thousands of people marched through the heavy rain in Amsterdam Sunday, calling on the Dutch government to act to counter the effects of climate change.   The organisers, including Greenpeace and a number of Dutch groups, said around 40,000 turned out for the demonstration, the first of its kind in the Netherlands.   "The high turnout is the proof that people now want a decisive policy on climate from the government," they said in a statement.

The Netherlands is particularly vulnerable to the consequences of climate change, as part of the country lies below sea level and some of its land has been reclaimed from the sea.   "We are under sea level, so we really need to do something about it," said one demonstrator, Esther Leverstein, a 21-yer-old climate studies student at Amsterdam University.   "We're great with water (management) but we need to step up our game."

Gert van Rees, a 72-year-old pensioner, said she was concerned for future generations.   "We have seven grand-children and sometimes we are really worried. So that's why we are here, it really should change."   In February, around 15,000 school students skipped school to march for action on climate change, following the example of their fellow students across the border in Belgium.   A second youth march for the climate is scheduled for Thursday in Amsterdam.
More ...

World Travel News Headlines

Date: Wed, 26 Jun 2019 15:37:17 +0200
By Julie Pacorel

Marseille, June 26, 2019 (AFP) - France's second city and key tourist hub Marseille has enforced temporary swimming bans on several beaches amid pollution concerns, disappointing locals and tourists hoping to take a dip as temperatures soar.   Seven of the city's 21 beaches have raised a purple flag -- which means no bathing -- since the start of the month, on days when hygiene inspections revealed high levels of faecal matter.   Marseille is a tourist hotspot, attracting five million visitors per year thanks to its Mediterranean coastline and sun-kissed climate.

But the city, France's largest port, struggles with pollution from industry and shipping.   "It's mostly caused by sanitation problems, but there are also increasing numbers of boats spewing out their grey and black waste before they enter the port," said Sarah Hatimi, head of the water quality programme at Surfrider Foundation Europe environmental group.   Swimming bans are nothing new in Marseille. Last year, authorities enforced 153 bans amid fears of a pollution spike after heavy rainfall.   "This year, we can't say it's because of the rain," Monique Daubet, local councillor responsible for public health, said, adding that spillages from swimming pools and "lots of animal faeces" are part of the problem.   But the city is "proactive", she said, going "even further" than weekly water inspections imposed by a European law to "pay for our own analysis to protect swimmers".

Every morning, inspectors take water samples from each of the city's beaches to test for E. coli and enterococci bacteria, which indicate human or animal defecation.   A laboratory can reveal test results the same morning, whereas the previous weekly tests "arrived far too late, two or three days later," Daubet said.   Despite efforts, Marseille authorities aren't hopeful they can secure a "blue flag" stamp of approval for beach hygiene.   "Our water quality doesn't meet the criteria, which includes, for example, keeping bins at least 100 metres away from the beach".   "Nobody is forcing us to do this," she said. "Rather than complaining, people should be grateful we're closing the beaches!"
Date: Wed, 26 Jun 2019 10:37:11 +0200
By Elizabeth Vuvu

Kokopo, Papua New Guinea, June 26, 2019 (AFP) - Papua New Guinea's volatile Ulawun volcano -- designated one of the world's most hazardous -- erupted Wednesday, spewing lava high in the air and sending residents fleeing.   A pilot for Niugini Helicopters flying near the crater witnessed a column of lava spurting vertically into the equatorial sky, along with ash that has been belching since early morning.   Ulawun, on the remote Bismarck Archipelago chain, is listed as one of 16 "Decade Volcanoes" targeted for research because they pose a significant risk of large, violent eruptions.   Witnesses said lava had cut off the main highway in north of the island.   "The volcanic activity at Mt Ulawun began at 7:00 am this morning after slight rumbling and light emission," Leo Porikura, an official with the West New Britain Disaster Office, told AFP earlier.   "The Rabaul Volcano Observatory has declared a stage one alert warning of a possible eruption."

Witnesses had reported ash spewing out of the 2,334 metre (7,657 foot) summit, sending trails spanning high overhead.    "The sky has turned black," said Kingsly Quou, manager of the nearby Mavo Estates palm plantation.   Quou said that villagers living at the base of the volcano had already been evacuated and he and his colleagues were gathering their belongings.   Japanese satellite imagery and sources on the ground had shown sulphur dioxide and now volcanic ash drifting from the crater.   Australia's Bureau of Meteorology said the ash reached more than 13 kilometres (44,000 feet) into the air.   The bureau's Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre issued a "red" warning to airlines, indicating the eruption was imminent, although there is not believed to be an immediate threat for flight routes.   Thousands of people live in the shadow of Ulawun, despite it being one of the most active volcanoes in the country.

Porikura said people living in the vicinity of the volcano had been instructed to move away to safer areas and a disaster team had been dispatched.   "The disaster team will liaise with the local community, local businesses and local level government authorities to prepare for a possible eruption," he said.   "Three crucial priority areas being addressed include transport plan, care centre preparations and getting the communities in the high-risk areas to prepare for an evacuation," Porikura said.   The nearby Rabaul Volcano Observatory said emissions from the volcano were getting darker, indicating a higher ash content -- which can cause breathing problems, eye irritation and skin irritation because of the high acid content.   A team of experts had visited earlier this month and reported the volcano was "quiet" adding "there is no indication of any change in its state of unrest."   The ash emissions had been proceeded by an increase in seismic activity, Porikura said.
Date: Wed, 26 Jun 2019 10:01:43 +0200

San José, June 26, 2019 (AFP) - A 6.2 magnitude earthquake hit the Panama-Costa Rica border around midnight on Tuesday, the US Geological Survey said, revising earlier warnings of "significant damage", as the tremor cut power supplies near the epicentre.   The quake struck at a depth of 26 kilometres (16 miles), about two kilometres from the nearest town of Progreso in Panama, USGS said, updating a previous alert that estimated the depth at 10 kilometres.

There were no immediate reports of casualties, and USGS said "the impact should be relatively localized", reversing an earlier advisory that "past events with this alert level have required a regional or national level response."   "Estimated economic losses are less than 1 percent of GDP of Panama," the website said.   According to the National Seismological Network (RSN) in Costa Rica, the quake struck at 0523 GMT Wednesday (11.23 pm Tuesday) with its epicentre located 11 kilometres east of the Panamanian border town of Puerto Armuelles.

The tremor was felt in Costa Rica's capital San Jose and in many parts of the Central American country, according to initial reports, but the national tsunami warning system said there was no risk of a tsunami.   Villagers in the south of Costa Rica fled their homes, fearing aftershocks. Two houses in the region were damaged by the quake, said Alexander Solis, president of the country's National Emergency Commission.

Costa Rica's President Carlos Alvarado said there were power cuts in several communities in the southwest of the country, near the epicentre.   In November 2017 a 6.5-magnitude quake on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica caused buildings to sway in San Jose and contributed to the deaths of two people who had heart attacks.   Further north, two months earlier a 7.1-magnitude earthquake killed more than 300 people in Mexico.
Date: Wed, 26 Jun 2019 03:43:29 +0200
By Béatrice DEBUT

eMalahleni, South Africa, June 26, 2019 (AFP) - Tumelo has again lost several days at school because of sickness.   "My eyes are burning. Sometimes I can't breathe," she coughs.   "The doc said there is nothing we can do," says her mother Nono Ledwaba. "We need to take her out of eMalahleni. When she goes to her grandma in Mafikeng, the symptoms disappear."

The 14-year-old lives in house number 3094 of eMpumelelweni township in eMalahleni, part of the Highveld region turned over to mines and power plants that, according to activists, are killing local people.   Her neighbour in 3095, Lifa Pelican, has similar symptoms, which badly set back his schooling. At 25, he never moves without his inhaler, even inside his chilly home with rough-hewn walls.   "If I don't have it with me, sometimes I can't breathe. Sometimes I feel I am going to die," he says.   "These mines get a lot of money and we suffer. There's solar power. We don't need to use these coal plants."   Green energy such as solar and wind power account for less than two percent of electricity production in South Africa, while coal still provides 86 percent.

Lifa's breathing troubles began after he moved to eMalahleni, at the mercy of gritty coal dust and thick whitish smoke of electricity power stations burning fuel day and night.   Relief comes when he visits his father in Nelspruit, about 200 kilometres (125 miles) away, trips that feel like a new lease on life. "I don't use the inhaler."   Tumelo's own troubles began when the family moved to eMalahleni in 2007, when she was a toddler.   The trips to Mafikeng are literally a breath of fresh air -- her grandmother's home is 400 kms from the mines.   "The only solution is to close down the plants, but will this happen?" Ledwaba asks.   eMalahleni, which means "the place of coal", is among the worst places in the world for pollution by nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide, according to Greenpeace.

- 'Deadly pollution levels' -
South Africa, like many developing countries, has placed a heavy bet on coal for its development -- a fuel that is plentiful, cheap and locally-sourced.   But campaign groups say health and climate costs are high.   Two environmental non-governmental organisations, groundWork and Vukani, say they have identified the top culprits.   They include 12 coal-burning power stations run by state-owned Eskom along with a plant for liquefying coal and an oil refinery.   Pollution from these sites was responsible for between 305 and 650 premature deaths in 2016, say the two NGOs.   They have initiated a suit against the government for "violation of the constitutional right to clean air" -- a legal first in South Africa, the leading industrial power on the continent.

The NGOs contend that the government has failed to reduce deadly pollution levels in the area, just an hour and a half's drive from Johannesburg.   "It has evolved into a public health crisis," says Tim Lloyd, lawyer for groundWork and Vukani.   "The cost of the air pollution to our economy each year is around 35 billion rand (1.8 billion euros, $2 billion)."   In response to the accusations, an environment ministry spokesman told AFP that SO2 (sulphur dioxide) emissions have "shown improvements across all the five monitoring stations" in the worst-affected region of the Highveld.   Criticism by environmental groups "fails to recognise these improvements', the ministry stated, declining to give further details about the data.   "The reality is that the desired improvements will not happen over a short period of time," it said.   Eskom admitted the area's pollution problem "requires urgent attention", adding that domestic coal burning, traffic and mining dust were also to blame.

- 'The life of my kids' -
"When people from other provinces come, they start getting sick with respiratory issues," says Alexis Mashifane, a doctor with a busy practice in Middelberg, 30 kms from eMalahleni.   "When they leave this area, some of them get better."   But many have no choice, saying they are stuck in the toxic region for economic reasons.   "I wish to move away because this place is not right," says Mbali Mathebula, a single mother who is raising a small daughter and a baby girl, both suffering from asthma. "I don't have money to buy a house".

In Mathebula's home at the foot of the Schonland coal mine, five-year-old Princess plays with the useless mask given to her mother at hospital.   Mathebula, a supermarket employee, could not afford a 70-euro ($80) oxygen machine to attach to the mask.   If a child has an asthma attack in the night, Mathebula says she has to wait until the morning and then go to hospital. "Sometimes I don't have money to go there. I must borrow."   Her neighbour Cebile Faith Mkhwanazi has to cope with her three-year-old daughter's asthma attacks.   "I'm thinking of taking them to my mother," she adds, broken-hearted. "So that they stay there forever for their health."
Date: Tue, 25 Jun 2019 17:57:30 +0200
By Clare BYRNE

Paris, June 25, 2019 (AFP) - As Europe sizzled Tuesday at the start of a heatwave tipped to break records, drivers on Germany's famously speedy motorways were ordered to slow down and fans at the women's World Cup were showered in health warnings.

Meteorologists blamed a blast of torrid air from the Sahara for the unusually early summer heatwave, which could send thermometers above 40 degrees Celsius (104 Fahrenheit) in some places on Thursday and Friday.   Experts say such heatwaves early in the summer are likely to be more frequent as the planet heats up -- a phenomenon that scientists have shown to be driven by human use of fossil fuels.

In Germany, where forecasters have warned a June record of 38.5 degrees could be smashed, speed restrictions were placed on some stretches of "autobahns" as the unusually warm weather raised the risks of "blow-ups" -- the hot tarmac breaking up and shredding tyres.   A forest fire was raging north of Cottbus, the second-largest city in Brandenburg state, in an area that was just recovering from a fire in 2018.   It was deemed especially dangerous due to the risk of unexploded ammunition left in the area, which is home to a military training facility.

- 'Hell is coming' -
In Spain, TV weather presenter Silvia Laplana riffed on the doom-filled catchphrase "Winter is coming" from the blockbuster series Game of Thrones to describe what lay in store for the country.   "El infierno (hell) is coming," she tweeted alongside a weather map which showed most of the country coloured scarlet later in the week.   "Of course it's hot in summer but when you have a heatwave that is so extensive and intense, during which records are forecast to be beaten, it's NOT normal," she tweeted.   Temperatures are expected to be particularly sweltering in the northeast of Spain, with a stifling 45 degrees expected Friday in the city of Girona, and 44 degrees in Zaragoza at the weekend.   Five northern provinces were placed on an orange high alert for a heatwave on Wednesday, with another five to be added by the weekend.

- 'Overdoing' the warnings? -
Authorities were also taking no chances in France, where a heatwave in August 2003 was blamed for 15,000 deaths, many of them elderly people who were left to fend for themselves.   In a highly unusual move, Education Minister Jean-Michel Blanquer on Monday postponed national school exams to next week. Paris authorities have banned older models of diesel and petrol cars from Paris on Wednesday, fearing a build-up of pollution.   Health Minister Agnes Buzyn denied the government was being excessively vigilant.   "For all those who know (the risks), obviously it's too much, but if I can avoid unnecessary deaths, I will continue to communicate about prevention," Buzyn told LCI television, referring to the warnings on radio, TV and public transport.

The Red Cross meanwhile urged people to check on vulnerable neighbours, relatives and friends, saying the "coming days will be challenging for a lot of people, but especially older people, young children, and people with underlying illnesses or limited mobility."   Players and spectators at the women's football World Cup taking place in cities around France were also being inundated with messages about keeping hydrated.   In a rare gesture by FIFA on Monday evening, fans were allowed to bring their own bottles of water into the Paris stadium where Sweden took on Canada.   Phil Neville, the England coach, was sanguine about the impact of the weather on the tournament, however.   "There's no excuse, the players are ready for it."

Meanwhile, French beekeepers and farming groups said they were bracing for a "catastrophic" honey harvest this year after frost damage in winter, an unusually rainy spring, and, now, unusually high temperatures.   "In the hives, there is nothing to eat, beekeepers are having to feed them with syrup because they risk dying from hunger," added the union, which represents many small farms in honey-producing regions.   In the Baltic region of northeast Europe, crowds have flocked to lakes and rivers to cool down, leading to a spike in drownings.    Twenty-seven people were reporte to have drowned so far in Lithuania where the temperature soared to an unusual high of 35.7 degrees Celsius.
Date: Tue, 25 Jun 2019 15:49:33 +0200

The Hague, June 25, 2019 (AFP) - Dutch health authorities said Tuesday they are dealing with a measles outbreak in a devout Protestant fishing village where vaccination rates are among the lowest in the country.   Nine children and one adult have been diagnosed with the disease in the village of Urk, part of the so-called "Bible Belt" in the northern Netherlands, the Flevoland province health service said.

The health service said it was "actively monitoring the situation" and examining whether it was necessary to vaccinate or administer antibodies to people who have been in contact with the infected patients.   "In 2013 and previously, the disease occurred more often on Urk. Many people on Urk have experienced this disease and that means that a natural defence has built up," it said.   Only 61.1 percent of people are vaccinated against measles in Urk, one of the lowest rates in the Netherlands, where the national average is 92.9 percent, according to the National Public Health and Environment Institute.

Urk is regarded as one of the most devout of the villages in the "Bible Belt" of conservative Protestant communities running from Zeeland in the south of the Netherlands across the country to the north west.   Ninety-four percent of people in Urk regularly go to church, according to the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics, compared to one in six of all Dutch people.

Dutch newspaper De Telegraaf said that in this devout community of Urk people believe that life and death are in God's hands, and so vaccinations are not permitted.   Urk is considered a "closed' community because of its fisheries culture and Protestant orthodox religion," a European Commission report from 2010 said.

The UN warned in April of a global resurgence of measles -- a highly contagious viral infection that can prove fatal -- amid a growing "anti-vax" movement worldwide.   The WHO says cases of the once all-but-eradicated disease surged 300 percent in 2018 across the globe.   The anti-vax phenomenon has adherents across Western countries but especially in the United States, where it has been fuelled by the spread on social media of claims that the jab could cause autism, which medical officials have found are baseless.
Date: Thu 13 Jun 2019
Source: I Am Expat [edited]
<https://www.iamexpat.de/expat-info/german-expat-news/giant-tropical-ticks-overwinter-germany-first-time>

Normally, the tropical tick species _Hyalomma [marginatum_] only arrives in Germany with the 1st wave of migratory birds. However, experts believe that this year [2019] the disease-carrying giant ticks have spent the winter here for the 1st time ever. The tropical tick species _Hyalomma_ is not native to Germany and was detected in the federal republic for the 1st time in 2017. The ticks only began to appear in large numbers last year [2018], when a total of 19 specimens were found in 8 of Germany's federal states.

This year [2019], however, discoveries of the ticks were reported unusually early, leading researchers at the University of Hohenheim in Stuttgart and the Munich Institute for Microbiology to conclude that the newly-arrived tropical tick species overwintered in Germany for the 1st time this year [2019]. Over the past few days, 6 of the spidery ticks have been discovered in Germany: 5 on a horse farm in the Lower Rhine and one on a horse in Lower Saxony. "After the 1st evidence of this year [2019], we must assume that these animals can winter in Germany," said Ute Mackenstedt, a parasitologist at the University of Hohenheim.

Accordingly, the ticks are "a significant step further towards establishing themselves here." The _Hyalomma_ tick is native to the dry and semi-arid areas of Africa, Asia, and southern Europe. It is distinctive for its long, spidery, striped legs and large body, and can grow up to 2 centimetres [about 0.8 in] in length, 2-3 times larger than their closest European relatives. Usually, the adult _Hyalomma_ ticks stick to sucking the blood of large animals, but they have been known to transfer themselves to human hosts too.

The major factor that distinguishes them from Germany's native tick population is the fact that they are able to actively sense, track, and hunt their warm-blooded hosts over dozens of meters. _Hyalomma_ ticks are also considered a major carrier of a dangerous virus that can cause Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever -- the most widespread viral disease carried by ticks. Currently, there is no vaccine for this, and 10 to 40 percent of cases are fatal.

However, at the moment there is no cause for alarm: none of the tick specimens that were discovered last year [2018] were found to be carrying infectious agents. The size of the ticks means that they are also easier for humans to detect and remove. Moreover, the early appearance of the ticks does not necessarily mean that they have already become native to [established in] Germany. For a significant population to develop, males and females would have to find each other. That can be a tall order when the population is still relatively small. Even if they did find each other, the unhatched larvae would have to rely on an animal host, such as a bird or hare, to develop. [Byline: Aby Carter]
========================
[Although there may not be immediate concern about _Hyalomma marginatum_ ticks posing a human or animal health danger in Germany, if they have truly become established there and their numbers increase, there is a risk of transmission of pathogens such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, as occurred in Spain, or spotted fever rickettsia such as _Rickettsia aeschlimannii_ that has been found in these ticks in Germany.

The only documented _Hyalomma_ spp. tick in Germany was found on a human in the southern part of the country (Lake Constance area) in May 2006, but the possibility of tick transportation from Spain was not ruled out (1,2). The authors state that it is reasonable to suggest that the _Hyalomma_ spp. ticks that were examined had been transported by the birds from Africa.

The fact that a randomly caught bird was infested with _R. aeschlimannii_­-infected ticks is suggestive of the intensive stream of new pathogens transported through Europe by migrating birds

References
----------
1. Rumer L, Graser E, Hillebrand T, et al. _Rickettsia aeschlimannii_ in _Hyalomma marginatum_ ticks, Germany [letter]. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011; 17(2): 325-6; <https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1702.100308>.
2. Kampen H, Poltz W, Hartelt K, et al. Detection of a questing _Hyalomma marginatum marginatum_ adult female (Acari, Ixodidae) in southern Germany. Exp Appl Acarol. 2007; 43(3): 227-31 <https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-007-9113-y>.

A map of the known distribution of _Hyalomma marginatum_ as of 2018 can be accessed at
<https://ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/hyalomma-marginatum-current-known-distribution-january-2018>.

An image of _Hyalomma marginatum_ can be accessed at the source URL above. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Germany:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/101>]
Date: Mon 24 Jun 2019
Source: ABC News [edited]

India's Supreme Court on Mon 24 Jun 2019 directed state and national authorities to file reports to the court on an encephalitis outbreak in the eastern state of Bihar this month [June 2019] in which 152 children have died.

A senior health department official in Bihar, Sanjay Kumar, said the epidemic is showing signs of slowing with no new deaths on Monday [24 Jun 2019]. The fatalities have occurred in 20 of the state's 38 districts.

The outbreak has been exacerbated by a heatwave, with temperatures in Patna, Bihar's capital, reaching a high of 45.8 C (114.5 F).

"We're hoping with the onset of the monsoon, the epidemic will ease further," Kumar said.

More than 700 cases of encephalitis have been registered since the outbreak began on 1 Jun [2019], officials said. Young children are particularly vulnerable to the illness, which can cause swelling of the brain, fever, and vomiting.

The Supreme Court was responding to a petition filed by a lawyer. "The deaths of children are a direct result of negligence and inaction" on part of authorities, said Manohar Pratap, the petitioner.

The court expressed concern over the deaths and asked the governments to respond within 7 days with details on medical facilities, nutrition, sanitation and hygiene conditions in the state.

Thousands of Indians suffer from encephalitis, malaria, typhoid and other mosquito-borne diseases each year during the summer monsoon season.

India's central government has sent medical experts to Bihar to help doctors treat the patients.

The Bihar authorities have been sharply criticized because patients were sharing beds in crowded hospital wards with too few doctors. The families who could afford it transferred their children to private hospitals in Patna and other larger cities.

The Press Trust of India news agency on Mon 24 Jun 2019 reported that about 6000 deaths from encephalitis occurred in India between 2008 and 2014.
======================
[The number of cases has increased rapidly from 142 on 22 Jun 2019, to 152 in 2 days in the report above. However, the number of fatal cases reported last week varied widely, from 142 to 1349 (see Japanese encephalitis & other - India (07): (BR) http://promedmail.org/post/20190623.6534477).

One hopes that the assessment of the situation as slowing is accurate. There is no indication in the above report of the etiological agent(s) involved in these cases. Japanese encephalitis is one possibility. The majority of cases have been classified as acute encephalitis syndrome (AES). AES has continued to be attributed to a variety of etiologies, including Reye syndrome-like disease, possible enterovirus infection from polluted water, heatstroke, lychee fruit consumption (especially in recent reports), and scrub typhus (_Orientia tsutsugamushi_). A recent publication states that dengue virus is one of the 3 most common agents identified in AES, but existing surveillance for AES does not include routine testing for dengue. Until the etiology (or etiologies) of these AES cases is determined, effective and efficient prevention of these cases will not be possible. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[Maps of India:
Wed 26/06/2019 15:03
http://www.emro.who.int/som/somalia-news/who-and-unicef-somalia-and-partners-call-on-all-somalis-to-vaccinate-children-against-polio.html
https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/poliomyelitis

Mogadishu, 25 June 2019 - Health authorities rolled out a polio campaign yesterday in Puntland and Somaliland to vaccinate more than 940 000 children under 5 years of age to stop an ongoing outbreak of a strain of poliovirus.

The campaign runs from 24 to 27 June 2019, with support from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). It targets all children in 12 districts in Somaliland and 9 districts in Puntland.

By the numbers:
  • 945,480 children to be vaccinated
  • 3160 vaccinators knocking on doors
  • 677 team supervisors taking part
  • 1558 social mobilizers sharing messages on vaccination and children’s health
  • 15 children have been infected with the polioviruses so far, since outbreaks began
Somaliland, Puntland and other states in Somalia are currently experiencing outbreaks of 2 strains of poliovirus. Each strain requires a different vaccine. Children need several doses of each vaccine to boost immunity. Even though these viruses are not wild poliovirus, both these circulating strains can infect and paralyse children with low immunity. The last case of wild poliovirus in Somalia was in August 2014.

“It’s vital that parents ensure their children receive this vaccine because it builds immunity against a specific strain of poliovirus circulating in the country. I call upon all caregivers in the areas being covered in this campaign to please ensure children are at home and accept the oral polio vaccine when it is offered. Oral polio vaccines are stored and administered safely, and can save children from paralysis and permanent disability,” said Dr Mamunur Rahman Malik, WHO Representative for Somalia.

“The only way to protect children from all polioviruses is to ensure they receive multiple doses of polio vaccine, through campaigns and health facilities where possible,” said Werner Schultink, UNICEF Somalia Representative. “Caregivers need to ensure children receive this vaccine when it is available.”

Somalia’s polio programme has conducted 14 immunization campaigns, including 5 nationwide campaigns, since December 2017 to stop further spread of the outbreaks. Despite these efforts, not all Somalia’s children are being vaccinated, which has resulted in the polioviruses spreading across the country and spilling over to Ethiopia. To address this, polio teams from Somalia and Ethiopia conducted a joint planning workshop in Hargeisa last week, and are coordinating immunization activities along their shared border and in high-risk areas in each country during this round in order to prevent cross-border transmission and spill over.

Concurrent to the polio campaign, polio health workers have also been working to vaccinate more than 650 000 people aged one year and above against cholera in high-risk districts of Somalia.
Date: Mon, 24 Jun 2019 16:11:10 +0200

Kinshasa, June 24, 2019 (AFP) - More than 1,500 people have died in a nearly 10-month-old outbreak of Ebola in the Democratic Republic of Congo, the health ministry said Monday.   As of Sunday, 1,506 people have died out of 2,239 recorded cases, it said.   Earlier this month, the virus claimed two lives in neighbouring Uganda among a family who had travelled to the DRC.   Nearly 141,000 people have been vaccinated in the affected eastern DRC provinces of Ituri and North Kivu, the epicentre of the outbreak.

Ebola spreads among humans through close contact with the blood, body fluids, secretions or organs of an infected person, or objects contaminated by such fluids.   The current outbreak in the DRC is the worst on record after an epidemic that struck mainly in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone between 2014-2016, killing more than 11,300 people.   Chronic violence and militia activity in Ituri and North Kivu as well as hostility to medical teams among locals have hampered the response.

On Monday, a crowd of people opposed to the burial of two Ebola victims in the Beni area burnt the vehicle of a health team, local police chief Colonel Safari Kazingufu told AFP.   He said a member of the medical team had been injured in the attack and taken to hospital.    The United Nations in May nominated an emergency coordinator to deal with the crisis. However, the World Health Organization (WHO) said this month the outbreak currently did not represent a global threat.