Date: Sun 22 Dec 2019
Source: CNN Philippines [edited]
At least 9 people are confirmed dead Sunday [22 Dec 2019] from suspected poisoning after reportedly consuming lambanog, or palm wine. Eight of the victims were from Rizal, Laguna.
According to Rizal mayor Vener Munoz, the victims were drinking a generic brand of lambanog. Munoz added it was unclear when the victims drank the beverage. He also said over 100 other people complained of pain after drinking lambanog but were not critical. They are currently being treated at the Philippine General Hospital in Manila.
In a post on Facebook, Laguna governor Ramil Hernandez said he has banned the sale of lambanog in the province so authorities can investigate the cases of poisoning in Rizal.
Meanwhile, another person from Quezon died from alleged poisoning, also after drinking lambanog.
A report from police in Candelaria said several people were drinking the beverage, which they bought from a store in barangay Santa Catalina Sur on Saturday [21 Dec 2019]. At around 11 a.m. the following day [Sun 22 Dec 2019], police said they received a call from barangay chairwoman Myla Escamilla saying the victims were brought to the hospital for alleged poisoning.
The police report said 2 were comatose, while 4 others were discharged after being treated.
Authorities in Candelaria are now investigating the case.
[Lambanog (Philippines coconut wine) is wine made from coconut. It is well known for its strength, ordinarily carrying 80-90-proof alternatives. It is mostly produced in the Quezon province, Philippines; the process has been passed down through generations of coconut plantation farmers. The procedure includes collecting the sap from the coconut flower, comparable to rubber-tree tapping. The sap is then prepared and fermented to turn into tuba, a popular coconut toddy. The tuba is then distilled to make lambanog.
The method for making lambanog is cost effective, and coconut trees are plentiful in the Philippines. As such, the beverage has been coined a "poor man's beverage." Aside from economics, the process of making lambanog is an artistic expression distinct to the Filipino culture. It has been a part of Filipino tradition for centuries.
In Quezon, consuming lambanog wine is normally a public thing. Men relax in a circle and "tagayan" will ensue. The men take turns drinking shots from a cup put in the middle of the group. Normally, there is also a person singing and playing the guitar as part of the festivities; he takes his turn at drinking, too, so the music and songs get even more interesting as the consuming goes on. Lambanog wine was made an export product in 2001 and has definitely brought in foreign markets. To attract the youth and expand its advertising possibilities, lambanog is now industried and sold in different flavors such as cherry, jack fruit, apple, orange, four periods [?], strawberry, bubble gum, mint, etc. <http://lambanog.org/
While there are no details regarding the signs and symptoms of the individuals affected, one has to wonder if methanol was either used in the process or added as an adulterant to produce an extra intoxicating effect.
>, arrack, additionally spelled arak, is a distilled alcoholic drink typically generated in South and Southeast Asia and made from either the fermented sap of coconut flowers, sugarcane, grain (e.g., red rice), or fruit from the country of origin. The clear distillate may be blended, grown old [aged] in wooden barrels, or repeatedly distilled and filtered, depending upon the taste and color objectives of the supplier. Arrack is not to be [confused with] having arak, an anise-flavored alcoholic beverage traditionally consumed in Eastern Mediterranean and North African nations.
It is possible someone added methanol to the lambanog in an attempt to produce a bigger buzz or kick from the alcohol without realizing its toxicities.
Methanol is a toxic alcohol that is used industrially as a solvent, pesticide, and alternative fuel source. It also occurs naturally in humans, animals, and plants. Foods such as fresh fruits and vegetables, fruit juices, fermented beverages, and diet soft drinks containing aspartame are the primary sources of methanol in the human body. Most methanol poisonings occur as a result of drinking beverages contaminated with methanol or from drinking methanol-containing products. In the industrial setting, inhalation of high concentrations of methanol vapor and absorption of methanol through the skin are as effective as the oral route in producing toxic effects. The characteristic pungent (alcohol) odor of methanol does not provide sufficient warning of low levels of exposure. <https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ershdb/emergencyresponsecard_29750029.html
Also known as wood alcohol, methanol is a commonly used organic solvent that, because of its toxicity, can cause metabolic acidosis, neurologic sequelae, and even death when ingested. It is a constituent of many commercially available industrial solvents and of poorly adulterated alcoholic beverages. Methanol toxicity remains a common problem in many parts of the developing world, especially among members of lower socioeconomic classes. <https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ershdb/emergencyresponsecard_29750029.html
Methanol poisoning (MP) results from accidental or voluntary ingestion of methyl alcohol, a compound used in the chemical industry and as fuel. Methanol is in no case suitable for consumption.
Methanol causes inebriation similar to ethanol, and patients may merely appear drunk, lose their inhibitions, and become ataxic. At the same time, gastrointestinal symptoms manifest. MP patients typically suffer from nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. If examined that early, tachypnea, tachycardia, and hypertension, results of metabolic acidosis, may already be detected. In severe cases, fatal respiratory or cardiac failure may occur.
The stage described above is usually followed by a latency period of several hours, generally 12-24 hours. Only then can neurological symptoms be observed. The greater the amount of methanol ingested, the earlier the additional symptoms set in. Simultaneous consumption of ethanol delays onset of further deficits since both alcohols are competitive substrates for alcohol dehydrogenase.
Progressive vision loss is characteristic for MP, and patients may claim blurred vision, scotomas, scintillations, visual field restriction, and, eventually, complete blindness. Seizures may be registered. Patients show increasingly reduced levels of awareness and may fall into a coma. <https://www.symptoma.com/en/info/methanol-poisoning
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Laguna province, Calabarzon, Philippines: