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Senegal

Senegal - US Consular Information Sheet
July 08, 2008
COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: The Republic of Senegal is a developing West African country.
The capital is Dakar.
Facilities for tourists are widely available but vary in quality.
Read
the Department of State Background Notes on Senegal for additional information.
ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS:
A passport is required.
For U.S. passport holders, a visa is not required for stays of less than 90 days.
Current yellow fever vaccination is mandatory to enter Senegal and meningitis vaccination is highly recommended if the traveler is arriving from or has recently traveled to an endemic area.
Travelers unable to provide proof of vaccinations may be required to pay for and receive vaccinations at the Dakar airport.
Travelers should obtain the latest information on entry requirements from the Embassy of Senegal, 2112 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008, telephone (202) 234-0540, and at the Senegal Tourism Authority's official web site, http://www.senegal-tourism.com.
Overseas inquiries should be made at the nearest Senegalese embassy or consulate.
Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.
For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet.
SAFETY AND SECURITY:
Public demonstrations, political gatherings, and student protests are relatively common in Senegal, both in Dakar and in outlying regions, particularly on Friday afternoons. In the past, these events have sometimes turned violent.
Due to the potential for violence, U.S. citizens should avoid political gatherings and street demonstrations, and maintain security awareness at all times.
For guidelines on dealing safely with public demonstrations, please see the American Citizen Services page of the U.S. Embassy Dakar web site at http://dakar.usembassy.gov/service.html.
Lac Rose (Pink Lake) is a popular tourist destination in Senegal.
The Lac Rose area has a large number of tourists and isolated beach areas, but lacks multiple exit and entry points.
The U.S. Embassy recommends that all visitors to Lac Rose and its surrounding beaches be particularly vigilant and not travel alone.
Banditry occurs with some regularity on the main highways after dark, particularly in the central and eastern area of Senegal, including around Tambacounda and Matam. Bandits often target RN2 (National Road) between Ndioum and Kidira and occasionally target RN1 between Kidira and Tambacounda.
The U.S. Embassy recommends that U.S. citizens avoid non-essential travel to the Casamance region west of the city of Kolda, except direct air travel to the Cap Skirring resort area or to the city of Ziguinchor.
If travel is deemed essential, the U.S. Embassy recommends that U.S. citizens carefully monitor the security situation before traveling.
There are currently instances of fighting in the Casamance region (composed of the Ziguinchor and Kolda regions) involving factions of the Casamance separatist MFDC (Mouvement des Forces Démocratiques de la Casamance) in southern Senegal and the Senegalese military. Some military and political leaders in the Casamance region have been killed.
In May 2008, rebels kidnapped 16 local residents 5 kilometers from Ziguinchor and then cut off their left ears before releasing them.
That same month two soldiers and a peasant were killed in other clashes near the same area.
Reports of banditry in the area remain high.
In addition, vehicles have been attacked by armed bandits even during daylight hours on well-traveled roads.
On February 14, 2007, four people were killed when their bus was attacked after being stopped at a roadblock.
Landmine explosions continue to plague inhabitants of the Casamance, with fatalities and serious injury continuing into 2008.
One man was killed in Tounkara, approximately 70 kilometers north of Ziquinchor.
A Senegalese soldier was injured by a landmine near Boutoupa-Camaracounda, on the border with Guinea Bissau.
Since 1990, more than 1,000 people have been killed by land mines in the Casamance. The U.S. Embassy strongly recommends that U.S. citizens remain on well-traveled routes at all times.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affair’s Internet site at http://travel.state.gov, where the current Travel Warnings and Public Announcements, including the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a regular toll-line at 1-202-501-4444.
These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own personal security while traveling overseas.
For general information about appropriate measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment, see the Department of State’s pamphlet A Safe Trip Abroad.

CRIME:
Minor street crime is very common in Senegal, particularly in cities.
Most reported incidents involve pickpockets and purse-snatchers, who are especially active in large crowds and around tourists. Aggressive vendors, panhandlers and street children may attempt to divert the victim’s attention while an accomplice carries out the crime.
To avoid theft, U.S. citizens should avoid walking alone in isolated areas or on beaches, particularly at night, lock their doors and close their windows when driving, and avoid public transportation.
Americans should not walk on dark streets at night, even in groups.
To minimize inconvenience in the event of theft, U.S. citizens should carry copies, rather than originals, of their passports and other identification documents.
U.S. citizens should carry a credit card only if it will be used soon, rather than carrying it as a routine practice.
There is traditionally an increase in crime before major religious holidays.
U.S. citizens are encouraged to use common sense and situational awareness to ensure personal safety and to reduce the risk of becoming a crime victim.
Always be aware of the surroundings, especially in large cities and crowded places such as markets and taxi parks.
Keep a low profile, remain vigilant, and avoid potential conflict situations.
Do not wear flashy clothing or jewelry, and be cautious about displaying any amount of currency in public.
Use common sense when faced with something out of the ordinary or if someone is following you.
While violent crime is not common in Senegal, it does occur.
There have been incidents in the past year of Americans in groups of two or three being robbed at knife-point.
If confronted by criminals, remember that cash and valuables can be replaced, but life and health cannot.
U.S. citizens are encouraged to walk away from a criminal confrontation no matter the material cost.
Break-ins at residential houses occur frequently as in major cities everywhere.
Persons who plan to reside in Senegal on a long-term basis should take measures to protect their dwellings.
Long-term residents should consider installation of window grilles, solid core doors with well-functioning locks, and an alarm system.
In the past year, a number of American citizen residences have experienced burglaries.
No violence or personal injuries have been reported in these cases, in which the burglars appear to have been exclusively seeking financial gain.
Fraud is prevalent in Senegal and U.S. citizens are often the target of scams that may cause both financial loss and physical harm.
Typically, business scam operations begin with an unsolicited communication (usually by e-mail) from an unknown individual who describes a situation that promises quick financial gain, often by the transfer of a large sum of money or valuables out of West Africa.
The perpetrators of these scams often claim to be victims of various western African conflicts (notably refugees from Sierra Leone) or relatives of present or former political leaders.
There are many variations of these business scams.
In some cases, a series of “advance fees” must be paid in order to conclude the transaction, such as fees to open a bank account, or to pay certain taxes.
In fact, the final payoff does not exist since the purpose of the scam is simply to collect the advance fees.
Another common variation consists of a request for the U.S. citizen's bank account information, purportedly to transfer money into the account.
Once the perpetrator obtains this information, however, he or she then simply transfers all money out of the victim's account.
Other variations include apparently legitimate business deals requiring advance payments on contracts and offers to sell gold at a very low price.
In the last case, the seller may present real gold to be verified then substitute fake gold and disappear with the payment.
The best way to avoid becoming a victim of advance-fee fraud or business scam is to use common sense:
If an offer seems too good to be true, it is probably a scam.
You should carefully research any unsolicited business proposal originating in Senegal before you commit funds, provide goods or services, or undertake travel.

Visa scams take advantage of people who wish to travel to the U.S.
Generally, these scams "guarantee" a U.S. visa for participants who pay a large sum of money to register for a conference or attend an event in the United States.
In fact, only consular officers of the U.S. State Department may issue visas, so any offer that guarantees a U.S. visa is a scam.
Please refer to the State Department web site at http://travel.state.gov or the web site of the U.S. Embassy in Dakar at http://dakar.usembassy.gov/visas.html for authoritative information about the visa process and the costs involved.
In addition to business and visa scams, personal and dating scams are also prevalent. U.S. citizens should be wary of persons claiming to live in Senegal who profess friendship or romantic interest over the Internet.
A chat or e-mail exchange which quickly moves to discussion of intimate matters is often an indication of a scam.
Beware of any request or appeal for money.
In a typical personal scam, the scammer typically asks the U.S. citizen to send money for essential purposes: living or travel expenses, medical treatment, visa costs or bribes to free unjustly imprisoned family members.
Scammers often claim emergency circumstances, hoping that the intended victim will send money quickly and without careful consideration.
Many variations of these scams exist, all with the principal goal of soliciting money from the victim.
Several U.S. citizens in West Africa have reported losing thousands of dollars through such scams.
The anonymity of the Internet means that the U.S. citizen cannot be sure of the real name, age, marital status, nationality or even gender of the correspondent.
In some cases, the correspondent is a fictitious persona created only to lure the U.S. citizen into sending money.
U.S. citizens may prepay for a plane ticket directly with an airline rather than wiring money for transportation to the traveler.
U.S. citizens may also research the legitimate immigration process with the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) web site at http://www.uscis.gov.
U.S. citizens who are victims or witnesses of a crime are encouraged to report crimes to the police by telephoning 800-00-20-20; 800-00-17-00, Senegal's police hotline numbers. Another 24 hour phone number for the police in Senegal is 33-821-2431.
The Government of Senegal has also created a tourist police unit, which may be reached at (+221)33 860-3810.

INFORMATION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME:
The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance.
The Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care, contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred.
Although the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process and to find an attorney if needed.
The local equivalent to the “911” emergency line in Senegal is 800-00-20-20 and 800-00-17-00. See our information on Victims of Crime.

MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION:
Several hospitals and clinics in the capital, Dakar, can treat major and minor injuries and illnesses.
There is inadequate inpatient psychiatric care and limited office-based psychiatric treatment.
Public hospitals do not meet U.S. standards.
Medical facilities outside Dakar are limited.
French medications are far more readily available than American pharmaceuticals, and drugs in stock are often listed under the French trade name.
Medications may be obtained at pharmacies throughout Dakar and in other areas frequented by tourists, and are usually less expensive than in the U.S. Travelers should carry a supply of any needed prescription medicines, along with copies of the prescriptions, including the generic name for the drugs, and a supply of preferred over-the-counter medications.
Malaria is a serious risk to travelers in Senegal.
Travelers should consult their physician to discuss the benefits and risks of taking anti-malarial medication.
Travelers who become ill with a fever or flu-like illness while traveling in a malaria-risk area and up to one year after returning home should seek prompt medical attention and tell the physician their travel history and what anti-malarial medications they have been taking.
For additional information on malaria, protection from insect bites, and anti-malarial drugs, visit the CDC Travelers' Health web site at http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/faq.htm.
Water supplies in Senegal are not consistently free of disease-causing microorganisms.
For this reason, the Embassy recommends drinking filtered or boiled water, particularly for babies under one year of age.
Raw vegetables and fruits should be washed in a bleach solution before eating.
Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC’s web site at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/default.aspx.
For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization’s (WHO) web site at http://www.who.int/en.
Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith/en.

MEDICAL INSURANCE:
The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.
Please see our information on medical insurance overseas.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS:
While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Senegal is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
Driving in Senegal is very different from driving in the United States.
Many U.S. citizens find the traffic in Senegal chaotic, particularly in Dakar.
Drivers tend to exceed speed limits, follow other vehicles closely, ignore lane markings and attempt to pass even when facing oncoming traffic.
Many vehicles are not well-maintained; headlights may be either extremely dim or not used at all. Roadways are poorly lit and poorly marked and many sections have deteriorated surfaces.
Some roads have sidewalks or sufficient space for pedestrian traffic; others do not, and pedestrians are forced to walk along the roadway.
Due to limited street lighting, pedestrians are difficult to see at night.
Drivers in both rural and urban areas may expect to frequently encounter and share the road with motorcycles, bicyclists, pedestrians, livestock and animal carts.
Caution and defensive driving techniques are strongly recommended.
While most main roads in Senegal are in relatively good condition for daytime driving, smaller roads are poor by American standards.
During the rainy season, many roads are passable only with four-wheel drive vehicles.
Travelers may be stopped at police roadblocks throughout the country, where their vehicles and luggage may be searched.
Service stations are available along main roads.
Due to poor road conditions and the risk of crime, driving outside major cities at night is not recommended.
Due to language barriers (outside Dakar, relatively few Senegalese speak French) and the lack of roadside assistance, receiving help may be difficult in the event of distress.
For safety reasons, the Embassy recommends against the use of motorbikes, van taxis ("cars rapides"), and public transportation.
They can be dangerous due to overloading, careless driving, inadequate maintenance, and the lack of basic safety equipment such as seat belts.
Regulated orange-striped sedan auto taxis are safer, but make sure to agree on a fare before beginning the trip.
In Senegal, one drives on the right-hand side.
Vehicles give priority to traffic coming from the right, except at traffic circles, where vehicles already in the circle have the right of way.
Before January 2005, however, cars entering traffic circles had the right of way.
This change is not well known, so drivers should exercise extreme caution at traffic circles.
All drivers are expected to carry the following documents in their vehicles and present them at any time at the request of the police:
(1) valid driver's license; (2) valid insurance papers; (3) vehicle registration/immatriculation card ("carte grise"); (4) "vignette" tax disc for the current year; and (5) valid identification.
If Americans carry a copy of their U.S. passport, the copy must be clear enough to identify the driver of the vehicle.
Third-party insurance is required and will cover any damages if you are involved in an accident resulting in injuries, and found not to have been at fault.
If you are found to have caused an accident, the penalty ranges from five months to two years in prison, with a possible fine.
If you cause an accident which results in a death, the penalty can be as high as five years in prison.
For guidance on what to do if you are in an automobile accident in Senegal, please see the American Citizen Services page of the U.S. Embassy Dakar web site at http://dakar.usembassy.gov/service/living-in-senegal-and-guinea-bissau/driving-in-senegal.html.
Senegalese law prohibits the use of cell phones while driving, unless the driver is using “hands-free” equipment.
Protective helmets are mandatory for all bicycle, moped, scooter and motorcycle drivers/riders and passengers.
When police officers stop a vehicle for a traffic violation, the police officer will generally confiscate the driver’s license or ID card until the fine is paid.
We encourage you to comply with the request. Sometimes, police officers try to solicit bribes instead of or in addition to the fine.
The U.S. Embassy does not encourage paying bribes. Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information.

AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT:
As there is no direct commercial air service to the United States by carriers registered in Senegal, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has not assessed Senegal’s Civil Aviation Authority for compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards.
For more information, travelers may visit the FAA’s web site at http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa.
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
Senegalese law requires that all persons carry personal identification at all times, and all Senegalese law enforcement officials have the authority to challenge suspicious activity and to request personal identification.
Be aware that they may request personal identification even without cause, which is generally not the case in the U.S.
If a U.S. citizen does not cooperate and provide identification, s/he may be detained for up to 48 hours without the filing of formal charges.
The U.S. Embassy does not always receive timely notification by Senegalese authorities of the arrest of U.S. citizens. U.S. citizens are encouraged to carry a copy of their U.S. passports with them at all times, so that, if questioned by local officials, proof of identity and U.S. citizenship is readily available. If arrested, U.S. citizens should always ask to be allowed to contact the U.S. Embassy.
You may not bring several types of items into Senegal without clearance by Senegalese customs officials: these include computers and computer parts, video cameras and players, stereo equipment, tape players, auto parts, and various tools and spare parts.
Airport customs officials may hold such items if brought in as baggage or carry-on luggage.
Travelers should check with the Embassy of Senegal in Washington, DC, regarding these restrictions. (See Entry Requirements Section above for contact information.)
Senegalese customs authorities encourage the use of an ATA (Admission Temporaire/Temporary Admission) Carnet for the temporary admission of professional equipment, commercial samples, and/or goods for exhibitions and fair purposes.
ATA Carnet Headquarters, located at the U.S. Council for International Business, 1212 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036, issues and guarantees the ATA Carnet in the United States.
For additional information, call (212) 354-4480, send an email to atacarnet@uscib.org or visit http://www.uscib.org for details.
Travelers can obtain cash from some ATMs in Senegal.
Travelers can get cash and/or traveler's checks through international credit cards, such as Master Card, Visa, and American Express, by presenting their credit card at a local financial institution sponsoring their card. Please see our Customs Information.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES:
While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that country's laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S. law.
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for similar offenses.
Persons violating Senegalese laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled, arrested or imprisoned.
Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in Senegal are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy fines.
Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.
Please see our information on Criminal Penalties.

CHILDREN'S ISSUES:
For information see our Office of Children’s Issues web pages on intercountry adoption and international parental child abduction.
REGISTRATION / EMBASSY LOCATION:
Americans living or traveling in Senegal are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State Department’s travel registration web site so that they can obtain updated information on travel and security within Senegal.
Americans without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate.
By registering, American citizens make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.
The U.S. Embassy is located at Avenue Jean XXIII, Dakar; the mailing address is B.P. 49, Dakar, Senegal.
The telephone number is (221) 33 829-2100; after hours (221) 33 829 2209.
The U.S. Embassy web site is http://dakar.usembassy.gov/.
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This replaces the Country Specific Information Sheet for Senegal dated November 08, 2007 to update sections on Country Description, Entry/Exit Requirements, Crime, Safety and Security, Information for Victims of Crime, Medical Facilities and Health Information, and Registration and Embassy Location.

Travel News Headlines WORLD NEWS

Date: Mon, 23 Mar 2020 22:54:46 +0100 (MET)

Dakar, March 23, 2020 (AFP) - The West African states of Senegal and Ivory Coast on Monday each declared a state of emergency in the face of the new coronavirus pandemic.    Senegalese President Macky Sall said the state of emergency in the country, which has 79 confirmed COVID-19 cases, would start from Tuesday, as would a curfew from 8:00 pm to 6:00 am.    He also ordered the country's "defence and security forces to be ready for the immediate and strict execution of the measures".

"I say this to you with solemnity -- the situation is critical. The speed of the progress of the disease requires us to raise the level of the response," Sall said in a televised address to the nation.   "Otherwise we run a serious risk of public calamity," he warned, adding that this was an "unprecedented moment in human history" and a "true world war launched against this common enemy."   Sall aid that the authorities would have the power to regulate or ban the movement of people and goods, as well as rallies and public demonstrations or any kind of gathering.    He also said the state would put $1.6 billion towards a "response and solidarity" fund, while $81 million would be set aside for emergency food aid.

Ivory Coast President Alassane Ouattara said that "faced with the progression of the pandemic," his country would introduce gradual confinement measures and a curfew from 9:00pm to 5:00am from Tuesday.   "Faced with the progression of the pandemic... I declare a state emergency throughout the country," he said during a televised speech.   Ouattara said there would also be "the progressive confinement of populations by geographic area according to how the pandemic spreads". He added that the security ministry would decide where the measures would be implemented.

The president also ordered the closure of all bars and banned unauthorised movement between the economic capital Abidjan, where the majority of the country's 25 cases have been detected, and the interior of the country.   He also announced that $157 million would go to a "national response plan".   "In this fight against the spread of COVID-19, our main enemy will be indiscipline and non-compliance with preventative instructions," he said.
Date: Mon, 2 Mar 2020 18:18:32 +0100 (MET)

Dakar, March 2, 2020 (AFP) - Senegal on Monday confirmed its first case of the novel coronavirus, a French citizen who visited France last month before returning to the West African country and being quarantined in the capital Dakar.   "The results of the tests carried out by the Pasteur Institute in Dakar came back positive," Senegal's Health Minister Diouf Sarr told journalists.   "So far the patient's condition has not raised any major concerns," he added.

It is the second confirmed case in sub-Saharan Africa after Nigeria, where an Italian national returned with the virus. Italy has emerged as the European hotspot for the deadly virus with nearly 1,700 cases, while France has reported the third most in Europe, with at least 130.
Date: Sat 23 Nov 2019
Source: Leral net [in French, trans. Corr.SB, edited]

A case of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever has been reported in Kaolack commune. According to the health services of the region quoted by the daily "L'As", the infected carrier comes from the department of Koungheul and is a vehicle driver in his state. The victim is currently hospitalized at the Ibrahima Niasse regional hospital in Kaolack. According to the newspaper health authorities say they have taken all steps to prevent the spread of the disease.

According to a specialized site "mesvaccins.net", the Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus is of the genus _Nairovirus_, of the family Bunyaviridae. It can be responsible for serious epidemics of viral haemorrhagic fever. It causes high fever, pain, nausea, and vomiting usually 3-4 days after infection. It can be responsible for severe bleeding forms with a lethality rate of 10 to 40 per cent.

Human transmission of the virus is by tick bite (_Hyalomma_) or by contact with blood (or body fluids SB) containing the virus or animal tissues immediately after slaughter. The majority of cases occur among those involved in the livestock industry, such as farm workers, slaughterhouse employees, and veterinarians. A nosocomial exposure in health care facilities may also occur.

The Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus is endemic in Africa, the Balkans, the Middle East, and Asian countries south of the 50th parallel north. Hosts of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus include a wide range of wild and domesticated animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats.
====================
[Previous seroprevalence studies have highlighted that CCHF is focally endemic throughout Senegal and neighbouring countries

Sporadic human infections may be expected in people with regular contact with livestock in endemic areas, but these are preventable through use of repellents, protective clothing, and gloves to prevent tick bites, and avoiding contact with blood and body fluids of livestock.

To prevent outbreaks of CCHF, public awareness campaigns aimed at the populations most at risk -- livestock farmers, butchers, and health personnel -- must be conducted, and the epidemiologic alert systems must be strengthened. In addition, conditions that enhance maintenance of the virus in nature and its transmission to humans must be better understood so adequate control measures can be developed. - ProMED Mod.UBA]

[The URL above appears to be inactive now. An alternative source is

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Senegal:
Date: Wed, 18 Sep 2019 01:36:21 +0200 (METDST)

Dakar, Sept 17, 2019 (AFP) - Four people died after a boat carrying dozens of tourists capsized during heavy storms in Senegal, authorities and emergency services said Tuesday.   The death toll could rise as three passengers were said to be missing after the accident.  The boat was carrying several Senegalese nationals, six French people, two Germans, two Swedes and one person from Guinea-Bissau, when it turned over Monday in driving rain and a heavy swell, fire department chief Papa Angel Michel Diatta said.   All the dead were Senegalese, officials and emergency services said.

Two worked in a national park, one was a woman and the other victim was a child, Diatta said.   The boat was heading for the Madeleine islands, site of an offshore national park popular with tourists who travel from Dakar, coastal capital of the West African country.   Senegalese President Macky Sall appealed for "greater caution and respect for existing security norms duing the rainy season" in a tweet.

Emergency services continued to look for those missing on Tuesday. AFP journalists saw a dozen divers at the scene. Distressed families were waiting on the shore to get news of their loved ones.    "The gendarmerie called us at 5:00 am (GMT and local time). My brother was on the boat. The worst thing is not knowing," said Aminata Diop, who was among the relatives on the beach.   There are "four dead bodies and between three and four people are missing. Thirty-five people were on the boat. Search and rescue operations are continuing this morning," Interior Minister Aly Ngouille Ndiaye told AFP by telephone.

The causes of the accident were unclear. The interior minister told Senegalese media overnight that several tourists were worried about the heavy rains and wanted to return to the pier but others wanted to stay on the boat.   The survivors spent the night on the island, Ndiaye told local radio on Tuesday. Blankets and food were sent to them and they were to be ferried back to the mainland in the morning, he added.   The rainy season arrived late this year and heavy storms have resulted in several casualties this month.    Two fishermen were killed on their canoe in the same area nearly two weeks ago.
- National. 12 Nov 2018

Suspected cases totalling 2123 with 216 confirmed have been reported across 6 regions, with one death confirmed, as of 3 Nov 2018. The CDC has issued a travel warning. The 6 regions currently reporting confirmed cases are Diourbel (169), Fatick (34), St. Louis (6), Dakar (3), Louga (3) and Thies (1).

- National. 9 Nov 2018. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has issued a Level 1, Practice Usual Precautions, for the African country of Senegal, on 7 Nov 2018. Senegal, which is located on the north-west coast of central Africa, is an important partner of the US in promoting peace and security. Because dengue is a viral disease and spread by mosquito bites, all travellers to Senegal should prevent mosquito bites by using insect repellent and wearing protective clothing when outdoors, and sleeping in an air-conditioned or well-screened room or under an insecticide-treated bed net, said the CDC. Moreover, half of the world's population living in 128 countries is at risk of dengue.

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Senegal:
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World Travel News Headlines

Date: Wed, 1 Apr 2020 14:43:58 +0200 (METDST)

Paris, April 1, 2020 (AFP) - A man has been jailed in France for repeatedly violating strict anti-coronavirus lockdown rules, which have seen 359,000 fines issued countrywide as the outbreak death toll continues to mount, authorities said Wednesday.    Police Minister Christophe Castaner warned residents to write off any travel plans for school holidays starting this weekend, promising to punish any unwarranted movement as the country continues to evacuate dozens of critically ill patients from hospitals in overstretched areas of the country.

The Ile-de-France region, with Paris at its core, saw its first evacuations Wednesday as the outbreak which started in the east of France takes an ever-heavier toll on the capital.   Twenty-four patients were sent from Paris to Brittany in northern France in the morning on a high-speed train, fully equipped as a hospital on tracks, with 12 others to follow on a second train later.

A third of the 499 deaths registered in France in the previous 24 hours had been from Ile-de-France, the government said, with the countrywide death toll now at 3,523.   Only deaths in hospital are counted towards the official tally, which excludes people who passed away in old age facilities or at home.   To date, the government has evacuated nearly 300 patients from hospitals in hard-hit areas of the country to lesser burdened ones, and some to Germany, Switzerland and Luxembourg. Austria said Wednesday it would take three patients from eastern France.

- 'We must stand strong' -
As the medical crisis escalates, a court in Calais in the country's north sentenced a 20-year-old man to two months in prison after he was caught eight times without the self-certified document all residents are required to show if they leave the house for critical business.   This can include essential shopping, going to the doctor, walking the dog, a quick jog, and going to work for those in critical fields.     In Paris on Tuesday, a court sentenced a 22-year-old man to 105 hours of community service, also for repeatedly violating the lockdown.

Castaner said some 5.8 million checks have been carried out and 359,000 fines issued since the lockdown started on March 17, and stressed that leaving on holiday was not allowed under the lockdown rules that have confined millions of children at home with schools closed.   Even with train and plane traffic slashed to a minimum, authorities fear a holiday exodus and the minister said controls will be stepped up on the roads and at train stations and airports.   "Confinement is a strain for families, I know, but we must stand strong," he said.   More than 22,700 people are hospitalised for COVID-19 in France, with 5,565 in intensive care.
Date: Wed, 1 Apr 2020 12:33:43 +0200 (METDST)

Tehran, April 1, 2020 (AFP) - Flooding in Iran caused by heavy rainfall has left 21 people dead and one missing, an emergency services spokesman said Wednesday, even as the country battles the coronavirus pandemic.   Mojtaba Khaledi told Iran's ISNA news agency that 22 people had also been injured, with most of the casualties in southern or central provinces.   He said 11 people had died in Fars province, three each in Hormozgan and Qom, two in Sistan and Baluchistan province, and one each in Bushehr and Khuzestan.   Khaledi said one person was still missing in Hormozgan on the Gulf coast.

Flooding last week killed 12 people, and Khaledi warned of more heavy rain to come.   Iran is battling one of the world's deadliest coronavirus outbreaks with 3,036 deaths and 47,593 infections.   In March and April last year, heavy rainfall and flooding killed at least 76 people in Iran.   At the time, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies estimated 10 million people were affected, describing the floods as "the largest disaster to hit Iran in more than 15 years".
Date: Wed, 1 Apr 2020 10:00:47 +0200 (METDST)

Sydney, April 1, 2020 (AFP) - Australian health officials set up a coronavirus testing clinic on Sydney's Bondi Beach Wednesday, as concern grew that COVID-19 was spreading among backpackers in the popular tourist destination.   More than 100 cases of coronavirus have reportedly been identified in the area -- many linked to two massive club parties held in mid-March before the country shut down bars, pubs and other non-essential services.   Photos shared online last week also showed mostly young beachgoers packed together on the sand after outdoor gatherings were curtailed, drawing howls of protest.

That led to sunbathers, surfers and tourists being banned from the beach, with police enforcing the prohibition.   New South Wales Health said the Waverley Council area, which encompasses Bondi, had the highest number of confirmed cases in Sydney.   "A plausible explanation is they have come in contact with an infected backpacker before that backpacker was aware they had COVID-19," said chief health officer Kerry Chant.   Australia has recorded almost 5,000 coronavirus infections and 20 deaths, with almost half of those in New South Wales.
Date: Wed, 1 Apr 2020 00:15:13 +0200 (METDST)

London, March 31, 2020 (AFP) - A 13-year-old British boy has died days after testing positive for COVID-19, hospital officials and his family said on Tuesday, with relatives saying he had no underlying illnesses.   The boy, who died Monday at King's College Hospital in London, is believed to be Britain's youngest confirmed death in the coronavirus pandemic.

A 12-year-old girl, whose death was confirmed earlier on Tuesday in Belgium, is thought to be Europe's youngest victim.    The boy's family said Ismail Mohamed Abdulwahab "started showing symptoms and had difficulties breathing" before he was admitted to hospital.   "He was put on a ventilator and then put into an induced coma but sadly died yesterday morning," the family said through a family friend, Mark Stephenson, adding: "We are beyond devastated."

Nathalie MacDermott, a lecturer at King's College, said: "While we know it is much less likely for children to suffer severe COVID-19 infection than older adults, this case highlights the importance of us all taking the precautions we can to reduce the spread of infection in the UK and worldwide."   She urged research into deaths outside the groups expected to succumb to infection as it "may indicate an underlying genetic susceptibility."

On Tuesday, Britain announced 381 deaths from COVID-19 in the past 24 hours, the highest figure in the country since the start of the pandemic, bringing the death toll to 1,789.
Date: Tue 31 Mar 2020 4:36 PM PDT
Source: San Francisco Chronicle [abridged, edited]

The captain of a nuclear aircraft carrier with more than 100 sailors infected with the coronavirus pleaded Monday [30 Mar 2020] with US Navy officials for resources to allow isolation of his entire crew and avoid possible deaths in a situation he described as quickly deteriorating.

The unusual plea from Captain Brett Crozier, a Santa Rosa native, came in a letter obtained exclusively by The Chronicle and confirmed by a senior officer on board the aircraft carrier Theodore Roosevelt, which has been docked in Guam following a COVID-19 outbreak among the crew of more than 4000 less than a week ago. "This will require a political solution but it is the right thing to do," Crozier wrote. "We are not at war. Sailors do not need to die. If we do not act now, we are failing to properly take care of our most trusted asset -- our sailors." In the 4-page letter to senior military officials, Crozier said only a small contingent of infected sailors have been off-boarded. Most of the crew remain aboard the ship, where following official guidelines for 14-day quarantines and social distancing is impossible. "Due to a warship's inherent limitations of space, we are not doing this," Crozier wrote. "The spread of the disease is ongoing and accelerating." He asked for "compliant quarantine rooms" on shore in Guam for his entire crew "as soon as possible."

"Removing the majority of personnel from a deployed US nuclear aircraft carrier and isolating them for 2 weeks may seem like an extraordinary measure. ... This is a necessary risk," Crozier wrote. "Keeping over 4000 young men and women on board the TR is an unnecessary risk and breaks faith with those Sailors entrusted to our care."

Acting Navy Secretary Thomas Modly spoke to CNN. "I heard about the letter from Capt Crozier (Tuesday) morning [31 Mar 2020], I know that our command organization has been aware of this for about 24 hours and we have been working actually the last 7 days to move those sailors off the ship and get them into accommodations in Guam. The problem is that Guam doesn't have enough beds right now and we're having to talk to the government there to see if we can get some hotel space, create tent-type facilities," Modly said.

"We don't disagree with the (captain) on that ship and we're doing it in a very methodical way because it's not the same as a cruise ship, that ship has armaments on it, it has aircraft on it, we have to be able to fight fires if there are fires on board the ship, we have to run a nuclear power plant, so there's a lot of things that we have to do on that ship that make it a little bit different and unique but we're managing it and we're working through it," he said.

So far, none of the infected sailors has shown serious symptoms, but the number of those who have tested positive has jumped exponentially since the Navy reported infections in 3 crew members on [24 Mar 2020], the 1st time COVID-19 infections had been detected on a naval vessel at sea.

Retired Admiral James Stavridis, former NATO Supreme Allied Commander Europe, told The Chronicle Tuesday [31 Mar 2020] in an email that "we should expect more such incidents because warships are a perfect breeding ground for coronavirus." "Unfortunately, naval vessels are ideal breeding grounds for the spread of viruses because it is impossible to do social distancing on one" because of the tight quarters on board, Stavridis said. The ship's problems will "compound", Stavridis said, because you can't tie the vessel up "and send everyone ashore. It is full of weapons, billions of dollars of equipment, fire hazards, and nuclear reactors".

Scrubbing the Theodore Roosevelt of the virus will not be complicated, but "time-consuming", he said. He estimated cleaning would take 5 to 10 days with a crew of 350 people. Senior military officials said last week that the entire crew of more than 4000 will be tested. The carrier's home port is San Diego.

At the time, Modly expressed confidence that they identified all the sailors who had been in contact with the trio of infected sailors and they had been quarantined. "This is an example of how we are able to keep our ships deployed at seas and underway, even with active COVID-19 cases," Modly said. But by the time the ship reached port in Guam on Friday [27 Mar 2020], the number of cases had grown to 25, and soon after to 36, according to reports.

But by Monday [30 Mar 2020], a senior officer on board the massive aircraft carrier, who wished to remain anonymous because they are not authorized to speak to the media, said between 150 and 200 sailors had tested positive. None had been hospitalized -- yet, the source said. The Chronicle agreed to withhold the officer's name based on its anonymous sources policy.

Gilday told reporters last week [week of 23 Mar 2020] it was unclear if sailors became infected following the ship's previous port of call in early March [2020] to Da Nang, Vietnam. Gilday said they debated whether to go on with the Viet Nam visit, but at the time there were only 16 coronavirus cases in northern Viet Nam and the port was in the central part of the country. Sailors were screened prior to returning on board. The 1st 3 sailors tested positive 15 days after leaving Vietnam, officials said.

The virus has been hard to contain on board ever since. Federal and military guidelines recommend individual quarantine, including no use of common areas. "Due to the close quarters required on a warship and the current number of positive cases, every single sailor, regardless of rank, on board the TR [Theodore Roosevelt] must be considered 'close contact,'" Crozier wrote. The tight quarters on the carrier are "most conducive to spread", he wrote, including large amounts of sailors in a confined space, shared sleeping quarters, restrooms, workspaces and computers, a common mess hall, meals cooked by exposed personnel, and movement constraints requiring communal contact with ladders and hatches.

The captain compared the situation to the Diamond Princess cruise ship, citing a study that focused on what could have happened to that cruise ship had no isolation been done. A total of 712 passengers eventually tested positive for COVID-19 from that cruise departing from Japan; however, the study found if there had been no early isolation close to 80% of passengers and crew would have been infected. And had the cruise line immediately evacuated the ship after the 1st positive tests, the study found only 76 people would have tested positive.

Of the 1st 33 Roosevelt sailors testing positive, 7, or 21%, originally tested negative. After testing negative, those 7 sailors presented symptoms within 1 to 3 days after their initial negative test, Crozier said. The testing should be utilized, the captain wrote, after a proper 14-day quarantine to ensure no infected sailors return on board a clean ship. As part of his plan, 10% of the crew would stay on board to run the reactor plant, sanitize the ship, ensure security and provide contingency response for emergencies.  [byline: Matthias Gafni Joe Garofoli]
==================
[It does seem as though ships in general are ideal incubators for this virus (the SARS-CoV-2). Cruise ships with cabins for 2-4 passengers have proven to be excellent captive audiences for the virus to spread (see prior post: COVID-19 update (60): global, cruise ships, lessons learned, WHO http://promedmail.org/post/20200329.7156949 for a recent summary of cruise ship related outbreaks as well as a series of posts from mid-February 2020 through the present
http://promedmail.org/post/20200215.6993525,
http://promedmail.org/post/20200328.7153651).

In addition to having people in close quarters even in "luxury liners" where maintaining a minimum of 6 feet (2 m) separation is virtually impossible, meals are often buffet style, with serving instruments shared by all. Imagine naval ships with more dormitory style quarters, perfect locations for rapid viral transmission. One can't help but wonder how many other naval vessels from multiple countries around the world are also experiencing similar outbreaks on their ships. - ProMed Mod.MPP]
Date: Thu 26 Mar 2020
Source: The News [edited]

At a time when health authorities are dealing with the threat of coronavirus in the country, cases of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF), which is a lethal viral disease, have started surfacing in Sindh, and 2 people have been diagnosed with the tickborne viral ailment within a week.

"Today, we had a 37 year old female patient from Tharparkar, who was bleeding from her nose and mouth. We sent her sample to the lab and the lab test confirmed that she is infected with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF)," said Dr Seemin Jamali, the executive director of the JPMC [Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre], while talking to The News on Wednesday [25 Mar 2020].

It is the 2nd case of the Congo fever in the current year [2020], she said, adding that earlier a 40 year old person from the Pak Colony of the city had been referred to the JPMC from the Civil Hospital Karachi, who tested positive for the CCHF. Dr Jamali maintained that the previous patient, who was a butcher by trade, had recovered and been discharged from the hospital, but the new patient, a woman from the Tharparkar district of Sindh, was under treatment and in a precarious condition.

Experts say Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever is a tickborne viral disease whose mortality rate is over 40 per cent, and it is mostly people who deal with livestock, including butchers and shepherds, who contract the disease after coming into contact with infected animals.
======================
[This is the 2nd case of CCHF from Karachi in 2020. The 1st case has already been reported in an earlier post. The CCHF cases in Pakistan show biannual peaks, between the months of March-May and August-October. Many factors, including poor sanitation, unhygienic transportation, and numerous animal slaughter sites, inefficient tick-control programs, post-slaughter piles of animal remains, nomadic lifestyle, and lack of general awareness contribute to the spread of CCHF.

Pakistan has confirmed cases of CCHF in almost every province: Sindh (Karachi), Punjab (Faisalabad, Multan, and Rawalpindi), Balochistan (Quetta) and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Peshawar). There is a need to educate the general public, farmers, and healthcare workers about the causes, transmission, and risks of CCHF and advise on practical preventive measures. - ProMed Mod.UBA]

[Maps of Pakistan:
Date: Mon 30 Mar 2020

There were 3 newly confirmed cases reported by Botswana with travel histories to the UK and Thailand. - ProMed Mod.MPP

HealthMap/ProMED-mail of Botswana:
Date: Mon 30 Mar 2020
Source: Zee News [edited]

A child died due to acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) in Bihar on Sunday (29 Mar 2020). "A child has lost his life due to acute encephalitis syndrome at Sri Krishna Medical College & Hospital (SKMCH) in Muzaffarpur," Dr SK Shahi, SKMCH superintendent said.

This is the 1st AES related death in the district this year [2020]. Last year [2019], over 140 children died due to AES in the district. As per official data, 121 deaths were reported at the government-run SKMCH, which handled the largest number of patients in the district, while 21 deaths were confirmed at the Kejriwal Hospital.

AES is a viral disease that causes flu-like symptoms such as high fever, vomiting, and, in extreme cases, brain dysfunction, seizure, and inflammation of the heart and kidney.
====================
[AES is a common ailment in children in north-eastern India, especially in Bihar state.

The issue of the aetiology of AES has been under discussion for a long time. AES has continued to be attributed to various aetiologies, including Reye syndrome-like disease, possible Japanese encephalitis, enterovirus infection from polluted water, heatstroke, intoxication from lychee fruit consumption, and scrub typhus (_Orientia tsutsugamushi_).

A recent publication states that dengue virus is one of the 3 commonest agents identified in AES, but existing surveillance for AES does not include routine testing for dengue.

The above report does not indicate whether any of the above aetiologies have been ruled out or confirmed. Until the aetiology (or aetiologies) of these AES cases is determined, effective and efficient prevention of these cases will not be possible. The season in which AES cases occur is just beginning, and additional cases can be expected over the coming 6-7 months. - ProMed Mod.TY]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Bihar State, India: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/364>]
Date: Sat 28 Mar 2020
Source: CGTN Africa [edited]

The number of reported hepatitis E cases in Namibia are on the decrease, statistics released by the Ministry of Health on Saturday [28 Mar 2020] show. A total of 74 hepatitis E (HEV) cases were reported countrywide between 24 Feb and 8 Mar 2020, compared with 102 cases reported during the previous 2 weeks.

The Ministry of Health declared an outbreak of hepatitis E on 14 Dec 2017 in the capital, Windhoek. The outbreak then spread to other regions around April 2018, eventually involving a total of 10 regions. Cases have been reported mainly from informal settlements such as Havana and Goreangab in Windhoek, DRC [Democratic Resettlement Community] in Swakopmund and similar settings in other regions where access to potable water, sanitation, and hygiene is limited.

A total of 7457 hepatitis E cases have been reported since the outbreak began with 65 deaths reported nationally, representing a case fatality rate of 0.9 per cent.

"There is a decrease in the number of HEV cases during the reporting period. (However) the outbreak continues to be protracted and cases are still being detected in areas where water and toilet facilities are limited, particularly in Khomas and in Erongo regions," a report from the health ministry said.
=====================
[Hepatitis E is found worldwide, and different genotypes of the hepatitis E virus determine differences in epidemiology. For example, genotype 1 is usually seen in developing countries and causes community-level outbreaks, whereas genotype 3 is usually seen in developed countries and does not cause outbreaks. Acute epidemic hepatitis E is attributable to infection with hepatitis E virus genotypes 1 and 2. Many of the deaths are in pregnant women, characteristic of genotype 1.

The highest seroprevalence rates (number of persons in a population who test positive for the disease) are observed in regions where low standards of sanitation increase the risk for transmission of the virus. - ProMed Mod.LL]

[Maps of Namibia:
Date: Tue, 31 Mar 2020 22:17:01 +0200 (METDST)

Beirut, March 31, 2020 (AFP) - Lebanese authorities said Tuesday they would allow expatriates to return despite a lockdown in response to the coronavirus pandemic, a move that could affect up to 20,000 people.   The cabinet gave its initial approval for the proposal, which could be put in motion "in principle" from Sunday, a government statement said, without giving details of how it would be implemented.

An estimated 20,000 people "want to return to Lebanon", Foreign Minister Nassif Hitti told local television.  Beirut's international airport has been closed for nearly two weeks, along with schools, universities, restaurants and bars, and Lebanese have been urged to stay at home to stem the spread of COVID-19.   Lebanon has reported 463 official cases of the virus and 12 deaths.