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Solomon Islands

Solomon
Islands - US Consular Information Sheet
August 13, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
The Solomon Islands form an Archipelago in the southwest Pacific Ocean about 1,200 miles northeast of Australia.
The capital, Honiara, is locate
on the Island of Guadalcanal.
The Solomon Islands are a parliamentary democracy within the British Commonwealth.
Tourism facilities are limited, particularly outside Honiara.
Read the Department of State Background notes on the Solomon Islands for additional information.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
U.S. passport holders do not require visas to enter the Solomon Islands.
Passports, onward/return tickets and proof of sufficient funds for the duration of stay are required.
Visitor permits are granted upon arrival at Henderson International Airport in Honiara.
Visitors may enter any number of times provided the total period in the Solomon Islands does not exceed 90 days in a 12-month period.
Persons arriving on one-way airline tickets must have documentation stating their business, for example, a work permit if taking up employment in the Solomon Islands.
The Solomon Islands government strictly enforces immigration laws, and travelers may face fines and other penalties if they remain in the country beyond the authorized period of stay.
Persons arriving on yachts should visit the nearest immigration office to complete arrival forms for issuance of visitors' permits.

Travelers who plan to
arrive in the Solomon Islands by plane or some other conveyance
but who plan to depart on a yacht should apply for a visitor’s permit before their arrival in the Solomon Islands, to the Director of Immigration (via fax to the U.S. Consular Agent in Honiara at 677-27429).
The application should state the traveler’s arrival date, vessel name and registration details, vessel’s arrival date, approximate time traveler will spend in the Solomon Islands, and it should request entry on a one-way (arrival only) airline ticket.
The Director will issue a permit to be presented at airline check-in.
If the traveler does not have this permit, she/he may be denied boarding.
For more information about entry requirements, travelers may contact the Solomon Islands Mission to the United Nations at 800 Second Avenue, Suite 8008, New York, NY 10017-4709; Tel: (212) 599-6192 or 6193.
Travelers who anticipate the possibility of transiting or visiting Australia are advised to obtain an electronic travel authority (ETA) or visa for Australia before leaving the United States.
An ETA may be obtained for a small service fee at http://www.eta.immi.gov.au/.
Airlines and many travel agents in the United States are also able to issue ETAs.
Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Since July 24, 2003, the Regional Assistance Mission in the Solomon Islands (RAMSI), a coalition of Pacific Island states that includes military and police forces from Australia and several other Pacific Island nations, has helped the Solomon Islands improve law and order.
.
It is generally safe to walk alone during the day; however, walking alone at night is discouraged.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).
The U.S. Consular Agent in Honiara also has available up-to-date safety and security information at (677) 23426 and (677) 94731, or Fax (677) 27429.
The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME:
Major crimes against travelers are uncommon, although incidences of theft, mugging, and extortion are increasing.
Some 350 RAMSI Police are working alongside Royal Solomon Islands Police (RSIP) to respond to any situation requiring police.

Lawlessness is increasing in Honiara, mostly in the form of petty crime (theft and harassment for money).
The isolated incidents of harassment of expatriates that have increased in Honiara since April 2006 are generally minor and associated with alcohol and fringe elements of the community. House and vehicle break-ins occur, with expatriates particularly targeted.
Some recent episodes have involved violence and the use or threatened use of knives.
Gang-based criminal activity has increased in and around the Burns Creek area in East Honiara, and in the Borderline area, which is close to the Japanese memorial.
It is not advisable to go alone to the Japanese memorial.

Americans should be aware that the public does not distinguish between Australians and Americans.
INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and to the nearest U.S. Consular Agent in Honiara, or the U.S. Embassy in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the U.S. Consular Agent or the U.S. Embassy for assistance.
The Consular Agent or Embassy staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends, and explain how funds may be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

The local equivalent to the “911” emergency line in the Solomon Islands is: 999.
Other emergency numbers are:
Ambulance, Hospital - 911
National Disaster - 955
Fire - 988

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Hospitals and pharmacies in the Solomon Islands are limited to population centers and missions.
Since 2001, the quality of medical services has deteriorated seriously, although it is expected to improve as the country’s overall economic condition continues to improve.
The nearest reliable medical facilities are in Australia or New Zealand.
There is a hyperbaric recompression chamber in Honiara at the In-the-Zone Medical Centre, phone (677) 23485 or (677) 23482; however, medical conditions resulting from diving accidents may require medical evacuation to Australia or New Zealand.
Serious medical conditions requiring hospitalization and/or medical evacuation to Australia, New Zealand or the United States can cost thousands of dollars.
The incidence of malaria is high.
Doctors and hospitals often expect immediate cash payment for health services. Travelers who anticipate the possible need for medical treatment in Australia should obtain entry permission for Australia in advance.
Entry permission for Australia can be granted by the Australian High Commission in Honiara, but it is easier to obtain it prior to leaving the United States (see section above on Entry/Exit Requirements)
Some HIV/AIDS entry restrictions exist for visitors to and foreign residents of Solomon Islands.
Per Solomon Islands Immigration Act Cap 60, Section 4 (1) (d) and section 11, subsection (2), an immigration officer can bar a visitor from entering the country or deport an immigrant if he or she refuses to submit to an examination by a government medical officer after being required to do so.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s website at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning the Solomon Islands is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Vehicular traffic in the Solomon Islands moves on the left.
Paved roads are found only in and around Honiara, located on Guadalcanal Island.
These two-lane paved roads are poorly marked and have many potholes.
Roads are not well lit at night.
The remaining roads in the Solomon Islands are made of coral or gravel, or are dirt tracks.
Travelers must take care when driving off main roads to avoid trespassing on communal land.
For information concerning the rental and operation of motor vehicles in the Solomon Islands, contact our Consular Agent in Honiara.
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.
For specific information concerning Solomon Islands driving permits, vehicle inspection, road tax and mandatory insurance, visit the Solomon Islands Department of Commerce web site at http://www.commerce.gov.sb/.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in the Solomon Islands, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed the Solomon Islands’ Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: Customs Information: The Solomon Islands' customs authorities enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into or export from the Solomon Islands of items such as firearms and ammunition, sexually explicit material, and certain prescription drugs.
Other items may be subject to quarantine regulations or import duty.
The Solomon Islands' government prohibits the export of military artifacts from World War II.
It is advisable to contact the Solomon Islands' Mission to the United Nations for specific information regarding customs requirements.
Natural Disasters:
The Solomon Islands lie in the South Pacific cyclonic trajectory, and are vulnerable to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and sudden tidal movements.
The Pacific cyclone season extends from November through March.
General information regarding disaster preparedness is available via the Internet from the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) at http://www.fema.gov.

Please see our Customs Information.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating the Solomon Islands laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession or use of, or trafficking in illegal drugs in the Solomon Islands are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
There is no U.S. Embassy in the Solomon Islands.
However, there is a U.S. Consular Agent in Honiara.
The Consular Agent has general information and forms, such as passport applications, and can be contacted at the United States Consular Agency, Commonwealth Avenue, Point Cruz, telephone number is (677) 23426 or (677) 98367, cell number is (677) 94731, home number is (677) 22539; fax (677) 27429; e-mail keithieusa@solomon.com.sb or us_consular@solomon.com.sb.
For additional information and to download forms, please visit our Virtual Embassy for the Solomon Islands at http://www.usvpp-solomonislands.org/
The U.S. Embassy in Papua New Guinea provides primary assistance for U.S. citizens in the Solomon Islands.
The Embassy is located on Douglas Street, adjacent to the Bank of Papua New Guinea, in Port Moresby.
Use that address for courier service deliveries.
The mailing address is PO Box 1492, Port Moresby, N.C.D. 121, Papua New Guinea; the telephone number is (675) 321-1455; after hours duty officer telephone number is (675) 683-7943; Fax (675) 321-1593.
American citizens may submit consular inquiries via e-mail to ConsularPortMoresby@state.gov.
The web site for the U.S. Embassy in Port Moresby is http://portmoresby.usembassy.gov/.
Americans living or traveling in the Solomon Islands are encouraged to register with the U.S. Embassy in Port Moresby through the State Department’s travel registration web site, and to visit the Consular Agency in Honiara to obtain updated information on travel and security within the Solomon Islands.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the Embassy or Consular Agency.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy to contact them in case of emergency.
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This replaces the Country Specific Information for the Solomon Islands dated January 17, 2008, to update sections on Crime, Information for Victims of Crime, Medical Facilities and Health Information.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Mon, 23 Oct 2017 06:02:34 +0200

Wellington, Oct 23, 2017 (AFP) - Residents in the Solomon Islands' southeast were warned to stay indoors Monday to avoid showers of ash from a volcanic eruption.   Officials said a lack of scientific equipment made it difficult to monitor the situation on Tinakula island, which lies just north of Vanuatu where 11,000 people were evacuated last month following an eruption on Ambae island.

While the Vanuatu government decided on Friday that the situation on Ambae had settled and people could return home, Solomon Islands officials said they had no indication how long the eruption on Tinakula would continue.    Although Tinakula is uninhabited, about 10,600 people live on the neighbouring Santa Cruz islands.   "Authorities do not have a scientific way to monitor the situation and determine when it will end," the Solomon Islands Broadcasting Corporation (SIBC) quoted National Disaster Management Office director Loti Yates as saying. 

Yates said ashfall on nearby communities and the impact on air travel were the main concerns. An aviation warning has been issued for the Santa Cruz Islands.    "As much as possible, people need to stay indoors," he said, while downplaying the significance of the eruption.   "From what we know currently, the danger of the volcano's impact on Santa Cruz is very small or very limited," he said.   Tinakula, which is frequently active, once had a population of about 130 until an eruption in 1971 forced their permanent evacuation.
Date: Sun, 19 Mar 2017 18:23:14 +0100

Hong Kong, March 19, 2017 (AFP) - A 6.0-magnitude earthquake hit off the Solomon Islands in the early hours of Monday, the US Geological Survey said.   The quake struck at 02:43 am local time (1543 GMT Sunday) at a depth of 4.0 kilometres (2.5 miles), some 170 kilometres north-northeast of the capital city Honiara, the USGS said.   No tsunami warning was issued.

The Solomon Islands are part of the Pacific "Ring of Fire", a zone of tectonic activity known for frequent quakes and volcanic eruptions.    In 2007 an 8.0-magnitude quake in the Solomon Islands claimed 52 lives and left thousands homeless when it created a 10-metre tsunami.
Date: Fri, 20 Jan 2017 01:16:56 +0100

Sydney, Jan 20, 2017 (AFP) - A 6.8-magnitude earthquake hit off the Solomon Islands on Friday, seismologists said, with officials in the Pacific island nation saying there were no initial reports of damage.   The US Geological Survey said quake struck at 10:04 am local time (2304 GMT Thursday) at a depth of 33 kilometres (20 miles) some 70 kilometres west of Kirakira -- the same region where several large tremors struck last month.   The Hawaii-based Pacific Tsunami Warning Center said there was no tsunami threat from the latest shake.   Three strong tremors were felt off Kirakira in December without causing serious damage.

The Solomons National Disaster Management Office (NDMO) said it had not received any damage reports from the remote area.   "We haven't had any information come through," NDMO director Loti Yates told AFP from the capital Honiara.   "It's in the same area as the tremors last month and there are large cracks in the ground. Combined with heavy rain, that could cause landslips but it's too early to say at this stage and we're not making assumptions."   The Solomon Islands are part of the Pacific "Ring of Fire", a zone of tectonic activity known for frequent quakes and volcanic eruptions.    In 2007 an 8.0-magnitude quake in the Solomon Islands claimed 52 lives and left thousands homeless when it created a 10-metre tsunami.
Date: Tue, 20 Dec 2016 06:28:29 +0100

Sydney, Dec 20, 2016 (AFP) - The Solomon Islands was rattled by a strong 6.7-magnitude earthquake Tuesday, the US Geological Survey said, but no tsunami warning was issued and no immediate damage reported.   The quake struck 164 kilometres (101 miles) from the capital Honiara at a depth of 35 kilometres -- the fourth big tremor is just over a week.

"Based on all available data, a destructive Pacific-wide tsunami is not expected," the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center said, while Geoscience Australia estimated damage would only be likely up to 74 kilometres away.   The Solomon Islands are part of the Pacific "Ring of Fire", a zone of tectonic activity known for frequent quakes and volcanic eruptions.    On December 9, a 7.7-magnitude tremor triggered severe shaking and a tsunami warning in the same area, although there were no reports of serious damage. This was followed by a 6.9-magnitude aftershock a day later and another of 6.0 magnitude on Sunday.
Date: Sun, 18 Dec 2016 07:26:39 +0100

Sydney, Dec 18, 2016 (AFP) - A 6.0-magnitude earthquake struck off the Solomon Islands on Sunday, the US Geological Survey said, the third strong tremor off the Pacific nation in less than two weeks.   The quake hit at 4.46pm (0546 GMT) at a depth of 39 kilometres (24 miles) about 83 kilometres west-northwest of Kirakira, the USGS added.   On December 10 a 6.9-magnitude quake struck off Kirakira. The previous day a 7.7-magnitude tremor triggered severe shaking and a tsunami warning, although there were no reports of serious damage.
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Guinea

Guinea US Consular Information Sheet
August 15, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Guinea is a developing country in western Africa, with minimal facilities for tourism.
Travelers who plan to stay in Conakry, the capital, should make reservati
ns well in advance. French is the official language; Pular, Malinké, and Soussou are also widely spoken.
Read the Department of State Background Notes on Guinea for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport, visa, international vaccination record (WHO card), and current yellow fever vaccination are required.
Travelers should obtain the latest information and details from the Embassy of the Republic of Guinea, 2112 Leroy Street, NW, Washington, DC
20008, tel. (202) 986-4300, fax (202) 478-3010.
The Guinean embassy does not maintain a current website. Overseas, inquiries should be made to the nearest Guinean embassy or consulate.
Overseas, inquiries should be made at the nearest Guinean embassy or consulate.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Since early 2008, there has been a constant threat of violent strikes and demonstrations in Guinea.
The price of gasoline increased by more than 60 percent in April 2008, squeezing already economically hard-pressed Guineans and increasing tension in the country.
Parliamentary elections scheduled for late 2008 could result in violence.

While U.S. citizens have not been targeted in past outbreaks of violence, being in the wrong place at the wrong time can be very dangerous.
During periods of civil unrest, public services such as transportation and medical care, as well as availability of goods and services, can be affected.
During many demonstrations, crowds of people gather and burn tires, create roadblocks, and damage vehicles by throwing rocks and bricks. The military has also been known to demonstrate and incite unrest due to their grievances with the government.
Because of the potential for violence, U.S. citizens should avoid large crowds, political rallies, and street demonstrations. They should also avoid sensitive government installations, including the Presidential Palace, official government buildings, and military bases.

U.S. citizens should maintain security awareness at all times. There are no known terrorist groups officially operating in the country.

Most border crossings are controlled jointly by Guinean armed forces, gendarmes, police and immigration officials.
A long land frontier and the military’s lack of physical and monetary resources, however, mean that borders are lightly patrolled. U.S. citizens considering travel to the border regions with Liberia, Sierra Leone or Côte d’Ivoire should consult the latest Travel Warnings and Country Specific Information for those countries (available at the Bureau of Consular Affairs' Web site at http://travel.state.gov) and contact the U.S. Embassy in Conakry for the latest travel and security information.
Crossing land borders requires visas and complete paperwork, and can be difficult.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ website at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
In Conakry, as in many large cities, crime is a fact of daily life.
Residential and street crime is very common.
Sentiments toward Americans in Guinea are generally positive, but criminals regularly target foreigners, including Americans, because they are perceived as lucrative targets.
Nonviolent and violent crimes are a problem.
The majority of nonviolent crime involves acts of pick pocketing and purse snatching, while armed robbery, muggings, and assaults are the most common violent crimes.
In spite of good intentions, the police have been unable to prevent the rapid escalation of crime.
There have also been cases of direct and indirect requests for bribes from the police and military officials. Criminals particularly target visitors at the airport, in the traditional markets, and near hotels and restaurants frequented by foreigners.
Visitors should avoid unsolicited offers of assistance at the airport and hotels because such offers often mask an intention to steal luggage, purses, or wallets. Travelers should arrange for hotel personnel, family members, or business contacts to meet them at the airport to reduce their vulnerability to these crimes of opportunity.

Commercial scams and disputes with local business partners can create legal difficulties for U.S. citizens because corruption is widespread in Guinea.
Business routinely turns on bribes rather than the law, and enforcement of the law is irregular and inefficient.
The U.S. Embassy has extremely limited recourse in assisting Americans who are victims of illegal business deals.

Business fraud is rampant and the targets are usually foreigners, including Americans.
Schemes previously associated exclusively with Nigeria are now prevalent throughout West Africa, including Guinea, and pose a danger of severe financial loss.
Typically these scams begin with the receipt of an unsolicited communication (usually e-mails) from strangers who promise quick financial gain, often by transferring large sums of money or valuables out of the country, but then require a series of "advance fees" to be paid -- such as fees for legal documents or taxes -- to finalize the release of the transferred funds.
The final payoff does not exist; the purpose of the scam is simply to collect the advance fees. A common variation is the scammer’s claim to be a refugee or émigré of a prominent West African family, or a relative of a present or former political leader who needs assistance in transferring large sums of cash.
Still other variations appear to be legitimate business deals that require advance payments on contracts.
Sometimes victims are convinced to provide bank account and credit card information and financial authorization that drains their accounts, incurs large debts against their credit, and takes their life savings.

The best way to avoid becoming a victim of advance-fee fraud is common sense -- if a proposition looks too good to be true, it probably is.
You should carefully check and research any unsolicited business proposal before committing any funds, providing any goods or services, and undertaking any travel.
A good clue to a scam is the phone number given to the victim; legitimate businesses and offices provide fixed line numbers, while scams typically use only cell phones.
It is virtually impossible to recover money lost through these scams.

There is no “911” type of emergency assistance in Guinea.
For additional information on these types of scams, see the Department of State's publication, International Financial Scams.
INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends, and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Medical facilities are poorly equipped and extremely limited both in the capital city and throughout Guinea. Medicines are in short supply, sterility of equipment should not be assumed, and treatment is frequently unreliable. Some private medical facilities provide a better range of treatment options than public facilities but are still well below global standards. There are no ambulance or emergency rescue services in Guinea and trauma care is extremely limited. Water in Guinea is presumed contaminated, so you should use only bottled or distilled water for drinking. Malaria is a serious risk to travelers in Guinea. For additional information on malaria, including protective measures, see the CDC travelers’ health web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/contentDiseases.aspx#malaria.

The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors to or foreign residents of Guinea.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s website at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) website at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en
MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Guinea is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Drivers in Guinea tend to be poorly trained and routinely ignore road safety rules.
Guinea's road network, paved and unpaved, is underdeveloped and unsafe.
Roads and vehicles are poorly maintained, road signs are insufficient, and roads and vehicles are frequently unlit.
Livestock and pedestrians create constant road hazards and make nighttime travel inadvisable.
Guinea has many roadblocks set up by the police or the military, making inter- and intra-city travel difficult from 10:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m.
During the rainy season (July through September), flash floods make some roads temporarily impassable.
There is also a significant increase in banditry along the roadways between towns and upcountry during the hours of darkness.
Americans and other foreigners are strongly discouraged from traveling after dark outside of populated areas.
Roadside assistance is not available in Guinea.

Guinea has no public transportation. Taxis, including small cars and larger vans, are often poorly maintained and overcrowded.
Taxis frequently stop and start without regard to other vehicles, making driving hazardous.
Rental vehicles, with drivers, are available from agencies at major hotels in Conakry.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Guinea, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Guinea’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s Internet web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Guinean customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning the temporary import or export of items such as firearms, antiquities, medications, business equipment, and ivory.
You should contact the Embassy of Guinea in Washington (see contact information above in the Entry Requirements section) for specific information regarding customs requirements.

The local currency is the Guinean franc (FG).
Travelers may not have more than 100,000 FG (currently about $23.00 nor more than $5,000 when they depart Guinea.
Guinea has a cash economy.
ATMs are not available, and traveler’s checks are accepted only at some banks and hotels.
Credit cards are accepted at some larger hotels in Conakry, but should be used only at reputable hotels and banks.
Cash advances on Visa credit cards are available at various branches of BICIGUI, a local bank.
Inter-bank fund transfers are possible at BICIGUI branches but can be difficult and expensive.
Money transfers from the U.S. have worked successfully in the past.
Western Union has several offices in Conakry, and Moneygram has an office downtown.

Visitors should restrict photography to private gatherings and should obtain explicit permission from the Guinean government before photographing military and transportation facilities, government buildings, or public works.
Photographing without permission in any public area may provoke a response from security personnel or a dangerous confrontation with people who find being photographed offensive.

Please see our Customs Information.

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Guinean laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession or use of, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Guinea are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.

Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Guinea are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Guinea. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located on the Transversale No. 2, Centre Administratif de Koloma opposite the New Radio Station in Ratoma, Conakry, Guinea; telephone +224-30-42-08-61 through 68 or fax +224-30-42-08-71; web site: http://conakry.usembassy.gov/.
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This replaces the Country Specific Information for Guinea dated August 28, 2007, to update sections on Safety and Security and Medical Facilities and Health Information.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu, 1 Aug 2019 17:40:25 +0200 (METDST)

Conakry, Aug 1, 2019 (AFP) - Six children aged between four and 10 died after they were struck by lightning while making tea under a mango tree in north-eastern Guinea on Wednesday, a witness said.   The storm began shortly before 7:00 pm (1900 GMT) in the town of Siguiri, close to the border with Mali, witness Mamadi Doumbouya, a local resident, told AFP.   He said eight children in total, accompanied by two of their mothers, were under a mango tree at the back of his house.   "I invited everyone to take shelter in my living room. The ladies rushed under my roof but the children stayed behind to make the last cups of tea," he added.

Lightning then struck the mango tree and when Doumbouya rushed out, all of the children were on the ground and unconscious, he said in a telephone call.   Six of the children -- five girls and a four-year-old boy -- died while being taken to hospital, he added.    A doctor from Siguiri Hospital said the six dead children were brought there in the early evening and two others were placed under observation for the coming days.   West Africa is currently undergoing its rainy season.   On Saturday a landslide hit a gold mine in the same area as Wednesday's storm, killing four people including a two-year-old girl and her mother.   "The victims were working in a former gold mine where mining was banned because of the risk of landslides" in the heavy rains, "but people were hiding to go to the tunnels", a Red Cross official said.
Date: Thu, 7 Feb 2019 18:17:54 +0100

Conakry, Feb 7, 2019 (AFP) - Medical services in Guinea are on alert after a man died from Lassa fever, health officials said on Thursday, with some 80 people being monitored for the deadly disease.   Lassa fever is caused by a haemorrhagic virus which belongs to the same family as Marburg and Ebola.   The virus was found in a 35-year-old man from the southwestern town of Kissidougou. He died on January 29 in Mamou, some 400 kilometres (250 miles) away, according to officials.   Kissidougou is where an outbreak of Ebola began in December 2013, leading to thousands of deaths in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone.   "(We) have set to work to see if there are any hidden cases and to trace all the contacts" of the deceased man, said Sakoba Keita from the National Health Security Agency (ANSS).   Keita said it was not yet clear whether this was "an isolated case or an epidemic". 

Around 80 people -- 30 in Kissidougou and 50 in Mamou -- are being monitored but none have so far shown any symptoms of the disease, Keita said.   Lassa takes its name from the town of that name in northern Nigeria where it was first identified in 1969.   The virus is spread through contact with food or household items contaminated with rats' urine or faeces, or after coming into direct contact with the bodily fluids of an infected person.   It can be prevented by enhanced hygiene and avoidance of all contact with rats.   Nearly four in five peple who become infected with the virus do not have symptoms of the disease, the World Health Organization (WHO) says on its website.   A Lassa outbreak in Nigeria last year left 171 dead, and a resurgence of the disease there last month killed 16, according to official figures.
Date: Mon, 4 Feb 2019 21:26:07 +0100

Conakry, Feb 4, 2019 (AFP) - At least 17 people have been killed in a landslide at a gold mine in northeastern Guinea, local police said Monday.   A local elected official confirmed the death toll, saying he had "seen at least 17 dead" after the accident which took place late Sunday in Norassoba, some 35 kilometres (20 miles) from the town of Siguiri.   "This death toll is clearly provisional as the villagers say there are still many people missing," police lieutenant Marcus Bangoura said.

One local inhabitant said "the landslide apparently took everyone by surprise, there was no sign of danger in this mine where we have been working for several years."  There are many such accidents in mines in mineral-rich Guinea where thousands risk their lives working in illegal pits.   The work becomes even more dangerous in the rainy season.

Guinea has gold, diamonds, bauxite and huge reserves of iron ore but the west African country's population struggle to make ends meet.    The miners include locals and those from nearby countries such as Burkina Faso, Liberia and Ivory Coast.   Authorities say there are more than 20,000 such miners in the Siguiri region.
Date: Sun 3 Feb 2019 9:02 AM GMT+1
Source: Bloomberg [edited]

Guinea's government has reported one case of a 35-year-old man with Lassa fever in the central town of Mamou, some 260-kilometers [162 mi] from the country's capital of Conakry.

An investigative mission will be deployed to the region to support health authorities, the government said on [Sat 2 Feb 2019] in statement posted on the website of the National Health Security Agency. No other Lassa fever cases were reported.

Lassa fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic illness, transmitted to humans through contact with food or household items contaminated by infected rodents.  [Byline: Ougna Camara]
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[Although rarely reported in Guinea, this may not be the 1st Lassa fever case that has occurred there. As noted when an earlier case was first posted on Thu 8 Feb 2018, it was the 1st Lassa fever case that ProMED-mail had posted for Guinea (see Lassa fever - West Africa (09): Liberia ex Guinea http://promedmail.org/post/20180210.5620420). That report indicated that the affected individual actually died in Liberia but indicated that the infection was acquired in Guinea. West Africa, including Guinea and Liberia, is endemic for Lassa fever virus.

The situation where the person reported above acquired Lassa fever virus is not indicated in this case. Virus transmission to humans occurs when people are in contact with the reservoir rodent host, the multimammate mouse (in the genus _Mastomys_) or its excreta, as was likely the situation in this case. Rodent control has to be undertaken at the village level with individual households. This requires an extensive and continuous public education effort. Transmission also occurs in health facilities when personal protective equipment is not employed and barrier-nursing practices are not adequate to protect staff from blood and secretions of infected patients.

Images of the _Mastomys_ mouse, the rodent reservoir of Lassa fever virus, can be seen at
<https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/45326-Mastomys-natalensis>. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Guinea:
Date: Mon, 29 Oct 2018 14:38:26 +0100

Conakry, Oct 29, 2018 (AFP) - A "dead city" strike call by the opposition in Guinea largely emptied the streets of the capital Conakry on Monday, with no solution in sight to a pay dispute in the education sector.   Streets were deserted in some parts of the West African city, while traffic was jammed in other areas where all drivers were being diverted, an AFP correspondent saw.   Troops and police were placed on alert but few were deployed on the streets. Instead they were gathered in strength in central police stations and gendarmerie barracks, the correspondent said.   Youths burned tyres early in the day along a main Conakry thoroughfare, Le Prince street, but rain soon put out the fires and dampened the ardour of would-be demonstrators.

The political opposition called for the strike in protest against what it considers a violation by the authorities of an agreement reached in August over the appointment of local government officials elected in a hotly disputed vote on February 4.   Rivals of President Alpha Conde have also called for a march and rally in Conakry on Tuesday, a week after a banned demonstration during which opposition leader Cellou Dalein Diallo alleged that police tried to assassinate him.   Also last Tuesday, an 18-year-old was killed in street clashes and his family blamed police, who denied both shooting allegations.

On Monday morning, hundreds of schoolchildren in Siguiri, a town in the far north of the country, took to the streets to call for the return of their teachers, who began "an unlimited strike" on October 3 to press demands for a raise in minimum pay, according to local media.   The teachers decided to take tougher action after the government announced that it would not pay October wages for the strikers, said Aboubabar Soumah, general secretary of the powerful Free Union of Teachers and Researchers of Guinea (SLECG).   "From now on, it's not the worker who gets paid, but the work," Conde warned on state media.   "Teachers will stay at home until the end of the head of state's second mandate in 2020," the SLECG said in response.
More ...

Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan - US Consular Information Sheet
May 07, 2007
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Uzbekistan gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.
While the country has undergone significant change since then, its progress towards democratic
nd economic reform has been halting and uneven.
Corruption is endemic at all levels of society.
Much of the country, particularly areas outside of Tashkent and the major tourist destinations of Samarkand, Bukhara, and Khiva, are remote and difficult to access.
Tourist facilities, when they exist at all, are typically below Western standards, and many goods and services remain difficult to find on a regular basis.
Read the Department of State Background Notes on Uzbekistan for additional information.

ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport and visa are required.
Although official invitation letters are not required for American citizens applying for tourist visas, they are required for those planning to visit an individual who resides in Uzbekistan.
Tourist visas cannot be extended in Uzbekistan.
Visas are issued by Uzbek embassies and consulates abroad.
Visitors coming from countries where Uzbekistan does not have diplomatic or consular representation should obtain visas in a third country.
Visas are not available upon arrival at Uzbek airports.
The Embassy has received a number of reports from American citizens who have had problems obtaining Uzbek visas or who received Uzbek visas valid for a very limited period, usually for fewer than three months.
Americans seeking visas are encouraged to apply for their visas well in advance of their travel.

It is important to note that Uzbek visas indicate not only the validity of the visa, but also the period of time a person is allowed to stay in Uzbekistan on a given trip.
A visitor will have to leave the country after the number of days indicated as the duration of stay on the visa.
Therefore, it is important to indicate your intended period of stay when applying for your Uzbek visa.
American citizens who are affiliated with a non-governmental organization (NGO), which has been closed in Uzbekistan, may be prevented from entering the country, even with a valid visa.
All travelers, even those simply transiting Uzbekistan for fewer than 72 hours, must obtain an Uzbek visa before traveling to Uzbekistan.

The Uzbek Government maintains travel restrictions on large parts of the Surkhandarya province bordering Afghanistan, including the border city of Termez. The border crossing point at Hayraton between Afghanistan and Uzbekistan, while open, is tightly controlled.
Foreign citizens intending to travel to this region must obtain a special permission card from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Internal Affairs or Uzbek embassies and consulates abroad.
Even with such permission, however, some American citizens transiting to Afghanistan via Termez have been briefly detained and/or fined for not registering in Uzbekistan.

Travel within Uzbekistan by rail or land sometimes requires brief exit into neighboring countries.
Travelers should have multiple-entry Uzbek visas and a proper visa for the neighboring country in order to avoid delays in travel.

Registration after entry:
All travelers present in Uzbekistan for more than three business days must register with the Office of Entry, Exit, and Citizenship, commonly known as “OVIR.”
Hotel guests are registered automatically, but all other travelers are responsible for registering themselves.
Registration fees vary depending on length of stay.
See http://uzbekistan.usembassy.gov/consular for more information.
Visitors without proper registration are subject to fines, imprisonment, and deportation.
The fines range from $500 to $4,000.
Uzbek law mandates that visitors carry a medical certificate attesting that they are not infected with HIV, but this requirement is sporadically enforced.
For more information, see the Department of State's Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Testing Requirements for Entry into Foreign Countries brochure.

Further visa information is available from the Consular Section of the Embassy of the Republic of Uzbekistan, 1746 Massachusetts Ave., NW, Washington, D.C. 20036; telephone: (202) 530-7291; fax: (202) 293-9633; website: http://www.uzbekistan.org ; or from the Consulate General of Uzbekistan in New York City, 866 United Nations Plaza, Suite 327A, New York, NY 10017; telephone:
(212) 754-7403; fax: (212) 838-9812; website: http://www.uzbekconsulny.org .

See our Foreign Entry Requirements brochure for more information on Uzbekistan and other countries.
Visit the Embassy of Uzbekistan web site at http://www.uzbekistan.org for the most current visa information.

See Entry and Exit Requirements for more information pertaining to dual nationality and the prevention of international child abduction .
Please refer to our Customs Information to learn more about customs regulations.

SAFETY AND SECURITY:
A Travel Warning remains in effect for Uzbekistan.
The Department of State reminds U.S. citizens of the potential for terrorist attacks or civil disturbance in Uzbekistan, although there have been no violent incidents there since May 2005, and continues to urge Americans in Uzbekistan to exercise caution.
The U.S. Government continues to receive information that indicates terrorist groups may be planning attacks, possibly against U.S. interests, in Uzbekistan.
Supporters of terrorist groups such as the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, Al-Qaida, the Islamic Jihad Union, and the Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement are active in the region.
Members of these groups have expressed anti-U.S. sentiments and have attacked U.S. Government interests in the past, including the U.S. Embassy in Tashkent, and may attempt to target U.S. Government or private American interests in Uzbekistan.
In the past, these groups have conducted kidnappings, assassinations, and suicide bombings.

Increased security at official U.S. facilities over the past year may lead terrorists and their sympathizers to seek softer targets.
These may include facilities where Americans and other foreigners congregate or visit, such as residential areas, clubs, restaurants, places of worship, schools, hotels, outdoor recreation events, and resorts.
The U.S. Embassy in Tashkent continues to employ heightened security precautions.
U.S. citizens should report any unusual activity to local authorities and then inform the Embassy.

Uzbekistan experienced a wave of terrorist violence in 2004.
In July 2004 there were three suicide bombings in Tashkent, including one outside the U.S. Embassy.
The Islamic Jihad Union (IJU) claimed responsibility for the attacks.
The IJU also used suicide bombers in multiple attacks focused on police and Uzbek private and commercial facilities in Tashkent and Bukhara in late March and early April 2004.
In May 2005, armed militants stormed a prison in Andijon, released its prisoners, and then took control of the regional administration and other government buildings in Andijon Province.
Fighting broke out between government forces and the militants, and reports indicated that several hundred civilians died in the ensuing violence.
While there were no reports of U.S. citizens affected by these events, U.S. citizens and other foreigners in Uzbekistan frequently have experienced harassment from authorities and local residents since the 2005 violence.

Depending upon security conditions, travelers can expect restricted personal movement, including the closing of roads to traffic, and frequent document, vehicle, and personal identification checks should be anticipated.
The Uzbek Government has intermittently restricted travel to certain parts of the country in response to security concerns.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department’s Internet website, where the current Travel Warnings and Public Announcements , including the Travel Warning for Uzbekistan , Worldwide Caution Public Announcement , and the Public Announcement for Central Asia, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada or, for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad .

CRIME:
Uzbekistan’s rate of violent crime, including against foreigners, has increased in recent years.
In urban areas, travelers are urged to take the same precautions against crime that they would take in a large American city.
If you are traveling at night, please travel in groups, maintain a low profile, and do not display large amounts of cash.

Although using private cars as taxicabs is a common practice in Uzbekistan, Americans, especially women, should not consider this a safe practice.
Americans are encouraged to use clearly marked taxicabs, such as those at hotels.
Also, Americans should avoid riding in taxis alone.

In many countries around the world, counterfeit and pirated goods are widely available.
Transactions involving such products may be illegal under local law.
In addition, bringing them back to the United States may result in forfeitures and/or fines.
More information on this serious problem is available at http://www.cybercrime.gov/18usc2320.htm .

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting the crime to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.

See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Medical care in Uzbekistan is below Western standards, with severe shortages of basic medical supplies, including disposable needles, anesthetics, and antibiotics.
Elderly travelers and those with pre-existing health problems may be at particular risk due to inadequate medical facilities.
Most resident Americans travel to North America or Western Europe for their medical needs.

Travelers are advised to drink only boiled water, peel all fruits and vegetables, and avoid undercooked meat.
Due to inadequate sanitation conditions, travelers should avoid eating unpasteurized dairy products and most food sold in the streets.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s internet site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel .
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) website at http://www.who.int/en .
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith .

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Uzbekistan is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Uzbekistan has a developed but deteriorating traffic infrastructure.
Although main roads in central Tashkent are relatively well maintained, many secondary roads inside and outside Tashkent, and particularly those in the Tien Shan and Fan Mountains, are in poor condition and may be passable only by four-wheel-drive vehicles.
Driving at night can be quite dangerous because only the main roads in Tashkent and a few other major cities have streetlights; rural roads and highways generally are not lit.
Visitors are strongly urged to avoid driving at night outside Tashkent.
The gasoline supply can be sporadic; therefore, travelers should expect occasional difficulty finding gasoline, particularly outside of Tashkent.

Livestock, as well as farm equipment and carts drawn by animals that lack lights or reflectors, are found on both urban and rural roads at any hour.
Local drivers are not familiar with safe driving techniques.
Pedestrians in cities and rural areas cross streets unexpectedly and often without looking for oncoming traffic.
Uzbekistan has a large road police force, which frequently stops drivers for minor infractions or simple document checks.
There have been reports of harassment of foreign drivers by the road police, with reported minor police corruption in the form of solicitation of bribes.

Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Uzbekistan’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Uzbekistan’s air carrier operations.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s Internet web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa .

SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: Travelers to Uzbekistan are subject to frequent document inspections.
Therefore, U.S. citizens are strongly encouraged to carry a certified copy of their U.S. passport and their Uzbek visa with them at all times so that, if questioned by local officials, proof of identity and U.S. citizenship are readily available.
In accordance with the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations and certain bilateral agreements, local authorities must grant a United States Consular Officer access to any U.S. citizen who is arrested.
U.S. citizens who are arrested or detained should ask to contact the U.S. Embassy immediately.

Uzbek customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary import to or export from Uzbekistan of items such as armaments and ammunition, space technology, encryption devices, X-ray and isotope equipment, nuclear materials, poisons, drugs, precious and semi-precious metals, nullified securities, pieces of art, and antiques of historical value.
Contact the Embassy of Uzbekistan in Washington, D.C. or the Consulate of Uzbekistan in New York for specific information regarding customs requirements.

Most transactions are conducted on a cash-only, local currency (soum) basis.
Credit cards are accepted only at the main hotels and a few shops and restaurants; travelers’ checks can be cashed into dollars at the National Bank of Uzbekistan.
The commission fee is two percent.
Importation of currency exceeding $10,000 (US) is subject to a one- percent duty.
Foreigners must complete a customs declaration upon entering Uzbekistan and may face fines upon departure if unable to produce certificates verifying legal conversion of foreign currency.
Old U.S. dollar bills (prior to 1990) and/or those in poor condition (with tears, writing or stamps) are not acceptable forms of currency in Uzbekistan.
Although payment in U.S. dollars is required for certain hotel charges, airline tickets, and visa fees, other dollar transactions, as well as black market currency exchanges, are prohibited.
Please see our Customs Information.

Uzbekistan is an earthquake-prone country.
General information about natural disaster preparedness is available via the Internet from the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) at http://www.fema.gov/ .

CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Uzbek laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Uzbekistan are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information on international adoption of children and international parental child abduction, see the Office of Children’s Issues website.

REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION: Americans living or traveling in Uzbekistan are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration website and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Uzbekistan.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the U.S. Embassy in Tashkent.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy is located at # 3, Moyqorghon Street, 5th Block, Yunusobod District, Tashkent -700093, Uzbekistan.
The main Embassy telephone number, which can also be reached after hours, is (998 71) 120-5450, fax:
(998 71) 120-6335; Consular fax: (998 71) 120-54-48; e-mail address: ConsularTashkent@state.gov; web site: http://uzbekistan.usembassy.gov.
*

*

*
This replaces the Consular Information Sheet dated October 13, 2006, to update the sections on Country Description, Entry/Exit Requirements, Safety and Security, Crime, and Traffic Safety and Road Conditions.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Fri, 1 Feb 2019 09:29:10 +0100

Tashkent, Feb 1, 2019 (AFP) - Uzbekistan on Friday granted visa-free entry to citizens of 45 countries to boost tourism, which the government views as vital for economic growth.  The countries benefiting from a 30-day visa waiver that went into force on Friday include the majority of European countries including Britain as well as Australia, Canada, Argentina and Chile. The United States is a notable exception.

The impoverished ex-Soviet country has made tourism a priority to reduce its dependence on commodity exports.   The government is keen to show off the lavish Silk Road heritage of ancient cities such as Bukhara, Khiva and Samarkand.    Earlier this year, Uzbekistan granted a 30-day visa waiver to Germany while France became the first European Union country to benefit from the measure last year.

Uzbekistan's tourism committee said last month that annual visitor numbers for 2018 were 5.3 million, double the figure for 2017.   President Shavkat Mirziyoyev has reversed a number of policies that hampered tourism under his late predecessor Islam Karimov.    Among the restrictions he scrapped was a ban on photography in the capital Tashkent's ornate metro that had led to police detentions of unsuspecting tourists.    Mirziyoyev's bid to boost tourism in the immediate aftermath of Karimov's death in 2016 suffered a false start.

In December that year, he issued an order easing or cancelling visa requirements for visitors from 27 developed countries but this was swiftly reversed before coming into force.   Observers attributed the reversal to resistance within the powerful security apparatus.      Uzbekistan already offers visa-free entry to visitors from Turkey, Israel, Indonesia, South Korea, Malaysia, Singapore and Japan, in addition to long-standing reciprocal visa-free entry for citizens of most former Soviet countries.
Date: Fri, 4 Jan 2019 13:59:14 +0100

Tashkent, Jan 4, 2019 (AFP) - Uzbekistan said Friday it will allow German citizens to visit for up to 30 days visa-free to boost tourism as the ex-Soviet country emerges from long-term isolation.   Germany will be the second European Union country after France to gain visa-free travel to Uzbekistan, which has opened up somewhat since the death of its long-reigning hardline leader Islam Karimov in 2016.    Germans will be able to enter the central Asian nation visa-free from January 15, the Uzbek tourism committee said Friday, three months after authorities granted French citizens the same 30-day visa waiver.

The impoverished country is highly dependent on commodity exports and has made developing tourism a priority.   In particular the government is keen to show off the lavish Silk Road heritage of cities such as Bukhara, Khiva and Samarkand.    According to the Uzbek tourism committee, 18,094 Germans visited Uzbekistan in 2018, almost five times as many as in 2016.   Reform-touting Uzbek president Shavkat Mirziyoyev is set to visit Germany this month after meeting US President Donald Trump and French leader Emmanuel Macron last year.    These high-profile visits are seen as rewards for his steps towards greater openness following the death of  Karimov, under whom Mirziyoyev served as prime minister for 13 years.   The current president has reversed a number of policies that hampered the tourism sector in recent years.

Among the restrictions he scrapped was a ban on photography in the capital Tashkent's ornate metro that had led to police detentions of unsuspecting tourists.    Mirziyoyev's bid to boost tourism in the immediate aftermath of Karimov's death suffered a false start, however.    In December 2016, he issued an order easing or cancelling visa requirements for visitors from 27 developed countries but this was reversed a month later before actually coming into force.   The reversal was attributed to resistance within the powerful security apparatus.      Uzbekistan offers visa-free entry to citizens of Turkey, Israel, Indonesia, South Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, and Japan, in addition to long-standing reciprocal visa-free entry for citizens of most former Soviet countries.
Date: Thu 27 Dec 2018
Source: Vanguard NGR News [edited]

The World Health Organization (WHO) has certified Uzbekistan as malaria-free, confirming the end of the country's half-century-long battle for malaria elimination within its borders. Uzbekistan has become the 2nd country in 2018 to be certified malaria-free -- Paraguay was certified in June -- marking another milestone on the road to ending the disease for good.

"Malaria No More commends the government of Uzbekistan for its resilience and determination to eliminate malaria once and for all. Uzbekistan's decade-long commitment demonstrates the government's recognition that malaria stood in the way of development, and that ridding the country of the disease was critical to improving [the country's] economic outlook and protecting the health of its people," said Martin Edlund, CEO of Malaria No More.

Uzbekistan 1st eliminated malaria in 1961 but struggled to maintain elimination as malaria cases continued to flow in from neighbouring countries. In 2000, recognising the barriers that having malaria within its borders had on the country's economy and overall health of its citizens, the government of Uzbekistan stepped up its investment and implemented a holistic multisectoral approach that went beyond health, with support from other ministries -- agriculture, education and transportation.

Highlighting the critical factors needed to get the job done, the WHO certification committee cited Uzbekistan's decision to maintain its support of the nation's primary health care system -- the backbone of the malaria response -- even during the economic crisis that gripped the country during the 1990s; its use of data to better target malaria interventions where they're need most; and its approach toward early detection, diagnosis and efficacious treatment of malaria patients -- free of charge and irrespective of nationality.

Another critical factor was support from non-governmental organizations and partners, particularly the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria, which played a vital role in Uzbekistan's achievement by providing financial support to ensure the national malaria program had the full amount of insecticide-treated bed nets, indoor residual spraying equipment, medicines and other tools needed to protect its citizens from malaria.  [Byline: Sola Ogundipe]
========================
[ProMED congratulates Uzbekistan with this important achievement. It is important to note that the achievement included mobilization beyond the health sector alone, applying a "holistic multisectoral approach that went beyond health," and the importance of the "primary health care system -- the backbone of the malaria response."

It is also noted that the malaria-free status would probably not have been achieved without the support of "non-governmental organizations and partners, particularly the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria." - ProMED Mod.EP]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Date: Sun, 29 Apr 2018 12:05:35 +0200
By Christopher RICKLETON

Samarkand, Uzbekistan, April 29, 2018 (AFP) - Coiffed, cheerful and multilingual, identical twins Fatima and Zukhra Rakhmatova do not immediately resemble agents of ex-Soviet Uzbekistan's long-feared security apparatus.   But the photogenic 30-year-old pair are frontline members of a newly formed, user-friendly Tourist Police deployed in the famed Silk Road city of Samarkand and other hotspots as a visitor boom sweeps the Central Asian country.

The force, established in January, is viewed as part of a broader opening initiated by Uzbekistan's authoritarian government following a long period of self-enforced isolation.    More than 2.5 million tourists visited Uzbekistan last year, a 24 percent increase on the previous year, according to the UzDaily news site.   "In the past I worked as a teacher and then as a wedding stylist. I even won a national prize as a stylist," recalls Zukhra Rakhmatova, one half of a sister act proficient in English, Russian, Farsi, Turkish and Japanese.   "But our grandfather served in the force and our uncle too," Rakhmatova told AFP. "It was always our dream to serve."

- Change and continuity -
Samarkand -- a former power centre positioned at the epicentre of millennia-old trade routes linking China and Europe -- hosts symbols of authoritarian continuity as well as tentative reform.    A short walk from the ceramic and marble dazzle of the three madrasahs towering over the city's old square is the statue of Islam Karimov, who ruled the country from before independence in 1991 until his death in 2016.    Laid to rest in a grand mausoleum in Samarkand's historic centre, Karimov is criticised by rights groups as the architect of one of the world's most repressive and closed-off police states.

Far from being disavowed, his monument is now yet another photo opportunity for visitors and wedding parties in the city, where he was born in 1938 and remains widely revered.    "Everyone makes mistakes but Islam Karimov is a hero. He worked day and night to protect the Uzbek people," said a 22-year-old bridesmaid posing for pictures by the monument.    The young woman, who did not give her name but said she had travelled to Samarkand from the capital Tashkent, refused to say what "mistakes" she thought Karimov had made.

- Power struggle -
Whether out of political pragmatism or genuine deference to a man he served for 13 years as prime minister, Karimov's successor, 60-year-old Shavkat Mirziyoyev has also continued to honour his mentor in public.   In the aftermath of the former leader's death, new strongman Mirziyoyev likened him to a "father", even as he toned down some of the totalitarian excesses that defined Karimov's 27-year rule. 

Foreign tourism, which grew by around a quarter during Mirziyoyev's first year in office emerged as a key battleground in a power struggle that pitted the new reform-touting president against regime hardliners.   In February for instance, Mirziyoyev ordered the introduction of a 30-day visa-free regime for citizens of seven countries -- Israel, Indonesia, South Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Turkey and Japan -- and relaxation of registration rules for citizens of 39 others.

In cities like Samarkand, the changes were cheered by a population that endured long stretches of economic stagnation under Karimov.   "(We need to) open up of course!" said Malika Shakhimardonova, a chef at a mutton-grilling teahouse in the shadows of the Bibi-Khanym Mosque, completed on the orders of medieval conqueror Tamerlane in the 15th century.   "Let the tourists arrive to us like brothers and sisters!" said Shakhimardonova, whose kitchen is expanding.

- 'Take photos and share them!' -
Many saw significance in the fact that Mirziyoyev's relaxation of visa restrictions came days after Rustam Inoyatov, 73, who led the notorious national security service for over two decades, was dismissed.   Inoyatov was widely reported to have blocked a previous effort by Mirziyoyev to revamp tourism and to have insisted on retaining long-standing security measures, including a blanket ban on photography in the capital's metro.    Such bans, which occasionally saw visitors detained by police, were "rudiments of the Soviet Union" now consigned to the past, said the country's new 44-year-old tourism chief Aziz Abdukhakimov.

"We want tourists to take as many photos as possible. Put them on Instagram! It is the best advert for the country," he told AFP.     The Rakhmatova sisters, who scoot around Samarkand on two-wheeled, motorised "Segways" and are trained to administer first aid, certainly seem far removed from the grimmer elements of a former communist police state.   But Fatima jokes their dual presence on the tourism beat might sometimes give visitors a different impression.    "Some tourists will see one of us close to one attraction then move on to another and find the other sister standing there," she explained.    "They smile but sometimes give us a strange look. Probably because we are identical they think the police are following them around," she laughed.
Date: Wed, 7 Feb 2018 13:23:32 +0100

Tashkent, Feb 7, 2018 (AFP) - Uzbek authorities are to ease strict rules that bar visitors from taking photos or videos in parts of the country's picturesque capital, in a new bid to encourage tourism.   Uzbek President Shavkat Mirziyoyev has made boosting the tourism sector a priority as his country seeks to emerge from a long period of economic stagnation under late ruler Islam Karimov, who died of a reported stroke in 2016.

But tourists have long been forbidden from capturing on camera the Uzbek capital Tashkent's elaborate metro stations and some government buildings.    Late on Tuesday state media published a presidential decree saying tourists would now be able to take photos of and film public places "without any sort of restrictions" as long as there is no specific legal act to prevent them from doing so.

It was not stated in the February 3 decree whether or not tourists would now be able to take photos of the metro stations.    Two travel agencies told AFP they had not yet received a list of spots that could not be photographed.   The decree also said tourists would be permitted to use drones to take photos and video, which was previously not allowed in the capital Tashkent.     Mirziyoyev, who served as prime minister for 13 years before taking over, has made moves to distance himself from Karimov's authoritarian excesses while also honouring his memory.

The new decree also allows for some foreign nationals to obtain a 72-hour transit visa on arrival in Tashkent airport, providing they can show proof of onward travel.    It was not immediately clear which passport holders this rule would apply to.     Uzbekistan is expected to grant citizens of Israel, Indonesia, South Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Turkey and Japan visa-free entry into the country starting from Saturday.

In December 2016, the government moved to lift visa restrictions for a longer list of countries but the order was unexpectedly deferred until 2021 weeks later.    Analysts attributed the nixing of the law to the intervention of the country's powerful national security chief, Rustam Inoyatov, whose dismissal after 23 years in power last month was widely seen as paving the way for further reforms.
More ...

Japan

General
***************************
Japan is a highly developed country with excellent tourist facilities. The country covers a number of islands and the population is estimated at over 125 million. English is widely spoken in the main tourist a
d urbanised centres.
Weather Profile
***************************
Due to the strong influence from the sea, Japan tends to have a high rainfall but milder winters than the adjacent mainland of China. This is similar to the climate experienced in Ireland by comparison to the rest of Europe. Spring and Autumn are usually the most pleasant months but during the Summer the climate can be significantly humid and tiring. During this time it will be essential that fluid intake is increased and that salt (lost through perspiration) is replaced - usually by increasing the amount eaten on your food providing this is not contraindicated by any personal medical condition such as blood pressure etc.
Alcohol Consumption
***************************
The Japanese authorities have limited patience with those arrested while under the influence of alcohol. For some travellers visiting the country this may mean a prolonged stay in the local jail and the subsequent missing of important appointments.
Natural Disasters
***************************
Japan is situated in a region of the world which regularly experiences earthquakes and other climatic changes including typhoons. A number of relatively small earthquakes are reported each year but, to date, this has seldom affected any tourist itinerary. However, further information is available at http://www.tokyoacs.com
Safety and Security
***************************
The risk to personal security for tourists while travelling throughout Japan is small though commonsense care of personal belongings is always essential. Where available, use the hotel safety boxes to store valuables and your passport, return air tickets. During the mid 1990’s a number of terrorist incidents occurred but no recent serious problems are being reported.
Airport Taxes
***************************
Many countries now include the cost of their ‘departure tax’ within the ticket. In Japan this will depend on which airport you leave from. The fee is collected in Yen at Kansai - Osaka International Airport but usually included in the ticket cost if flying via Narita - Tokyo International Airport.
Cost of living
***************************
Japan is not a cheap country for tourists. The cost of living is one of the highest throughout the world. Credit cards may be used in main cities but the ATM’s machines may not be available at all hours. Before taking a taxi from the airport it would be wise to check the costs and then assess whether or not it might be more prudent to use the local bus transport!
Medical Care
***************************
The level of medical care throughout most tourist regions in Japan is excellent. However, there may be limited English-speaking doctors in some more rural areas and even where this facility is available in the main cities the cost of healthcare can be very expensive. It is wise to carefully check your travel health insurance premium before you leave home.
Local Medications
***************************
Some commonly used European over-the-counter medications
may not be available in Japan. Also, there are strict laws governing the importation of certain medications which can be strictly enforced. Certain inhalers, sinus preparations etc may be confiscated on arrival. If you are taking any personal medications it may be wise to check before you leave. Obviously never carry packages for anybody else while travelling unless you are certain of the contents.
Avoiding Prickly Heat
***************************
The term prickly heat is used in a variety of ways but the cause is generally the same. In a hot climate the body perspires to maintain the internal temperature at a correct level. In the perspiration there will be fluid and your personal salts. The fluid evaporates but the salt dries against the skin. It is your individual reaction to this salt that leads to the ‘prickly heat rash’. The reaction to these salts can be minimised by removing the salts from the skin surface as soon as possible. Change your clothes regularly, use plenty of talcum powder to absorb the perspiration and dry off well after showering.
Food & Water Care in Japan
***************************
Any international traveller should recognise the risks of a ruined trip from unwise indulgence in local food and beverages. In Japan the level of food hygiene is high but the consumption of Sushi (uncooked raw fish) is unwise. Bivalve shellfish also carry a significant risk due to the limited level of sterilisation during the cooking process.
Malaria & Mosquitoes
***************************
No malaria transmission occurs throughout Japan although avoiding mosquito bites during the humid months is wise.
Airborne Disease
***************************
In any situation where you will be crowded together with many others the risk of a variety of airborne diseases will be higher. This will include serious diseases such as Meningococcal Meningitis but also others such as Influenza and the common cold. The risk of Meningococcal Meningitis in Japan is regarded as small and vaccine is not routinely recommended. However, having the Flu vaccine may be a wise precaution. It is also sensible to carry a small supply of lozenges to treat the inevitable sore throat which may occur.
Driving in Japan
***************************
The road system throughout Japan is excellent but unfortunately the road signs may prove too much of a hurdle for those unfamiliar with the language! The congestion within the cities tends to be high and tolls on some of the major roads may be quite expensive. The traffic moves on the left side of the road but for many tourists it will be wiser to consider using local transportation rather than risking a ruined holiday.
English Help Lines
***************************
Tourists can obtain important information and assistance in English while visiting Japan through the following numbers;
In Tokyo - 03-3968 4099
Rest of Japan - 0120-461 997
Vaccines for Japan
***************************
For the majority of short-term travellers visiting Japan no particular vaccines will be recommended. Those planning to live for longer periods within the country will need to discuss this through in greater detail.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Thu, 16 Jan 2020 16:38:39 +0100 (MET)
By Hiroshi HIYAMA

Tokyo, Jan 16, 2020 (AFP) - Japan has confirmed a case of a mystery virus that first emerged in China and is from the same family as the deadly SARS pathogen, authorities said Thursday.   It appears to be only the second time the novel coronavirus has been detected outside China, after the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed a case in Thailand.   Japan's health ministry said a man who had visited the central Chinese city of Wuhan, the apparent epicentre of the outbreak, was hospitalised on January 10, four days after his return to Japan. He reported a persistent fever.

Tests on the patient, who was released from hospital on Wednesday, confirmed he was infected with the new virus.   "This is the first domestic discovery of a pneumonia case related to the new coronavirus," the ministry said in a statement.   "We will continue active epidemiological research while also coordinating efforts with the World Health Organization and related agencies to conduct a risk assessment."   The outbreak has killed one person so far, with 41 patients reported in Wuhan.

The outbreak has caused alarm because the new virus is from the same family as the pathogen that causes SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), which killed 349 people in mainland China and 299 in Hong Kong in 2002 and 2003.   Authorities in Wuhan said a seafood market was the centre of the outbreak. It was closed on January 1.   Japanese authorities said the man had not visited the market and that it was possible he had been in contact with a person infected with the virus while in Wuhan.

- Outbreak in Japan 'unlikely' -
Health ministry official Eiji Hinoshita told reporters that the risk of the disease spreading from the patient was considered low, with careful checks done on those who had been in close contact with him.   "At this point, we feel it is unlikely this will lead to a dramatic outbreak," he said, adding that the patient was no longer suffering a fever and was recuperating at home.

Officials declined to give further information on the man, including his nationality, citing privacy concerns.   Local media said the patient was a Chinese national in his 30s living in Kanagawa, just southwest of Tokyo.   Public broadcaster NHK said he had already recovered and was resting at home, as quarantine officials at Tokyo's Narita airport boosted health checks on all travellers.

The health ministry urged people who develop a cough or fever after visiting Wuhan to wear a surgical mask and "swiftly visit a medical institution".   Hinoshita said Japan would need to be on guard ahead of the Lunar New Year, a popular travel period in China.   "It is expected that Japan will see many visitors from China," he said.   It is not yet clear whether the mystery virus can be transmitted between humans, but on Wednesday authorities said it was possible it had spread inside a family.

The woman diagnosed in Thailand, who is in a stable condition, also said she had not visited the Wuhan seafood market.   And WHO doctor Maria Van Kerkhove on Tuesday said she "wouldn't be surprised if there was some limited human-to-human transmission, especially among families who have close contact with one another".   Hong Kong authorities on Tuesday said several dozen people had been hospitalised with fever or respiratory symptoms after travelling to Wuhan, but no cases of the new virus have so far been confirmed.
Date: Tue 7 Jan 2020
Source: National Institute of Infectious Diseases Epidemiology Center for Infectious Diseases [in Japanese, trans. & summ. Rapp. KI, edited]

Urgent Information on Rubella Outbreak in Japan: as of 25 Dec 2019
------------------------------------------------------------------
Rubella reports in week 51 of 2019 [16 Dec - 22 Dec 2019], 6 cases were diagnosed with rubella and reported.

Rubella in weeks 1-51
---------------------
The cumulative number of reported cases was 2294, an increase of 6288 from 2288 in week 50 (Figures 1, 2-1, and 2-2). Even if diagnosed in the 51st week, reports reported late on or after [26 Dec 2019] are not included, so care must be taken in interpreting the number of reports.

Number of reported cases of congenital rubella syndrome
-------------------------------------------------------
The number of cases of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome reported since the start of notification of all cases in 2008 (Figure 3), 2014 report. Since then, there have been no reports of congenital rubella syndrome

A total of 4 people were reported, 1 each in weeks 4, 17, 24, and 44 in 2019
Presumed infected area: Saitama Prefecture 1 person, Tokyo 2 people, Osaka Prefecture 1 person.
Gender: 3 males, 1 female
Kuching vaccination history: Yes (1 time, vaccination year unknown, type unknown) 1 person, 3 unknown, maternal rubella history during pregnancy: Yes 1 person, unknown 2 people, none 1).

Rubella reports since 2013
--------------------------
Since the epidemic of 2013 (14,344), there were 319 in 2014, 163 in 2015, 126 in 2016 and 91 in 2017.

Despite a downward trend (Figures 2-1, 2-2, 3), 2946 people were reported in 2018, and 2294 in week 51 in 2019.

Number of reports by region
---------------------------
By region, Tokyo (854: no increase from week 50), Kanagawa (293: one increase from week 50), Yo-ken (200: no increase from week 50), Saitama (197: no increase from week 50), Osaka (130: no increase)

(No increase from 49 weeks), with more than 100 reports (Figures 4 and 7). Week 51 is for Aichi prefecture (3 people) (Figure 5).

The largest number was 250 from the Kinki region (11%), 168 from the Kyushu region (7%), 125 from the Chubu region (5%), 96 people (4%) from the Chugoku / Shikoku region and 72 (3%) from the Hokkaido / Tohoku region were reported. No report is high. Only in Chichi Prefecture (Figures 4 and 7).

Symptoms (with duplication)
----------------------------
In the descending order, rash 2262 (99%), fever 2035 (89%), lymphadenopathy 1324 (58%), conjunctival congestion 1066 (46%), cough 567 (25%), arthralgia / arthritis 542 (24%), nasal discharge 499 (22%), thrombocytopenic purple 7 (0.3%) had plaque disease and 1 (0.04%) had encephalitis. In addition; sore throat 41; headache 42; malaise 24; 11 people, diarrhea / watery / soft stools; 11 people, papular hemorrhage of hard palate / palate mucosa; 8 people, thrombocytopenia; 7 people, leukopenia; 3 people, hepatitis / hepatic dysfunction; meningitis in 1 person, and pneumonia in 1 person. Fever, rash, lymphadenopathy

All reported were 1182 (52%).

Laboratory diagnosis method (with duplication)
----------------------------------------------
Virus isolation was 26 (1%), 4 in 1E, and 2 in 2B. Detection of viral genes by PCR 1326. Of these (58%), of which 625 had been genotyped, 548 in 1E and 35 in 2B.  1207 (53%) of serum IgM antibodies were detected, of which both viral genes and serum IgM antibodies were detected; were 413 (34%). Rubella antibody seroconversion or significant increase with paired sera was found in 54 (2%) patients.  In addition, after being accepted by the public health center as measles (clinical diagnosis example), the result of the test diagnosis is reported to rubella (test diagnosis example): there were 136 cases in which this was changed.

Putative source of infection
----------------------------
Profession
In the occupation statement column added to the notification slip from January 2019, 837 (36%) were listed as company employees. The most common was 33 healthcare professionals (10 nurses, 5 medical clerks, 4 pharmacies, 3 doctors, 2 occupational therapists, 2 nursing assistants, 1 dentist, 1 pharmacist, 1 dental assistant, working at a dental clinic 1 person, 1 laboratory technician, 2 medical professionals), 12 childcare workers, 16 teachers, 11 police officers and police officers, 7 firefighters were reported, and 7 SDF personnel were reported.

Age and gender
94% (2166) of the reported cases are adults, with 3.6 times more men than women (1795 men, 499 women) (Figure 8, 9, 10). The median age of male patients is 40 years (0-76 years), especially for men in their 30s and 40s (59% of all men) (Figure 8). The median age of female patients is 30 (0-76), especially in their 20s and 30s (64% of all women). Figure 9).

Vaccination history
None (479: 21%) or unknown (1594: 69%) account for 90% of vaccination histories (Figures 8 and 9). Of those who had been inoculated (221 persons: 10%), both the date of inoculation and the lot number were reported... Estimated infected area
The estimated number of infected areas was 1774 (77%) in Japan, 460 (20%) unknown in Japan and abroad, 48 (2%) outside Japan, 12 people (0.5%) in Japan or abroad have low outbreaks overseas (Figure 11).  ...[continued]
******
IDWR Surveillance Data Table 2019 week 51 [16 Dec-22 Dec 2019], Japan
Date: Tue 7 Jan 2020
Source: National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan [edited]

Notifiable diseases, number of cases of the week and total number of cases by prefecture.
Total number of cases was updated with delayed reported and discarded cases.
- 2019, week 51:
- 2018, week 51:
- 2017, week 51:

Week 51; 2019/2018/2017
Rubella (FN, FO), current week 6/84/4; cum 2294/2806/91 (data of 2017 was checked. - Rapp.KI)
=====================
[Rubella, also called German measles, is a disease spread by the coughs and sneezes of infected people. Symptoms include rash and fever for 2-3 days. Rubella on its own is not a high-risk infection. But rubella is very dangerous for a pregnant woman and her developing baby. If a pregnant woman gets rubella virus, her baby could have birth defects such as deafness, cataracts (blurred vision), heart defects, mental disabilities, and organ damage. Pregnant women who are not protected against rubella through either vaccination with the MMR vaccine or previous rubella infection should not travel to Japan during this outbreak. (from <https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/notices/alert/rubella-japan>). - ProMED Mod.LK]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Date: Tue 10 Dec 2019
Source: The Telegraph [edited]

A tick-borne virus that is rapidly spreading throughout Asia has such a high death rate that it should be treated on par with diseases such as Ebola, a Japanese virologist has warned.

The new virus -- severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) -- is spread by tick bites and was 1st identified by Chinese researchers 8 years ago.

It has a death rate of 30 percent, similar to diseases such as Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, classified by the World Health Organization as having "epidemic potential."

Owners of pet cats and dogs have been warned to be especially vigilant, as they carry ticks.

SFTS was 1st identified in Japan in 2013, when 40 patients were identified. The number of cases has risen sharply since then, with 96 in the 1st 11 months of this year [2019], and experts are anticipating that the total will surpass 100 for the whole of 2019.

"SFTS is a tick-borne infection with a fatality rate around 30 percent, and it should be classified as a viral haemorraghic fever," said Dr Masayuki Saijo, director of Japan's National Institute of Infectious Diseases.

"The route of the virus infection is very similar to Ebola [Ebola virus is not tick-borne. - ProMED Mod.TY] and the fact that the fatality rate is so high means that SFTS should be treated as a biosafety level 3 pathogen," he added.

With a high mortality rate and no effective treatment available, experts are warning people to take precautions against ticks while they are in rural areas. Pets are also susceptible to carrier insects, such as the Asian longhorned tick, and owners are being cautioned to be vigilant.

"We have recently found that domestic cats and dogs show similar symptoms of the virus as humans when they are infected, and the fatality rate in cats exceeds 50 percent," Dr Saijo told the Telegraph.

"We have identified several cases in Japan in which pet owners have been infected by their pets and at least one case in which a vet died after being bitten by an infected cat," he said.

As well as being found in China and Japan, SFTS has now been confirmed on the Korean Peninsula, Taiwan and, last year [2018], in Viet Nam. The disease is believed to have evolved between 50 and 150 years ago, and previous deaths, particularly in developing parts of east Asia, were blamed on other illnesses or were simply recorded as being from unknown causes.

The primary clinical symptoms in humans are fever, vomiting, diarrhoea, low platelet count, a low white blood cell count, elevated liver enzyme levels, and, ultimately, multiple organ failure.

Most cases are reported in rural areas between March and November, with the virus believed to lie dormant in the host for between 6 days and 2 weeks before the symptoms become apparent. Anyone who finds a tick embedded in their body is being advised not to try to remove it themselves but to seek medical attention.

As of the end of October [2019], a total of 491 people had been treated in Japan for SFTS, with 70 patients dying. It appears that the illness is particularly dangerous to older people, with 90 percent of the recorded cases among people aged 60 or older.

The virus is carried by wild animals, primarily deer and boars in Japan, but also by hedgehogs, cattle, goats and sheep.

The institute is working on a treatment, with early indications suggesting that it can reduce fatalities by about 10 percent, Dr Saijo said.

"Viral zoonoses such as SFTS have become more prominent worldwide," he said. "With approximately 1/4th of the world's population and a vast diversity of wild and domestic animals living in close proximity to humans, it is very likely that China has the greatest potential for the emergence of infectious diseases worldwide.

"The frontline defense against such emerging infectious diseases continues to be careful clinical observation, heightened surveillance and rapid detection," said Dr Perlin.

While SFTS has not been recorded outside east Asia, tick-borne viruses are on the rise worldwide because of a combination of climate change and increased travel. Earlier this year [2019] a potentially deadly brain disease, tick-borne encephalitis virus, was found for the 1st time in the UK.

Japanese authorities have been conducting education programmes in areas that have reported a high number of cases, although there have been criticisms that the authorities are not taking adequate precautions.

In 2017, a press conference at the offices of the Miyazaki Prefectural Government descended into chaos when a live tick that had been brought in to show to journalists disappeared during the proceedings. A local government official placed the insect on a piece of paper to allow photographers to take close-up images, but it disappeared.

Officials searched for the tick but were unable to locate it. After the room was evacuated, 2 types of insecticide were sprayed on the carpet and the prefectural governor issued an apology the next day.  [Byline: Julian Ryall]
==================
[The above report indicates that SFTS virus has become established in Japan. There were cases every year from 2013 to present. Cases were widely disbursed geographically in 2018, with 24 prefectures reporting infected individuals. There were 96 cases in the 1st 11 months of 2019. Since there is no vaccine, the best way to avoid infection is to avoid tick bites and contact with infected pets, especially cats.

SFTS is a serious disease and of significant public health concern. Although SFTS virus infections may be serious, there is evidence for subclinical or mild infections as well, so the previous numbers may be an underestimate of the total number of infections. There is also some evidence for person-to-person direct transmission of the virus, but that appears to be a rare event. The virus is doubtless endemic in several countries in Asia, and cases have occurred previously in Japan. Apparently, there are 2 previously reported affected individuals who acquired their infections directly from an SFTS virus-infected cat. No mention was made of tick transmission in that instance. The possible route of transmission from the cat to the veterinarian and veterinary nurse via exposure to blood or other bodily fluids is not mentioned (see Severe fever w/ thrombocytopenia synd. - East Asia (02): Japan (MZ) http://promedmail.org/post/20181211.6204927).

SFTS virus is a tick-transmitted phlebovirus in the Bunyavirus family. Images of a longhorn tick, _Haemaphysalis longicornis_, the SFTS vector, can be seen at

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Date: Thu 28 Nov 2019
Source: Mainichi Newspaper [in Japanese, machine trans, edited]

An announcement has been received that an employee of Kagoshima City and the drug development company Shin Nippon Kagaku (Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories (SNBL) in Tokyo) was infected with monkey-derived "B virus". The case concerns a technician, who was conducting animal experiments on monkeys at the research institute in Kagoshima City on the [28 Feb 2019]. The condition [of the infected individual] is not disclosed. This is the 1st time that infection has been confirmed in Japan, with about 50 cases overseas.

Most cases of past infections have come into contact with monkeys at animal testing facilities, and the National Institute of Infectious Diseases says that "normally there is no risk of spreading infection because it does not move from person to person."

B virus is a type of herpes virus, and most macaque monkeys such as rhesus monkeys and Japanese [cynomolgus macaque] monkeys have viruses. It does not cause airborne infection, but if one is bitten by a monkey with the virus, fever and sensory abnormalities [may] occur at the contact area. Severe infections may cause sequelae of neuropathy.

According to the city, a technician was infected at the Safety Laboratory, which uses monkeys to investigate safety during drug development. In February of this year [2019], she complained of headache and fever, and this month [November 2019], the National Institute of Infectious Diseases determined that it was a B virus. Technicians have never been bitten or scratched and are likely to have touched excrement and saliva.  [byline: Ran Kanno]
======================
[The timeline of the infection in the above patient is uncertain. The 2nd report above indicates that the patient initially became ill in February 2019 but was diagnosed as a herpes B virus infection this month (November 2019). The 1st report above indicates that the patient is currently in a critical condition, but not for how long in that condition. The incubation period for human herpes B virus infections is 3-30 days, although CDC notes that it may be months or even years after infection is initiated for symptoms to appear.

Herpes B virus is an alpha herpes virus. Although herpes B virus is relatively common among the 3 species of macaques affected, human cases over the years have been sporadic and few -- 50 confirmed cases (now 51 with the case above) with 21 deaths. For those humans infected CDC notes that "vesicular skin lesions sometimes occur at the exposure site. The patient may also have lymphadenitis (inflamed lymph nodes), lymphangitis (infection of lymph vessels), nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, and hiccups.

"The virus can spread to the central nervous system (CNS) and cause the following symptoms:
- hyperesthesias (increase in sensitivity to stimuli);
- ataxia (lack of voluntary control of muscle movements);
- diplopia (double vision);
- agitation;
- ascending flaccid paralysis (extreme weakness due to reduced muscle tone).

Most patients with CNS complications will die, even with antiviral therapy and supportive care, and those who survive usually suffer serious long-term neurologic problems. Respiratory failure associated with ascending paralysis is the most common cause of death. Respiratory involvement and death can occur 1 day to 3 weeks after symptom onset." The CDC website for this virus can be found at <https://www.cdc.gov/herpesbvirus/healthcare-providers.html>. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Kagoshima City, Kagoshima, Japan:
Date: Mon 25 Nov 2019
Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]

In recent years, the number of syphilis cases has surged in Japan. In 2015, we reported on a big increase in syphilis cases in Japan where well over 2000 cases were recorded, a 4-fold increase from just 5 years earlier. In the past 2 years, more than 5500 cases were reported in 2017 and more than 6000 last year [2018]. Through [13 Nov 2019], the National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID) reported 5703 syphilis cases, including 1464 cases in Tokyo and 921 cases in Osaka.

Another issue the NIID has been looking at is syphilis in pregnant women in Japan. According to a report in The Mainichi [<https://mainichi.jp/english/articles/20191125/p2a/00m/0na/015000c>]: The NIID analyzed cases of syphilis reported from the 1st to the 26th week of 2019 [1-30 Jun 2019], a 6-month period from January, and found that a reported 106 of 1117 women with syphilis were pregnant. Of the 61 patients who gave their answers to a section on whether they had worked in the adult entertainment industry in the preceding 6 months, 56 said they had not done so. "It is possible that most of the expectant mothers suffering from syphilis were infected by their male partners," said Takuya Yamagishi, a doctor at the NIID. Through mid-October [2019], Japan has reported 17 congenital syphilis cases, the same as in all of 2018.
=====================
[Japan, as the United States and other countries, has experienced a rising incidence of primary and secondary syphilis that initially involved mainly men who have sex with men, but more recently has involved women in their 20s and 30s. See ProMED-mail: Syphilis - Japan (02): rising incidence, heterosexual women & men, urban  http://promedmail.org/post/20181202.6175741.

In the US and elsewhere, this increase in the incidence of syphilis in women of childbearing age has been associated with a rising incidence of congenital syphilis. However, we were not told in that prior ProMED-mail post if rates of congenital syphilis are similarly rising in Japan. Now, according to data compiled by Japan's National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID), the incidence of congenital syphilis in Japan is rising, with 17 cases reported by the 42nd week of 2019 (week ending 19 Oct 2019), which is as many as were reported in the whole of 2018  (<https://mainichi.jp/english/articles/20191125/p2a/00m/0na/015000c>). - ProMED Mod.ML]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Japan:
More ...

Fiji

Fiji - US Consular Information Sheet
October 24, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION:
Fiji is a South Pacific island nation consisting of over 350 islands and islets, of which approximately 100 are inhabited. The capital is Suva. On December 5, 2006,
in the fourth coup since 1987, the Commander of Fiji’s military force deposed the lawfully elected government of Fiji. There is currently an unelected interim government in place established by the military. The coup has had a negative effect on Fiji’s economy. Tourist facilities are available. The Fiji Visitors Bureau, which has a wide range of information of interest to travelers, can be contacted via the Internet at http://www.bulafiji.com/. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Fiji for additional information.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: A passport valid for at least three months beyond the intended date of departure from Fiji, proof of sufficient funds and an onward/return ticket are required for entry to Fiji. A visa is not required for tourist stays up to four months. Yachts wishing to call at the Lau group of islands need special permission granted at the first port of entry into Fiji. For further information on entry/exit requirements, travelers may contact the Embassy of the Republic of Fiji, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, No. 240, Washington, DC 20007; telephone (202) 337-8320, or the Fiji Mission to the United Nations in New York. This is particularly important for travelers planning to enter Fiji by sailing vessel.

Information about dual nationality and the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site. For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information.
SAFETY AND SECURITY:
While a state of emergency is no longer in effect, some basic rights remain uncertain. The independence of Fiji’s law enforcement and judicial systems appears compromised, putting into question protections ordinarily afforded by the rule of law. The Department of State continues to warn U.S. citizens to carefully consider the risks of travel to the Republic of Fiji at this time. While Fiji’s country situation appears calm on the surface, political, economic, and security uncertainties continue. It is possible that the security situation, especially in Suva, could deteriorate rapidly. American citizens in Fiji should remain vigilant, particularly in public places and near military activities in the greater Suva area, and should avoid demonstrations and large crowds. Even demonstrations intended to be peaceful could turn confrontational and escalate into violence unexpectedly.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affair’s web site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Travel Alerts, including the Worldwide Caution, can be found.
Up-to-date information on security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll-free in the U.S. and Canada or, for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).
The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State's pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.
CRIME: Urban areas experience a higher incidence of crime than do other areas. Travelers should protect their valuables and be aware that theft from hotel rooms and purse snatching or pick-pocketing are the most common crimes against tourists. Offenses against persons do occur, and visitors should remain attentive to their personal safety. Tourists should be cautious about sharing too much personal information about their country of origin or lodging. Americans not familiar with their environs should ask hotel staff about areas to avoid at night. Visitors are advised not to walk alone after dark and not to walk alone in isolated areas at any time. Due to crime directed against taxi drivers, travelers should not allow taxis to pick up other passengers while en route and should not enter a taxi that already carries other passengers.
INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the U.S. Embassy in Suva, Fiji at (679) 331-4466 (ask for American Citizen Services). If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate for assistance. The embassy/consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney, if needed.
The local equivalent to the “911” emergency line in Fiji is 911.

See our information on Victims of Crime.
MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Health-care facilities in Fiji are adequate for routine medical problems. Emergency response is extremely limited, and the few ambulances available are poorly equipped and staffed. Two major hospitals, the Lautoka Hospital in the western city of Lautoka, and the Colonial War Memorial Hospital in Suva, provide limited emergency and outpatient services. A private hospital in Suva provides Western-style medical care, and maintains the Fiji Recompression Chamber for the benefit of scuba divers. Other hospitals and clinics provide only a limited range of health services. Medical emergencies may be referred to Australia, New Zealand, or the United States. Serious medical problems requiring hospitalization and/or medical evacuation to the United States or elsewhere can cost thousands of dollars. Doctors and hospitals expect immediate cash payment for health services.
Fiji may impose HIV/AIDS travel restrictions on some visa applicants for work permits. Applicants must obtain a medical clearance, and the work permit committee will make the decision to grant the permit on a case-by-case basis. Before traveling, please inquire directly with the Embassy of the Republic of Fiji, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, No. 240, Washington, DC 20007; telephone (202) 337-8320, or the Fiji Mission to the United Nations in New York.

Fiji is currently experiencing an increased number of Dengue fever cases, with almost 1,000 cases confirmed (but no deaths) since September 1, 2008. Dengue fever is a common disease caused by a virus that humans get by being bitten by infected mosquitoes (usually Aedes aegypti). For more information about Dengue fever, see the CDC website below.

Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747); or via the CDC's web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization's (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en
MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and if it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation. Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Fiji is provided for general reference only, and it may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
Traffic moves on the left in Fiji. While most roads in urban areas are paved, they are poorly maintained. Roads outside the city are usually not paved. In the city, driving after dark requires heightened attentiveness; outside the city, it is discouraged, except in emergency or exceptional circumstances. Stray animals, unwary pedestrians, and potholes make driving dangerous and particularly hazardous at night.
Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. Visit the web site of Fiji’s national tourist office and national authority responsible for road safety at http://www.bulafiji.com
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Fiji’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Fiji's air carrier operations. For further information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Water Sports: Many visitors to Fiji participate in water sports, including scuba diving, snorkeling, surfing, and operating jet-skis. The Embassy strongly recommends that anyone interested in scuba diving and snorkeling while in Fiji check the references, licenses, and equipment of tour operators before agreeing to or paying for a tour. Visitors should rent equipment only from reputable operators and should insist on sufficient training before using the equipment. Rental diving equipment may not always be properly maintained or inspected, and some local dive masters may fail to consider the skill levels of individual tourists when organizing dives. Deaths and serious mishaps have occurred in the past as a result of lack of attention to basic safety measures during diving and snorkeling trips. Surfing on Fiji’s numerous reef breaks can be highly dangerous. Safety precautions and emergency response capabilities may not be up to U.S. standards. Fiji has only one decompression chamber, which is located in Suva, far from most resorts.

Trekking: Terrain in the Fiji islands can be hazardous. Please consult with local guides and/or your place of lodging before undertaking a trek. Americans are also advised to hike with a companion and not to stray from marked or well-worn paths.
Customs: Fiji's customs authorities may enforce strict regulations concerning temporary importation into, or export from, Fiji of items such as alcohol or tobacco products. It is advisable to contact the Embassy of Fiji in Washington, DC at (202) 337-8320 for specific information regarding customs requirements. Importation of animals is strictly controlled. Pets may be imported only from designated, rabies-free locales. Those wishing to bring pets to Fiji should contact the Ministry of Agriculture in Suva as much as six months in advance for particulars.

Purchase of Real Estate: U.S. citizens should be aware of the risks inherent in purchasing real estate in Fiji, and should exercise caution before entering into any form of commitment to invest in property there. Investors must recognize the need to obtain authoritative information and to hire competent Fijian legal counsel when contemplating any real estate investment. Fijian law and practices regarding real estate differ substantially from those in the United States.
Notification of Arrest: U.S. citizens are encouraged to carry a copy of their U.S. passports with them at all times so, that if questioned by local officials, proof of identity and U.S. citizenship are readily available. According to Fijian law, a criminal detainee may be held for a maximum of 48 hours before being charged. Police authorities normally advise the U.S. Embassy of the detention or arrest of a U.S. citizen within 24 hours of the incident. Nevertheless, U.S. citizens who are detained are encouraged to request that a consular officer at the U.S. Embassy in Suva be notified.
Natural Disasters: Fiji is located in an area of high seismic activity. Although the probability of a major earthquake occurring during a particular trip is remote, earthquakes can and do occur. The cyclone season is November through April. The Fiji Meteorological Service maintains a Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (TCWC) in Nadi serving the Southwest Pacific Region. General information regarding disaster preparedness is available via the Bureau of Consular Affairs' web site, and from the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) home page at http://www.fema.gov/
CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than those in the United States for similar offenses. Persons violating Fijian laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession of, use of, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Fiji are strict, and convicted offenders can expect jail sentences and heavy fines. Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES: For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on international adoption and international parental child abduction.
REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION: Americans living or traveling in Fiji are encouraged to register with the U.S. Embassy in Suva through the State Department's travel registration web site, and to obtain updated information on travel and security within Fiji. Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate. By registering, American citizens make it easier for the U.S. embassy or consulate to contact them in case of emergency. The U.S. Embassy is located at 31 Loftus Street in Fiji’s capital city of Suva. The telephone number is (679) 331-4466; the fax number is (679) 330-2267. Information may also be obtained by visiting the U.S. Embassy’s home page at http://suva.usembassy.gov/information_for_travelers.html
* * *
This replaces the Country Specific Information dated February 5, 2008, to update the sections on Information for Victims of Crime, and Medical Facilities and Health Information.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Fri, 17 Jan 2020 04:44:41 +0100 (MET)

Suva, Fiji, Jan 17, 2020 (AFP) - Fiji opened evacuation centres and warned of "destructive force winds" Friday as a cyclone bore down on the Pacific island nation for the second time in three weeks.   Two people were missing after attempting to swim across a swollen river late Thursday when heavy rain fell ahead of the advancing Cyclone Tino, police said.   On the outer islands, locals prepared to go to emergency shelters while many tourists fled beach resorts and made their way to the capital Suva before regional flights and inter-island ferry services were suspended.

The Fiji Meteorological Service said Tino was strengthening as it headed for Fiji's second-largest island, Vanua Levu, warning of wind gusts of up to 130 kilometres per hour (80 mph), heavy rain, coastal flooding and flash flooding in low lying areas.    "I'm preparing to go to an evacuation centre soon with my family and wait for the cyclone to pass," Nischal Prasad, who lost his home in northern Vanua Legu when Cyclone Sarai struck just after Christmas, told AFP.   "Sarai destroyed my house and almost left my family homeless. My daughters had to hide under their bed from the strong winds. It was a scary experience," he said.

Russian tourist Inna Kostromina, 35, said she sought safety in Suva after being told her island resort was in the path of the cyclone.   "We didn't want to get stuck in there and with the authorities warning of coastal flooding, anything can happen. So we decided to move to Suva for now. I think we will be much safer here."    Police said a man and his daughter, believed to be aged nine or 10, were attempting to swim across a flooded river when they were caught in the strong currents.    The incident happened on Thursday before the storm developed into a tropical cyclone, but a police spokesman linked the tragedy to "heavy rain brought about by the current weather system (which) raised the river level".   Although the Pacific islands are popular tourist destinations in summer it is also the cyclone season, and Fiji is being targeted for the second time in three weeks.

In late December, Tropical Cyclone Sarai left two people dead and more than 2,500 needing emergency shelter as it damaged houses, crops and trees and cut electricity supplies.    On its present track, Tino would hit Tongatapu, the main island of neighbouring Tonga, on the weekend.    Two years ago, Tongatapu was hit by Cyclone Gina, with two people killed and nearly 200 houses destroyed.
Date: Wed 25 Dec 2019
Source: Fiji Sun [abridged, edited]

People above the age of 39 can get vaccinated after Boxing Day [26 Dec 2019], Minister for Health and Medical Services Dr. Ifereimi Waqainabete said. Previously, target groups were from the ages of 19-39. Dr. Waqainabete said they had extra vaccines available, and this age-group could visit any health centre.

He had spent a day visiting health centres, villages and the Savusavu Sub-divisional Hospital in Vanua Levu, where the measles immunisation campaign was held on Monday [23 Dec 2019]. He complimented the efforts put in by doctors and nurses in making sure they reached out to the target groups since the outbreak was declared on 7 Nov 2019.

"I am confident that we will complete the vaccination of target groups by end of Christmas Eve [24 Dec 2019]," Dr. Waqainabete said. "Target groups are all children aged 6 months to 5 years, people born between 1980 and 2000, children who haven't received 2 doses of measles according to the national immunisation schedule, health workers, airport and port entry workers and hotel staff, and any person in Fiji traveling to overseas."

He said their advisory for measles against mass gather[ing]s continued. "Christmas and Boxing Day holidays are an opportune time for families to spend some quiet time together," he said. "I am confident that once we complete this immunisation campaign for the highest risk groups, we will be okay as a nation for the new year."  There are now 24 confirmed cases of measles in Fiji. [Byline: Shratika Naidu]
Date: Wed 11 Dec 2019
Source: KHON2 [abridged, edited]

Fiji's Ministry of Health and Medical Services has confirmed at least 19 cases of measles. The latest case is a 9-month-old [from Rewa], who is reported to be in stable condition.

The government issued a statement on its Facebook page.

Response teams have been investigating the outbreak. Quarantines and vaccinations in at-risk communities have been implemented, and non-essential travel is discouraged.

Fiji is about 800 mi [1287 km] away from Samoa, which is also experiencing a measles outbreak.
======================
[Population in Fiji, 2018 estimate: 912 241

Also see Fiji Ministry of Health & Medical Services' Measles media release 14, 11 Dec 2019 (<http://www.health.gov.fj/?p=7842>).

Latest confirmed case is a 9-month-old from Davuilevu in Rewa, who stayed at Saumakia Settlement in Naitasiri, and the Korovou Prison Compound in Suva. This child is currently admitted in a stable condition under isolation in the CWM Hospital. The outbreak response teams are conducting investigations in the respective locations listed, with quarantine and vaccination of contacts and at-risk communities as appropriate.

The 19 cases to date are from the following areas in the Central division: 12 cases from the Serua/Namosi subdivision (Wailali, Wainadoi, Navunikabi, and Makosoi Deuba); 4 cases from Suva subdivision (Samabula, Vatuwaqa, Tacirua, Wailekutu); and 3 cases from Rewa subdivision (Koronivia, Nasilai Village Nakelo, Davuilevu).

In Central division, over 85 000 people in the target groups have been vaccinated since the 2nd phase of the measles mass immunisation campaign that began on 4 Dec [2019]. This is in addition to the approximately 100 000 people who were vaccinated nationwide since the outbreak was declared on 7 Nov [2019]. For Serua/Namosi, 97% of the targeted population has been vaccinated.  [Byline: Sunil Chandra]
Date: Sun, 1 Sep 2019 18:46:32 +0200 (METDST)

Sydney, Sept 1, 2019 (AFP) - A strong earthquake struck the Pacific Ocean between Fiji and Tonga early Monday, but there was no tsunami warning, the United States Geological Survey said.   The quake, at a depth of 616 kilometres (382 miles), struck 30 kilometres northeast of Ndoi island and about 400 kilometres from the Fijian capital Suva, USGS said.   "Some areas may have experienced moderate shaking," the US Pacific Tsunami Warning Center said, adding there was no tsunami threat.
21 Aug 2019

Fiji has recorded 1894 dengue cases in the 1st 4 months of this year [2019], which is predicted to go down as the dengue-preventing program goes forward, according to the Ministry of Health on Tuesday [20 Aug 2019]. Last year [2018], the island nation reported 9 deaths and 4000 cases of dengue fever.
HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Fiji:
More ...

World Travel News Headlines

Date: Fri, 17 Jan 2020 17:48:09 +0100 (MET)

Barcelona, Jan 17, 2020 (AFP) - Spain's Balearic Islands passed a bill Friday aimed at clamping down on alcohol-fuelled holidays in the Mediterranean archipelago which bans happy hours when drinks are offered a discount and open bars.   "This is the first law adopted in Europe which restricts the sale and promotion of alcohol in certain touristic areas," the regional government of the Balearic Islands which have long been a magnet for young German and British tourists, who often drink heavily and enjoy rowdy late-night clubbing.

The restrictions will apply to three areas with a reputation for excess: San Antoni on the island of Ibiza and El Arenal and Magaluf -- which has been nicknamed "Shagaluf" because of its reputation for drunken casual sex -- on Mallorca, the largest of the Balearic's four islands.   The law, which was drawn up in consultation with the tourism industry also bans pub crawls and two-for-one drink offers, prohibits the sale of alcohol in shops between 9:30 pm and 8 am and forbids advertising party boats in the designated areas.   Establishments that break the new rules risk fines of up to 600,000 euros ($669,000) and the threat of being closed down for three years.

The new law also takes aim at the so-called "balconing" craze, the term given to holidaymakers who decide to jump into a swimming pool from a hotel or apartment balcony, a stunt which claims several lives every year.   It bans "balconing" across the entire archipelago and requires hotels to evict anyone who does it. Those caught jumping from balconies face fines of up to 60,000 euros ($67,000).   Up until now only some resorts on the Balearics imposed fines for "balconing".

The regional government of the Balearics said the law, which stiffens measures already introduced in 2015, will "fight excesses in certain tourist zones" and "force a real change in the tourism model of those destinations".   Magaluf made global headlines in 2014 after a video showing a young woman performing oral sex on several men on the dance floor of a nightclub went viral.   Local shops sell souvenir T-shirts with the catchphrase "On it 'till we vomit".

The four islands which make up the Balearics -- Palma de Mallorca, Ibiza, Menorca and Formentera, received nearly fourteen million tourists in 2018, drawn by their crystal clear waters, and in many cases by all-inconclusive package holidays.   The archipelago is Spain's second most visited region. Spain is the world's second most visited country after France.
Date: Fri, 17 Jan 2020 12:55:16 +0100 (MET)

Rennes, France, Jan 17, 2020 (AFP) - Several oyster farmers along France's Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts have been forced to halt sales since December after their sites were contaminated by the highly contagious norovirus, which they blame on overflowing sewage treatment plants.   Authorities ordered the suspensions at 23 of the country's 375 designated fields, and recalls of affected oysters as well as mussels and clams, after tests revealed the virus, which can cause severe vomiting and diarrhoea.

The move came just before the year-end holidays, when oysters are a traditional delicacy on millions of French tables.   "The oysters are not sick. They're carrying the virus because it's in the water they are constantly filtering," Philippe Le Gal, president of France's national shellfish council (CNC), told AFP this week.   "They were in the wrong place at the wrong time," he said, adding the ban had prompted many people to stop eating oysters altogether.   Local officials say oyster farmers are paying the price of insufficient spending on wastewater treatment, with facilities strained to the limit even as development of coastal areas has surged in recent years.

Heavy rains before Christmas prompted treatment basins to overflow, they say, spilling tainted water into rivers.   "This was predictable -- they've kept issuing building permits even though treatment sites are already at full capacity," said Joel Labbe, a senator for the Morbihan region in Brittany.   Oyster farmers are demanding compensation, and a delegation met with agriculture ministry officials in Paris last week warning that more than 400 businesses had been impacted by the sales ban.

This week, angry growers dumped trash bins full of oysters and mussels in front of the offices of the regional ARS health authority in Montpellier over the decision to halt sales from a nearby basin on the Mediterranean coast.   "We're the victims, and we shouldn't have to suffer any financial damages," Le Gal said.
Date: Fri, 17 Jan 2020 04:44:41 +0100 (MET)

Suva, Fiji, Jan 17, 2020 (AFP) - Fiji opened evacuation centres and warned of "destructive force winds" Friday as a cyclone bore down on the Pacific island nation for the second time in three weeks.   Two people were missing after attempting to swim across a swollen river late Thursday when heavy rain fell ahead of the advancing Cyclone Tino, police said.   On the outer islands, locals prepared to go to emergency shelters while many tourists fled beach resorts and made their way to the capital Suva before regional flights and inter-island ferry services were suspended.

The Fiji Meteorological Service said Tino was strengthening as it headed for Fiji's second-largest island, Vanua Levu, warning of wind gusts of up to 130 kilometres per hour (80 mph), heavy rain, coastal flooding and flash flooding in low lying areas.    "I'm preparing to go to an evacuation centre soon with my family and wait for the cyclone to pass," Nischal Prasad, who lost his home in northern Vanua Legu when Cyclone Sarai struck just after Christmas, told AFP.   "Sarai destroyed my house and almost left my family homeless. My daughters had to hide under their bed from the strong winds. It was a scary experience," he said.

Russian tourist Inna Kostromina, 35, said she sought safety in Suva after being told her island resort was in the path of the cyclone.   "We didn't want to get stuck in there and with the authorities warning of coastal flooding, anything can happen. So we decided to move to Suva for now. I think we will be much safer here."    Police said a man and his daughter, believed to be aged nine or 10, were attempting to swim across a flooded river when they were caught in the strong currents.    The incident happened on Thursday before the storm developed into a tropical cyclone, but a police spokesman linked the tragedy to "heavy rain brought about by the current weather system (which) raised the river level".   Although the Pacific islands are popular tourist destinations in summer it is also the cyclone season, and Fiji is being targeted for the second time in three weeks.

In late December, Tropical Cyclone Sarai left two people dead and more than 2,500 needing emergency shelter as it damaged houses, crops and trees and cut electricity supplies.    On its present track, Tino would hit Tongatapu, the main island of neighbouring Tonga, on the weekend.    Two years ago, Tongatapu was hit by Cyclone Gina, with two people killed and nearly 200 houses destroyed.
Date: Thu, 16 Jan 2020 16:38:39 +0100 (MET)
By Hiroshi HIYAMA

Tokyo, Jan 16, 2020 (AFP) - Japan has confirmed a case of a mystery virus that first emerged in China and is from the same family as the deadly SARS pathogen, authorities said Thursday.   It appears to be only the second time the novel coronavirus has been detected outside China, after the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed a case in Thailand.   Japan's health ministry said a man who had visited the central Chinese city of Wuhan, the apparent epicentre of the outbreak, was hospitalised on January 10, four days after his return to Japan. He reported a persistent fever.

Tests on the patient, who was released from hospital on Wednesday, confirmed he was infected with the new virus.   "This is the first domestic discovery of a pneumonia case related to the new coronavirus," the ministry said in a statement.   "We will continue active epidemiological research while also coordinating efforts with the World Health Organization and related agencies to conduct a risk assessment."   The outbreak has killed one person so far, with 41 patients reported in Wuhan.

The outbreak has caused alarm because the new virus is from the same family as the pathogen that causes SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), which killed 349 people in mainland China and 299 in Hong Kong in 2002 and 2003.   Authorities in Wuhan said a seafood market was the centre of the outbreak. It was closed on January 1.   Japanese authorities said the man had not visited the market and that it was possible he had been in contact with a person infected with the virus while in Wuhan.

- Outbreak in Japan 'unlikely' -
Health ministry official Eiji Hinoshita told reporters that the risk of the disease spreading from the patient was considered low, with careful checks done on those who had been in close contact with him.   "At this point, we feel it is unlikely this will lead to a dramatic outbreak," he said, adding that the patient was no longer suffering a fever and was recuperating at home.

Officials declined to give further information on the man, including his nationality, citing privacy concerns.   Local media said the patient was a Chinese national in his 30s living in Kanagawa, just southwest of Tokyo.   Public broadcaster NHK said he had already recovered and was resting at home, as quarantine officials at Tokyo's Narita airport boosted health checks on all travellers.

The health ministry urged people who develop a cough or fever after visiting Wuhan to wear a surgical mask and "swiftly visit a medical institution".   Hinoshita said Japan would need to be on guard ahead of the Lunar New Year, a popular travel period in China.   "It is expected that Japan will see many visitors from China," he said.   It is not yet clear whether the mystery virus can be transmitted between humans, but on Wednesday authorities said it was possible it had spread inside a family.

The woman diagnosed in Thailand, who is in a stable condition, also said she had not visited the Wuhan seafood market.   And WHO doctor Maria Van Kerkhove on Tuesday said she "wouldn't be surprised if there was some limited human-to-human transmission, especially among families who have close contact with one another".   Hong Kong authorities on Tuesday said several dozen people had been hospitalised with fever or respiratory symptoms after travelling to Wuhan, but no cases of the new virus have so far been confirmed.
Date: 20 Jan 2020
Source: News Joins [In Korean, machine trans. edited]
----------------------------
An unexplained pneumonia in China caused the Korean quarantine authorities to strengthen the quarantine, and a fever-sensing camera is installed to monitor the body temperature of Chinese tourists who entered Korea at Incheon Port 1 International Passenger Terminal. 

Pneumonia confirmed by the new coronavirus, which is prevalent in Wuhan, China, was confirmed for the first time on [20 Jan 2020]. According to health officials, a Chinese woman, A, who arrived at Incheon International Airport on a plane from Wuhan last weekend, was confirmed with pneumonia. The patient showed signs of pneumonia, including high fever and cough. The health authorities entered the airport at the same time, confirmed the symptoms of high fever, suspected pneumonia, and went into quarantine and testing. The Centers for Disease Control immediately quarantined A and entered treatment with a nationally designated quarantine bed. The Centers for Disease Control will hold an emergency press conference at 1:30 pm on [20 Jan 2020] and release the reporter A.
 
Meanwhile, Beijing's Daxing District Health and Welfare Committee said 2 fever patients who had been to Wuhan were confirmed as a new pneumonia patient on [19 Jan 2020]. They are currently being treated at a designated hospital and said they are stable. Daxing District is where Beijing New Airport opened last year [2019]. The Guangdong Provincial Health and Welfare Committee said on [19 Jan 2020] that a 66-year-old man who had visited a relative's home in Wuhan showed fever and lethargy and was diagnosed with Wuhan pneumonia. Confirmation patients have also emerged in Shenzhen, a neighbouring Hong Kong province in southern China, raising concerns that the new pneumonia has already spread throughout China.
 
The Chinese government has said that "there is no basis for human-to-human propagation," but domestic experts pointed out that "the nature of coronavirus is less likely to prevent human-to-human propagation."   [Byline: Esther Toile]
========================
[This is now the 4th international identification of the 2019-nCoV (novel coronavirus) associated illness reported outside of China.  To date, all 4 cases have reported being in Wuhan China in the 14 days preceding onset of illness.  Illness in each involved a history of fever and dry cough.  Cases were reported by Thailand (2 cases) and Japan, and now South Korea.  An update following a Ministry of Health Korea press conference mentioned that there were 5 individuals accompanying this woman, none of whom were currently showing symptoms. (<http://news1.kr/articles/?3821049>).

As mentioned in an earlier post (see Novel coronavirus (10): China (HU, GD, BJ) http://promedmail.org/post/20200119.6898567), there have also been cases confirmed in China outside of Wuhan City, with cases reported in Beijing, Guangdong and possibly Shanghai. It is becoming more difficult to conclude that there has been limited person-to-person transmission as the case numbers are climbing both inside of Wuhan City, elsewhere in China, and in individuals travelling from Wuhan China to other countries (Japan, Thailand and South Korea).

A map of South Korea can be found at:
Date: 15 Jan 2020
Source: Fox News [edited]

CDC is facing criticism over its response to a polio-like illness. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has confirmed 10 additional cases of acute flaccid myelitis.  An Ohio teen is determined to walk again despite doctors' warnings that she may not after she contracted a rare polio-like illness that's left her paralyzed from the waist down.  IK, a catcher on her middle school's softball team, said it started with what felt like a cramp in her leg on Christmas. "I just thought, 'Oh gosh, it's just growing pains or a Charley horse,'" NK, the 13-year-old's mother, told News 5 Cleveland.  But the next day, IK couldn't stand on her own, and her worried parents rushed her to Akron Children's Hospital, where she was diagnosed with acute flaccid myelitis (AFM). It's a rare but serious condition that affects the nervous system, specifically the grey matter of the spinal cord, which weakens the body's muscles and reflexes.

Health officials have noticed an increase of cases in children occurring every 2 years since 2014, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). And while it often is referred to as a "polio-like" illness, tests so far have tested negative for poliovirus.  Symptoms typically begin with sudden onset of arm or leg weakness and loss of muscle tone and reflexes, but can also include facial droop or weakness, difficulty moving eyes, drooping eyelids, difficulty swallowing,  slurred speech, and pain in the arms and legs.  Severe symptoms may include respiratory failure, or serious neurological complications, according to the CDC. Parents are encouraged to seek medical care right away if a child is suspected of developing any symptoms

Since her diagnosis, IK has been working in physical therapy and has received steroid treatments as well as multiple plasma exchange, according to the news outlet. Her mother said it's been like "a bad dream" for the family as they watch her struggle to gain strength.  "It's a lot, but I just try to go with the flow, just to push through," IK, who has received support from her teammates, classmates and members of the community, told News 5 Cleveland.  [Byline: Alexandria Hein]
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[Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is a rare but serious condition. It affects the nervous system, specifically the area of the spinal cord called gray matter, which causes the muscles and reflexes in the body to become weak.

In 2019, there were 33 total confirmed cases in 16 US states
[<https://www.cdc.gov/acute-flaccid-myelitis/cases-in-us.html>].

The case definition for AFM is based on clinical and lab criteria

Clinical Criteria: An illness with onset of acute flaccid limb weakness.
Laboratory Criteria:
Confirmatory Laboratory Evidence: a magnetic resonance image (MRI) showing spinal cord lesion largely restricted to grey matter and spanning one or more vertebral segments. Supportive Laboratory Evidence: cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with pleocytosis (white blood cell count over 5 cells/mm3) Case Classification:
- Confirmed: Clinically compatible case AND Confirmatory laboratory evidence: MRI showing spinal cord lesion largely restricted to grey matter and spanning one or more spinal segments.
- Probable: Clinically compatible case AND Supportive laboratory evidence: CSF showing pleocytosis (white blood cell count over 5 cells/mm3)

With the high number of cases reported in 2018 and 2019, CDC enhanced AFM surveillance through collection of data at the national level by encouraging healthcare providers to recognize and report to their health departments all patients whom they suspect may have AFM; health departments are being asked to send this information to CDC to help us understand AFM activity nationwide. - ProMED Mod.UBA]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Date: Sat 18 Jan 2020
From: Guido Calleri <guidocalleri@aslcittaditorino.it> [edited]

90 persons presented to the Infectious Diseases Hospital Amedeo di Savoia, Torino, North-West Italy between 24 Dec 2019 and 10 Jan 2020 after consuming raw sausages from a wild boar hunted in the area of Susa Valley, 50 km [31.1 mi] away from Torino, in late November 2019.

All of them either were symptomatic (fever, muscle and/or abdominal pain, nausea) or had peripheral blood eosinophilia over 500/cmm, or both. IgG serology for trichinella was performed by immunoblot (Trichinella E/S IgG kit, EFFEGIEMME, Milan, Italy) and resulted positive in 48/90 (53.3%), allowing a diagnosis of confirmed trichinella infection.

Otherwise, a diagnosis of suspected trichinella infection was made with a negative serology, probably due to performing the test too early, before the development of antibodies or possibly a false negative result. In a few cases (under 10 cases) an alternative diagnosis was considered.

All patients were treated with oral albendazole 400 mg twice daily for 10 days and prednisone 50 mg/day.

Most likely, all patients were infected after eating meat from a single animal, given the low prevalence of the infection in this area: no human case has ever been detected in Torino province, and only one wild boar has been found positive for trichinella at microscopy in Susa valley in the last 10 years.
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Guido Calleri, Filippo Lipani, Giovanna Paltrinieri, Silvia Faraoni,
Valeria Ghisetti
ASL Citta di Torino, Infectious Diseases Unit and Microbiology Lab,
and ASL TO3,
Department of Prevention
Torino, Piedmonte, Italy
======================
[ProMED thanks Guido Calleri, Filippo Lipani, Giovanna Paltrinieri, Silvia Faraoni, and Valeria Ghisetti for sending us this information. The report underlines that _Trichinella_ are found in wild boars in Europe and should be assessed by a certified laboratory for _Trichinella_ before used for human consumption. Sausages made of smoked meat are especially dangerous, because the temperatures seldom reach what is needed to kill the trichinella larvae. - ProMED Mod.EP]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Date: Fri 17 Jan 2020
Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]

Media sources in Bangladesh are reporting a Nipah virus infection in the city of Khulna. The reported case is a 20-year-old female who has been hospitalized since last Saturday [11 Jan 2020] at the Khulna Medical College Hospital (KMCH).

"A medical board has confirmed her infection by Nipah virus. As her infection is a risk to other patients, she is being treated separately at the hospital's Medicine unit 1," said SM Kamal Hossain, chief of KMCH Medicine Department.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in the Bangladesh and India outbreaks, consumption of fruits or fruit products (e.g. raw date palm juice) contaminated with urine or saliva from infected fruit bats was the most likely source of infection. Fruit bats of the family Pteropodidae -- particularly species belonging to the _Pteropus_ genus -- are the natural hosts for Nipah virus. There is no apparent disease in fruit bats.

In more recent outbreaks of the disease, person-to-person transmission has been seen in Bangladesh and India.

The disease in humans can range from asymptomatic infection to fatal encephalitis. Encephalitis and seizures occur in severe cases, progressing to coma within 24 to 48 hours.

The case fatality rate is estimated at 40% to 75%; however, this rate can vary by outbreak depending on local capabilities for surveillance investigations, according to the WHO.

Those who survive acute encephalitis make a full recovery, but around 20% are left with residual neurological consequences, such as persistent convulsions and personality changes.

There is no treatment or vaccine available for either people or animals.
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[Nipah virus infections occur sporadically in Bangladesh in a geographic area termed the Nipah belt and during certain seasons of the year when the reservoir fruit bat is abundant. As noted in the previous comment (ProMED-mail archive no. http://promedmail.org/post/20150204.3143251), giant fruit bats or flying foxes (_Pteropus_ of several species) are reservoirs of Nipah virus, and they contaminate date palm sap or fruit. This is the season for cases of Nipah virus infection to occur. The transmission season is usually January to April.

As noted earlier, it is unfortunate that the public awareness efforts have not prevented these cases from occurring. Perhaps because cases are sporadic and geographically scattered there is little public perception of risk of infection and serious disease. Until effective public education to prevent infection by avoiding eating contaminated fruit or date palm sap is implemented, sporadic cases will continue to occur.

Interestingly, a simple skirt constructed out of locally available materials can prevent access of the bats to the palm sap collecting pots, but apparently they are not commonly used. Boiling the palm sap would inactivate the virus, but local consumers indicated that it alters the flavour of the sap.

An image of a _Pteropus_ fruit bat can be found at

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Khulna, Khulna, Bangladesh: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/14886>]
Date: Wed 15 Jan 2020
Source: Hindustan Times [edited]

Government High School, Tajpur village, has been put under surveillance after 16 students of the school were found to be infected with mumps, a viral infection that swells up the saliva-producing glands of a person.

A rapid response team had been dispatched to the school last week, after the students, all aged between 11 and 14, were found infected. The school currently has 106 students [enrolled], and all are under observation. The team had also surveyed the entire village and collected samples, to be sent to the Integrated Diseases Surveillance Program (IDSP) lab for testing.

Lack of measles, mumps, and rubella [MMR] vaccination is what leaves a person prone to the infection. Mumps virus spreads from person to person through infected saliva. If an individual is not immune, they can contract the viral by breathing in saliva droplets from an infected person.

Dr. Divjot Singh, epidemiologist, district health department, said the situation is now under control. "We have asked the school's principal to relieve all students infected with mumps. The school will remain under surveillance for 15 more days. Medical officers are also carrying out awareness drive at the school and the village against mumps," said Dr. Divjot Singh.

Last year [2019], a mumps outbreak was reported from 2 areas of the district, including Andlu village in Raikot and Red Cross Bhavan, Sarabha Nagar, Ludhiana.  [Byline: Harvinder Kaur]
Date: Wed 15 Jan 2020
Source: Devon Live [abridged, edited]

An outbreak of 19 new cases of mumps has been reported across Devon in the last week. The contagious viral disease particularly affects under 25s. The new mumps figures have been released in the official Government weekly Statutory Notifications of Infectious Diseases report, with the highest number in Exeter.

It follows a warning that mumps is on the rise, particularly in university towns. Traditionally known as the "kissing disease" because it spreads fast between groups of young people, mumps is a contagious viral infection recognisable by the painful swellings in the side of the face under the ears (the parotid glands), giving a person a distinctive "hamster face" appearance.

In severe cases, it can develop into viral meningitis if it moves in the outer layer of the brain. Other complications include swelling of the testicles or ovaries (if the affected person has gone through puberty), which may affect a person's fertility.  [Byline: Colleen Smith]