Date: Fri, 8 Nov 2019 11:03:11 +0100 (MET)

London, Nov 8, 2019 (AFP) - Royal Mail on Friday made a High Court bid to block a postal strike by workers due next month ahead of Christmas and around the time of Britain's general election.   Members of the Communication Workers Union recently voted to strike amid a dispute with management over pay and other employment conditions.   In a statement, Royal Mail pointed to "potential irregularities in the ballot".   It added: "The company is making this High Court application because the integrity and legal soundness of any electoral process is vital," Royal Mail said in relation to the strike ballot.   "This is particularly the case in relation to potential industrial action around the general election on 12 December 2019.    "Royal Mail is also making this application because of the damage industrial action would do to the company and its customers in the run-up to Christmas," the group added.   It expects the hearing to take place next week.
Date: Mon 28 Oct 2019
Source: Shetland Times [abridged, edited]
<https://www.shetlandtimes.co.uk/2019/10/28/second-measles-case-confirmed-on-northlink-ferry>

A 2nd warning over measles has been issued to passengers who sailed on the NorthLink ferry on 3 dates earlier this month [October 2019] after a 2nd case was confirmed. NHS Shetland says it is working with other relevant authorities, including Health Protection Scotland, to ensure all control measures are in place to prevent further spread of the disease.  [byline: Ryan Taylor]
Date: Tue 29 Oct 2019
Source: BBC [edited]
<https://www.bbc.com/news/health-50206382>

An infectious disease that can harm the brain and is spread to people by tick bites has been identified in ticks in the UK for the 1st time. Public Health England (PHE) says it has confirmed cases of tickborne encephalitis virus in ticks from 2 parts of England -- Thetford Forest and an area on the Hampshire-Dorset border. PHE says the risk to people is still "very low". It is monitoring the situation to check how common the infected ticks may be.

A tick is a tiny, spider-like creature that lives in undergrowth and on animals, including deer and dogs. People who spend time walking in countryside areas where infected ticks can be found are at risk of being bitten and catching diseases they carry. Tickborne encephalitis virus is already circulating in mainland Europe and Scandinavia, as well as Asia. Evidence now shows it has reached the UK.

How it got here is less clear. Experts say infected ticks may have hitched a ride on migratory birds. Earlier this year [2019], a European visitor, who has since recovered, became ill after being bitten by a tick while in the New Forest area, Public Health England says. Further investigations revealed infected ticks were present in 2 locations in England.

Ticks are becoming commoner across many parts of the UK, largely due to increasing deer numbers. Being bitten by one doesn't necessarily mean you will get sick. Dr Nick Phin, from Public Health England, said: ''These are early research findings and indicate the need for further work. However, the risk to the general public is currently assessed to be very low."

Most people who catch the virus will have no symptoms or only mild flu-like symptoms. But the disease can progress to affect the brain and central nervous system and can sometimes be fatal. Ticks can also carry other diseases that can make people ill including Lyme disease. Dr Phin said: "We are reminding people to be 'tick aware' and take tick precautions, particularly when visiting or working in areas with long grass such as woodlands, moorlands and parks."

What should I do?

- To reduce the risk of being bitten, cover your skin, tuck your trousers into your socks, use insect repellent and stick to paths
- If you are bitten, remove the tick with fine-tipped tweezers or a tick-removal tool found in chemists
- Clean the bite with antiseptic or soap and water
- You should go to your GP if you think you may have been bitten by a tick in the past month and develop flu-like symptoms or a circular red rash

Ticks feed on the blood of animals and people. They cannot jump or fly but live in vegetation and wait for a passing animal or human to climb on to.  [byline: Michelle Roberts]
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[Although tickborne encephalitis (TBE) virus has not been detected in the British Isles before, there is another related established flavivirus, louping ill, transmitted by _Ixodes ricinus_. The above report does not indicate in which tick species TBE virus was found, perhaps it was _Ixodes ricinus_ as well. The rodent host of the virus was not mentioned either. In mainland Europe where TBE is endemic, the bank vole (_Myodes glareeolus_) is the rodent host of the virus. That rodent is found throughout the British Isles and it would be interesting to know if TBE virus is present in that rodent population.

It is not surprising that TBE virus has found its way to the United Kingdom. A report in Eurosurveillance Weekly in 2004 stated, "Tickborne encephalitis (TBE) is endemic in virtually all countries in Central and Eastern Europe. It is caused by several closely related but distinct flaviviruses. A total of 3 subtypes are recognised at present: a Far-Eastern subtype, a Siberian subtype and a European subtype. The Siberian subtype is associated with Russian spring-summer encephalitis and is transmitted predominantly by the tick _Ixodes persulcatus_, whereas the European subtype causes central European encephalitis and is transmitted by _Ixodes ricinus_.

The clinical spectrum of acute TBE ranges from symptoms of mild meningitis to severe meningoencephalitis with or without myelitis. The incubation period of central European TBE is 7-14 days. Onset is generally biphasic. The 1st phase involves a non-specific influenza-like illness with fever, headache, nausea, and vomiting, lasting about a week. After a period of remission lasting a few days, the fever returns with aseptic meningitis or encephalomyelitis. The case fatality rate is 1-5%and about 20% of survivors have neurological sequelae. Residual motor defects are rare." - ProMED Mod.TY]

[Also see Public Health England's press release:
<https://www.gov.uk/government/news/tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-detected-in-ticks-in-the-uk>. - ProMED Mod.SH]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
England, United Kingdom: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/279>]
Date: Tue 8 Oct 2019
Source: Braintree & Witham Times [abridged, edited]
<https://www.braintreeandwithamtimes.co.uk/news/south_essex_news/17953315.six-measles-cases-now-confirmed-across-southend/>

Six cases of measles have now been confirmed in Southend as day centres, forced to close, officially reopened.  Fears had emerged that more than 200 people may have been exposed following an outbreak at 4 learning disability day centres for adults. The number of cases, which stood at 3 on Friday [4 Oct 2019], rose to 6 over the weekend. Of the 8 initial suspected cases, one has been ruled out, while another is still awaiting test results.  A number of day centres were forced to close after the announcement last Wednesday [2 Oct 2019], with all centres reopening yesterday [Mon 7 Oct 2019].
Rebecca Dockett, 35, from Southend, who works with young disabled people, said the closures will have affected many. "I do understand the decision by the council to close these centres, but we must make sure our people living with these difficulties do not miss out too much," she said. "I hope this whole situation will be sorted, and it is good news that our centres have reopened. These services are a lifeline and vital way for people with difficulties to connect with each other and the outside world. I agree it is a necessary precaution, but you hope it will not have affected too many."  Last week, the council confirmed 50 people were given vaccinations, with more vaccinated on Monday [7 Oct 2019], although exact numbers are unclear.

So far, 76 people have called Southend's public information line, which will be open from 8 a.m. to midday tomorrow [Wed 9 Oct 2019], before closing as the number of calls has rapidly reduced.  Four centres -- Project 49, Salvation Army Hadleigh Training Centre, RE House, and Summer Care Day Centre -- all closed last week and then reopened yesterday [Mon 7 Oct 2019].  Project 49 reopened with a limited programme, and those unable to attend due to the situation are being contacted directly.  A spokesman for Southend Council thanked Southend Clinical Commissioning Group for the support.  [Byline: Sean Davies]
Date: Fri 20 Sep 2019
Source: The Bureau of Investigative Journalism [abridged, edited]
<https://www.thebureauinvestigates.com/stories/2019-09-20/exclusive-at-least-100-cases-of-salmonella-poisoning-from-british-eggs>

Dozens of people have been made ill after eating British eggs contaminated with one of the most dangerous forms of _Salmonella_, the Bureau can reveal, despite government assurances that the risk had been virtually eliminated. There have been at least 100 cases recorded in the past 3 years, and 45 since January [2019], in a major outbreak that health officials have traced back to contaminated eggs and poultry farms.

Despite outbreaks of this strain occurring for more than 3 years, the government has issued no public warnings about the safety of hens' eggs. In 2017, the Food Standards Agency (FSA) told the public that it was safe for vulnerable people, including pregnant women, the elderly, and children, to eat raw, runny, or soft-boiled eggs. At the time, the head of the FSA said, "The risk of _Salmonella_ is now so low you needn't worry."

Internal records obtained by the Bureau show that 25 egg-laying poultry flocks in the UK have tested positive for _Salmonella_ in 2019. Seven were contaminated with the most serious strains of the bacteria, including _Salmonella_ Enteritidis, the strain behind this major outbreak. Two egg-packing factories -- one of which supplies leading supermarkets -- have also been contaminated. _Salmonella_ bacteria are found in the guts of livestock, including chickens.

Eggs from the infected flocks were kept from sale and either sent for processing to kill the bacteria or disposed of, while the birds were culled. However, contaminated eggs still reached the public, with Public Health England (PHE) confirming 45 people had been poisoned since January 2019. The exact route to the public is unclear. PHE told the Bureau it was not aware of any deaths.

An egg business that supplies major supermarkets is among those contaminated by the bacterium. One of Fridays Ltd's egg-packing factories was temporarily closed this year [2019] to deal with _Salmonella_, which has also been found on 3 farms that supply the business. The company, which produces 10m eggs a week, confirmed it had removed the farms from its supply chain and disinfected the factory.

Fridays said in a statement: "Like all responsible UK egg farmers and egg packers, we carry out regular testing of our firms and those of our suppliers ... _Salmonella_ occurs naturally in the environment. However, with regular precautionary testing, vaccination of hens, and rigorous control procedures, its prevalence in farming can be minimized."  [Byline: Andrew Wasley, Alexandra Heal]
=======================
[Salmonellosis is often thought to be associated with cracked eggs or eggs dirty with fecal matter, a problem controlled by cleaning procedures implemented in the egg industry. It is clearly the case, however, that most of the salmonellosis outbreaks linked to eggs were associated with uncracked, disinfected grade A eggs, or foods containing such eggs. The undamaged eggs become contaminated during ovulation, and thus were contaminated with the bacteria before the eggshell was formed. To avoid this, uncooked eggs should only be used as an ingredient, if pasteurized. - ProMED Mod.LL]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map:
United Kingdom: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/40>]
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