Date: Tue 13 Feb 2018
Source: 7sur7senegal [in French, trans. by ProMED corr. SB, edited]https://www.7sur7senegal.com/Cote-d-Ivoire-74-districts-sanitaires-touches-par-la-maladie-elephantiasis_a8912.html
In a recent PNLMTN-CP [Programme National de Lutte contre les Maladies Tropicales NÃ©gligÃ©es Ã ChimiothÃ©rapie PrÃ©ventive/national programme for the control of neglected tropical diseases through preventive chemotherapy] Secretariat report on tropical disease training in Cote d'Ivoire, 74 out of 83 health districts are affected by lymphatic filariasis or elephantiasis.
According to the report, the population at risk in the country in 2018 is estimated at 21 001 034 people or 83.74 percent of the general population. Lymphatic filariasis or elephantiasis is a tropical, infectious, and more precisely, a parasitic disease caused by parasitic worms of the genera _Wuchereria bancrofti_ (bancroftian filariasis), _Brugia malayi_ (Malayan filariasis), and _Brugia timori_ (Timor filariasis), all transmitted by mosquitoes.
It is a type of filariasis as are onchocerciasis, loiasis, or dracunculiasis [dracunculiasis is actually not filarial and is acquired orally. - ProMed Mod.LM]. It is an extremely rare affection in Western countries. Transmission is through the bite of the mosquito essentially, the female _Anopheles_ in Cote d'Ivoire [and all of Africa] (same vector as that of malaria).
The most dramatic symptom of lymphatic filariasis is elephantiasis, which causes thickening of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. This was the 1st disease transmitted by insects to be discovered. Elephantiasis occurs when parasites invade the lymphatic system. It is a disease contracted most often during early childhood.
The 1st signs appear between 3 and 20 months after the bite of the mosquito and disappear spontaneously. It is manifested by fever, headache, and general fatigue. If the disease is not managed or treated, it can lead to complications that appear late, 10 to 20 years after the infective bite, and the complications are irreversible except for the hydrocele. [Byline: Mamadou Diop]
[Lymphatic filariasis is endemic in most African countries south of the Sahara. A recent review in the Lancet Infectious Diseases journal (Koudou BG et al. Elimination of lymphatic filariasis in West African urban areas: is implementation of mass drug administration necessary? Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Feb 2. pii: S1473-3099(18)30069-0. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30069-0; <http://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(18)30069-0/fulltext
>) points out that "urban areas in west Africa present specific challenges to achieving the 2020 targets."
The 2020 targets are the global elimination strategy of the Global Programme for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis, which has a target elimination date of 2020 by treatment of entire communities through mass drug administration of albendazole in combination with either ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine. - ProMED Mod.EP]
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