Date: Thu 30 May 2019 Source: Outbreak News Today [edited] <http://outbreaknewstoday.com/tularemia-new-mexico-reports-two-human-cases-santa-fe-county-31078/>
New Mexico state health officials are reporting 2 confirmed cases of tularaemia in 2019 among 2 residents of Santa Fe County: a 57 year old man and a 72 year old woman.
"Tularemia can cause serious illness in both people and pets, so I would encourage people in Santa Fe County to follow precautions to avoid getting infected," said Department of Health cabinet secretary, Kathy Kunkel. "People can get tularemia if they handle infected animals such as rabbits or rodents or are bitten by infected ticks or deer flies. Provide your own protection against insect bites and improve your pet's safety by not letting them roam loose or scavenge rodents."
Tularemia is a rare infection caused by the bacteria _Francisella tularensis_ that can spread through insect bites, with deer flies and ticks being the primary vectors in New Mexico. It can also be spread through handling infected animal tissues in situations such as hunting, trapping and skinning of rabbits or other rodents or during the clean-up of rodent carcasses while gardening.
Dogs and cats can be infected if they are allowed to roam and scavenge dead animals or are not protected from tick bites. Tularemia can also make dogs and cats sick: If they are not diagnosed and treated by their veterinarian, they can give the disease to people. Direct inoculation from an animal bite is very rare but can occur if the animal is infected.
Tularemia symptoms in people may include sudden fever, chills, headaches, diarrhoea, muscles aches and joint pain. Other symptoms may include swollen and painful lymph glands especially in the anatomical region where the bacteria 1st gained entry into the body. ======================
[The clinical manifestations of tularemia in these 2 cases are not stated.
Tularemia is a bacterial infection that affects, aside from people, more than 250 species of wild and domestic mammals, birds, reptiles and fish. It is listed as a category A bioterrorism agent because of the potential for fatality, airborne dissemination, and societal disruption if released. The causative bacterium, _Francisella tularensis_, is a non-spore-forming, Gram negative coccobacillus antigenically related to _Brucella_ spp.
Tularemia can be transmitted by aerosol, direct contact, ingestion, or arthropods. Inhalation of aerosolized organisms (in the laboratory or as an airborne agent in an act of bioterrorism) can produce a pneumonic form. Direct contact with, or ingestion of, infected carcasses of wild animals (such as cottontail rabbit) can produce the ulceroglandular, oculoglandular, oropharyngeal (local lesion with regional lymphadenitis), or typhoidal form. Immersion in or ingestion of contaminated water can result in infection in aquatic animals.
Ticks can maintain infection transstadially [pathogen remains with the vector from one life stage ("stadium") to the next] and transovarially [transmission of a pathogen from an organism (as a tick) to its offspring by infection of eggs in its ovary], making them efficient reservoirs and vectors. - ProMED Mod.LL]
[HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of New Mexico, United States: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/233>.]
Date: Wed, 29 May 2019 00:14:00 +0200

Washington, May 28, 2019 (AFP) - Ohio residents inspected destroyed homes and debris-strewn streets Tuesday after powerful tornadoes ripped through the US state overnight, killing at least one person and causing widespread damage and power outages.   One twister that barreled through the city of Dayton left 80,000 people without power as day broke, the city's assistant fire chief Nicholas Hosford told ABC News.   "We have homes flattened, entire apartment complexes destroyed, businesses throughout our community where walls have collapsed," Hosford said.   "I don't know that any community that is fully prepared for this type of devastation," he added.   That twister was one of many -- up to 52, according to the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration -- that touched down Monday night and roared through eight US states.

As the scope of the damage became visible with daylight, rescue teams searching for tornado victims in Dayton went door-to-door in areas particularly hard hit by the storm.   Hosford said an unknown number of people in Dayton were injured or displaced.   The one known fatality so far is an 81-year-old man in the town of Celina, about a 90-minute drive north of Dayton, said Celina Mayor Jeffrey Hazel. The man died when a car crashed into his home, Hazel said.   The National Weather Service said the tornado that hit Celina was "at least an EF3," meaning it had winds of 136-165 miles per hour (218-265 kilometers per hour).

- 'Almost like a train' -
Drone footage broadcast on US TV outlets showed large, modern homes in Celina obliterated by the tornado, while homes right next door dodged its fury.   On one interstate highway north of Dayton the debris was so thick that crews used snow plows to push aside tree branches and rubble, said the Ohio Department of Transportation.

Celina resident Kylie Post said that when she heard tornado sirens start blaring, she and her son took shelter in a bathtub and covered themselves with a mattress -- because their home has no basement.   "The first thing I heard was the sirens. Then, next it sounded almost like a train was near us that lasted for only a few minutes," Post told the Cincinnati.com news site.   Dayton city hall asked people to conserve water because power at water plants and pumping stations was knocked out.   The National Weather Service said the tornado cut electricity supplies to five million people statewide, and parts of Ohio faced the risk of flash flooding.

Emergency workers shut down gas lines and struggled to reach residents trapped by debris, officials in Montgomery County said.   The tornado was the third in a week to rake the central United States.   At least two people died and another 29 were hospitalized in Oklahoma over the weekend when a tornado flattened a mobile home park in the town of El Reno.   President Donald Trump, wrapping up a trip to Asia, tweeted that he had offered federal resources for the cleanup.   Another three people died last Wednesday when a tornado packing speeds of 160 miles (260 kilometers) per hour tore through Jefferson City in Missouri.
Date: 29 May 2019
Source: Fox News [edited]
<https://www.foxnews.com/health/new-hampshire-man-bat-bite-ipad-rabies>

A New Hampshire man required treatment for rabies after a bat reportedly hiding in his iPad case snuck out and bit him last week; and now he hopes his ordeal will help educate others about the dangerous disease. The 86 year old man said he had been using his tablet for about an hour before the critter popped its head out and nipped him.

"It felt like a little bee sting," he told WMUR.com. "And I looked, and the bat was coming out of here, between the cover and the back of the pad. And then I got up, still squeezing it, which I'm sure he wasn't happy about, and I took him outside."  [byline: Alexandria Hein]
==========================
[These articles should prove rabies virus can be harbored in many animals, both domestic and wild. The 2nd article gives some excellent advice: Vaccinate your pets against rabies. Keep the vaccine up to date.

All domestic animals, including dogs, cats, horses, cattle, and other livestock such as sheep and goats need a vaccination against rabies. If humans have any contact, however limited, with animals, then the animal needs a rabies vaccine to protect the animal and the person.

While there are procedures for human beings having been bitten by a rabid animal, or a suspected rabid animal who cannot be tested, these same protocols are slightly different for exposed animals.

Human beings need to have the wound cleaned and dressed. An individual will likely need to receive post exposure prophylaxis. For people who have never been vaccinated against rabies previously, post-exposure anti-rabies vaccination should always include administration of both passive antibody and vaccine. The combination of human rabies immune globulin (HRIG) and vaccine is recommended for both bite and non-bite exposures, regardless of the interval between exposure and initiation of treatment. People who have been previously vaccinated or are receiving pre-exposure vaccination for rabies should receive only vaccine.

Adverse reactions to rabies vaccine and immune globulin are not common. Newer vaccines in use today cause fewer adverse reactions than previously available vaccines. Mild, local reactions to the rabies vaccine, such as pain, redness, swelling, or itching at the injection site, have been reported. Rarely, symptoms such as headache, nausea, abdominal pain, muscle aches, and dizziness have been reported. Local pain and low-grade fever may follow injection of rabies immune globulin.

The vaccine should be given at recommended intervals for best results. Talk with your doctor or state or local public health officials if you will not be able to have the shot at the recommended interval. Rabies prevention is a serious matter, and changes should not be made in the schedule of doses.

People cannot transmit rabies to other people unless they themselves are sick with rabies. The prophylaxis you are receiving will protect you from developing rabies, and, therefore, you cannot expose other people to rabies. You should continue to participate in your normal activities.

Rabies post-exposure prophylaxis consists of a dose of human rabies immune globulin and rabies vaccine given on the day of the exposure, and then a dose of vaccine given again on days 3, 7, and 14.

If a person has previously received post-exposure vaccinations or received pre-exposure vaccinations, only 2 doses of vaccine (on the day of exposure and then 3 days later) are needed. Human rabies immune globulin is not required. Your doctor and local health department will be able to guide you through the process; <https://www.cdc.gov/rabies/medical_care/index.html>.

However, animals who have been vaccinated will need their wounds cleaned and cared for. They will be re-vaccinated and, depending upon the specific state, are likely to be quarantined for a period of time. If the bitten animal has not been vaccinated, the animal is likely to be euthanized, as it presents a risk of rabies to its owners.

The lesson is to keep your animals vaccinated. Check with your veterinarian regarding your state and county law on frequency of vaccination for your pets. Pets include dogs, cats, horses, cattle, and other animals you have contact with. - ProMED Mod.TG]

[HealthMap/ProMED maps available at:
West Virginia, United States: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/249>
Florida, United States: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/212>
New Hampshire, United States: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/231>]
Date: 28 May 2019
Source: Pensacola News Journal [edited]
<https://eu.pnj.com/story/news/2019/05/28/rabies-alert-issued-bayou-chico-area-escambia-county-stray-cat-raccoon/1258438001/>

Although wild animals might appear to need help, it is always best to leave them alone, a Florida health department expert said on Tuesday [28 May 2019], hours after a rabies alert was issued for the Bayou Chico area of Escambia County. The alert followed an attack by a rabid stray cat on 2 people over the weekend.

Tissue samples from the cat tested at the state laboratory confirmed the presence of the rabies virus. A raccoon found in the same area in January 2019 also tested positive for rabies, according to the Florida Department of Health in Escambia County. Lovi Donado, environmental supervisor for the Florida Department of Health in Escambia County, said it is best to avoid all contact with wild animals, as well as stray cats and dogs. "The best things you can do are to vaccinate your own pets and to cover your trash cans so as not to attract other animals," she said.

In a 21 May 2019 post on Pensacola's East Hill Neighbourhood Association's Facebook page, a resident wrote about a family of foxes living under her home. The post, which included photos of the parents and pups, generated dozens of comments. Donado said foxes are considered a high-risk animal for rabies, and a private trapping company should be contacted to remove them. There is always a risk of a rabid fox transmitting the virus to a domestic pet or to a human, she said. And, Donado said, wild animals such as foxes can appear docile or in need when they are ill because of rabies. "The best advice is to stay away from all wild animals. Rabies can be fatal," she said.

Rabies is a disease of the nervous system and is usually fatal to warm-blooded animals and to humans. The only treatment for human exposure is rabies-specific immune globulin and rabies immunization. Appropriate treatment started soon after the exposure will protect an exposed person from the disease.

The rabies alert that was issued on Tuesday [28 May 2019] morning willlast for 60 days. It covers the area in southern Escambia County surrounding Bayou Chico that lies south of West Jackson Street between New Warrington Road and Pace Boulevard. The public is asked to maintain a heightened awareness that rabies is active in the county. All residents and visitors should be aware that rabies is present in the wild animal population, and domestic animals are at risk if they are not vaccinated, according to the state health department. Health department officials also warned that alerts are designed to increase awareness and should not give a false sense of security to areas not having been named as under an alert.

State health department officials urge residents and visitors to take the following precautions to keep themselves, their families, and their pets safe from rabies:

- vaccinate pets against rabies, and keep vaccinations up to date;
- keep pets under direct supervision so they do not come in contact with wild animals. If a pet is bitten by a wild animal, seek veterinary assistance for the animal immediately, and contact Escambia County Animal Services;
- call animal control services to remove any stray animals from your neighbourhood;
- bring in pet food at night, and secure trash cans with fasteners, or place trash containers in the garage, so they do not attract wild or stray animals;
- never adopt wild animals or bring them into your home;
- teach children never to handle unfamiliar animals, wild or domestic, even if they appear friendly;
- prevent bats from entering living quarters or occupied spaces in homes, churches, schools and other similar areas where they might come in contact with people and pets;
- persons who have been bitten or scratched by wild or domestic animals should seek medical attention and report the injury to the Florida Department of Health in Escambia County.  [byline: Melissa Nelson Gabriel]
Date: 26 May 2019
Source: WSAZ [edited]
<https://www.wsaz.com/content/news/Another-rabid-raccoon-found-in-Monongalia-County-after-fight-with-familys-dog-510445541.html>

Another raccoon tested positive for rabies in Monongalia County after getting into a fight with a family's dog, according to a press release from the Health Department. It's the 4th reported encounter with dogs and rabid raccoons in the county this year [2019], health officials said.

The dog involved in the most recent incident was up to date on its rabies shots and has been revaccinated, according to Jon W Welch, program manager of the Monongalia County Health Department Environmental Health. Health officials said the dog injured the raccoon during the fight. An animal removal service collected the raccoon. It later died and was tested for rabies. Those results came back positive on Thursday [23 May 2019]. The people the dog came in contact with after the incident have begun rabies prophylaxis treatment, according to a press release.

Dr Lee B Smith, the health department's executive director, said residents need to make sure their pets are up to date on rabies vaccines. "Rabies is present in wildlife throughout West Virginia," Smith said. "Skunks, foxes, raccoons and bats are known to carry the virus. People are encouraged to keep their pets vaccinated and on leashes."
More ...