Reunion Island

- 9 May 2018. In an update on the epidemic of dengue fever on the island of Reunion, French health officials report an additional 356 cases in the past week, bringing the total to 2598 laboratory confirmed or probable cases reported since [1 Jan 2018]. There have been 62 hospitalizations to date, including 9 cases of severe dengue.
<http://outbreaknewstoday.com/dengue-reunion-update-2600-cases-2018/>

- 16 May 2018. Nearly 3000 cases reported to date. In our continuing coverage of the 2018 dengue epidemic on the Indian Ocean island of Reunion off the African coast, French health officials reported an additional 388 biologically confirmed and probable cases in the past week, bringing the total cases to 2980 confirmed or probable cases reported since [1 Jan 2018].
<http://outbreaknewstoday.com/reunion-island-dengue-outbreak-nearly-3000-cases-reported-date-56805/>

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map
Reunion Island: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/64072>]
Monday 16th April 2018

La Reunion Island. 2 Apr 2018. 588 confirmed cases in the west, and south of the island, 154 confirmed
<http://outbreaknewstoday.com/reunion-dengue-outbreak-continues-rise-588-indigenous-cases-year-12164/>

La Reunion Island. 10 Apr 2018. 167 additional autochthonous dengue cases reported during the past week. Total rises to 755 cases; DEN-2 predominates.
<http://outbreaknewstoday.com/autochthonous-dengue-fever-reunion-59266/>

La Reunion Island. 15 Apr 2018. Nearly 1000 confirmed cases in the north, west and south of the island since 1 Jan 2018.

A dengue epidemic is currently affecting western and southern Reunion. After an unusual circulation of the virus during the austral winter of 2017, the number of dengue cases has gradually increased since the beginning of 2018, with an intensification in February 2018. Public Health France publishes a "point of situation" report and provides reminders about preventive actions to adopt.

On 26 Mar 2018, the Prefect of Reunion declared the level to be a "low intensity epidemic" of the ORSEC arbovirus control device. The intervention unit in the Indian Ocean region provides epidemiological surveillance of dengue fever on Reunion Island and publishes its data every week in an epidemiological point. The current epidemic could continue to intensify in the coming weeks. Indeed, the population is not immune to dengue fever (only 3.1 percent of blood donors tested for dengue in 2008 had antibodies against the virus), and current weather conditions are conducive to vector development.

Epidemiological situation as of 9 Apr 2018:
- 992 indigenous cases reported since 1 Jan 2018
- 237 cases were confirmed during the last week, one case imported from Mauritius
- Prevalence of DENV-2 serotype
- A circulation area of the virus identified in the north
- Continuation of the epidemic in the west and south
<http://www.santepubliquefrance.fr/Actualites/Epidemie-de-dengue-a-La-Reunion-pres-de-1-000-cas-confirmes-dans-le-nord-l-ouest-et-le-sud-de-l-ile-depuis-le-1er-janvier-2018>
Date: Fri 13 Apr 2018 13:25
Source: Imaz Press [in French, trans. ProMED Corr.SB, edited]
<http://www.ipreunion.com/actualites-reunion/reportage/2018/04/13/contre-une-cinquantaine-pour-toute-l-annee-2017-65-cas-de-leptospirose-recenses-depuis-debut-2018,80346.html>

Since the beginning of the year [the first 3.5 months of 2018], 65 cases of leptospirosis have already been reported in Reunion (against 50 for the whole of 2017). Nearly half of the cases were identified in the southern communes, and more than one-third in the western ones. Of the people infected with this bacterium, 90 percent were hospitalized and 35 percent were admitted to the intensive care unit.

The hurricane / post-cyclone season is the riskiest period because it has favourable temperature and rainfall conditions for the survival of the bacteria responsible for this disease. Reunion's heavy rains in recent weeks have probably contributed to the increase in the number of cases. Leptospirosis is a potentially serious disease caused by a bacterium often present in rats.

The disease is contracted during contact with a humid environment that has been contaminated by the urine of rats (mud, puddles, stagnant water at the edge of gullies). The bacterium enters the body through the skin in case of cuts or wounds (even if they are small). After a few days of incubation, leptospirosis manifests itself in the following symptoms: High fever (often> 38.5° C) [101.3° F], muscular and joint pain, stomach pain, and headaches. The disease can get worse after a few days. If it is not treated in time by antibiotics, it can be fatal.

As soon as these signs appear in the days following the practice of a risky activity, you must consult your doctor and inform him of the activity (s) practiced and the presence of rats during these activities.
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[Leptospirosis is a zoonotic bacterial infection that is distributed widely throughout the world in warm climates and is transmitted to humans by direct contact of abraded skin or mucous membranes with the urine of infected animals or by contact with wet soil, vegetation, or water that has been contaminated with infected animal urine. _Leptospira_ bacteria shed in urine may survive in fresh water or moist soil for weeks to months.

Many species of wild and domestic animals (including dogs, cattle, swine, and especially rats) are susceptible to chronic kidney infection with pathogenic _Leptospira_. Different leptospiral serovars are prevalent in particular geographical regions. Inadequate disposal of trash and debris provides a suitable habitat for rat infestation in urban settings.

Outbreaks of leptospirosis frequently follow heavy rainfall, flooding with fresh water, and increasing rodent numbers. Reunion experiences seasonal outbreaks of leptospirosis probably related to the rainfall. Reunion, one of the overseas departments of France, is an island with a population of about 800 000 located in the Indian Ocean, about 943 km (586 miles) east of Madagascar and about 200 km (120 miles) south west of Mauritius, the nearest island.

A map showing the location of Reunion Island in the Indian Ocean and its main cities can be accessed at
<http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/reunion-map.htm>.

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Reunion Island can be accessed at
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/45149>. - ProMED Mod.ML ]
Date: Fri 23 Mar 2018 3:17 pm
Source: Imazpress [in French, trans. ProMED Corr.SB, edited]
<http://www.ipreunion.com/actualites-reunion/reportage/2018/03/23/le-sud-particulierement-touche-42-cas-de-leptospirose-signales-depuis-le-debut-de-l-annee,79071.html>

This [Fri 23 Mar 2018], the Regional Health Agency (ARS) reported that 42 cases of leptospirosis have been reported in Reunion since the year began. One person has died. The south of the island has been particularly affected.

Heavy rains can favour the appearance of certain diseases, and in particular leptospirosis. The cleaning of courtyards and gardens or bathing in fresh water after heavy rain is particularly risky. Following recent heavy rainfall events in Reunion, the ARS Indian Ocean wants to raise awareness of the need to strengthen vigilance and the means of protection through the implementation of simple actions.

The annual number of cases recorded between 2010 and 2017 in Reunion Island is on average 61 cases, most of which occur between January and May (35 to 60 per cent). From 1 January to 20 March 2018, 42 cases were reported, including one death. This number of cases  higher than totals for the 1st quarters in previous years, and may be related to the heavy rains and unusual climatic events in recent months, which have particularly affected the south and west of the country.

The geographical distribution shows that the south of the island is particularly affected, north and west are stable, and the east is less affected than in previous years. The rainy season is the most risky period because it presents conditions of temperature and rainfall favourable to the survival in the environment of the bacteria responsible for this disease. Heavy rain events lead to soil leaching and environmental contamination.
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[Leptospirosis is a zoonotic bacterial infection that is distributed widely throughout the world in warm climates and is transmitted to humans by direct contact of abraded skin or mucous membranes with the urine of infected animals or by contact with wet soil, vegetation, or water that has been contaminated with infected animal urine. Leptospira bacteria shed in urine may survive in fresh water or moist soil for weeks to months. Many species of wild and domestic animals (including dogs, cattle, swine, and especially rats) are susceptible to chronic kidney infection with pathogenic leptospira. Different leptospiral serovars are prevalent in particular geographical regions. Inadequate disposal of trash and debris provides a suitable habitat for rat infestation in urban settings. Outbreaks of leptospirosis frequently follow heavy rainfall, flooding with fresh water, and increasing rodent numbers. Reunion experiences seasonal outbreaks of leptospirosis probably related to the rainfall.

Reunion, one of the overseas departments of France, is an island with a population of about 800 000 located in the Indian Ocean, about 943 km (586 miles) east of Madagascar and about 200 km (120 miles) south west of Mauritius, the nearest island. A map showing the location of Reunion Island in the Indian Ocean and its main cities can be accessed at <http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/reunion-map.htm>.

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Reunion Island can be accessed at
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/45149>. - ProMED Mod.ML]
22nd March 2018

Reunion Island.16 Mar 2018. 193 cases reported with number doubling each week; the majority of cases from Saint Paul.
<http://outbreaknewstoday.com/dengue-epidemic-reported-reunion-island-56048/>
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