Date: Fri 4 Oct 2019
Source: CTV News [edited]
<https://www.ctvnews.ca/health/province-warns-newfoundland-and-labrador-residents-of-e-coli-outbreak-1.4624820>

Newfoundland and Labrador's provincial health department is advising residents of an outbreak of _E. coli_ bacteria. There have been 22 cases of _E. coli_ confirmed in the province this week, according to an advisory issued Friday afternoon [4 Oct 2019]. The statement says provincial public health officials and regional authorities are investigating.

The Department of Health and Community Services advises people experiencing symptoms of _E. coli_, including severe or bloody diarrhea and abdominal pain, to seek medical attention. The illness spreads mostly through ingestion of contaminated food or water but can also spread through person-to-person contact.

A provincial medical officer of health says most cases are within the province's eastern health authority, including the capital city of St. John's, but others are in the central and western authorities.

Dr. Janice Fitzgerald said some of the cases are connected to an advisory issued by Memorial University earlier this week, saying Eastern Health was investigating reports of students experiencing gastrointestinal illness.

The university said Wednesday [2 Oct 2019] that test results indicated one student living in residence "may have contracted the _E. coli_ bacteria" and 21 students had reported similar symptoms. Fitzgerald said it's too early in the investigation to determine a cause of the outbreak.
======================
[The news report above alerts people experiencing severe or bloody diarrhoea to seek medical care because there have been 22 cases of a "gastrointestinal illness" due to _Escherichia coli_ in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador; most cases are occurring within the province's eastern health authority, including the capital city of St. John's.

Although the report fails to characterize the students' GI illness in any detail, most likely the illness is due to an enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). EHEC is a type of _E. coli_ that produces a toxin called Shiga toxin and causes damage to the lining of the intestinal wall and bloody diarrhoea.

The infection is said to have involved one student "living in residence," perhaps a communal home, and 21 other students developed similar symptoms. But the report fails to say if the students lived together or had some other common exposure. Most EHEC is transmitted by ingestion of contaminated food or water, but EHEC can also spread through person-to-person contact or contact with animals and their environment (<https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2020/travel-related-infectious-diseases/escherichia-coli-diarrheagenic>).

More information on this outbreak would be appreciated from knowledgeable sources.

Newfoundland and Labrador, which incorporates the island of Newfoundland and mainland Labrador to the northwest, is the most easterly province of Canada, with a combined population of 526 702 (<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newfoundland_and_Labrador>). Approximately 92% of the province's population lives on the island of Newfoundland (including its associated smaller islands). Half of the province's population (262 410) lives on Newfoundland's Avalon Peninsula, which includes the city of St. John's, the province's capital and largest city (<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avalon_Peninsula>). - ProMED Mod.ML]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Newfoundland, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/375>]
Date: Wed 2 Oct 2019
Source: Benzinga.com [edited]
<https://www.benzinga.com/pressreleases/19/10/n14524570/public-health-notice-outbreak-of-salmonella-illnesses-linked-to-raw-turkey-and-raw-chicken>

This update reflects 14 illnesses that have been added to the outbreak investigation. There are now 110 illnesses under investigation. The Public Health Agency of Canada continues to remind Canadians to always handle raw turkey and raw chicken carefully, and to cook it thoroughly to prevent food-related illnesses like _Salmonella_ infection. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency has not issued any food recall warnings related to this outbreak.

The Public Health Agency of Canada is collaborating with provincial and territorial public health partners, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency and Health Canada to investigate an outbreak of _Salmonella_ infections.
 
Based on the investigation findings to date, exposure to raw turkey and raw chicken products has been identified as the likely source of the outbreak. Many of the individuals who became sick reported eating different types of turkey and chicken products before their illnesses occurred. The outbreak appears to be ongoing, as recent illnesses continue to be reported to the Public Health Agency of Canada.

As of 1 Oct 2019, there have been 110 confirmed cases of _S._ Reading illness investigated in the following provinces and territories: British Columbia (26), Alberta (36), Saskatchewan (8), Manitoba (24), Ontario (7), Quebec (1), New Brunswick (1), Northwest Territories (1), and Nunavut (6). Individuals became sick between April 2017 and August 2019. 32 individuals have been hospitalized. One individual has died. Individuals who became ill are between 0 and 96 years of age. The illnesses are equally distributed among males (50%) and females (50%).

The collaborative outbreak investigation was initiated due to an increase of _S._ Reading illnesses that occurred in October and November 2018. Cases have continued to be reported since the investigation was initiated. Through the use of a laboratory method called whole genome sequencing, some _Salmonella_ illnesses dating back to 2017 were identified to have the same genetic strain as the illnesses that occurred in late 2018. More than half of the illnesses under investigation occurred between October 2018 and August 2019.

It is possible that more recent illnesses may be reported in the outbreak because there is a period of time between when a person becomes ill and when the illness is reported to public health officials. This period of time is called the case reporting delay. In national _Salmonella_ outbreak investigations, the case reporting delay is usually between 5 and 6 weeks.

The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S. CDC) previously investigated similar _Salmonella_ illnesses in several states that were linked to raw turkey exposure. There were some turkey products recalled in the U.S. that were associated with that outbreak. These products were not imported or distributed in the Canadian marketplace. The U.S. investigation was closed in April 2019.

Infants, children, seniors and those with weakened immune systems are at higher risk of serious illness because their immune systems are more fragile. Most people who become ill from a _Salmonella_ infection will recover fully after a few days. It is possible for some people tobe infected with the bacteria and to not get sick or show any symptoms, but to still be able to spread the infection to others.

Raw turkey and raw chicken products carrying _Salmonella_ may look, smell and taste normal, so it's important to always follow safe food-handling tips if you are buying, chilling, thawing, cleaning, cooking and storing any type of raw poultry food products.

Always handle raw turkey and raw chicken carefully, and cook it thoroughly to prevent food-related illnesses like salmonellosis. You can use the following food safety tips to help protect you and your family: Always wash your hands before and after you touch raw turkey and raw chicken. Wash with soap and warm water for at least 20 seconds. Use an alcohol-based hand rub if soap and water are not available. Always cook turkey and chicken products to a safe internal temperature that has been checked using a digital thermometer. Turkey and chicken breasts, as well as ground poultry, including turkey and chicken burgers, should always be cooked to an internal temperature of 74 C (165 F) to kill any harmful bacteria. Whole turkey and chicken should be cooked to an internal temperature of 82 C (180 F). Leftovers should be reheated to 74 C (165 F). Use a digital food thermometer to check, and place it in the thickest part of the food.

Thaw frozen raw turkey and raw chicken in the fridge. Thawing raw turkey and raw chicken at room temperature can allow bacteria to grow. Never rinse raw turkey or raw chicken before cooking it because the bacteria can spread wherever the water splashes. Use a separate plate, cutting board, utensils and kitchen tools when preparing raw turkey and raw chicken. Clean everything that has come in contact with raw turkey or raw chicken with a kitchen cleaner or bleach solution and then rinse with water: Kitchen cleaner (follow the instructions on the container) Bleach solution (5 mL household bleach to 750 mL of water). Keep raw turkey and raw chicken away from other food while shopping, storing, repackaging, cooking and serving foods. If you have been diagnosed with a _Salmonella_ infection or any other gastrointestinal illness, do not cook food for other people. Do not feed raw ground turkey or raw ground chicken to your pets. Bacteria like _Salmonella_ in raw pet food can make your pets sick. Your family also can get sick by handling the raw food or by taking care of your pet.
======================
[_Salmonella_ are widely distributed in animals. In terms of human consumption, poultry and eggs from poultry are often the sources of human infection, but any animal product if not cooked properly is a potential source of salmonellosis. Pets including dogs, cats, birds, snakes, turtles, etc. can be sources of _Salmonella_ infection. The pets develop infection from _Salmonella_ in what they eat and excrete the bacteria in their feces. - ProMED Mod.DK]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Canada: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/12>]
Date: Fri 27 Sep 2019
Source: CBC [edited]
<https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/windsor/mosquito-windsor-zika-1.5299768>

The Windsor Essex County Health Unit [WECHU] said that recently collected data has identified a single mosquito capable of transmitting the Zika virus. The routine mosquito surveillance program, conducted by WECHU in the summer and fall, tested the adult _Aedes aegypti_ mosquito found, and it has tested negative for any vector-borne diseases.

That type of mosquito is capable of transmitting Zika, dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. The 1st mosquito capable of transmitting these diseases was discovered in 2016. The 1st such mosquito was found in Canada in 2017 for the 1st time.

WECHU is also testing mosquitos collected for eastern equine encephalitis, a mosquito-borne disease that has recently caused fatalities in Michigan and a number of other states.

"Until the 1st freeze hits, we are still at risk for mosquito bites, and it is important that everyone take steps to avoid being bitten," said Dr. Ahmed, medical officer of health.
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[_Aedes aegypti_ mosquitoes sporadically appear in north temperate zones in the Americas, this time in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. As the above comment indicates, they will not survive the winter and will disappear with the onset of killing frosts, likely to occur in the next 2-3 weeks. The only way that local transmission of Zika, dengue, or chikungunya viruses could occur is in the unlikely event that a viremic individual came to a locality where there was a population of _Aedes aegypti_ large enough to permit ongoing transmission. - ProMED Mod.TY]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
Windsor, Ontario, Canada: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/1458>]
Date: Thu 22 Aug 2019
Source: The Canadian Jewish News [abridged, edited]
<https://www.cjnews.com/news/canada/hundreds-of-hasidic-kids-get-vaccine-after-measles-outbreak>

About 350 children in the Tosh Hasidic community north of Montreal have been vaccinated against measles, after 5 cases of the disease were confirmed there this summer (2019).

The 2nd of 2 temporary clinics set up by the public health authority within the community closed on [16 Aug 2019] after vaccinating at least 150 youngsters over 4 days, said Isaac Weiss, who is one of the people responsible for security and public safety in the community, which is located in the town of Boisbriand, Quebec. He said the 1st clinic took place about a month earlier, after "one suspected case" was discovered. About 200 children were vaccinated at that time. The immunization was offered to those whose medical records showed they were unvaccinated or not up to date, but was voluntary.

Community leaders are co-operating fully with the CISSS des Laurentides, which ran the clinics, said Weiss. The public health director, Dr Eric Goyer, said these were the 1st cases of measles in the region since 2011. There are about 500 Tosh families in Boisbriand, or 3000 people.
 
No one knows for sure how the infection spread. Weiss said it is thought that a young man from the community who went to New York to take part in a recreational after-school program may have contracted the virus and brought it back to Boisbriand. It appears that he had been vaccinated, but his shots were not up to date.
The community's leaders are informing members about the necessity of vaccinations and trying to dispel any fear about the risk of negative side effects. Unvaccinated children will not be permitted to attend the community's schools until the outbreak is deemed contained, Weiss said, but parents can only be persuaded, not forced, to vaccinate their children.

A father of 5 who asked that his name not be published, said, "We are outraged that there are parents -- a few -- who are so irresponsible as to refuse (vaccination). The rabbis are talking about it, everyone is talking about it, but some are difficult to convince."

Last spring (2019), when there was a serious measles outbreak in New York, Montreal public health authorities stepped up an educational campaign targeting ultra-Orthodox communities. While the rate of vaccination among those communities is believed to be similar to that of the general population, there is frequent contact between the Montreal and New York communities.

At the time, Rabbi Yonasan Binyomin Weiss, who serves as the chief rabbi of Montreal and heads the medical ethics committee of the Jewish Community Council, stated, "From a religious perspective, and also from an ethical and moral perspective, our message is very clear: families are required to follow the directions of the health authorities."

In April (2019), many Montreal doctors were among over 500 medical professionals serving Orthodox Jewish communities throughout North America who signed a public letter confirming the need for everyone to be vaccinated according to US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. The doctors rejected "the dangerous misinformation campaign being spread and reject any unproven unscientific statements that contradict all available current science-based studies on vaccinations" against measles and other illnesses.  [byline: Janice Arnold]
Date: Fri, 2 Aug 2019 04:54:00 +0200 (METDST)
By Julien BESSET

King's Point, Canada, Aug 2, 2019 (AFP) - At dusk, tourists marvel at the sensational collapse of an iceberg at the end of its long journey from Greenland to Canada's east coast, which now has a front row seat to the melting of the Arctic's ice.   While the rest of the world nervously eyes the impact of global warming, the calving of Greenland's glaciers -- the breaking off of ice chunks from its edge -- has breathed new life into the remote coastal villages of Newfoundland and Labrador.

Once a hub of cod fishing, the province now plays host to hordes of amateur photographers and tourists hoping to capture the epic ice melt for posterity. As winter ends, iceberg spotting begins.   "It keeps getting better every year," says Barry Strickland, a 58-year-old former fisherman who now takes tourists in his small boat around King's Point in the north of the province.    "We've got 135, 140 tour buses with older people coming into the town every season so it's great for the economy."   For the past four years, Strickland has taken visitors to bear witness to the death throes of these ice giants, which can measure dozens of meters in height and weigh hundreds of thousands of tons.    Winds and ocean currents bring the icebergs from northwest Greenland, thousands of kilometers (miles) away, to Canada's shores.    In a matter of weeks, ice frozen for thousands of years can quickly melt into the ocean.

- 'Incredible' rise in tourism -
Strickland's boat excursions are often fully booked during the high season from May to July, with tourists coming from all around the world to King's Point, a village of just 600 inhabitants.   The villagers keep track of the icebergs on an interactive satellite tracking map put online by the provincial government.   "There's not much in these small outport towns anymore to keep people around, so tourism is a big part of our economy," said Devon Chaulk, who works in a souvenir shop in Elliston, a small town of 300 on "Iceberg Corridor," as the coastline is now known.   "I've lived here my entire life, and the increase in tourism around here in the past 10 to 15 years has been incredible. It's not surprising to have thousands of people here over the next couple of months," said the 28-year-old.    Last year, a total of 500,000 tourists visited Newfoundland and Labrador, a number roughly equivalent to the province's total population.    Those visitors spent nearly Can $570 million (US $433 million), government figures show.

- Melting ice -
The tourism boom has helped offset the decline in the region's traditional fishing industry, which is in crisis because of overfishing at the end of the last century.   Some are even marketing "iceberg water" as the purest on Earth -- and selling it as a high-end luxury item. The melt is also used in vodka, beer and cosmetics.    But beneath the shiny surface of economic success is the dark truth that the area is in part profiting from accelerated global warming in the Arctic, and that the industry is precarious at best.

In the village of Twillingate, employees at the Auk Island Winery -- which makes its product from iceberg water and locally picked wild berries -- have already seen that business can be unpredictable.   "We see the difference in the number of tourists from year to year, depending on the amount of icebergs in the area," says Elizabeth Gleason, who works at the winery.   "This year was a good year. Last year, we had almost none."   The Arctic is warming three times faster than the rest of the world. In mid-July, record temperatures were recorded near the North Pole.   In recent years, the icebergs have drifted further and further south, posing a threat to shipping on this busy route between Europe and North America.

For now, tourists are enjoying the view and the experience while they can.    "The prevalence of icebergs has good things and bad things about it," says Melissa Axtman, an American traveller.   Laurent Lucazeau, a 34-year-old French tourist, says seeing an iceberg was sobering.   "It is a concrete image of global warming to see icebergs making it to these places where the water is warm," he told AFP.   "There's something mysterious and impressive about it, but knowing too that they are not supposed to be here makes you wonder, and it's a little scary."
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