Date: 23 Oct 2018
Source: Nacion.co [in Spanish, machine trans. edited]
A 43-year-old biologist remains in very delicate condition at the San Juan de Dios Hospital infected with the rabies virus, the Ministry of Health has confirmed. Daniel Salas Peraza, director of the Directorate of Health Surveillance in the Ministry of Health, said the man contracted the virus during a family outing on 15 Aug 2018 when he entered a cave in Copey de Dota with his family where there were bats, and he touched one of these animals. The patient entered the San Juan de Dios on Sun 21 Oct 2018, Salas confirmed.
This information was corroborated by the hospital, as the patient arrived there with paralysis from the neck down and is being maintained with an artificial respirator in the intensive care unit. "The patient remains with organ failure at the renal level with deterioration. Although he had previously consulted other health services, he never mentioned the incident with the bat," Salas said.
The patient has been in intensive care since 21 Oct 2018. Officials from that ministry and from the National Animal Health Service (SENASA) have been tracking the entire area of Dota since Monday [22 Oct 2018] in order to detect whether there are other cases of infection with the virus. "The search for [other] potential patients in Dota is being done to see whether there are other accidents with bats; it is being followed up on; we check whether people have been vaccinated or whether they have had symptoms. Coordination is also being done with SENASA, which is in the field to see whether the situation with the bats in that area can be further documented by taking samples to see whether the virus is present. These actions began yesterday [Mon 22 Oct 2018]," the official added, and he also confirmed that, so far, there have been no suspicious cases.
This biologist apparently came into contact with the bats of his own volition, and that was when the bite occurred in his left arm. The patient, originally from San Ignacio de Acosta, also presented with problems swallowing, high fever, and mental confusion, Salas reported. Symptoms began on 11 Oct 2018, almost 4 weeks after contact, with numbness of the arm and, later, other limbs of the body. Salas Peraza warned that people should never come into contact with bats or other types of wild animals. In this case, apparently, the biologist entered the cavern on his own and touched these mammals, and from there, he became infected with the virus.
Bats are, for now, the only transmitters of human rabies detected in the country. If there is any type of bite, you should go immediately to a health center to get the rabies vaccine [post exposure prophylaxis, PEP], because as soon as the symptoms appear, there is little that can be done for the person. Human rabies has a mortality close to 100 percent. Symptoms of this disease include bodily pain, seizures, hallucinations, paralysis, headache, fever and irritability.
The last death in the country of a person for this reason was recorded in 2014, when a 9-year-old boy died in Palmar Norte, in the southern zone. Bats play prominent roles in the ecosystem that bring benefits to humans. Hence, it is important that people do not invade their habitats. Salas Peraza emphasized this because, he said, it is not about attacking these animals, because they are in our midst. "What interests us most is that the population becomes aware; we must take care and distrust them. Do not kill them, but do not touch them," he reiterated.
According to specialists consulted by La Nacion, bats are the only group of mammals that fly. They are the 2nd most diverse group of mammals in the world, after rodents. Some eat fish, others, insects, frogs, mice or spiders, but bats can also feed on fruits or the nectar of flowers, which makes them fundamental in the reproductive cycle of plants.
[Rabies is a viral infection affecting the nervous system of mammals. It invariably causes swelling of the brain and death after a relatively short illness.
The rabies virus is found in the nervous tissue of infected mammals. As the virus travels to the brain, it is secreted in the saliva of the animal. All mammals get rabies when infectious saliva is introduced into the body, usually through a bite from an infected animal.
Rabies may be transmitted by other means, which are rarer. These exposures include saliva or nervous tissue entering an open wound, or saliva or nervous tissue coming into contact with a mucous membrane such as the eyes, nose or mouth.
Animals may be aggressive, known as the furious form. An animal may also be very withdrawn, known as the dumb form. It may be difficult to tell whether a bat is suffering from either form. However, a bite from any bat is reason for concern. Any bat, even found in your home or room, especially at night, is reason for concern. Bites may occur at night without waking the victim. It is possible that in this case, the bitten individual was unaware he had been bitten.
If the individual knew he had been bitten, washing with soap and water and seeking immediate treatment may have saved his life. After a bite, post-exposure prophylaxis is needed. Rabies post-exposure prophylaxis consists of a dose of human rabies immune globulin and rabies vaccine given on the day of the exposure, and then a dose of vaccine given again on days 3, 7, and 14.
Medical attention should be sought as rapidly as possible after a possible exposure. - ProMED Mod.TG]
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