Date: Wed 25 Apr 2018, 12:15 PM
Source: Crítica [in Spanish, trans. ProMED Mod.TY, edited]
<https://www.critica.com.pa/provincias/nuevo-caso-de-hanta-512666>

An 11 year old girl is currently in the paediatric section of the Joaquín Pablo Franco Hospital with hantavirus fever. With this case, the number of hantavirus cases rises to 26 in Los Santos province, with the last 3 from El Bebedero and Llano Afuera, in the El Cocal area. Carlos Muñoz, MINSA [Ministry of Health] regional epidemiology coordinator, indicated that the 3 most recent cases affected with [hantavirus] fever are a 79-year-old woman from El Bebedero, a 33-year-old young man from El Bebedero and the 11-year-old girl from the Llano Afuera community.

The statistics reflect that to date, 16 cases have been registered in the Tonosi district, 6 in the Las Tablas district, 1 in Guararé, 2 in the Los Santos district and 1 in Pocrí. Since the disease was 1st recognized, 289 cases have been registered of which 243 have survived the disease. [Byline: Zenaida Vásquez]
=========================
[The number of cases of hantavirus infection continues to increase in the province this year (2018) and has now reached 26. Hantavirus infections occur in Los Santos province relatively frequently. The specific situations in which these patients acquired the infection are not mentioned. There is no indication of which hantavirus is involved in this or in previous cases in Panama.

However, as noted in comments in previous posts, Los Santos and adjoining provinces are endemic for Choclo hantavirus. Although no data on this or the previous cases in earlier years include an indication of which hantavirus is responsible, Choclo is the only one of the 3 hantaviruses known to be endemic in Panama that causes HPS (hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome) or hantavirus fever. No vaccine is available for Choclo virus.

The rodent host of Choclo virus is the pygmy rice rat (_Oligoryzomys fulvescens_), a photograph of which can be accessed at
<http://www.medwave.cl/medios/perspectivas/Hantavirus/Actualiz/Fig2.jpg>.

These rodents occur in and around agricultural areas and adjacent houses and buildings. They can be persistently infected with the virus and shed it in urine, faeces, and saliva. - ProMED Mod.TY]
 
[Maps of Panama:
<http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/americas/panama.jpg>
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/41725>]
Date: 20 Jan 2018
Source: QCostarica [edited]
<http://qcostarica.com/first-outbreak-of-bovine-rabies-of-the-year/>

The National Animal Health Service has issued an alert for Canoas de Corredores, in the Southern Zone. The Servicio Nacional de Salud Animal (Senasa) -- National Animal Health Service -- says it has detected the 1st bovine paralytic rabies outbreak of the year [2018].

The finding was made in Canoas de Corredores, in the Southern Zone, specifically, in the Guayabal farm, where 5 cattle died due to the disease.

The affected farm has an exposed population of 40 animals. Senasa established sanitary and quarantine measures on the affected farm. In addition, the Senasa has begun the capturing of vampire-bats to lower the existing population of this flying mammal, which transmits rabies.

The exposed animals (cattle and dogs) are being protected through vaccination.

Senasa is also coordinating with the Corredores Hospital and the area Ministry of Health office to vaccinate people who were in contact with the infected animals.

Rabies is a viral disease affecting the central nervous system of warm-blooded animals, including humans. It causes lack of coordination, difficulty walking, salivation, paralysis of the legs that prevents getting up, twisting of the neck, and, finally, death.

Once a person begins showing signs and symptoms of rabies, the disease is nearly always fatal. For this reason, anyone who may have a risk of contracting rabies should receive rabies vaccines for protection.
Seek immediate medical care if you're bitten by any animal, or exposed to an animal suspected of having rabies. The 1st signs of rabies may be very similar to the flu and may last for days. Later signs and symptoms may include:

Fever
Headache
Nausea
Vomiting
Agitation
Anxiety
Confusion
Hyperactivity
Difficulty swallowing
Excessive salivation
Fear of water (hydrophobia) because of the difficulty in swallowing
Hallucinations
Insomnia
Partial paralysis

It occurs with certain periodicity as part of the dynamics of the sylvatic cycle of the disease. Senasa applies established protocols to respond to outbreaks.

Specialists recommend avoiding contact with sick animals with nervous signs, burying animal carcasses, vaccinating animals and immediately reporting any suspicious cases to the nearest Senasa office.

In 2017, Senasa detected 2 outbreaks of bovine paralytic rabies in San Vito de Coto Brus.

In other health alerts, Senasa issued on 9 Jan 2018 an alert case of Venezuelan equine encephalitis in Palmira, Carrillo, Guanacaste.
=====================
["Rabies transmitted by the common vampire bat (_Desmodus rotundus_) is a major public health concern in subtropical and tropical areas of Latin America. Infected vampire bats can transmit rabies to domestic mammals and humans through their haematophagous behaviour." (<https://www.aphis.usda.gov/wildlife_damage/nwrc/publications/12pubs/anderson121.pdf>)

"Vampire bats preferentially prey on livestock. Livestock and horses are generally larger than indigenous wildlife prey species, are more abundant and tend to stay in the same location for extended periods. Once a colony of vampire bats has located a herd of animals, they are then able to return to the same herd on subsequent nights. This is particularly true for cattle.

Humans have also provided vampire bats with roosting sites in the form of buildings, bridges, and wells. This in turn has contributed to an increase in the number and size of vampire bat colonies, and enlarged the population that can act as a reservoir for rabies virus. Deforestation, a consequence of land clearance for logging and modification for agriculture has simultaneously reduced the numbers of natural prey species and brought vampire bats into contact with livestock and man.

Bovine rabies in Latin America is commonly called derriengue, a Spanish word for a fatal paralytic disease. The infected animals exhibit signs of restlessness or excitement with sudden onset of hind limb paralysis. This progresses to the fore limbs. Overt salivation is commonly observed but is believed to be due to difficulties in swallowing rather than excess saliva production. Emaciation in animals that survive for any length of time is observed but the disease is invariably fatal.

There are 3 species of blood feeding or hematophagous bats found exclusively in Latin America. Only one of these, the common vampire bat _Desmodus rotundus_, is a well-known reservoir for rabies.

Vaccination of cattle is a very successful way of preventing rabies in cattle."
Extracted from <http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/6/5/1911/pdf>. - ProMED Mod.TG]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail maps:
Costa Rica: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/17>
Panama: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/18>]
Date: Tue, 19 Sep 2017 00:44:54 +0200

Panama City, Sept 18, 2017 (AFP) - A blackout at Panama's main international airport -- a major hub for Latin America -- caused more than 200 flights to be cancelled and many others delayed on Monday, airport officials said.   A malfunction in a circuit panel distributing power internally to the facility was to blame, according to the airport authority, which set up a "crisis room" to handle the disruption.

Thousands of frustrated passengers faced lines and clogged halls as harried airport staff struggled before blanked-out check-in screens.    Buses ferried some stranded passengers to Panama hotels to spend the night, but many more were left to sit on the floor with their bags next to them.   According to the website FlightAware, which tracks cancelations by airport, around 20 percent of flights departing from Panama's Tocumen International Airport were scrapped.   The aeropuertos.net flight information website said that more than 200 arriving or departing flights were cancelled.

National carrier Copa Airlines was hardest hit, saying in a statement that it "was forced to cancel around 140 of our flights."   Late in the day, operations started to be restored, with more flights taking off, but backlogs continued.   The airport serves more than 90 destinations in the Americas and Europe and receives around 14 million passengers a year.
Date: Mon 11 Sep 2017, 5:00 PM
Source: Dia a Dia [in Spanish, trans. Mod.TY, edited]
<http://www.diaadia.com.pa/el-pais/confirman-otro-caso-de-hantavirus-en-los-santos-324553>

The Gorgas Commemorative Institute for Health Studies (ICGES) confirmed a new case of [a] hantavirus [infection] from the Pintadita in Tonosi, Los Santos province.

The affected individual is a 62 year old woman who was hospitalized in the Nelson Collado Hospital in Chitre, Herrera province, and was subsequently released. Tests done by ICGES confirmed the woman's hantavirus disease.
 
Altogether, 17 cases have been registered: 4 in Las Tablas, 1 in Agua Buena de Los Santos and 12 in Tonosi district.  [Byline: Zenaida Vasquez]
=====================
[With this additional case, the number of cases of hantavirus infections in Los Santos province continues to increase this year (2017), with most coming from the Tonosi region. Although specific dates of hospitalization and release of the affected woman are not given, nor is her clinical condition described, the impression given in his report that her infection was hantavirus fever and had not progressed to the serious hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. The situation under which the woman acquired the infection is not mentioned, nor is there an indication if the Ministry of Health or provincial health authorities have, or will, mount an epidemiological investigation in the area where the woman acquired the infection.

There is no indication of which hantavirus is involved in this or in previous cases in Panama. As noted in comments in previous posts, Los Santos and adjoining provinces are endemic for Choclo hantavirus. Although no data on this or the previous cases in earlier years include an indication of which hantavirus is responsible, Choclo is the only one of the 3 hantaviruses known to be endemic in Panama that causes HPS (hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome) or hantavirus fever. No vaccine is available for Choclo virus.

The rodent host of Choclo virus is the pygmy rice rat (_Oligoryzomys fulvescens_), a photograph of which can be accessed at <http://www.medwave.cl/medios/perspectivas/Hantavirus/Actualiz/Fig2.jpg>. These rodents occur in and around agricultural areas and adjacent houses and buildings.

Maps of Panama can be accessed at
<http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/americas/panama.jpg> and
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/55286>. - ProMED Mod.TY]
Date: Mon 21 Aug 2017

Source: Da­a a Da­a [in Spanish, trans. ProMED Mod.TY, edited]
<http://www.diaadia.com.pa/el-pais/detectan-nuevo-caso-de-fiebre-de-hantavirus-en-tonosi-322871>

The Ministry of Health (Ministerio de Salud; MINSA) in Los Santos province confirmed a new case of hantavirus fever from Tonosa­. The epidemiologist Carlos Muñoz stated that the case is a 7 year old child, who was hospitalized in the Tonosa­ Rural Hospital and today [21 Aug 2017] was moved to the Joaquan Pablo Franco Hospital where he is in a stable condition.

Muaoz indicated that this is the 3rd case of a child [infected] by the virus in Tonosa, which has led to initiating a clean up of the primary school, which will be done today and tomorrow [21, 22 Aug 2017], where classes have been suspended for these 2 days. With this case, the Los Santos province has registered 9 cases of fever and 2 of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. [byline: Zenaida Vasquez]
======================
[Apparently, the primary school is the site where the child is suspected to have acquired a hantavirus infection. The school clean-up is prudent, but no mention is made about the presence of rodent hosts there. One presumes that the school grounds will also be cleaned up. There is no indication of which hantavirus is involved in this case or previous cases.

As noted in comments on previous cases, Los Santos and adjoining provinces are endemic for Choclo hantavirus. Although no data on this or the previous cases in earlier years include an indication of which hantavirus is responsible, Choclo is the only one of the 3 hantaviruses known to be endemic in Panama that causes HPS (hantavirus pulmonary syndrome) or hantavirus fever.

No vaccine is available for Choclo virus. The rodent host of Choclo virus is the pygmy rice rat (_Oligoryzomys fulvescens_), a photograph of which can be accessed at <http://www.medwave.cl/medios/perspectivas/Hantavirus/Actualiz/Fig2.jpg>.

These rodents occur in and around agricultural areas and adjacent houses and buildings.

Maps of Panama can be accessed at
<http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/americas/panama.jpg>
and <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/55286>. - ProMED Mod.TY]
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