Date: Wed, 7 Mar 2018 16:17:16 +0100

Abidjan, March 7, 2018 (AFP) - Hundreds of small undertaker firms in Ivory Coast went on strike on Wednesday over what they described as abusive practices by the country's dominant funeral company.   Representatives staged a rally outside the morgue of the University Hospital Centre in Abidjan's Yopougon district in protest at their rival, Ivosep.   They brandished placards reading "Enough is Enough," "Ivosep, the morgues and cemeteries do not belong to you" and "no to scams."

Boniface Kouame kra, president of the National Association of Ivory Coast Undertakers (Synapofu-CI), said "211 undertakers are on strike" over business practices by the industry's biggest company, Ivosep.   Ivosep dominates Ivory Coast's funeral industry, a legacy from French colonial times. The market segment left for small undertakers is in making coffins and transporting bodies.

"Ivosep wants to block us from making coffins," he said. "Ivosep also wants to stop us from selling coffins in Abidjan and the major cities."   Synapofu-CI's members on Wednesday closed coffin-making shops in protest and "from Thursday, will also refuse to pick up bodies or carry out burials," he said.   Ivosep declined to comment on "accusations made by our competitors" in response to a request from AFP.
Date: Tue 13 Feb 2018
Source: 7sur7senegal [in French, trans. by ProMED corr. SB, edited]
https://www.7sur7senegal.com/Cote-d-Ivoire-74-districts-sanitaires-touches-par-la-maladie-elephantiasis_a8912.html [Edited]

In a recent PNLMTN-CP [Programme National de Lutte contre les Maladies Tropicales Négligées à Chimiothérapie Préventive/national programme for the control of neglected tropical diseases through preventive chemotherapy] Secretariat report on tropical disease training in Cote d'Ivoire, 74 out of 83 health districts are affected by lymphatic filariasis or elephantiasis.

According to the report, the population at risk in the country in 2018 is estimated at 21 001 034 people or 83.74 percent of the general population. Lymphatic filariasis or elephantiasis is a tropical, infectious, and more precisely, a parasitic disease caused by parasitic worms of the genera _Wuchereria bancrofti_ (bancroftian filariasis), _Brugia malayi_ (Malayan filariasis), and _Brugia timori_ (Timor filariasis), all transmitted by mosquitoes.

It is a type of filariasis as are onchocerciasis, loiasis, or dracunculiasis [dracunculiasis is actually not filarial and is acquired orally. - ProMed Mod.LM]. It is an extremely rare affection in Western countries. Transmission is through the bite of the mosquito essentially, the female _Anopheles_ in Cote d'Ivoire [and all of Africa] (same vector as that of malaria).

The most dramatic symptom of lymphatic filariasis is elephantiasis, which causes thickening of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. This was the 1st disease transmitted by insects to be discovered. Elephantiasis occurs when parasites invade the lymphatic system. It is a disease contracted most often during early childhood.

The 1st signs appear between 3 and 20 months after the bite of the mosquito and disappear spontaneously. It is manifested by fever, headache, and general fatigue. If the disease is not managed or treated, it can lead to complications that appear late, 10 to 20 years after the infective bite, and the complications are irreversible except for the hydrocele. [Byline: Mamadou Diop]
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[Lymphatic filariasis is endemic in most African countries south of the Sahara. A recent review in the Lancet Infectious Diseases journal (Koudou BG et al. Elimination of lymphatic filariasis in West African urban areas: is implementation of mass drug administration necessary? Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Feb 2. pii: S1473-3099(18)30069-0. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30069-0; <http://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(18)30069-0/fulltext>) points out that "urban areas in west Africa present specific challenges to achieving the 2020 targets."

The 2020 targets are the global elimination strategy of the Global Programme for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis, which has a target elimination date of 2020 by treatment of entire communities through mass drug administration of albendazole in combination with either ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine. - ProMED Mod.EP]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map Cote d'Ivoire:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/52>]
Date: Thu 7 Sep 2017 6:11 PM SAST
Source: IOL (Independent Online), Reuters report [edited]
<https://www.iol.co.za/news/africa/yellow-fever-kills-at-least-15-in-ivory-coast-73036>

A yellow fever outbreak has killed at least 15 people in Ivory Coast and threatens many more in the West African country, the head of a government crisis team said on [Fri 8 Sep 2017].

The United Nation's World Health Organisation appealed for funds on [Wed 6 Sep 2017] to help the cash-strapped government in an emergency campaign to vaccinate 3 million people.

"Up to now we have had 128 suspected cases of which 20 were confirmed in the laboratory and 15 are dead," said Guillaume Loukou Yao, Ivory Coast's health inspector and head of the crisis committee.

The mosquito-borne virus thrives in densely populated areas like Ivory Coast's main city of Abidjan. Although most recover, victims can suffer jaundice and bleed from eyes, nose, and mouth before kidney failure and death.

Yao told Reuters that as well as the vaccination campaign, teams would also be sent out to clean up the drainage ditches and other places where the mosquitoes that transmit the virus breed.
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[This reports a serious yellow fever (YF) outbreak in Cote d'Ivoire. Apparently, the cases have occurred in an _Aedes aegypti_ urban transmission cycle in the main city of Abidjan. If that is the case, and there are many unvaccinated individuals, the outbreak could spread quickly. The proportion of the population that is unvaccinated is not stated, nor are specific plans for a vaccination campaign given.

There have been YF cases in Cote d'Ivoire in the past, the most recent on in 2011. At that time more than 700 000 people were vaccinated against yellow fever [YF] in an emergency campaign in the country. There were YF cases in Abidjan in 2008, when the estimated vaccination coverage of the population was around 60 percent after a vaccination campaign. Now, time is of the essence to quickly halt the spread of YF, as it rapidly did in Angola and the DR Congo in that large outbreak.

Maps of Cote d'Ivoire can be accessed at <http://bit.ly/2uHz53s> and
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/52>. - ProMED Mod.TY]
Date: Wed, 2 Aug 2017 19:01:24 +0200

Paris, Aug 2, 2017 (AFP) - Anthrax, a bacterial disease commonly associated with arid climes, has quietly been decimating chimpanzees in a tropical West African forest, and may wipe them out altogether, researchers said Wednesday.   Samples taken from carcasses, bones, and carrion-eating flies in the Ivory Coast's Tai National Park (TNP) from 1989 to 2014, revealed that anthrax had caused 38 percent of animal deaths -- including 31 out of 55 dead chimps tested.   Other casualties included monkeys, duikers, mongooses and a porcupine.   "Our simulations... suggest that anthrax-induced mortality will result in deterministic population declines and possible extirpation of TNP chimpanzees over the next 150 years," a team wrote in the journal Nature.

Chimpanzees are particularly vulnerable due to their slow reproduction rate, said the team.   The researchers could not determine where and how the animals were being infected with a type of anthrax first identified in the TNP in 2004.   And they cautioned that infections in apes "are often indicators of disease that can also affect humans."   Dubbed Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis, the bacteria has also caused chimpanzee, gorilla and elephant deaths in Cameroon and the Central African Republic, the team said. No human cases have been reported.   Outbreaks of anthrax were previously thought to be more common in arid ecosystems, such as the African savannah where it kills game, cattle, and sometimes humans.

Humans generally acquire the disease from infected animals or from exposure to contaminated animal products. It can be contracted via the skin, the mouth, or through inhalation.   In its commonest form, according to the World Health Organization it causes black sores on the skin, from where it derives its name. Anthrax is Greek for coal.   The bacteria is not transmitted from person to person. Though potentially deadly, it reacts well to treatment with antibiotics.   Anthrax is also a favourite agent in germ warfare, having first been used as a weapon in World War I. More recently, dried bacterial spores were mailed to targets in the United States.
22nd July 2017

- Cote d'Ivoire . 8 Jul 2017. According to the Pasteur Institute, the number of patients affected by dengue virus currently stands at 130. Control measures have been hardened.
<https://sivertimes.com/dengue-130-confirmed-cases-in-cote-divoire/49342>
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