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Solomon Islands

Solomon
Islands - US Consular Information Sheet
August 13, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
The Solomon Islands form an Archipelago in the southwest Pacific Ocean about 1,200 miles northeast of Australia.
The capital, Honiara, is locate
on the Island of Guadalcanal.
The Solomon Islands are a parliamentary democracy within the British Commonwealth.
Tourism facilities are limited, particularly outside Honiara.
Read the Department of State Background notes on the Solomon Islands for additional information.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
U.S. passport holders do not require visas to enter the Solomon Islands.
Passports, onward/return tickets and proof of sufficient funds for the duration of stay are required.
Visitor permits are granted upon arrival at Henderson International Airport in Honiara.
Visitors may enter any number of times provided the total period in the Solomon Islands does not exceed 90 days in a 12-month period.
Persons arriving on one-way airline tickets must have documentation stating their business, for example, a work permit if taking up employment in the Solomon Islands.
The Solomon Islands government strictly enforces immigration laws, and travelers may face fines and other penalties if they remain in the country beyond the authorized period of stay.
Persons arriving on yachts should visit the nearest immigration office to complete arrival forms for issuance of visitors' permits.

Travelers who plan to
arrive in the Solomon Islands by plane or some other conveyance
but who plan to depart on a yacht should apply for a visitor’s permit before their arrival in the Solomon Islands, to the Director of Immigration (via fax to the U.S. Consular Agent in Honiara at 677-27429).
The application should state the traveler’s arrival date, vessel name and registration details, vessel’s arrival date, approximate time traveler will spend in the Solomon Islands, and it should request entry on a one-way (arrival only) airline ticket.
The Director will issue a permit to be presented at airline check-in.
If the traveler does not have this permit, she/he may be denied boarding.
For more information about entry requirements, travelers may contact the Solomon Islands Mission to the United Nations at 800 Second Avenue, Suite 8008, New York, NY 10017-4709; Tel: (212) 599-6192 or 6193.
Travelers who anticipate the possibility of transiting or visiting Australia are advised to obtain an electronic travel authority (ETA) or visa for Australia before leaving the United States.
An ETA may be obtained for a small service fee at http://www.eta.immi.gov.au/.
Airlines and many travel agents in the United States are also able to issue ETAs.
Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Since July 24, 2003, the Regional Assistance Mission in the Solomon Islands (RAMSI), a coalition of Pacific Island states that includes military and police forces from Australia and several other Pacific Island nations, has helped the Solomon Islands improve law and order.
.
It is generally safe to walk alone during the day; however, walking alone at night is discouraged.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).
The U.S. Consular Agent in Honiara also has available up-to-date safety and security information at (677) 23426 and (677) 94731, or Fax (677) 27429.
The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME:
Major crimes against travelers are uncommon, although incidences of theft, mugging, and extortion are increasing.
Some 350 RAMSI Police are working alongside Royal Solomon Islands Police (RSIP) to respond to any situation requiring police.

Lawlessness is increasing in Honiara, mostly in the form of petty crime (theft and harassment for money).
The isolated incidents of harassment of expatriates that have increased in Honiara since April 2006 are generally minor and associated with alcohol and fringe elements of the community. House and vehicle break-ins occur, with expatriates particularly targeted.
Some recent episodes have involved violence and the use or threatened use of knives.
Gang-based criminal activity has increased in and around the Burns Creek area in East Honiara, and in the Borderline area, which is close to the Japanese memorial.
It is not advisable to go alone to the Japanese memorial.

Americans should be aware that the public does not distinguish between Australians and Americans.
INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and to the nearest U.S. Consular Agent in Honiara, or the U.S. Embassy in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the U.S. Consular Agent or the U.S. Embassy for assistance.
The Consular Agent or Embassy staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends, and explain how funds may be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

The local equivalent to the “911” emergency line in the Solomon Islands is: 999.
Other emergency numbers are:
Ambulance, Hospital - 911
National Disaster - 955
Fire - 988

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Hospitals and pharmacies in the Solomon Islands are limited to population centers and missions.
Since 2001, the quality of medical services has deteriorated seriously, although it is expected to improve as the country’s overall economic condition continues to improve.
The nearest reliable medical facilities are in Australia or New Zealand.
There is a hyperbaric recompression chamber in Honiara at the In-the-Zone Medical Centre, phone (677) 23485 or (677) 23482; however, medical conditions resulting from diving accidents may require medical evacuation to Australia or New Zealand.
Serious medical conditions requiring hospitalization and/or medical evacuation to Australia, New Zealand or the United States can cost thousands of dollars.
The incidence of malaria is high.
Doctors and hospitals often expect immediate cash payment for health services. Travelers who anticipate the possible need for medical treatment in Australia should obtain entry permission for Australia in advance.
Entry permission for Australia can be granted by the Australian High Commission in Honiara, but it is easier to obtain it prior to leaving the United States (see section above on Entry/Exit Requirements)
Some HIV/AIDS entry restrictions exist for visitors to and foreign residents of Solomon Islands.
Per Solomon Islands Immigration Act Cap 60, Section 4 (1) (d) and section 11, subsection (2), an immigration officer can bar a visitor from entering the country or deport an immigrant if he or she refuses to submit to an examination by a government medical officer after being required to do so.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s website at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning the Solomon Islands is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Vehicular traffic in the Solomon Islands moves on the left.
Paved roads are found only in and around Honiara, located on Guadalcanal Island.
These two-lane paved roads are poorly marked and have many potholes.
Roads are not well lit at night.
The remaining roads in the Solomon Islands are made of coral or gravel, or are dirt tracks.
Travelers must take care when driving off main roads to avoid trespassing on communal land.
For information concerning the rental and operation of motor vehicles in the Solomon Islands, contact our Consular Agent in Honiara.
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
For specific information concerning Solomon Islands driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, visit the Solomon Islands Department of Commerce web site at http://www.commerce.gov.sb/.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in the Solomon Islands, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed the Solomon Islands’ Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: Customs Information: The Solomon Islands' customs authorities enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from the Solomon Islands of items such as firearms and ammunition, sexually explicit material, and certain prescription drugs.
Other items may be subject to quarantine regulations or import duty.
The Solomon Islands' government prohibits the export of military artifacts from World War II.
It is advisable to contact the Solomon Islands' Mission to the United Nations for specific information regarding customs requirements.
Natural Disasters:
The Solomon Islands lie in the South Pacific cyclonic trajectory, and are vulnerable to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and sudden tidal movements.
The Pacific cyclone season extends from November through March.
General information regarding disaster preparedness is available via the Internet from the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) at http://www.fema.gov.

Please see our Customs Information.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating the Solomon Islands laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession or use of, or trafficking in illegal drugs in the Solomon Islands are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
There is no U.S. Embassy in the Solomon Islands.
However, there is a U.S. Consular Agent in Honiara.
The Consular Agent has general information and forms, such as passport applications, and can be contacted at the United States Consular Agency, Commonwealth Avenue, Point Cruz, telephone number is (677) 23426 or (677) 98367, cell number is (677) 94731, home number is (677) 22539; fax (677) 27429; e-mail keithieusa@solomon.com.sb or us_consular@solomon.com.sb.
For additional information and to download forms, please visit our Virtual Embassy for the Solomon Islands at http://www.usvpp-solomonislands.org/
The U.S. Embassy in Papua New Guinea provides primary assistance for U.S. citizens in the Solomon Islands.
The Embassy is located on Douglas Street, adjacent to the Bank of Papua New Guinea, in Port Moresby.
Use that address for courier service deliveries.
The mailing address is PO Box 1492, Port Moresby, N.C.D. 121, Papua New Guinea; the telephone number is (675) 321-1455; after hours duty officer telephone number is (675) 683-7943; Fax (675) 321-1593.
American citizens may submit consular inquiries via e-mail to ConsularPortMoresby@state.gov.
The web site for the U.S. Embassy in Port Moresby is http://portmoresby.usembassy.gov/.
Americans living or traveling in the Solomon Islands are encouraged to register with the U.S. Embassy in Port Moresby through the State Department’s travel registration web site, and to visit the Consular Agency in Honiara to obtain updated information on travel and security within the Solomon Islands.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the Embassy or Consular Agency.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy to contact them in case of emergency.
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This replaces the Country Specific Information for the Solomon Islands dated January 17, 2008, to update sections on Crime, Information for Victims of Crime, Medical Facilities and Health Information.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Mon, 23 Oct 2017 06:02:34 +0200

Wellington, Oct 23, 2017 (AFP) - Residents in the Solomon Islands' southeast were warned to stay indoors Monday to avoid showers of ash from a volcanic eruption.   Officials said a lack of scientific equipment made it difficult to monitor the situation on Tinakula island, which lies just north of Vanuatu where 11,000 people were evacuated last month following an eruption on Ambae island.

While the Vanuatu government decided on Friday that the situation on Ambae had settled and people could return home, Solomon Islands officials said they had no indication how long the eruption on Tinakula would continue.    Although Tinakula is uninhabited, about 10,600 people live on the neighbouring Santa Cruz islands.   "Authorities do not have a scientific way to monitor the situation and determine when it will end," the Solomon Islands Broadcasting Corporation (SIBC) quoted National Disaster Management Office director Loti Yates as saying. 

Yates said ashfall on nearby communities and the impact on air travel were the main concerns. An aviation warning has been issued for the Santa Cruz Islands.    "As much as possible, people need to stay indoors," he said, while downplaying the significance of the eruption.   "From what we know currently, the danger of the volcano's impact on Santa Cruz is very small or very limited," he said.   Tinakula, which is frequently active, once had a population of about 130 until an eruption in 1971 forced their permanent evacuation.
Date: Sun, 19 Mar 2017 18:23:14 +0100

Hong Kong, March 19, 2017 (AFP) - A 6.0-magnitude earthquake hit off the Solomon Islands in the early hours of Monday, the US Geological Survey said.   The quake struck at 02:43 am local time (1543 GMT Sunday) at a depth of 4.0 kilometres (2.5 miles), some 170 kilometres north-northeast of the capital city Honiara, the USGS said.   No tsunami warning was issued.

The Solomon Islands are part of the Pacific "Ring of Fire", a zone of tectonic activity known for frequent quakes and volcanic eruptions.    In 2007 an 8.0-magnitude quake in the Solomon Islands claimed 52 lives and left thousands homeless when it created a 10-metre tsunami.
Date: Fri, 20 Jan 2017 01:16:56 +0100

Sydney, Jan 20, 2017 (AFP) - A 6.8-magnitude earthquake hit off the Solomon Islands on Friday, seismologists said, with officials in the Pacific island nation saying there were no initial reports of damage.   The US Geological Survey said quake struck at 10:04 am local time (2304 GMT Thursday) at a depth of 33 kilometres (20 miles) some 70 kilometres west of Kirakira -- the same region where several large tremors struck last month.   The Hawaii-based Pacific Tsunami Warning Center said there was no tsunami threat from the latest shake.   Three strong tremors were felt off Kirakira in December without causing serious damage.

The Solomons National Disaster Management Office (NDMO) said it had not received any damage reports from the remote area.   "We haven't had any information come through," NDMO director Loti Yates told AFP from the capital Honiara.   "It's in the same area as the tremors last month and there are large cracks in the ground. Combined with heavy rain, that could cause landslips but it's too early to say at this stage and we're not making assumptions."   The Solomon Islands are part of the Pacific "Ring of Fire", a zone of tectonic activity known for frequent quakes and volcanic eruptions.    In 2007 an 8.0-magnitude quake in the Solomon Islands claimed 52 lives and left thousands homeless when it created a 10-metre tsunami.
Date: Tue, 20 Dec 2016 06:28:29 +0100

Sydney, Dec 20, 2016 (AFP) - The Solomon Islands was rattled by a strong 6.7-magnitude earthquake Tuesday, the US Geological Survey said, but no tsunami warning was issued and no immediate damage reported.   The quake struck 164 kilometres (101 miles) from the capital Honiara at a depth of 35 kilometres -- the fourth big tremor is just over a week.

"Based on all available data, a destructive Pacific-wide tsunami is not expected," the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center said, while Geoscience Australia estimated damage would only be likely up to 74 kilometres away.   The Solomon Islands are part of the Pacific "Ring of Fire", a zone of tectonic activity known for frequent quakes and volcanic eruptions.    On December 9, a 7.7-magnitude tremor triggered severe shaking and a tsunami warning in the same area, although there were no reports of serious damage. This was followed by a 6.9-magnitude aftershock a day later and another of 6.0 magnitude on Sunday.
Date: Sun, 18 Dec 2016 07:26:39 +0100

Sydney, Dec 18, 2016 (AFP) - A 6.0-magnitude earthquake struck off the Solomon Islands on Sunday, the US Geological Survey said, the third strong tremor off the Pacific nation in less than two weeks.   The quake hit at 4.46pm (0546 GMT) at a depth of 39 kilometres (24 miles) about 83 kilometres west-northwest of Kirakira, the USGS added.   On December 10 a 6.9-magnitude quake struck off Kirakira. The previous day a 7.7-magnitude tremor triggered severe shaking and a tsunami warning, although there were no reports of serious damage.
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Guinea

Guinea US Consular Information Sheet
August 15, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Guinea is a developing country in western Africa, with minimal facilities for tourism.
Travelers who plan to stay in Conakry, the capital, should make reservati
ns well in advance. French is the official language; Pular, Malinké, and Soussou are also widely spoken.
Read the Department of State Background Notes on Guinea for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport, visa, international vaccination record (WHO card), and current yellow fever vaccination are required.
Travelers should obtain the latest information and details from the Embassy of the Republic of Guinea, 2112 Leroy Street, NW, Washington, DC
20008, tel. (202) 986-4300, fax (202) 478-3010.
The Guinean embassy does not maintain a current website. Overseas, inquiries should be made to the nearest Guinean embassy or consulate.
Overseas, inquiries should be made at the nearest Guinean embassy or consulate.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Since early 2008, there has been a constant threat of violent strikes and demonstrations in Guinea.
The price of gasoline increased by more than 60 percent in April 2008, squeezing already economically hard-pressed Guineans and increasing tension in the country.
Parliamentary elections scheduled for late 2008 could result in violence.

While U.S. citizens have not been targeted in past outbreaks of violence, being in the wrong place at the wrong time can be very dangerous.
During periods of civil unrest, public services such as transportation and medical care, as well as availability of goods and services, can be affected.
During many demonstrations, crowds of people gather and burn tires, create roadblocks, and damage vehicles by throwing rocks and bricks. The military has also been known to demonstrate and incite unrest due to their grievances with the government.
Because of the potential for violence, U.S. citizens should avoid large crowds, political rallies, and street demonstrations. They should also avoid sensitive government installations, including the Presidential Palace, official government buildings, and military bases.

U.S. citizens should maintain security awareness at all times. There are no known terrorist groups officially operating in the country.

Most border crossings are controlled jointly by Guinean armed forces, gendarmes, police and immigration officials.
A long land frontier and the military’s lack of physical and monetary resources, however, mean that borders are lightly patrolled. U.S. citizens considering travel to the border regions with Liberia, Sierra Leone or Côte d’Ivoire should consult the latest Travel Warnings and Country Specific Information for those countries (available at the Bureau of Consular Affairs' Web site at http://travel.state.gov) and contact the U.S. Embassy in Conakry for the latest travel and security information.
Crossing land borders requires visas and complete paperwork, and can be difficult.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ website at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
In Conakry, as in many large cities, crime is a fact of daily life.
Residential and street crime is very common.
Sentiments toward Americans in Guinea are generally positive, but criminals regularly target foreigners, including Americans, because they are perceived as lucrative targets.
Nonviolent and violent crimes are a problem.
The majority of nonviolent crime involves acts of pick pocketing and purse snatching, while armed robbery, muggings, and assaults are the most common violent crimes.
In spite of good intentions, the police have been unable to prevent the rapid escalation of crime.
There have also been cases of direct and indirect requests for bribes from the police and military officials. Criminals particularly target visitors at the airport, in the traditional markets, and near hotels and restaurants frequented by foreigners.
Visitors should avoid unsolicited offers of assistance at the airport and hotels because such offers often mask an intention to steal luggage, purses, or wallets. Travelers should arrange for hotel personnel, family members, or business contacts to meet them at the airport to reduce their vulnerability to these crimes of opportunity.

Commercial scams and disputes with local business partners can create legal difficulties for U.S. citizens because corruption is widespread in Guinea.
Business routinely turns on bribes rather than the law, and enforcement of the law is irregular and inefficient.
The U.S. Embassy has extremely limited recourse in assisting Americans who are victims of illegal business deals.

Business fraud is rampant and the targets are usually foreigners, including Americans.
Schemes previously associated exclusively with Nigeria are now prevalent throughout West Africa, including Guinea, and pose a danger of severe financial loss.
Typically these scams begin with the receipt of an unsolicited communication (usually e-mails) from strangers who promise quick financial gain, often by transferring large sums of money or valuables out of the country, but then require a series of "advance fees" to be paid -- such as fees for legal documents or taxes -- to finalize the release of the transferred funds.
The final payoff does not exist; the purpose of the scam is simply to collect the advance fees. A common variation is the scammer’s claim to be a refugee or émigré of a prominent West African family, or a relative of a present or former political leader who needs assistance in transferring large sums of cash.
Still other variations appear to be legitimate business deals that require advance payments on contracts.
Sometimes victims are convinced to provide bank account and credit card information and financial authorization that drains their accounts, incurs large debts against their credit, and takes their life savings.

The best way to avoid becoming a victim of advance-fee fraud is common sense -- if a proposition looks too good to be true, it probably is.
You should carefully check and research any unsolicited business proposal before committing any funds, providing any goods or services, and undertaking any travel.
A good clue to a scam is the phone number given to the victim; legitimate businesses and offices provide fixed line numbers, while scams typically use only cell phones.
It is virtually impossible to recover money lost through these scams.

There is no “911” type of emergency assistance in Guinea.
For additional information on these types of scams, see the Department of State's publication, International Financial Scams.
INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends, and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Medical facilities are poorly equipped and extremely limited both in the capital city and throughout Guinea. Medicines are in short supply, sterility of equipment should not be assumed, and treatment is frequently unreliable. Some private medical facilities provide a better range of treatment options than public facilities but are still well below global standards. There are no ambulance or emergency rescue services in Guinea and trauma care is extremely limited. Water in Guinea is presumed contaminated, so you should use only bottled or distilled water for drinking. Malaria is a serious risk to travelers in Guinea. For additional information on malaria, including protective measures, see the CDC travelers’ health web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/contentDiseases.aspx#malaria.

The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Guinea.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s website at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) website at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en
MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Guinea is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Drivers in Guinea tend to be poorly trained and routinely ignore road safety rules.
Guinea's road network, paved and unpaved, is underdeveloped and unsafe.
Roads and vehicles are poorly maintained, road signs are insufficient, and roads and vehicles are frequently unlit.
Livestock and pedestrians create constant road hazards and make nighttime travel inadvisable.
Guinea has many roadblocks set up by the police or the military, making inter- and intra-city travel difficult from 10:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m.
During the rainy season (July through September), flash floods make some roads temporarily impassable.
There is also a significant increase in banditry along the roadways between towns and upcountry during the hours of darkness.
Americans and other foreigners are strongly discouraged from traveling after dark outside of populated areas.
Roadside assistance is not available in Guinea.

Guinea has no public transportation. Taxis, including small cars and larger vans, are often poorly maintained and overcrowded.
Taxis frequently stop and start without regard to other vehicles, making driving hazardous.
Rental vehicles, with drivers, are available from agencies at major hotels in Conakry.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Guinea, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Guinea’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s Internet web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Guinean customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning the temporary import or export of items such as firearms, antiquities, medications, business equipment, and ivory.
You should contact the Embassy of Guinea in Washington (see contact information above in the Entry Requirements section) for specific information regarding customs requirements.

The local currency is the Guinean franc (FG).
Travelers may not have more than 100,000 FG (currently about $23.00 nor more than $5,000 when they depart Guinea.
Guinea has a cash economy.
ATMs are not available, and traveler’s checks are accepted only at some banks and hotels.
Credit cards are accepted at some larger hotels in Conakry, but should be used only at reputable hotels and banks.
Cash advances on Visa credit cards are available at various branches of BICIGUI, a local bank.
Inter-bank fund transfers are possible at BICIGUI branches but can be difficult and expensive.
Money transfers from the U.S. have worked successfully in the past.
Western Union has several offices in Conakry, and Moneygram has an office downtown.

Visitors should restrict photography to private gatherings and should obtain explicit permission from the Guinean government before photographing military and transportation facilities, government buildings, or public works.
Photographing without permission in any public area may provoke a response from security personnel or a dangerous confrontation with people who find being photographed offensive.

Please see our Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Guinean laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession or use of, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Guinea are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.

Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Guinea are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Guinea. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located on the Transversale No. 2, Centre Administratif de Koloma opposite the New Radio Station in Ratoma, Conakry, Guinea; telephone +224-30-42-08-61 through 68 or fax +224-30-42-08-71; web site: http://conakry.usembassy.gov/.
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This replaces the Country Specific Information for Guinea dated August 28, 2007, to update sections on Safety and Security and Medical Facilities and Health Information.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu, 1 Aug 2019 17:40:25 +0200 (METDST)

Conakry, Aug 1, 2019 (AFP) - Six children aged between four and 10 died after they were struck by lightning while making tea under a mango tree in north-eastern Guinea on Wednesday, a witness said.   The storm began shortly before 7:00 pm (1900 GMT) in the town of Siguiri, close to the border with Mali, witness Mamadi Doumbouya, a local resident, told AFP.   He said eight children in total, accompanied by two of their mothers, were under a mango tree at the back of his house.   "I invited everyone to take shelter in my living room. The ladies rushed under my roof but the children stayed behind to make the last cups of tea," he added.

Lightning then struck the mango tree and when Doumbouya rushed out, all of the children were on the ground and unconscious, he said in a telephone call.   Six of the children -- five girls and a four-year-old boy -- died while being taken to hospital, he added.    A doctor from Siguiri Hospital said the six dead children were brought there in the early evening and two others were placed under observation for the coming days.   West Africa is currently undergoing its rainy season.   On Saturday a landslide hit a gold mine in the same area as Wednesday's storm, killing four people including a two-year-old girl and her mother.   "The victims were working in a former gold mine where mining was banned because of the risk of landslides" in the heavy rains, "but people were hiding to go to the tunnels", a Red Cross official said.
Date: Thu, 7 Feb 2019 18:17:54 +0100

Conakry, Feb 7, 2019 (AFP) - Medical services in Guinea are on alert after a man died from Lassa fever, health officials said on Thursday, with some 80 people being monitored for the deadly disease.   Lassa fever is caused by a haemorrhagic virus which belongs to the same family as Marburg and Ebola.   The virus was found in a 35-year-old man from the southwestern town of Kissidougou. He died on January 29 in Mamou, some 400 kilometres (250 miles) away, according to officials.   Kissidougou is where an outbreak of Ebola began in December 2013, leading to thousands of deaths in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone.   "(We) have set to work to see if there are any hidden cases and to trace all the contacts" of the deceased man, said Sakoba Keita from the National Health Security Agency (ANSS).   Keita said it was not yet clear whether this was "an isolated case or an epidemic". 

Around 80 people -- 30 in Kissidougou and 50 in Mamou -- are being monitored but none have so far shown any symptoms of the disease, Keita said.   Lassa takes its name from the town of that name in northern Nigeria where it was first identified in 1969.   The virus is spread through contact with food or household items contaminated with rats' urine or faeces, or after coming into direct contact with the bodily fluids of an infected person.   It can be prevented by enhanced hygiene and avoidance of all contact with rats.   Nearly four in five peple who become infected with the virus do not have symptoms of the disease, the World Health Organization (WHO) says on its website.   A Lassa outbreak in Nigeria last year left 171 dead, and a resurgence of the disease there last month killed 16, according to official figures.
Date: Mon, 4 Feb 2019 21:26:07 +0100

Conakry, Feb 4, 2019 (AFP) - At least 17 people have been killed in a landslide at a gold mine in northeastern Guinea, local police said Monday.   A local elected official confirmed the death toll, saying he had "seen at least 17 dead" after the accident which took place late Sunday in Norassoba, some 35 kilometres (20 miles) from the town of Siguiri.   "This death toll is clearly provisional as the villagers say there are still many people missing," police lieutenant Marcus Bangoura said.

One local inhabitant said "the landslide apparently took everyone by surprise, there was no sign of danger in this mine where we have been working for several years."  There are many such accidents in mines in mineral-rich Guinea where thousands risk their lives working in illegal pits.   The work becomes even more dangerous in the rainy season.

Guinea has gold, diamonds, bauxite and huge reserves of iron ore but the west African country's population struggle to make ends meet.    The miners include locals and those from nearby countries such as Burkina Faso, Liberia and Ivory Coast.   Authorities say there are more than 20,000 such miners in the Siguiri region.
Date: Sun 3 Feb 2019 9:02 AM GMT+1
Source: Bloomberg [edited]

Guinea's government has reported one case of a 35-year-old man with Lassa fever in the central town of Mamou, some 260-kilometers [162 mi] from the country's capital of Conakry.

An investigative mission will be deployed to the region to support health authorities, the government said on [Sat 2 Feb 2019] in statement posted on the website of the National Health Security Agency. No other Lassa fever cases were reported.

Lassa fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic illness, transmitted to humans through contact with food or household items contaminated by infected rodents.  [Byline: Ougna Camara]
========================
[Although rarely reported in Guinea, this may not be the 1st Lassa fever case that has occurred there. As noted when an earlier case was first posted on Thu 8 Feb 2018, it was the 1st Lassa fever case that ProMED-mail had posted for Guinea (see Lassa fever - West Africa (09): Liberia ex Guinea http://promedmail.org/post/20180210.5620420). That report indicated that the affected individual actually died in Liberia but indicated that the infection was acquired in Guinea. West Africa, including Guinea and Liberia, is endemic for Lassa fever virus.

The situation where the person reported above acquired Lassa fever virus is not indicated in this case. Virus transmission to humans occurs when people are in contact with the reservoir rodent host, the multimammate mouse (in the genus _Mastomys_) or its excreta, as was likely the situation in this case. Rodent control has to be undertaken at the village level with individual households. This requires an extensive and continuous public education effort. Transmission also occurs in health facilities when personal protective equipment is not employed and barrier-nursing practices are not adequate to protect staff from blood and secretions of infected patients.

Images of the _Mastomys_ mouse, the rodent reservoir of Lassa fever virus, can be seen at
<https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/45326-Mastomys-natalensis>. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Guinea:
Date: Mon, 29 Oct 2018 14:38:26 +0100

Conakry, Oct 29, 2018 (AFP) - A "dead city" strike call by the opposition in Guinea largely emptied the streets of the capital Conakry on Monday, with no solution in sight to a pay dispute in the education sector.   Streets were deserted in some parts of the West African city, while traffic was jammed in other areas where all drivers were being diverted, an AFP correspondent saw.   Troops and police were placed on alert but few were deployed on the streets. Instead they were gathered in strength in central police stations and gendarmerie barracks, the correspondent said.   Youths burned tyres early in the day along a main Conakry thoroughfare, Le Prince street, but rain soon put out the fires and dampened the ardour of would-be demonstrators.

The political opposition called for the strike in protest against what it considers a violation by the authorities of an agreement reached in August over the appointment of local government officials elected in a hotly disputed vote on February 4.   Rivals of President Alpha Conde have also called for a march and rally in Conakry on Tuesday, a week after a banned demonstration during which opposition leader Cellou Dalein Diallo alleged that police tried to assassinate him.   Also last Tuesday, an 18-year-old was killed in street clashes and his family blamed police, who denied both shooting allegations.

On Monday morning, hundreds of schoolchildren in Siguiri, a town in the far north of the country, took to the streets to call for the return of their teachers, who began "an unlimited strike" on October 3 to press demands for a raise in minimum pay, according to local media.   The teachers decided to take tougher action after the government announced that it would not pay October wages for the strikers, said Aboubabar Soumah, general secretary of the powerful Free Union of Teachers and Researchers of Guinea (SLECG).   "From now on, it's not the worker who gets paid, but the work," Conde warned on state media.   "Teachers will stay at home until the end of the head of state's second mandate in 2020," the SLECG said in response.
More ...

Cambodia

Cambodia US Consular Information Sheet
June 05, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Cambodia is a developing country with a constitutional monarchy and an elected government. King Norodom Sihamoni is the constitutional monarch and head of state. Ele
tions for Members of the National Assembly were last held in July 2003, and are scheduled to take place again in July 2008. Two political parties, the CPP and FUNCINPEC, have formed a coalition government, which the CPP dominates. The country has a market economy with approximately 80 percent of the population of 13.6 million engaged in subsistence farming. The government has good relations with its neighbors despite strains over residual border disputes and other historic antagonisms. The quality of tourist facilities varies widely in Cambodia with the highest standard found in Phnom Penh, Siem Reap, and Sihanoukville. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Cambodia for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A valid passport and a Cambodian visa are required.
Cambodia offers on-line visa processing at http://evisa.mfaic.gov.kh.
Tourist and business visas are valid for one month beginning with the date of entry into Cambodia. You may also apply in person at the Cambodian Embassy located at 4530 16th Street NW, Washington, DC
20011, tel. 202-726-7742, fax 202-726-8381. Tourists and business travelers may also obtain a Cambodian visa at the airports in Phnom Penh, Siem Reap, and at all major border crossings.
Both methods of obtaining a Cambodian visa require a passport-sized photograph and a passport that is valid for a minimum of six months beyond the date of entry into Cambodia. A departure tax is charged on all domestic and international flights. This tax must be paid in U.S. dollars.
Overseas inquiries may be made at the nearest embassy or consulate of Cambodia. Travelers should note that Cambodia regularly imposes fines of USD 5.00 per day on charges of overstay on an expired visas. Visit the Embassy of the Kingdom of Cambodia web site http://www.embassyofcambodia.org/ for the most current visa information.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
The State Department is concerned that individuals and groups may be planning terrorist actions against United States citizens and interests, as well as sites frequented by Westerners, in Southeast Asia, including in Cambodia.
Extremist groups present in Southeast Asia have transnational capabilities to carry out attacks against locations where Westerners congregate.
American citizens traveling to Cambodia should therefore exercise caution in clubs, discos, bars, restaurants, hotels, places of worship, schools, outdoor recreation venues, tourist areas, beach resorts, and other places frequented by foreigners.
They should remain vigilant with regard to their personal security and avoid crowds and demonstrations.
From time to time, the U.S. Embassy places local establishments off limits to Embassy personnel due to safety and security incidents.
You can contact the Embassy for notification on the current restrictions in place for Embassy personnel.
Local commune elections in April 2007 were peaceful.
National elections are scheduled for July 27, 2008. Political tensions have eased, and the current situation is relatively stable; however, Cambodian political activities have turned violent in the past, and the possibility for politically motivated violence remains.

In November 2006, police arrested six people for allegedly plotting to conduct bomb attacks in Phnom Penh during the November Water Festival.
On July 29, 2007, three improvised explosive devices (IEDs) were planted at the Vietnam-Cambodia Friendship Monument in Phnom Penh. One of the IEDs partially exploded, but the others failed to detonate and were recovered by Cambodian authorities. No one was injured, primarily because the explosion occurred during the early morning hours. Police subsequently arrested several individuals suspected of constructing the devices and planning the bombings. While there is no indication this attack was directed at U.S. or other Western interests, the possibility remains that further attacks could be carried out, harming innocent bystanders.
The U.S. Embassy advises U.S. citizens to avoid large public gatherings and crowded public areas.
Land mines and unexploded ordnance are found in rural areas throughout Cambodia, and especially in Battambang, Banteay Meanchey, Pursat, Siem Reap, and Kampong Thom provinces. Travelers should never walk in forested areas or even in dry rice paddies without a local guide. Areas around small bridges on secondary roads are particularly dangerous.
Travelers should not touch anything that resembles a mine or unexploded ordnance; they should notify the Cambodia Mine Action Center at 023-368-841/981-083 or 084.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
Cambodia has a high crime rate, including street crime. Military weapons and explosives are readily available to criminals despite authorities’ efforts to collect and destroy such weapons. Armed robberies occur frequently in Phnom Penh. Foreign residents and visitors are among the victims.
Victims of armed robberies are reminded not to resist their attackers and to surrender their valuables, since any perceived resistance may be met with physical violence, including lethal force. Local police rarely investigate reports of crime against tourists, and travelers should not expect to recover stolen items.
The U.S. Embassy advises its personnel who travel to the provinces to exercise extreme caution outside the provincial towns at all times. Many rural parts of the country remain without effective policing. Individuals should avoid walking alone after dusk anywhere in Sihanoukville, especially along the waterfront. Some of the beaches are secluded, and post has received reports that women have been attacked along the Sihanoukville waterfront during the evening hours. Take security precautions when visiting the Siem Reap (Angkor Wat) area. Travelers should be particularly vigilant during annual festivals and at tourist sites in Phnom Penh, Siem Reap and Sihanoukville, where there have been marked increases in motorcycle “snatch and grab” thefts of bags and purses. A group of young men sexually assaulted a foreigner in Phnom Penh in November 2006 while she was taking a moto-taxi from a nightclub.
Pickpockets, including some who are beggars, are present in the markets and at the tourist sites. Persons visiting Cambodia should practice sound personal security awareness by varying their routes and routines, maintaining a low profile, not carrying or displaying large amounts of cash, not wearing flashy or expensive jewelry, and not walking the streets alone after dark. In addition, we recommend that Americans travel by automobile and not use local moto-taxis or cyclos (passenger-carrying bicycles) for transportation. These vehicles are more vulnerable to armed robberies and offer no protection against injury when involved in traffic accidents.
To avoid the risk of theft or confiscation of original documents, the U.S. Embassy advises its personnel to carry photocopies of their U.S. passport, driver's license or other important documents.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate for assistance. The embassy/consulate staff can assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends and explain how funds can be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Medical facilities and services in Cambodia do not meet international standards.
Both Phnom Penh and Siem Reap have a limited number of international-run clinics and hospitals that can provide basic medical care and stabilization. Medical care outside these two cities is almost non-existent. Local pharmacies provide a limited supply of prescription and over-the-counter medications, but because the quality of locally obtained medications can vary greatly, travelers should bring adequate supplies of their medications for the duration of their stay in Cambodia.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Cambodia is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Driving at night in Cambodia is strongly discouraged. Road maintenance is sporadic in both urban and rural areas. Roads between major areas are adequate; however, roads leading to areas that are more rural are poor. During the rainy season, both urban and rural road conditions deteriorate considerably. Roadside assistance is non-existent. The safety of road travel outside urban areas varies greatly. Cambodian drivers routinely ignore traffic laws, and vehicles are poorly maintained. Intoxicated drivers are commonplace, particularly during the evening hours, and penalties for DWI offenses vary greatly. Banditry occurs even on heavily traveled roads, so all travel should be done in daylight between the hours of 7:00 a.m. and 5.00 p.m.
Serious flooding occurs in both Phnom Penh and the rest of Cambodia starting at the end of July, early August. Heavy flooding continues into November. The unimproved highways to Prey Veng, Battambang, Pailin, Stung Treng and Poipet become more difficult and dangerous during this time of the year, and travel on unpaved or dirt roads is virtually impossible. The National Route highways are the only roads that can be traveled, with caution, this time of the year.
The U.S. Embassy advises Embassy personnel not to travel by train because of low safety standards and the high risk of banditry. Travel by boat should be avoided because boats are often overcrowded and lack adequate safety equipment.
Boat owners accept no liability for accidents.
Travelers also should exercise caution when using intercity buses, including those to popular tourist destinations such as Siem Reap and Sihanoukville.
Moto-taxis and cyclos are widely available; however, the Embassy does not recommend using them due to safety concerns and because personal belongings can be easily stolen. Organized emergency services for victims of traffic accidents are non-existent outside of major urban areas, and those available in major urban areas are inadequate. Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Cambodia, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Cambodia’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

The U.S. Embassy strongly discourages its employees from using domestic air carriers due to safety incidents that have occurred in recent years.
A PMT Air flight from Siem Reap to Sihanoukville crashed in bad weather in a coastal mountain range on June 25, 2007.
There were no survivors.
Incidents at the Ratanakiri airport since 2005 have included collapsed landing gear and hard landings.
Embassy employees are permitted to use international carriers Siem Reap Airways and Bangkok Airways between Phnom Penh and Siem Reap.
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Cambodian customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from Cambodia of items such as drugs, firearms, antiquities, or ivory. It is advisable to contact the Embassy of Cambodia in Washington for specific information regarding customs requirements. Please see our information on Customs Regulations.

Dual Nationality:
Dual nationality is not prohibited under Cambodia's 1996 nationality law. In addition to being subject to all Cambodian laws affecting U.S. citizens, individuals who possess Cambodian nationality may also be subject to laws that impose special obligations on Cambodian citizens.
Business Transactions: Some U.S. citizens have reported threats of personal injury, extortion, detention or kidnapping related to personal business disputes, in particular those involving real estate.
The Embassy urges any American citizen planning to engage in real estate deals or other significant financial transactions to proceed with caution.
U.S. citizens who do not have confidence in the ability of the local police to protect them may wish to depart the country expeditiously.

Financial Transactions:
The U.S. dollar is widely used, especially for larger transactions, and most prices are quoted in dollars. Ripped or torn U.S. bills are not accepted. The Cambodian riel can also be used, but is less favored and is mostly given to tourists as change for dollar purchases. The riel is commonly used in smaller towns and rural areas.
Credit cards are increasingly accepted within Cambodia, and a number of banks in Phnom Penh accept Visa cards for cash advances. Credit cards are often subject to a service charge. Banks and major hotels accept travelers' checks, but usually charge a service fee.
Several international banks operate ATM machines that allow travelers to obtain U.S. dollar currency in Phnom Penh, Siem Reap and other urban centers.
Personal checks are not generally accepted. Several banks serve as Western Union agents in Phnom Penh, Siem Reap, Sihanoukville and other provincial cities to which funds can be wired. Information on Western Union can be found at http://www.westernunion.com.
Photography: Taking photographs of anything that could be perceived as being of military or security interest — including government buildings, military installations, airfields, bridges — may result in problems with the authorities and confiscation of the camera.
Please see our Customs Information.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Cambodian laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession of, use of, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Cambodia are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Cambodia are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate through the State Department's travel registration web site and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Cambodia. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the embassy or consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located at No. 1, Street 96 (near Wat Phnom), Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The telephone number is (855-23) 728-000; fax (855-23) 728-600. Additional information about American Citizen Services can be found at the U.S. Embassy in Phnom Penh at http://cambodia.usembassy.gov/
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information for Cambodia dated September 14, 2007, to update sections on Safety and Security, Medical Facilities and Health Information, Traffic Safety and Road Conditions, Aviation Safety Oversight and Special Circumstances.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Fri, 15 Nov 2019 09:41:09 +0100 (MET)

Phnom Penh, Nov 15, 2019 (AFP) - Cambodia will ban all elephant rides at the country's famed Angkor temple park by early next year, an official said Friday, a rare win for conservationists who have long decried the popular practice as cruel.   The Angkor archaeological complex in northern Siem Reap attracts the bulk of the kingdom's foreign tourists -- which topped six million in 2018 -- and many opt for elephants rides around the ancient temples.

But these rides "will end by the start of 2020", said Long Kosal, a spokesman with the Apsara Authority, which manages the park.   "Using elephants for business is not appropriate anymore," he told AFP, adding that some of the animals were "already old".   So far, five of the 14 working elephants have been transferred to a community forest about 40 kilometres (25 miles) away from the temples.   "They will live out their natural lives there," Kosal said.   The company that owns the elephants will continue to look after them, he added. 

Cambodia has long come under fire from animal rights groups for ubiquitous elephant rides on offer for tourists, also seen in neighbouring Thailand, Vietnam and Laos.    The elephants are broken in during training and rights groups have accused handlers of overworking them.   In 2016, a female elephant died by the roadside after carrying tourists around the Angkor Wat temple complex in severely hot weather.   The animal had been working for around 45 minutes before she collapsed.
Date: Mon, 28 Oct 2019 08:10:36 +0100 (MET)

Phnom Penh, Oct 28, 2019 (AFP) - Cambodia deployed soldiers, police and divers to scour an island popular with backpackers after a British tourist went missing there four days ago, an official told AFP on Monday.

Nearly 200 members of the army, navy and police have fanned out across Koh Rong in southern Cambodia in an attempt to find Amelia Bambridge, who was last seen at a beach party around 3:30 am on October 24.   "Divers are searching in the sea around Koh Rong while the others are scanning the jungle," said Kheang Phearun, a spokesman for the Preah Sihanouk provincial administration.   "We have not yet found the missing British woman."

British media reports said the 21-year-old had befriended other tourists, but the alarm was raised after she failed to check out of her hostel.   The mystery deepened after authorities said they found her bag and phone where she was last seen, a late-night hangout called Police Beach.   Bambridge's family have arrived in Cambodia and headed to the closest city, Sihanoukville, on Sunday night, Phearun added.

Located in the Gulf of Thailand, Koh Rong is a two-hour boat ride from the coast and draws budget travellers with its cheap guesthouses, beachside bars and idyllic beaches.   But it has also undergone development in recent years in keeping with a construction and casino boom in nearby Sihanoukville.   Cambodia has long been a stop for tourists travelling around Southeast Asia.   Though generally safe, crimes involving foreigners have grabbed headlines in the past.

Last week a Cambodian court charged three men with gang-raping a French tourist in the coastal province of Kampot after offering her a ride in their car.   In 2013, Kampot town was rocked by the discovery of a mutilated body of a 25-year-old Frenchwoman floating in a river.    A Belgian was charged with the alleged rape and murder of the woman, but released on bail due to a lack of evidence.
31 Jul 2019

The north eastern province of Si Sa Ket, on the Cambodian border, has declared that the prevention and control of dengue fever required urgent attention throughout its area. Local health officials say they are now especially concerned about what will happen during the last 3 months of the annual wet season. At a Provincial Hall meeting it was announced that 7 people had died from dengue so far in 2019 and that 1664 people were now suffering from the mosquitoborne disease, making Si Sa Ket the country's 12th worst-hit province. They agreed the situation had worsened drastically, saying the monthly figures for those hospitalised had exploded from 81 cases in January to 618 in June and 457 in July [2019].

HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Cambodia:
Date: Thu, 15 Aug 2019 06:14:20 +0200 (METDST)

Battambang, Cambodia, Aug 15, 2019 (AFP) - As he tears off a leg of a charcoal-grilled rat at a roadside stall in western Cambodia, Yit Sarin hails the simple joy of rodent and rice washed down with beer.   "It's delicious," he says of the snack.   Barbecued field rats are not everybody's idea of a tasty treat, but in Cambodia's rural Battambang province they are popular as a quick -- and cheap -- snack, with small skewered ones going for $0.25 each while larger rodents can cost $1.25.

Rats were commonly eaten in the 1970s, under the ultra-Maoist Khmer Rouge, when frogs, tarantulas and other small creatures were considered fair game as a means to survive.   Now they are simply an inexpensive lunch for workers and farmers -- though there is disagreement over what its meat tastes like.    Sarin tells AFP that rat is like "chicken or beef", whereas others say it's more like pork.

He is one of many customers and Cambodian tourists stopping at a stall outside of Battambang town, where rows of grilled field rats are displayed over burning coals and served with dipping sauces made from lime juice, black peppers or chillies.    Vendor Ma Lis says the snack has grown in popularity since she launched her stall more than a decade ago and sold just a few kilograms a day.   Today, she can net daily sales of around 20 kilograms, making brisk business from van-loads of travelling Cambodians and the occasional curious foreigner. 

The holiday season also spells bad news for the field rodents -- Ma Lis can sell up to 180 large rats a day on the Cambodian New Year or water festival.   Dismissing any health concerns one might have about eating her unconventional treat, Ma Lis says her rodents are caught from rice fields and are good for you.    "These rats are healthier than pork and chicken... they eat lotus roots and rice grains," she says, as she flips the barbecued bodies on the grill.    Despite the snack's enduring appeal, many people remain squeamish.     "They feel it is disgusting," she says, smiling.
Date: Fri 31 May 2019 08:04 ICT
Source: The Phnom Penh Post [edited]

A 50-year-old man from Svay Rieng province died on Tuesday night [28 May 2019], 19 days after being bitten by a dog in Trapaing Trav village in Kampong Ro district's Nhor commune.

The wife of the bitten man told The Post that before the incident, while she was at home, her husband went to a paddy field with their 5-year-old niece and sheltered in a hut where he always rests on sunny days.

When they arrived at the hut, they saw a dog asleep on the ground. The dog woke up and bit [the man's] niece, causing a minor skin injury with no bleeding, [the wife] said.

[The man] went to help her, but the dog suddenly jumped up and bit him on the right forearm, this time inflicting more serious injuries. "The dog bit my niece and he helped her. He said the dog had seemed gentle. "They chased the dog to hit it, but it lunged back from about 5 metres away and bit my husband," [the wife] said.

She said that after being bitten, [her husband] sought treatment from a traditional Khmer physician but did not go to a doctor for an injection.

"After leaving the traditional physician, he didn't get any more treatment. Our children told him to see a doctor for injections, but he didn't go."

"As days went by, he was busy growing rice, spraying rice fertilizer, and pumping water. He kept putting off going to see a doctor until he was in serious danger," she said.

She said her husband became feverish and was unable to drink water, and developed a fear of water, fire, and the wind.

At this point, she sent her husband to the Svay Teap Referral Hospital where he was injected with a serum and sent to the provincial hospital. That hospital, in turn, sent him on to the capital's Pasteur Institute in Cambodia.

Because the gate was not yet open, she finally sent her husband to Calmette Hospital next door. When they arrived at Calmette Hospital, doctors told [the wife] that her husband was in a critical condition and they could not save his life.

She then took her husband back home, arriving there on Tuesday morning
[28 May 2019]. [He] died that same night.

[She] said the dog was probably carrying rabies. She didn't know where it came from and it was sleeping in the paddy fields.

Ly Sowath, a doctor at the Pasteur Institute in Cambodia's Epidemiology and Public Health Unit, could not be reached for comment.

Sowath told The Post in February [2019] that the vaccine against rabies is effective if received before being bitten or in the 1st 24 to 48 hours afterwards [see comment].

Doctors ask people to observe the health of the animal that bites them. If the dog does not get sick or die within 10 days, it is a sign that it was not carrying rabies. But anyone suspecting any irregularity should get vaccinated as soon as possible.

According to the Pasteur Institute of Cambodia, the disease is 100 per cent preventable through post-exposure vaccination if provided in time, but it is [almost] 100 per cent fatal once symptoms develop.  [Byline: Ry Sochan]
=====================
[The last comment by Cambodia's Pasteur Institute deserves to be listened to and memorized. The appearance of clinical rabies signs indicates the termination of the incubation period; at this stage, attempts to save the life of the victim are doomed to fail.

On the other hand, we have reservations concerning the cited Cambodian Pasteur Institute's advice of February 2019, in which it was allegedly stated that "the vaccine against rabies is effective if received before being bitten or in the 1st 24 to 48 hours afterwards." Such information may leave exposed people's life seriously threatened in case they have missed seeking medical help during the 1st 48 hours after being exposed.

In fact, the incubation period for rabies is typically 1 to 3 months but may vary from less than a week to more than 2 years. Due to the potentially long incubation period, there is no time limit for giving post exposure treatment (PET) before the appearance of clinical signs: all potential exposures should be risk-assessed. This and much more useful updated information on PET is available in the recently (April 2019) published "Guidelines on managing rabies post-exposure" (Public Health England, April 2019, 40 pages) at <https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/800017/PHE_guidelines_on_rabies_post-exposure_treatment.pdf>.

Hopefully, the family of the victim's niece, who was exposed to the same dog, has already sought medical advice. - ProMED Mod.AS]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Cambodia:
More ...

Guadeloupe

French West Indies US Consular Information Sheet
April 02, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
The French West Indies consists of the islands of Martinique, Guadeloupe, St. Martin (the French side) and St. Barthélemy. These islands are well develop
d. In St. Martin and St. Barthélemy, English is widely spoken, and U.S. currency is accepted. Read the Department of State Background Notes on France for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
All Americans traveling by air outside the United States are required to present a passport or other valid travel document to enter or re-enter the United States.
This requirement will be extended to sea travel (except closed loop cruises), including ferry service, by the summer of 2009.
Until then, U.S. citizens traveling by sea must have government-issued photo identification and a document showing their U.S. citizenship (for example, a birth certificate or certificate of nationalization), or other WHTI compliant document such as a passport card for entry or re-entry to the U.S.
Sea travelers should also check with their cruise line and countries of destination for any foreign entry requirements.

Applications for the new U.S. Passport Card are now being accepted.
We expect cards will be available and mailed to applicants in spring 2008.
The card may not be used to travel by air and is available only to U.S. citizens. Further information on the Passport Card is available at http://travel.state.gov/passport/ppt_card/ppt_card_3926.html and upcoming changes to U.S. passport policy can be found on the Bureau of Consular Affairs web site at http://travel.state.gov/travel/cbpmc/cbpmc_2223.html.
We strongly encourage all American citizen travelers to apply for a U.S. passport well in advance of anticipated travel.
American citizens can visit travel.state.gov or call 1-877-4USA-PPT (1-877-487-2778) for information on how to apply for their passports.

Visas are generally not required for visitors planning to remain for up to 90 days. For further information, travelers can contact the Embassy of France at 4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007; telephone 1 202 944-6000; or the nearest French consulate in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, New Orleans or San Francisco. Visit the web site for the Embassy of France at http://www.info-france-usa.org for the most current visa information.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Worldwide Caution, Travel Warnings, and Travel Alerts can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
Petty street crime, including purse snatching, occurs throughout the French West Indies. Visitors should take care whenever traveling to safeguard valuables and always lock hotel rooms and car doors.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Good medical care is available throughout the French West Indies. Not all doctors speak or understand English. Hyperbaric chambers are available in Guadeloupe at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire in Abymes, http://www.chu-guadeloupe.fr/fr/fw_index.asp, and, in Martinique at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire in Fort de France, http://www.chu-fortdefrance.fr/pages/sommaire.html.
Cases of dengue fever have been reported in Martinique and Guadeloupe.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning the French West Indies is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
Driving in the French West Indies is on the right side of the road. Children under 12 are not legally allowed in the front seat. Seatbelt laws are strictly enforced.

The roads in the French West Indies are the best in the Eastern Caribbean. Roads are well paved and well maintained. Main roads are well marked; secondary roads and tourist sites are adequately marked. Excellent maps are available and local residents are helpful, especially if greeted in a friendly manner. Both Martinique and Guadeloupe have expressways. Traffic safety is enforced by the police. Night driving can be dangerous, especially in the mountains and on winding rural roads. Public transportation in the form of taxis, vans, and buses is relatively safe. For specific information concerning French West Indies driver's permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, contact the French National Tourist Organization offices at: http://www.franceguide.com/.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
Visit the web site of the country’s national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at http://www.securite-routiere.gouv.fr/index.html.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
Civil aviation operations in the French West Indies fall under the jurisdiction of French authorities.
The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of France’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of France’s air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: In addition to being subject to all French laws affecting U.S. citizens, dual nationals may also be subject to other laws that impose special obligations on French citizens. Although France recognizes dual nationality, dual nationals are considered French citizens and are subject to French laws without regard to the other nationality. For additional information, please see our Dual Nationality flyer.

French customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from the French West Indies of items such as firearms, medications, animals, etc. For questions, travelers may wish to contact the Embassy of France or a French Consulate for specific information regarding customs requirements. Please see our information on customs regulations.

The French West Indies can be affected by hurricanes. The hurricane season normally runs from June to the end of November, but there have been hurricanes in December in recent years. General information about natural disaster preparedness is available via the Internet from the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) at: http://www.fema.gov/.
Please see Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating French West Indies’ laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in the French West Indies are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in the French West Indies are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department's travel registration web site, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within the French West Indies. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the U.S. Embassy in Barbados, which has jurisdiction over the French West Indies. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located in Wildey Business Park in St. Michael, Barbados; web site: http://barbados.usembassy.gov/.

The Consular Section is open for American Citizens Services from 8:30am to 4:00pm, Monday-Friday, except Barbados and U.S. holidays. For after-hours service, American citizens may contact the U.S. Embassy in Bridgetown, Barbados, telephone 1-246-436-4950. The U.S. Consular Agent in Martinique, Henry Ritchie, is located at the Hotel Valmeniere #615, Avenue des Arawaks, 97200 Fort de France, telephone (011) (596) (596) 75-6754, fax (011) (596) (596) 70-8501, mobile (011) (596) (696) 93-8406, email: hritchie@sbcglobal.net. Consular Agent Henry Ritchie is available Monday through Friday from 9:00am to 12:00pm, except French and U.S. holidays.
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information for French West Indies dated June 7, 2007, to update sections on Entry/Exit Requirements, Safety and Security, Traffic Safety and Road Conditions, Medical Facilities and Health Information, and Registration/Embassy Location.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu, 24 May 2018 11:39:42 +0200

Paris, May 24, 2018 (AFP) - The French government is preparing a plan to deal with a new invasion of stinky seaweed that is covering the beaches of some its islands in the Caribbean, causing health problems for residents and threatening key fishing and tourism industries.

The brown sargassum algae "is one more disaster for the West Indies, one which we here probably haven't fully taken into account," Environment Minister Nicolas Hulot told lawmakers in Paris late Wednesday.   Tons of the seaweed began arriving on the islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe several weeks ago, where it has piled up knee deep in some areas over large stretches of shoreline.

It soon begins decaying, producing huge amounts of hydrogen sulphide and other noxious gases which reek of ammonia or rotten eggs and can severely irritate the eyes, nose and throat.   The fumes also damage nearby houses and other property by eating away at metal, while also killing fish and fauna, hurting the local fishing industry.   Officials have closed schools near infested zones, while some islands have been cut off since supply boats and ferries cannot get past the thick banks of seaweed.

The French government has already unlocked three million euros ($3.5 million) of credits for supplying tractors, gas masks and other equipment to remove the seaweed -- though it often returns in a matter of weeks.   "Beyond the urgent response, a new national plan for combatting sargassum will be finalised by mid-June," Hulot said in parliament.   Although researchers are not sure why the seaweed suddenly begins proliferating in the region, "climate change is probably aggravating the problem," Hulot said.

Similar outbreaks have occurred in the Caribbean in recent years, often requiring officials to deploy the army to gather up the seaweed.   But officials then need to figure out what to do with it, since the fumes are so toxic that the algae cannot be used for producing biomass fuel, nor can it be turned into fertiliser.

Currently the only option is to spread it out across acres of isolated land until it fully decays and dries out.   This latest invasion comes as Guadeloupe, Martinique and other French islands are still rebuilding from devastating hurricanes that struck the Caribbean last September, causing millions of euros in damages.
Date: Tue, 19 Sep 2017 19:05:52 +0200

Pointe-à-Pitre, Sept 19, 2017 (AFP) - At least one person was killed as Hurricane Maria battered Guadeloupe, officials said Tuesday, in the first confirmed casualty from the huge storm sweeping the eastern Caribbean.     The person was killed by a falling tree, the local administration said, while two more were reported missing after their ship sank off Desirade, the easternmost island in the French territory's archipelago.   The dead person "did not respect orders to stay inside", authorities said in a statement, adding that "several floods have been signalled" around Pointe-a-Pitre, Guadeloupe's largest city.

Coastal areas around the capital Basse-Terre have also been "submerged".   "All of the archipelago's road networks have been affected by falling trees or branches," it said.   Little damage to buildings had been reported so far, though "some roofs have been ripped off".   Authorities said 40 percent of households in the territory of some 400,000 had no electricity, and 25 percent of landlines had been cut.   The US National Hurricane Center described Maria as "potentially catastrophic" as it pushed northwest towards the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico.
Date: Wed 7 Jun 2017
From: Aubert Lyderic <lyderic.aubert@santepubliquefrance.fr> [edited]

Since May 2015, the French Caribbean territories experience an outbreak of viral conjunctivitis.

According to the general practitioners (GP) sentinel network, the number of medical consultations due to conjunctivitis during the last 2 weeks (W2017-20 and W2017-21) was estimated between 500 and 600 cases per week in Guadeloupe and 150 and 250 cases per week in Martinique.

The beginning of the outbreak in week 2017-20 [week 14 to 20 May 2017] was confirmed by the GP's network on the 2 territories. Their reports showed that the outbreak had spread in Guadeloupe Archipelago from Marie-Galante island and in Martinique, the center and the south of the island are currently the most affected areas. As of today [Wed 7 Jun 2017], around 35 percent of municipalities of the 2 territories do not report any case. The peak does not seem to have been reached.

In order to determine the etiology of this outbreak, biological samples were performed on conjunctiva and naso-pharynx from cases of conjunctivitis who consulted in emergency departments of the main public hospitals of both territories. The 1st analyses confirmed presence of enteroviruses with significant viral loads. Results from biological investigation of adenovirus are not yet known. Among the conjunctivitis specimens testing positive for enteroviruses, samples were sent to the National Reference Centre for Enteroviruses (Lyon, France) for further characterization.

Outbreaks of viral conjunctivitis occur mainly in tropical countries with high population density, hot and humid climate. They are mostly attributed to adenoviruses and enteroviruses (EV). Enteroviruses are ubiquitous pathogens responsible for a large range of infections. There is no specific antiviral treatment.

In the Caribbean and in the American region, several outbreaks of conjunctivitis have also been reported (Haiti, Dominican Republic, Mexico, French Guiana and Surinam) but the pathogen has not yet been identified.

The source of the week epidemiological bulletin (will be update soon at this link):
-----------------------------------
Aubert Lyderic
National Public Health Agency
Regional Office of French Caribbean Territories
lyderic.aubert@santepubliquefrance.fr
====================
[Conjunctivitis, also known as pinkeye, is an inflammation of the conjunctiva. The conjunctiva is the thin clear tissue that lies over the white part of the eye and lines the inside of the eyelid.

There are a number of different causes, including infectious agents such as Viruses (Adenoviruses, Enteroviruses), Bacteria (gonorrhea or chlamydia), or Allergies to dust, pollen, contact lenses.

Both viral and bacterial conjunctivitis are highly contagious. Each of these types of germs can spread from person to person in different ways. They are usually spread from an infected person to others through:
- close personal contact, such as touching or shaking hands
- the air by coughing and sneezing
- touching an object or surface with germs on it, then touching your eyes before washing your hands. <https://www.cdc.gov/conjunctivitis/about/transmission.html>.

Infectious conjunctivitis caused by some bacteria and viruses can spread easily from person to person, but is not a serious health risk if diagnosed promptly.

As confirmed by laboratory diagnosis in the above report, the causative agent for most of the tested cases was enteroviruses.

Most cases of viral conjunctivitis are mild. The infection will usually clear up in 7 to 14 days without treatment and without any long-term consequences. But in some cases, viral conjunctivitis can take 2 to 3 weeks or more to clear up. An antiviral medication can be prescribed to treat more serious forms of conjunctivitis for which there is a specific treatment, such as those caused by herpes simplex virus or varicella-zoster virus. Antibiotics will not improve viral conjunctivitis. - ProMED Mod.UBA]

[The HealthMap/ProMED maps can be found at:
Guadeloupe, Guadeloupe: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/57615> and,
Martinique: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/43638>. - ProMED Mod.MPP]
Date: Sat 8 Mar 2014
Source: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), [edited]

Communicable Disease Threats Report (CDTR), week 10 (2-8 Mar 2014)
------------------------------------------------------------------
On 6 Dec 2013, France reported 2 laboratory-confirmed autochthonous cases of chikungunya in the French part of the Caribbean island of St Martin. Since then, local transmission has been confirmed in the Dutch part of Saint Martin [St Maarten], on Martinique, St Barthelemy, Guadeloupe, British Virgin Islands, Dominica, Anguilla, and French Guiana. Aruba only reported imported cases. This is the 1st documented outbreak of chikungunya with autochthonous transmission in the Americas. As of 6 Mar 2014, there have been close to 8000 suspected cases in the region. There have been 3 fatalities reported.

Update of the week
------------------
During the past week the number of new cases reported increased in some of the affected areas. No new affected areas or islands were reported. The islands affected are St Martin/St Maarten, Martinique, St Barthelemy, Guadeloupe, Virgin Islands (UK), Anguilla, Dominica, Aruba, Saint Kitts and Nevis, and French Guiana in mainland South America.
===================
[It is good to learn that there are no new localities reporting chikungunya virus infections, either locally acquired or imported. However, with new cases being reported in localities with previously reported cases, the risk of spread to other islands or mainland countries remains real. There is no further information concerning the suspected cases in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico reported in last week's update (see ProMED-mail archive no 20140302.2309812). It is important to know if these cases were confirmed or discarded.

Maps showing the location of the islands mentioned can be accessed at
Date: 3-9 Feb 2014
Source: Pointe Epidemiologique No. 6. French Caribbean Antilles [in French, trans. ProMed Mod.TY, summarized, edited]

Cases since November 2013:
  • St. Martin (susp.) 1450 cases, (probable and conf.) 653 cases.
  • St. Barthelemy (susp.) 270 cases, (probable and conf.) 104 cases
  • Martinique (susp.) 2040 cases, (probable and conf.) 844 cases; increasing
  • Guadeloupe (susp.) 1120 cases, (probable and conf.) 253 cases.

[Weekly graphs and maps for these case locations are provided in the above URL. ProMed Mod.TY]

Other Caribbean localities:
  • British Virgin Islands 6 locally acquired cases
  • St. Maarten 65 locally acquired cases
  • Anguilla 5 locally acquired cases, 1 imported case
  • Dominica 3 locally acquire cases, 1 imported case
  • Aruba 1 imported case from St. Maarten.
More ...

Martinique

French West Indies US Consular Information Sheet
April 02, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
The French West Indies consists of the islands of Martinique, Guadeloupe, St. Martin (the French side) and St. Barthélemy. These islands are well develop
d. In St. Martin and St. Barthélemy, English is widely spoken, and U.S. currency is accepted. Read the Department of State Background Notes on France for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
All Americans traveling by air outside the United States are required to present a passport or other valid travel document to enter or re-enter the United States.
This requirement will be extended to sea travel (except closed loop cruises), including ferry service, by the summer of 2009.
Until then, U.S. citizens traveling by sea must have government-issued photo identification and a document showing their U.S. citizenship (for example, a birth certificate or certificate of nationalization), or other WHTI compliant document such as a passport card for entry or re-entry to the U.S.
Sea travelers should also check with their cruise line and countries of destination for any foreign entry requirements.

Applications for the new U.S. Passport Card are now being accepted.
We expect cards will be available and mailed to applicants in spring 2008.
The card may not be used to travel by air and is available only to U.S. citizens. Further information on the Passport Card is available at http://travel.state.gov/passport/ppt_card/ppt_card_3926.html and upcoming changes to U.S. passport policy can be found on the Bureau of Consular Affairs web site at http://travel.state.gov/travel/cbpmc/cbpmc_2223.html.
We strongly encourage all American citizen travelers to apply for a U.S. passport well in advance of anticipated travel.
American citizens can visit travel.state.gov or call 1-877-4USA-PPT (1-877-487-2778) for information on how to apply for their passports.

Visas are generally not required for visitors planning to remain for up to 90 days. For further information, travelers can contact the Embassy of France at 4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007; telephone 1 202 944-6000; or the nearest French consulate in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, New Orleans or San Francisco. Visit the web site for the Embassy of France at http://www.info-france-usa.org for the most current visa information.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Worldwide Caution, Travel Warnings, and Travel Alerts can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
Petty street crime, including purse snatching, occurs throughout the French West Indies. Visitors should take care whenever traveling to safeguard valuables and always lock hotel rooms and car doors.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Good medical care is available throughout the French West Indies. Not all doctors speak or understand English. Hyperbaric chambers are available in Guadeloupe at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire in Abymes, http://www.chu-guadeloupe.fr/fr/fw_index.asp, and, in Martinique at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire in Fort de France, http://www.chu-fortdefrance.fr/pages/sommaire.html.
Cases of dengue fever have been reported in Martinique and Guadeloupe.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning the French West Indies is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
Driving in the French West Indies is on the right side of the road. Children under 12 are not legally allowed in the front seat. Seatbelt laws are strictly enforced.

The roads in the French West Indies are the best in the Eastern Caribbean. Roads are well paved and well maintained. Main roads are well marked; secondary roads and tourist sites are adequately marked. Excellent maps are available and local residents are helpful, especially if greeted in a friendly manner. Both Martinique and Guadeloupe have expressways. Traffic safety is enforced by the police. Night driving can be dangerous, especially in the mountains and on winding rural roads. Public transportation in the form of taxis, vans, and buses is relatively safe. For specific information concerning French West Indies driver's permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, contact the French National Tourist Organization offices at: http://www.franceguide.com/.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
Visit the web site of the country’s national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at http://www.securite-routiere.gouv.fr/index.html.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
Civil aviation operations in the French West Indies fall under the jurisdiction of French authorities.
The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of France’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of France’s air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: In addition to being subject to all French laws affecting U.S. citizens, dual nationals may also be subject to other laws that impose special obligations on French citizens. Although France recognizes dual nationality, dual nationals are considered French citizens and are subject to French laws without regard to the other nationality. For additional information, please see our Dual Nationality flyer.

French customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from the French West Indies of items such as firearms, medications, animals, etc. For questions, travelers may wish to contact the Embassy of France or a French Consulate for specific information regarding customs requirements. Please see our information on customs regulations.

The French West Indies can be affected by hurricanes. The hurricane season normally runs from June to the end of November, but there have been hurricanes in December in recent years. General information about natural disaster preparedness is available via the Internet from the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) at: http://www.fema.gov/.
Please see Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating French West Indies’ laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in the French West Indies are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in the French West Indies are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department's travel registration web site, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within the French West Indies. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the U.S. Embassy in Barbados, which has jurisdiction over the French West Indies. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located in Wildey Business Park in St. Michael, Barbados; web site: http://barbados.usembassy.gov/.

The Consular Section is open for American Citizens Services from 8:30am to 4:00pm, Monday-Friday, except Barbados and U.S. holidays. For after-hours service, American citizens may contact the U.S. Embassy in Bridgetown, Barbados, telephone 1-246-436-4950. The U.S. Consular Agent in Martinique, Henry Ritchie, is located at the Hotel Valmeniere #615, Avenue des Arawaks, 97200 Fort de France, telephone (011) (596) (596) 75-6754, fax (011) (596) (596) 70-8501, mobile (011) (596) (696) 93-8406, email: hritchie@sbcglobal.net. Consular Agent Henry Ritchie is available Monday through Friday from 9:00am to 12:00pm, except French and U.S. holidays.
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information for French West Indies dated June 7, 2007, to update sections on Entry/Exit Requirements, Safety and Security, Traffic Safety and Road Conditions, Medical Facilities and Health Information, and Registration/Embassy Location.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Tue, 19 Sep 2017 00:01:29 +0200
By Amandine ASCENSIO with Jean-Philippe LUDON in Fort-de-France

Pointe-à-Pitre, Sept 18, 2017 (AFP) - Islands in the Caribbean still reeling from megastorm Irma braced Monday for a fresh battering as Hurricane Maria approached, wielding potentially lethal force.   In just a few hours, the US National Hurricane Center (NHC) hiked Maria from a Category Two to a Category Four hurricane, packing winds of 130 miles (209 kilometres) per hour that it forecast would strengthen further over the next day or so.

"Potentially life-threatening" storm surges, destructive waves, flash floods and mudslides threatened the Leeward Islands -- the island group that includes Martinique, Puerto Rico and the US and British Vigin islands -- the NHC said.   "The eye and the intense inner core is expected to pass near Dominica in the next few hours," the center warned in its 2100 GMT bulletin, describing Maria as "an extremely dangerous major hurricane".   The French Caribbean island of Guadeloupe -- the bridgehead for aid for Irma-hit French territories -- ordered all at-risk zones to be evacuated.

The order, effective from 4pm local time, bars specific areas considered to be at risk of "flooding, submersion and landslips," according to the statement, issued by the island's prefect.   Islanders on Martinique, which is also part of France, were ordered to stay indoors under a maximum-level "violet" alert.   As heavy rain beat down, energy supplier EDF said power had been cut off from 16,000 homes on Martinique, which has a population of some 400,000.   Dominica, St Kitts and Nevis, St Lucia and the British island of Montserrat are also on alert.

In Pointe-a-Pitre, Elodie Corte, the boss of a metalworking company, said there had been frantic preparations to limit the damage from the storm.   "We spent the morning strapping down the aluminium to stop it from flying away if the winds are strong," she said.   But she worried that the torrential rains forecast could flood her home.   "We'll seal everything as tightly as we can and then we'll certainly go and stay with friends for the night," she said.

- 'Worst-case scenario' -
Criticised for the pace of relief efforts in their overseas territories devastated by Irma, Britain, France and the Netherlands said they were boosting resources for the Caribbean as Maria approaches.   "We are planning for the unexpected, we are planning for the worst," said Chris Austin, head of a UK military task force set up to deal with Irma, as the British Virgin Islands readied for the storm.

On the island of St Martin, which is split between France and the Netherlands, authorities announced a red alert ahead of Maria's arrival.    "We're watching its trajectory very closely, and we're preparing for the worst-case scenario," said local official Anne Laubies.   The Dutch navy tweeted that troops were heading to the two tiny neighbouring islands of Saba and St Eustatius to ensure security following widespread complaints of looting and lawlessness on St Martin after the first hurricane.

French Interior Minister Gerard Collomb said 110 more soldiers would be deployed to the region to reinforce about 3,000 people already there shoring up security, rebuilding infrastructure and distributing aid.   But he warned of "major difficulties" if Guadeloupe is hard hit, noting the territory was "the logistical centre from where we could supply St Martin and organise all the airlifts".   Maria is due to sweep over the south of Sint Maarten -- as the Dutch side of St Martin is called -- on Tuesday. The island was among the worst hit by Irma, with 14 killed.   Air France, Air Caraibes and Corsair have cancelled flights in and out of Martinique and Guadeloupe.

- Hurricane series -
Irma, a Category 5 hurricane, left around 40 people dead in the Caribbean before churning west and pounding Florida, where at least 20 people died.   Irma broke weather records when it whipped up winds of 295 kilometres per hour for more than 33 hours straight.   Another hurricane, Jose, is also active in the Atlantic and has triggered tropical storm warnings for the northeastern United States.   Many scientists are convinced that megastorms such as Irma, and Harvey before it, are intensified by the greater energy they can draw from oceans that are warming as a result of climate change.
Date: Fri 14 Jul 2017
Source: WIC News[edited]

Grenada on alert over spread of 'red eye' outbreak, the number of medical consultations due to conjunctivitis during recent weeks was estimated at between 500 and 600 cases per week in Guadeloupe, and 150 to 250 cases per week in Martinique.

Outbreaks of viral conjunctivitis occur mainly in tropical countries with high population density and a hot, humid climate. Since the chikungunya outbreak a few years ago, Grenada has had an active surveillance and monitoring system that has proven to be effective in subsequent outbreaks, like that of the Zika virus.

The island's health ministry is encouraging people to take all necessary and preventative measures to avoid becoming infected. Red eye is very contagious -- it can easily be spread from person to person -- but it can be effectively treated at home.

The germs are passed on to others through hand-to-hand contact when hands are not washed after contact with discharge from an infected eye. Symptoms include redness or swelling of the white of the eye or inside the eyelid, watering eye and excess tears, increased sensitivity to light, and pus or discharge from the eyelids which result in eyelids being stuck together.  [Byline: Joyce Loan]
===================
[Viral conjunctivitis, commonly known as pinkeye, is a common, self-limiting condition that is typically caused by adenovirus. Other viruses that can be responsible for conjunctival infection include herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), picornavirus (enterovirus 70, Coxsackie A24), poxvirus (molluscum contagiosum, vaccinia), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Viral conjunctivitis is highly contagious, usually for 10-12 days from onset as long as the eyes are red. Patients should avoid touching their eyes, shaking hands, and sharing towels, napkins, pillow cases, and other fomites, among other activities. Transmission may occur through accidental inoculation of viral particles from the patient's hands or by contact with infected upper respiratory droplets, fomites, or contaminated swimming pools. The infection usually resolves spontaneously within 2-4 weeks (extracted from  <http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1191370-overview>).

Treatment of adenoviral conjunctivitis is supportive. No evidence exists that demonstrates the efficacy of specific antiviral agents other than topical ganciclovir. A combination topical agent that contains betadine and low-dose dexamethasone is currently in confirmatory phase III clinical trials as a broad-spectrum agent for the treatment of adenovirus, HSV, VZV, and other forms of infectious conjunctivitis.

HealthMap/ProMED-mail maps can be found at:
Martinique: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/528> - ProMED Mod.UBA]
Date: Fri, 20 May 2016 21:03:32 +0200

Fort-de-France, May 20, 2016 (AFP) - The French Caribbean island of Martinique has suffered its first Zika virus-related death, the regional health agency said Friday.   "The patient, aged 84, had been hospitalised for 10 days in intensive care with Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS)," the agency said, adding that the Zika link came to light late last week.   Some experts believe there is a link between Zika and GBS -- in which the immune system attacks the nervous system.

Doctors tests found that "the death is directly linked to Zika with Guillain-Barre Syndrome associated with Zika as the initial cause," regional health authority ARS said.   "This death is the only one registered in Martinique since the start of the epidemic,"  the agency added.   Before the death, the French Caribbean overseas department had listed 19 patients as confirmed suffering from GBS, which has been linked with Zika, as has paralysis-causing myelitis.   Several cases of the virus have emerged from assumed GBS cases in Martinique's French Caribbean neighbour Guadeloupe as well as French Guyana.

Zika has been linked to birth defects and deaths in new-borns amid surging cases of neurological disorders and birth defects, notably in Brazil.   According to a World Health Organisation report earlier this year, more than 40 countries or territories have reported transmission of Zika within their borders since last year, and eight have reported an increase in Guillain-Barre cases.    Experts agree that Zika is behind a surge in cases of the birth defect microcephaly -- babies born with abnormally small heads and brains -- after their mothers were infected with the virus.

But it is not clear just to what extent the disease, for which there is no vaccine or treatment for Zika, is linked with GBS.   The ARS said that 1,770 people had contacted doctors between May 9 and 15 to ascertain if they might have the virus.   The first Zika-related death was in Brazil last November and two other deaths have followed.   Last week, Puerto Rican health authorities announced the first case of Zika-related microcephaly in a foetus, as the US territory grapples with the spread of the mosquito-borne virus.
Date: Tue, 22 Mar 2016 09:42:21 +0100

Paris, March 22, 2016 (AFP) - French authorities said Tuesday there was "a very strong suspicion" that the first case of microcephaly linked to the Zika virus had been detected on the Caribbean island of Martinique.    The case would be the first on French territory of microcephaly, a birth defect thought to be caused by Zika, the mosquito-borne virus that has spread rapidly through South America.

French Health Minister Marisol Touraine said a total of 130 pregnant women had been diagnosed with the Zika virus in the Antilles islands, which include Martinique, as well as French Guiana on the South American mainland.    "For one of them, we have elements that lead us to believe her baby has contracted microcephaly and that this microcephaly is directly linked to her infection with the Zika virus," said Touraine.
Date: Fri 28 Mar 2014
Source: The Global Dispatch [edited]

The number of confirmed and suspected chikungunya cases in the Caribbean continues to increase; in fact, some new cities on the islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe have reported cases for the 1st time, according to a European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) update today [28 Mar 2014].

To date, there have been 3211 confirmed/probable chikungunya cases reported in the region, including 5 deaths and 15 282 suspected cases.

In addition, a suspected outbreak is being reported in the Dominican Republic according to a Spanish language news source. According to Health Minister Freddy Hidalgo, more than 1000 patients since February 2014 have come to the medical centre with chikungunya-like symptoms. Samples have been sent to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for confirmation. The report does note that there are no confirmed cases of chikungunya to date.
======================
[The presence of chikungunya virus transmission in these Caribbean islands is of economic significance because they are important tourist destinations, and loss of tourism could have serious adverse effects on the economy. If the Dominican Republic cases are confirmed as chikungunya virus infections, that could be especially adverse, because that country has the highest number of tourist stop-overs, with 3 840 761 in 2013. Cruise ship arrivals were highest in St. Maarten. Caribbean tourist stops can be seen at this same source (<http://www.onecaribbean.org/wp-content/uploads/DEC12Lattab13.pdf>).

Maps showing the location of the islands mentioned can be accessed at
(with case numbers as of 17 Mar 2014) and
<http://healthmap.org/r/9NLv>. - ProMed Mod.TY]
More ...

World Travel News Headlines

Date: Thu, 23 Jan 2020 17:57:34 +0100 (MET)
By Eva XIAO

Beijing, Jan 23, 2020 (AFP) - The first fatality of China's new virus would come to represent a common set of traits for those who died to the disease: he was over the age of 60 and in poor health.   Since China reported the emergence of a new coronavirus at the end of December, the SARS-like virus has infected more than 500 and killed 17.   So far, the majority of the victims were elderly individuals with pre-existing health conditions, such as diabetes and liver cirrhosis.   All hailed from central Hubei province, where a local seafood market in the capital city of Wuhan is believed to be the epicentre of the epidemic.   But while older individuals have died from the Wuhan virus, some younger patients -- including a 10-year-old boy -- have since been released from the hospital.   Here's what we know so far about the deaths:

Most victims were over 60
According to details released by China's National Health Commission (NHC) on Thursday, the 17 victims of the virus were between 48 and 89 years old.   Only two were under the age of 60, while the average age of the victims was 73.   Most of them died this week, according to the NHC.   Among those who have been discharged from the hospital were younger patients, including a 35-year-old man from Shenzhen, a bustling tech hub in southern Guangdong province.   He was released from the hospital on Thursday, according to the local health commission, as well as the 10-year-old boy who had visited relatives in Wuhan before falling ill.

Many had pre-existing health conditions
Many of those who died from the virus also had pre-existing health issues before contracting the Wuhan disease, such as diabetes and hypertension.   One man, an 86-year-old who was hospitalised on January 9, had surgery for colon cancer four years prior, on top of suffering from high blood pressure and diabetes.   Another, an 80-year-old woman surnamed Hu, had Parkinson's Disease and more than 20 years of high blood pressure and diabetes in her medical history.

Some were hospitalised for weeks before dying
Several of the 17 victims were hospitalised for weeks before dying -- raising questions on the preparedness of hospitals that may have to treat patients for long periods of time.   The youngest victim of the Wuhan virus, a woman surnamed Yin, was hospitalised for more than a month before succumbing to the virus.   On December 10, the 48-year-old woman reported a fever, coughing, body soreness, and fatigue, and underwent anti-infection treatment for two weeks, according to the NHC.   Later in the end of the month, Yin suffered shortness of breath and chest tightness, and she passed away on January 20.

Not all of them had a fever
Currently, Wuhan authorities are screening passengers for fever at the airport, railway stations, and bus terminals.   At four airports in Thailand, authorities introduced mandatory thermal scans of passengers arriving from high-risk areas of China.   But not all those who died after being infected reported a fever before being hospitalised, according to the NHC.   A 66-year-old man surnamed Luo reported a "mainly dry cough" but no fever on December 22 before suffering from shortness of breath more than a week later.

By mid-January, Luo required a ventilator to help him breathe.   "A major concern is the range of severity of symptoms this virus is causing," said Dr Jeremy Farrar, Director of the Wellcome Trust.   "It is clear some people are being affected and are infectious while experiencing only very mild symptoms or possibly without experiencing symptoms at all," he said in an emailed statement.   "This may be masking the true numbers infected and the extent of person to person transmission," he added.
Date: Thu, 23 Jan 2020 16:05:30 +0100 (MET)

Singapore, Jan 23, 2020 (AFP) - Singapore Thursday confirmed its first case of the new SARS-like virus which has killed 17 people in China and spread to multiple countries including the United States.   The Ministry of Health (MOH) said the patient was a 66-year-old man from Wuhan who arrived in Singapore with his family on Monday.    He was immediately isolated after arriving at a hospital with a fever and cough, and test results later confirmed he was infected with the coronavirus.   One of his travelling companions, a 37-year-old man from Wuhan, has also been admitted to hospital as a suspect case.

Prior to admission, they had stayed at a hotel on the resort island of Sentosa, the ministry said.   It added that Singapore was expecting more cases and alarms "given the high volume of international travel".   Singapore's Changi Airport started screening flights from Wuhan at the beginning of the month, and on Wednesday extended the checks to all flights from China.   The travel hub receives over 430 flights from China every week.   The virus has caused alarm in China and abroad because of its genetic similarities to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), which killed nearly 650 people across mainland China and Hong Kong in 2002-2003.

Singapore was among the hardest hit by SARS with 33 deaths.   Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, who is in Davos for the World Economic Forum, said there was "no need to panic".   Speaking to reporters travelling with him, Lee said Singapore has beefed up its hospital facilities and laid out response measures since the SARS epidemic.   "I think we are much better prepared now," he said in remarks carried by the Straits Times newspaper.
Date: Thu, 23 Jan 2020 14:43:33 +0100 (MET)

Barcelona, Jan 23, 2020 (AFP) - The death toll from a violent storm which has wrought havoc on huge swathes of Spain's eastern and southern coastline rose to nine on Thursday as rescuers pressed the hunt for at least five missing people.    The latest death was that of a man whose body was found in a flooded river near Jorba, some 70 kilometres (45 miles) northwest of Barcelona, the emergency services said.    Rescuers in Catalonia had been searching for a missing person in the same area but said it was too early to confirm if it was him.

Catalan rescuers had late on Wednesday found another body of a man who died after falling into the water in Palamos, a port town about 100 kilometres up the coast from Barcelona.    They are also searching for a man who went missing from a merchant ship in the same area, as well as a person in Cadaques near the French border.   Earlier on Thursday, regional officials confirmed the death of a 75-year-old woman whose house collapsed because of heavy rain in Alcoi, a town in the eastern Alicante region.

Storm Gloria hit the region on Sunday, bringing strong winds, torrential rains and heavy snow, battering Spain's southern and eastern flanks before moving north.   Gale-force winds and huge waves smashed into seafront towns, with dramatic images showing massive flooding that has damaged shops, houses and restaurants.   National weather agency Aemet had on Wednesday said the storm was starting to abate although it kept Catalonia and the Balearic Islands on alert.   As the storm eased, Prime Minister Pedro Sanchez was on Thursday visiting some of the worst-hit areas, overflying parts of Catalonia before heading to the Balearic Islands which on Tuesday were hit by record waves, the port authority said.

Rescuers on the islands are still searching for three people, including a 25-year-old Briton who went missing on a beach in northern Ibiza, and a 27-year-old Spaniard who disappeared in Mallorca while practising canyoning -- a mix of rappelling, climbing and watersliding through deep gorges.   Rescuers had found three other bodies on Wednesday, including that of a 67-year-old man who went missing in his car near the southeastern resort town of Benidom.    They also found two bodies in the southern Andalusia region, one of a 77-year-old man who died when a greenhouse collapsed on him in a hailstorm in Nijar as well as that of a homeless man who died of hypothermia.
Date: Wed 22 Jan 2020 1:04 PM EAT
Source: Uganda Red Cross Twitter [edited]

One confirmed case of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, 4 others suspected, in Kagadi [western Uganda]

A district Task Force has been formed to manage and coordinate the cases across the district @MinofHealthUG @robert_kwesiga @inakasiita1
========================
[Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) can cause serious disease in humans, with a case fatality rate of 10-40%. It can be responsible for severe outbreaks in humans, but it is not pathogenic for ruminants, their amplifying hosts. WHO states that the onset of symptoms in humans is sudden, with fever, myalgia, (muscle ache), dizziness, neck pain and stiffness, backache, headache, sore eyes and photophobia (sensitivity to light). There may be nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, and sore throat early on, followed by sharp mood swings and confusion. After 2-4 days, the agitation may be replaced by sleepiness, depression, and lassitude, and the abdominal pain may localize to the upper right quadrant, with detectable hepatomegaly (liver enlargement). Other clinical signs include tachycardia (fast heart rate), lymphadenopathy (enlarged lymph nodes), and a petechial rash (a rash caused by bleeding into the skin) on internal mucosal surfaces, such as in the mouth and throat, and on the skin.

Public education, especially among individuals in contact with livestock or their products, is needed to prevent cases of CCHF infection. A One Health approach is needed for effective surveillance, with effective communication between animal health and human health professionals.

The information in the tweet above indicates that there is one confirmed and at least 4 suspected cases of CCHF in Kagadi district, in the western region of Uganda.  Any updates on the epidemiology of these cases, occupational exposure, and public health response measures to control the transmission will be highly appreciated. - ProMED Mod.UBA]

[Maps of Uganda:
Date: Mon 20 Jan 2020
Source: Global News [edited]

A doctor working with Indigenous Services Canada (ISC) in Saskatchewan is urging caution to residents in and around Onion Lake First Nation following 2 people contracting a rare, deadly bacterial infection. Medical health officer Dr. Ibrahim Khan wrote a letter to the chief of the Onion Lake First Nation that said both patients were admitted to medical facilities shortly after New Years Day with diphtheria. He said one patient is under 18, while the other is an adult and was suffering from skin abrasions [? cutaneous diphtheria], which Khan said is rare for that disease.

In the letter, he said the disease is very uncommon in the province and can lead to "severe complications like breathing problems, heart failure, and paralysis, and without appropriate treatment can result in death." He applauded the medical team in Onion Lake, saying they contained the infection and made sure everyone in the community was aware of the risk and vaccinated.

"Everybody gets that vaccination, and they have that protection. That's why we don't see it. We don't see that many measles cases. We don't see that many prostatitis [pertussis?] cases, and we do not see any tetanus cases, because there is a good immunization for it. A good vaccination for it (and) people are aware of it," he told Global News. He said other local agencies, like pharmacies, made sure those on the front lines were supplied if they came across someone who wasn't vaccinated.

The letter to Chief Henry Louis said vaccination is the best method for preventing diphtheria and that the disease could virtually be eradicated if everyone who could be vaccinated received the shot. He said the target is for 97% of the population to receive the vaccination to prevent further spread in the community and noted the rates in Onion Lake are below that benchmark.  [Byline: Kyle Benning]
=====================
[Although the news report above says that one of the 2 patients with diphtheria was an adult "suffering from skin abrasions, which is rare for that disease," perhaps implying that this patient had cutaneous diphtheria, we are not told specifically the patients' clinical manifestations, i.e., whether they had respiratory diphtheria, cutaneous diphtheria, or both; if the strains of _Corynebacterium diphtheriae_ were toxin-producers; or if the patients were vaccinated against diphtheria.

Diphtheria became nationally notifiable in Canada in 1924, and that year 9057 cases were reported, the highest annual number of cases ever recorded in Canada  (<https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/immunization/vaccine-preventable-diseases/diphtheria/health-professionals.html>).

The diphtheria vaccine was 1st introduced in 1926, and routine immunization in infancy and childhood has been widely practiced since 1930 in Canada. By the mid-1950s, routine immunization had resulted in a remarkable decline in the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Another steep decline in cases occurred in 1980, which has been attributed, in part, to a change in case definition to exclude carriers from reported cases in all provinces and territories. Since 1993, a total of 19 cases have been reported with a range of 0-4 cases annually  (<https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/immunization/vaccine-preventable-diseases/diphtheria/health-professionals.html>).

In the USA, the case definition for reporting to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System includes only respiratory diphtheria
(<https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/diphtheria/case-definition/2010/>).

Similarly, the WHO case definition for reporting diphtheria only includes clinical respiratory diphtheria. Although no longer reportable, cutaneous diphtheria still occurs in the USA and has been most often associated with homelessness, poor sanitation, poverty, and crowded living conditions  (<https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/dip.html>).

However, the Canadian case definition includes both respiratory diphtheria and infection at another site (e.g., wound, cutaneous)
(<https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/immunization/vaccine-preventable-diseases/diphtheria/health-professionals/national-case-definition.html>).

Cutaneous diphtheria is contagious and can be a source of both respiratory and cutaneous infections in contacts. Acquisition of _Corynebacterium diphtheriae_, the cause of diphtheria, can occur even in vaccinated contacts, as vaccine-induced immunity is anti-toxin. - ProMED Mod.ML]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Saskatchewan province, Canada: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/262>]
Date: Wed, 22 Jan 2020 17:37:27 +0100 (MET)
By Helen ROXBURGH

Beijing, Jan 22, 2020 (AFP) - A new SARS-like virus has killed 17 people in China, infected hundreds and reached as far as the United States, with fears mounting about its spread as hundreds of millions travel for Lunar New Year celebrations, which start Friday.   Many countries have stepped up screening of passengers from Wuhan, the Chinese city identified as the epicentre, and the World Health Organization has called an emergency meeting.   Here's what we know so far about the virus:

- It's entirely new -
The pathogen appears to be a never-before-seen strain of coronavirus -- a large family of viruses that can cause diseases ranging from the common cold to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), which killed 349 people in mainland China and another 299 in Hong Kong between 2002 and 2003.   Arnaud Fontanet, head of the department of epidemiology at the Institut Pasteur in Paris, told AFP the current virus strain was 80 percent genetically identical to SARS.   China has already shared the genome sequencing of this novel coronavirus with the international scientific community.   It has been named "2019-nCoV".

- It's being passed between humans -
The WHO said Monday it believed an animal source was the "primary source" of the outbreak, and Wuhan authorities identified a seafood market as the centre of the epidemic.   But China has since confirmed that there was evidence the virus is now passing from person to person, without any contact with the now-closed market.

The virus has infected more than 400 people across the country, with most cases in Wuhan, according to officials. Li Bin of China's National Health Commission on Wednesday said 1,394 people were still under medical observation.   Doctor Nathalie MacDermott of King's College London said it seems likely that the virus is spread through droplets in the air from sneezing or coughing.   Doctors at the University of Hong Kong published an initial paper on Tuesday modelling the spread of the virus which estimated that there have been some 1,343 cases in Wuhan -- similar to a projection of 1,700 last week by scientists at Imperial College, London.   Both are much higher than official figures.

- It is milder than SARS -
Compared with SARS, the symptoms appear to be less aggressive, and experts say the death toll is still relatively low.   "It's difficult to compare this disease with SARS," said Zhong Nanshan, a renowned scientist at China's National Health Commission at a press conference this week. "It's mild. The condition of the lung is not like SARS."   However, the milder nature of the virus can also cause alarm.

The outbreak comes as China prepares for the Lunar New Year Holiday, with hundreds of millions travelling across the country to see family.   Professor Antoine Flahault, director of the Institute of Global Health at the University of Geneva, told AFP that the fact that the virus seems milder in the majority of people is "paradoxically more worrying" as it allows people to travel further before their symptoms are detected.   "Wuhan is a major hub and with travel being a huge part of the fast approaching Chinese New Year, the concern level must remain high," said Jeremy Farrar, Director of the Wellcome Trust.

- International public health emergency? -
The WHO will hold a meeting on Wednesday to determine whether the outbreak constitutes a "public health emergency of international concern" and if so, what should be done to manage it.   Cases have so far been confirmed in Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Macau and the United States.

The WHO has only used the rare label a handful of times, including during the H1N1 -- or swine flu -- pandemic of 2009 and the Ebola epidemic that devastated parts of West Africa from 2014 to 2016.   The Chinese government announced Tuesday it was classifying the outbreak in the same category as the SARS outbreak, meaning compulsory isolation for those diagnosed with the disease and the potential to implement quarantine measures on travel.   But if the WHO decides to take this step, it would put the Wuhan virus in the same category as a handful of very serious epidemics.

- Global precautions -
As the number of confirmed deaths and infections has risen, so has concern worldwide about the disease spreading to other countries.   In Thailand, authorities have introduced mandatory thermal scans of passengers arriving at airports in Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Phuket and Krabi from high-risk areas in China.

In Hong Kong, where hundreds died during the SARS outbreak of 2002-2003, authorities have said they are on high alert, carrying out scans at the city's airport -- one of the world's busiest -- and at other international land and sea crossing points.

The United States also ordered the screening of passengers arriving on direct or connecting flights from Wuhan, including at airports in New York, San Francisco and Los Angeles.   Taiwan has issued travel advisories, and went to its second-highest alert level for those travelling to or from Wuhan. Vietnam has also ordered more border checks on its border with China.
Date: Wed, 22 Jan 2020 16:53:32 +0100 (MET)
By Beiyi SEOW

Beijing, Jan 22, 2020 (AFP) - The death toll from a new SARS-like virus that has infected hundreds in China rose to 17 on Wednesday, as authorities urged people to steer clear of the city at the centre of the outbreak.   The coronavirus has caused alarm because of its similarity to SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), which killed nearly 650 people across mainland China and Hong Kong in 2002-2003.   With hundreds of millions of people travelling across China this week for the Lunar New Year holiday, the National Health Commission announced measures to contain the disease -- including sterilisation and ventilation at airports and bus stations, as well as inside planes and trains.

In Wuhan, the epicentre of the epidemic, large public events were cancelled and international football matches were moved to a new location. Visitors were urged to stay away, while residents were advised to not to leave the central city, which is home to 11 million people.   "If it's not necessary we suggest that people don't come to Wuhan," Wuhan Mayor Zhou Xianwang told state broadcaster CCTV.    The illness is mainly transmitted via the respiratory tract and there "is the possibility of viral mutation and further spread of the disease", health commission vice minister Li Bin told a news conference in Beijing.   More than 500 cases have now been reported, with the majority in Wuhan, capital of Hubei province.

The virus has now infected at least 444 people in Hubei province alone, said provincial officials at a press conference, adding that the death toll had risen from nine to 17.   Major cities, including Beijing, Shanghai, and Chongqing have also reported cases, as well as provinces in northeastern, central, and southern China.   The World Health Organization started an emergency meeting Wednesday to decide whether or not to declare a rare global public health emergency over the disease, which has now been detected in the United States, Taiwan, Thailand, Japan, South Korea and Macau.

The Chinese government has classified the outbreak in the same category as the SARS epidemic, meaning compulsory isolation for those diagnosed with the illness and the potential to implement quarantine measures.   But they still have not been able to confirm the exact source of the virus.   "We will step up research efforts to identify the source and transmission of the disease," Li said, adding that "the cases are mostly linked to Wuhan".   Countries have intensified efforts to stop the spread of the pathogen -- known by its technical name 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV).   Passengers are facing screening measures at five US airports and a host of transport hubs across Asia. Britain and Italy on Wednesday also announced enhanced monitoring of passengers from Wuhan.

- Virus source -
A prominent expert from China's National Health Commission confirmed this week that the virus can be passed between people.   However, animals are suspected to be the primary source of the outbreak.   A Wuhan market is believed to be the epicentre of the outbreak.

A price list circulating online in China for a business there lists a menagerie of animals or animal-based products including live foxes, crocodiles, wolf puppies and rats. It also offered civets, the animal linked to SARS.   "We already know that the disease originated from a market which conducted illegal transaction of wild animals," said Gao Fu, director of the Chinese centre for disease control and prevention.   He said it was clear "this virus is adapting and mutating".   Hong Kong and British scientists have estimated that between 1,300 and 1,700 people in Wuhan may have been infected.

- Containment -
Health authorities are urging people to wash their hands regularly, avoid crowded places, get plenty of fresh air and wear a mask if they have a cough.   Anyone with a cough or fever was urged to go to hospital.   In Wuhan, city authorities made it mandatory to wear a mask in public places on Wednesday, according to state-run People's Daily.

In response to skyrocketing demand for masks -- which were starting to sell out at pharmacies and on some popular websites -- China's industry and information technology ministry said it would "spare no effort in increasing supply", state media reported.   "These days, I wear masks even in places that are not too crowded, although I wouldn't have done so in the past," said Wang Suping, 50, who works at a Beijing arts school.   At the capital's main international airport, the majority of people were wearing masks.

Hong Kong flag carrier Cathay Pacific said it had agreed to allow staff to wear surgical masks on mainland China flights, and that passengers from Wuhan would be offered masks and antiseptic wipes.   In Wuhan, police were conducting vehicle spot checks for live poultry or wild animals leaving and entering the city, state media said.   Officials also screened people on roads, the airport and the train station for fever.   The local government has cancelled major public activities and banned tour groups from heading out of the city.   Women's Olympics football qualifiers scheduled for February 3-9 in Wuhan have been moved to the eastern city of Nanjing.
Date: Wed, 22 Jan 2020 15:49:25 +0100 (MET)

Montreal, Jan 22, 2020 (AFP) - A Canadian guide died and five French tourists were missing after at least one snowmobile plunged through ice in northern Quebec, police said Tuesday.   The group were riding close to where a river exits the Saint-Jean lake, and were outside the approved area for snowmobiles, police spokesman Hugues Beaulieu told AFP.   Nine people, including the guide, were on the trip on Tuesday evening when the ice broke underneath them.   Police said they were alerted by two of the tourists who had rescued a third tourist from the freezing water.

The 42-year-old guide was pulled out by emergency response teams and taken to hospital, but he died overnight, Beaulieu said, adding "five French tourists are still missing."   The police and army were searching the area on Wednesday, assisted by divers.   "This sector was not part of a marked trail, they were off-piste," said the spokesman.
Date: Wed, 22 Jan 2020 04:55:57 +0100 (MET)

Hong Kong, Jan 22, 2020 (AFP) - Macau on Wednesday reported its first confirmed case of the new SARS-like coronavirus as authorities announced all staff in the city's bustling casinos had been ordered to wear face masks.   The former Portuguese colony is a huge draw for mainland tourists as the only place in China that allows gambling.

With the Lunar New Year approaching this weekend, a huge influx of mainland tourists is expected in the city.   Asian countries have ramped up measures to block the spread of the new virus, which emerged in the Chinese city of Wuhan and has so far killed at least nine people.

On Wednesday, Macau announced its first confirmed case -- a 52-year-old businesswoman from Wuhan who arrived in the city by high-speed rail on Sunday, via the neighbouring city of Zhuhai.    "A series of tests found that she was positive for the coronavirus and had symptoms of pneumonia," Lei Chin-lon, the head of Macau's health bureau, told reporters.    The woman had been staying at the New Orient Landmark Hotel with two friends who were being monitored since her admission to hospital on Tuesday.

Ao Ieong Iu, Macau's Secretary for Social Affairs and Culture, said staff in all casinos would be required to wear masks while anyone arriving at entry ports along the city's border with the mainland would need to fill out health declaration forms.    "We have not banned tourism groups from Wuhan but we are not encouraging them," Ao Ieong said.    "We will stay in close contact with tourism agencies and require them to notify us of all groups going to and coming from Wuhan," she added.
Date: Tue, 21 Jan 2020 22:23:22 +0100 (MET)
By Issam Ahmed with Helen Roxburgh

Washington/Beijing, Jan 21, 2020 (AFP) - The United States on Tuesday announced its first case of a new virus that has claimed six lives in China and sickened hundreds, joining countries around the world in ramping up measures to block its spread.   The man, a US resident in his 30s who lives near Seattle, is in good condition, according to federal and state officials, and approached authorities himself after reading about the SARS-like virus in news reports.   He is "currently hospitalized out of an abundance of precaution, and for short term monitoring, not because there was severe illness," said Chris Spitters, a Washington state health official.  "This is an evolving situation and again, we do expect additional patients in the United States and globally," added Nancy Messonier, a senior official at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), but stressed that the overall risk to Americans remained low.

The man entered the country on January 15 after traveling to Wuhan, two days before the US began deploying health officials at major airports to screen passengers arriving from that central Chinese city which is at the heart of the outbreak. The efforts are to be extended now to a total of five US airports.   It came as countries ramped up measures to block the spread of the virus -- known by its technical name 2019 Novel Coronavirus or 2019-nCoV -- as the number of cases surpassed 300, raising concerns in the middle of a major Chinese holiday travel rush.

Fears of a bigger outbreak rose after a prominent expert from China's National Health Commission confirmed late Monday that the virus can be passed between people.   That conclusion is shared by the CDC, which said "person-to-person spread is occurring, although it's unclear how easily the virus spreads between people," even as the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a more cautious approach, saying it is still investigating.   The UN agency will hold an emergency meeting Wednesday to determine whether to declare a rare global public health emergency over the disease, which has also been detected in Thailand, Japan and South Korea and Taiwan.

- Holiday rush -
Authorities previously said there was no obvious evidence of person-to-person transmission and animals were suspected to be the source, as a seafood market where live animals were sold in Wuhan was identified as the center of the outbreak.   Hundreds of millions of people are criss-crossing China this week in packed buses, trains and planes to celebrate the Lunar New Year with relatives.

More than 80 new cases have been confirmed, bringing the total number of people hit by the virus in China to 315, with the vast majority in Hubei, the province where Wuhan lies, according to officials.   But cases have also been confirmed around the country, including Beijing and Shanghai.   The first case on the self-ruled island of Taiwan was also confirmed Tuesday, with a woman taken to hospital on arrival at the airport from Wuhan.   Wuhan mayor Zhou Xianwang told state broadcaster CCTV Tuesday that the death toll had risen from four to six.   The coronavirus has caused alarm because of its genetic similarities to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), which killed nearly 650 people across mainland China and Hong Kong in 2002-2003.

- Fever checks -
At four airports in Thailand, authorities introduced mandatory thermal scans of passengers arriving from high-risk areas of China.   In Hong Kong, authorities said they were on "extreme high alert," with passengers from Wuhan required to fill out health declarations and face possible jail time if they do not declare symptoms.   Enhanced screening measures have also been set up at airports in Australia, Bangladesh, Nepal, Singapore and Russia, Malaysia and Vietnam.   A man showing symptoms of the disease who had travelled to Wuhan has been put in isolation in Australia as health officials await test results, authorities said Tuesday.   In China, the government announced it was classifying the outbreak in the same category as SARS, meaning compulsory isolation for those diagnosed ith the disease and the potential to implement quarantine measures on travel.

In Wuhan, authorities banned tour groups and police were conducting spot checks for animals in vehicles leaving and entering the city, state media said.   It added that city health authorities had scheduled 800 beds to be made available in three hospitals and 1,200 more would soon be ready, and passengers were being screened for fever at the airport, railway stations and bus terminals.   Doctors at the University of Hong Kong released a study on Tuesday estimating that there have been 1,343 cases of the new virus in Wuhan.   The WHO has only called a global public health emergency a handful of times, including during the H1N1 -- or swine flu -- pandemic of 2009 and the Ebola epidemic that devastated parts of West Africa from 2014 to 2016.