Date: Fri, 17 May 2019 11:42:01 +0200

Nairobi, May 17, 2019 (AFP) - Flooding in Tanzania has killed five people and forced about 2,500 to flee their homes after a week of torrential rain in the country's south, an official said Friday.   Schools have closed in Kyela, a district on the border of Lake Malawi, and families fled to shelters after losing everything in the rising waters.   "The damage from these floods is enormous," Salome Magambo, the district's administrative secretary, told AFP.   "Since the beginning of the week we have reported five people killed and 2,570 homeless, some of whom are staying with friends or in schools and churches."

Food and medical services have been extended to those stranded, she added.   Farming land in the district known for its rice production has also been inundated, destroying crops and raising fears of food shortages in coming months.   In April 2018 at least 14 people were killed in torrential rains and flooding in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania's economic capital.
12th May 2019

Tanzania - National.
23 Apr 2019. The AP (4/11) reports that Tanzanian Deputy Health Minister Faustine Ndugulile announced on Thursday [18 Apr 2019?] that 252 people have been hospitalized in the country's commercial capital Dar es Salaam, and 55 others have been admitted to health facilities in the Tanga region along the coast in an outbreak of the mosquito-borne dengue fever. <https://apnews.com/48f68a56a3b244918fac6b1da25d9e56n>.
Tanzania - National. 11 Apr 2019

Tanzania on Thursday [11 Apr 2019] confirmed an outbreak of dengue fever, saying the business capital, Dar es Salaam, has reported 252 cases and Tanga has 55 diagnosed cases.
<http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2019-04/11/c_137968923.htm>
Date: 8 Mar 2019
Source: The Citizen [edited]
<https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/Government-allays-fears-over-anthrax/1840340-5014988-yifxsr/index.html>

The government has said that anthrax has been contained in Arusha, Kilimanjaro and Manyara regions, where 3 people died. The director of Livestock Services in the Ministry of Livestock & Fisheries, Dr Hezron Nonga, told reporters that meat from Longido and Moshie butcheries was safe.

Some 28 livestock head and 169 wildlife head were infected in Arusha and Kilimanjaro. "There have been quarantines in slaughterhouses where anthrax has been reported. Any transport of livestock that has not been inspected is prohibited. So, I can guarantee that it is safe to eat meat from all inspected slaughterhouses," he said.

According to Dr Nonga, 18 cattle, 4 goats, 6 sheep, and 196 wild animals have died of anthrax between July 2018 and February this year [2019] in Kilimanjaro and Arusha. The regions have more than 2.5 million cattle, 2.5 million goats, and over 2 million sheep. He said the government in collaboration with stakeholders have provided 100,000 doses of vaccine. Longido Municipality has received 35,000 doses, Moshie 40,000, and Rombo 25,000.  [byline Mussa Juma]
======================
[So far so good, and Dr. Nonga and his team are to be congratulated. And once vaccination this season is done, they must plan for coordinated regional vaccination ahead of next year's (2020) anthrax season, and in the year after. - ProMED Mod.MHJ]

[HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Kilimanjaro, Tanzania: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/34109>]
Date: Mon 18 Feb 2019
Source: Xinhua [edited]
<http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2019-02/18/c_137831418.htm>

An outbreak of anthrax in Tanzania's southern highlands region of Songwe that killed 4 people in January 2019 is now under control, a senior official said on Monday [18 Feb 2019]. Songwe Regional Administrative Secretary David Kafulila said since the outbreak of the disease in the region on 10 Dec 2018 that regional authorities have taken measures aimed at ending the spread of the disease that left 81 people falling ill after they ate infected meat. "Since 7 Jan this year [2019], we haven't recorded any new cases of anthrax in Songwe region," Kafulila told Xinhua in an interview.

Kafulila said measures taken by Songwe regional authorities to control the outbreak of the disease included vaccinating all livestock in the region. He said by 14 Feb 2019, a total of 20 181 head of cattle, 292 goats and 29 sheep were vaccinated.  "Our target is to vaccinate the region's population of 123,219 head of cattle, 78,000 goats and 40,000 sheep," he said, adding that the region has bought 50,500 [doses of] vaccine, and more will be purchased through a revolving fund.

Last month [2018], the Ministry of Health confirmed that the 4 people died after they ate meat suspected to have been contaminated with the bacteria that cause anthrax.
=======================
[So far, so good. But faced with an outbreak like this in an area of enzootic (repeated) outbreaks, the Tanzanian government should be considering repeated annual livestock vaccinations for the next 5 years. Over time, one can narrow it down to target specific areas of higher risk, i.e. of repeated outbreaks, but if so, one must have a high surveillance for the surrounding areas specifically for new cases (deaths).

A very interesting paper has just been published of niche modelling for anthrax in Tanzania. It is well worth reading and quietly considering its implications:

"Ecological niche modeling as a tool for prediction of the potential geographic distribution of _Bacillus anthracis_ spores in Tanzania. Elibariki R. Mwakapeje, Sood A. Ndimuligo, Gladys Mosomtai, Samuel Ayebare, Luke Nyakarahuka, Hezron E. Nonga, Robinson H. Mdegela, Eystein Skjerve. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 79, February 2019, Pages 142-151
<https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2018.11.367>
<https://www.ijidonline.com/article/S1201-9712(18)34946-4/fulltext>."

If one is careful in the GPS location of cases, one can, in our experience, construct niche models with a resolution of 1 sq. km. The niche is essentially of potential survival of spores in soils. This can be used to identify where vaccination must be done and the levels of surveillance for expected and unexpected cases. They are of value in educating farmers and ranchers into why vaccination is so important and to get their collaboration. - ProMED Mod.MHJ]

[HealthMap/ProMED-mail maps:
Tanzania: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/200>
Songwe, Tanzania: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/64810>]
More ...